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Stiftelsen

DAKOTA NORWAY

OCM Part B

SECTION 7 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 01 JAN 2010

SECTION 7 – SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

OCM PART B – C-53D Dakota Norway


Stiftelsen

DAKOTA NORWAY

SECTION 7

GENERAL DESCRIPTION TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section 7.0 Section 7.1 Section 7.1.1 Section 7.1.2 Section 7.2 Section 7.2.1 Section 7.2.2 Section 7.2.2.1 Section 7.2.3 Section 7.2.4 Section 7.2.5 Section 7.2.6 Section 7.3 Section 7.3.1 Section 7.3.2 Section 7.3.3 Section 7.3.4 Section 7.3.5 Section 7.3.5.1 Section 7.3.5.2 Section 7.3.5.3 Section 7.3.6 Section 7.3.7 Section 7.3.8 Section 7.3.8.1 Section 7.3.8.3 Section 7.3.9 Section 7.3.10 Section 7.4 Section 7.4.1 Section 7.4.2 Section 7.4.3 Section 7.4.4 Section 7.4.5 Section 7.4.6 Section 7.4.7 Section 7.4.8

01 JAN 2010

Contents section 7 General Descriptions Aircraft main dimensions Turning radius Airframe General Fuselage Fuselage layout and emergency equipment Wing Stabilizers, fin Rudder, aileron and elevator Airframe major components Flight Controls General Elevator control Rudder control Aileron Control Trim Controls Rudder trim crank Aileron trim Crank Elevator trim wheel Control surface locks Control movements (in degrees) Wing flap Wing flap control lever Wing flap position indicator Wing flap system drawing Wing flap system (ghost view) Landing Gear General Main gear Retraction mechanism Landing gear lever Latch Mechanism Latch mechanism overview Landing gear operation Landing gear safety pins

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DAKOTA NORWAY

TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 7.5 Section 7.5.1 Section 7.5.2 Section 7.5.3 Section 7.5.4 Section 7.6 Section 7.6.1 Section 7.6.2 Section 7.6.3 Section 7.6.3.1 Section 7.6.3.2 Section 7.6.3.3 Section 7.6.3.4 Section 7.6.3.5 Section 7.6.3.6 Section 7.6.4 Section 7.6.4.1 Section 7.6.4.2 Section 7.6.4.3 Section 7.6.4.4 Section 7.6.4.5 Section 7.6.4.6 Section 7.6.4.6 Section 7.6.4.8 Section 7.6.4.9 Section 7.6.4.10 Section 7.6.4.11 Section 7.6.4.12 Section 7.7 Section 7.7.1 Section 7.7.2 Section 7.7.3 Section 7.7.4 Section 7.8 Section 7.8.1 Section 7.8.2 Section 7.8.3 Section 7.8.4 Section 7.8.5 Section 7.8.6

01 JAN 2010

Brakes General Hydraulic brake system Parking brake Brake system schematic Power Plant General Engine description in numbers Construction, main parts Front Section Crankcase section Cylinders The Supercharges Front accessory section The rear accessory section Equipment, systems Air inlet system Carburetor system Priming system Lubrication system Ignition system Cooling system Exhaust system Starting system Measuring and control systems Engine installation Cockpit and engine controls Pratt & Whitney R-1830-92 illustration Propellers General Construction RPM-control Propeller feathering system Fuel Systems General Fuel tanks Fuel tank selector valves Fuel Filters Fuel booster pumps Fuel shut-off valves

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DAKOTA NORWAY

TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 7.8.7 Section 7.8.8 Section 7.8.9 Section 7.8.10 Section 7.9 Section 7.9.1 Section 7.9.2 Section 7.9.3 Section 7.10 Section 7.10.1 Section 7.10.2 Section 7.10.2.1 Section 7.10.2.2 Section 7.10.2.3 Section 7.10.2.4 Section 7.10.2.5 Section 7.10.2.6 Section 7.10.2.7 Section 7.10.2.8 Section 7.11 Section 7.12.1 Section 7.12.2 Section 7.12.2.1 Section 7.12.2.2 Section 7.12.2.3 Section 7.12.2.4 Section 7.12.2.5 Section 7.12.2.6 Section 7.12.2.7 Section 7.12.2.8 Section 7.12.2.9 Section 7.12.2.10 Section 7.12.3 Section 7.12.3.2 Section 7.12.3.3 Section 7.12.3.4 Section 7.12.4 Section 7.12.5 Section 7.12.5.1 Section 7.12.5.2 Section 7.13 Section 7.13.1 01 JAN 2010

