MICROTEACHING SKILLS SKILL OF SET INDUCTION (Establish rapports with learners, promote their attentions, and expose them to essential contents, helps the teacher to prepare students for the lesson in order to induce maximum payoff in learning.)
COMPONENTS OF THE SKILL 1. 2.
3. 4. 5.
1. SKILL OF BOARD WRITING (Blackboards is widely used visual aids most suitable for giving a holistic picture of the lesson. A good blackboard work brings clearness in perception and the concepts being taught, and adds variety to the lesson.)
6. SKILL OF EXPLANATION (Presenting subject matter in the simplified form before the pupils and making it acquirable for students. It is art of learning the use of interrelated appropriate statements by the teacher for making the pupils understand the desired concepts, phenomenon or principle by giving examples, showing relationships, applying reasons and drawing inferences relevant to age, maturity, previous knowledge, and content of the concept or phenomenon)
Utilization of previous experiences (Creating situation on construction of knowledge and encouraging on it) Use of Appropriate Devices/Techniques (Use of examples, analogies, similarities, Questioning, Role playing or dramatization, Lecturing, describing, narrating, Illustrating Audio visual means, Visits and excursions, Skillful discussion, Demonstration or experimentation to motivate pupils) Arousing motivation(Arousing motivation of students on content to be taught in the class so that they can develop interest in the topic and start creating impressions on the content to be presented further by the teacher) Announcement of the Topic(Directing & focusing on the topic by declaring & writing it on chalkboard. Gives a clear cut focus on the content to be taught for teacher & students) Maintenance of continuity(Continuation in information in logical sequence. One question/statement/activity should lead to other ones in a chain of continuity) Relevance of verbal and non verbal behavior(Relevancy in pupil teacher’s behavior. What is to be asked, demonstrated, illustrated should contribute towards the introduction of lesson by - Testing previous knowledge, Utilizatiing past experiences, Establishing cognitive and affective rapport with the pupils, Making the pupils feel the need of studying the lesson, Pinpointing the aims of the lesson)
Judicious use of chalk board (Writing correctly the relevant teaching-learning tasks on the chalkboard portion which can be seen by all the students of the class during the course of lesson) Legible Handwriting(legible handwriting draws the attention of the learners and encourages them to improve upon their handwritings. Hand writing should have clear distinction between every letter, maintenance of adequate space in between individual letters and words) Neatness in chalk board work(size of the letters written by the teacher on the board should be uniform, large enough to be read from the last row. The capital letters should be larger than that of the small letters. Handwritings should be as vertical as possible without being diverged from a line) Posture of the teacher(Right pose and observing appropriate angle, preferably 45º while writing and sketching on the chalkboard. Avoid facing the class with his back and have vigilance over students while writing on chalk board) Participation of students(Provision of opportunities to write and sketch on the chalk board) Adequacy of content written on the board(relevant and sufficient content should be written on the board so that students can easily understand and develop the content further from the board)
Using appropriate beginning statement(Opening statement to create mental readiness in the class and give clue for the explanation) Using appropriate concluding statement(To summarize or conclude the whole explanation to give consolidated picture of what has explained for ready reference. Summarizing statements helps in drawing inferences through logical reasoning) Use of appropriate vocabulary and phrases(Using appropriate and simple vocabulary relevant to the to give a clear explanation. Avoiding use of vague words and phrases) Fluency of explanation(On the other hand, therefore, hence before, But, thereafter, consequently, why, hence Thus, such that, as a result of , in spite of, So that, that is what, while, this is how, defining technical words, etc are used for fluent explanation) Clarity of concept(Concept should be explained properly with number of relevant examples and audio-visual aids to make it clear to students) Questions to test students‟ understanding(Involves asking appropriate questions to the pupils to ascertain whether the purpose of explaining the concept or principle has been achieved or not)
FORMAT OF MICROLESSON PLAN
1. SKILL OF QUESTIONING (Efficient questioning is one of the arts of teaching- teacher who never questions, never teaches. The pupil’s responses varied from no response, incorrect response, partially correct response, and correct response. No response or incorrect response is dealt by goes deep into pupil's responses by asking many questions about what the students already know to get correct responses. Questions are asked for identifying reasons, investigation and evaluation)
SKILL OF STIMULUS VARIATION
(Securing and sustaining the attention of the pupils-learning through various stimulation)
Prompting (It is modification of initial difficult question by breaking it down into parts, by giving clues or making it more structured for correct response. Prompting provides better learning, emotional security, stimulate thinking, sense of participation and achievement, self image/confidence, etc) Seeking further information (Used to clarify or elaborate incomplete or partially correct response of pupil. It is used when the teacher thinks that the pupil has guessed without the knowledge of correct response. In such case, the teacher may ask the pupil to furnish additional information regarding the responses or rephrase the question) Refocusing (Used when the pupil’s response is correct. The pupil is required to relate the correct response to other topic to give a compatible parallel situation. Help the pupils to view his/her responses in a broader perspective and to think about similarity and dissimilarities of a given response with the related facts. Refocusing leads to another way of asking the same question to stimulate thinking on the part of responding pupil) Redirection (Involves directing the same question to a number of pupils one by one. Used when no or incorrect response is forthcoming and for increasing pupil participation and motivation) Increasing critical awareness (Used when the pupil gives correct response. The teacher puts higher order questions in order to increase the critical awareness of the pupils. These questions stimulate the pupils to think beyond what they know. They are expected to answer by analyzing the situation in terms of its elements producing the original communication and judging the ideas. These questions engage the pupil in the skill of creating and thinking knowledge)
Movements (Making movements from one place to another with some purpose-for writing on the black board, to conduct experiment, to explain the chart or model, to pay attention to the pupil who is responding to some question etc.) Gestures(Include movements of head, hand and body parts to arrest attention, to express emotions or to indicate shapes, sizes and movements. All these acts are performed to become more expressive) Change in Speech Pattern(Sudden or radical changes in tone, volume or speed of the verbal presentation in speech pattern makes the pupils attentive and creates interest in the lesson. Good to show emotions or to put emphasis on a particular point) Change in Interactions Style(Teacher↔ class-Teacher talks to class and vice versa, Teacher↔ Pupil-Teacher talks to pupil and vice versa, Pupil ↔pupil-Pupil talks to pupil) Focusing (Drawing attention of the pupils to the particular point in the lesson either by using verbal or gestural focusing. “look here” “listen to me” “note it carefully” are verbal focusing and pointing towards some object with fingers or underlining the important words on the black board are gestural focusing) Pausing(means “stop talking” by the teacher for a moment. It at once draws the attention of the pupils with curiosity towards the teacher. The message given at this point is easily received by the pupils) Audio-visual Switching (Changing oral, visual, oral visual medium rapidly in order to secure and sustain pupils attention. Audio⇄ Audio –Visual, Audio⇄ Visual and Visual⇄ Audio –Visual are three types media) Involvement of students(change or variations in types, forms, styles of the physical involvement of the pupils. Students may engage in dramatization, writing on the blackboard, participating in demonstration and handling some aid or material)