Fuel pumps Fuel quantity indicators Fuel pressure indicators Fuel system diagram Lubricant Systems General Engine external oil circulation Engine internal oil circulation Hydraulic Systems General Operation Engine driven pumps Hydraulic reservoir Shut-off valves Pressure regulator Pressure accumulator Pressure gauges Hand pump Hydraulic system overview Ice Protection Systems General DC-power supply system General DC Voltage Regulators Reverse Current Relay Voltmeter and Loadmeter Master switch Generator protection Batteries Circuit Breaker panel External power DC system scematic AC-power supply system AC powered systems AC Circuit Breakers AC system schematic Exterior lights Interior lights Cockpit Passenger cabin Communication systems General SECTION 7 – SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

OCM PART B – C-53D Dakota Norway


Stiftelsen

DAKOTA NORWAY

TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 7.13.2 Section 7.13.3 Section 7.13.3.1 Section 7.13.3.2 Section 7.13.4 Section 7.13.5 Section 7.14 Section 7.14.1 Section 7.14.2 Section 7.14.3 Section 7.14.4 Section 7.14.4 Section 7.15 Section 7.15.1 Section 7.15.2 Section 7.15.3 Section 7.16 Section 7.16.1 Section 7.16.2 Section 7.16.3 Section 7.16.4 Section 7.16.5 Section 7.16.6 Section 7.17 Section 7.17.1 Section 7.17.2 Section 7.17.3 Section 7.17.3.1 Section 7.17.3.2 Section 7.17.3.3 Section 7.17.3.4 Section 7.17.4 Section 7.17.5 Section 7.17.6 Section 7.17.7 Section 7.17.8 Section 7.17.9 Section 7.17.10 Section 7.17.11 Section 7.17.12 Section 7.17.13 Section 7.17.14 01 JAN 2010

Communication radios Navigation radios ADF VOR/ILS Audio control boxes Public address system Instruments Systems General Pitot-static system Vacuum system Pitot static system schematics Instrument markings and tolerances Air Condition Systems Heating system Air conditioning system schematic Ventilation system Fire protection Systems General Fire warning circuits Engine fire extinguishing system Shut-off valves Portable extinguishers Engine fire identification chart Emergency Systems General Equipment and their locations Emergency Exits Cockpit emergency exits Cabin Emergency Exits Over-wing emergency exit operation Emergency exit placement Escape rope Fire extinguisher ELT (Emergency locator transmitter) Flash lights First aid kit Life vests Fire Axes Seat belts for children Emergency equipment placement Ditching and crash landing Safety onboard folder SECTION 7 – SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

OCM PART B – C-53D Dakota Norway


Stiftelsen

DAKOTA NORWAY

7.1

General description

The aircraft is manufactured by Douglas Aircraft Company Ltd. It has been originally designed as C-53D ―Troopship‖ and it has later been converted to a passenger carrier. DC-3 is an all-metal, twin-engine airplane with a fully cantilever wing. It is approved to be operated as a commercial transport airplane either in VMC or IMC weather conditions and in light icing conditions ( no ICAO category). The aircraft is suitable for short and medium haul trips. It’s non-pressurized cabin incorporate seats for 28 passengers and for one cabin attendant. For cargo flights the seats can be lifted against the walls or totally removed. This configuration allows a payload of approximately 3000 kg. A minimum flight crew of a Captain and a First-officer is required for all operations. There is a extra seat provided for an observer in the middle compartment behind the captains seat. The maximum number of adult persons on board LN-WND is limited by NCAA to 23, crew members included. The aircraft is powered by two Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp S1C3G (R-1830-92) engines, each of them equipped with a Hamilton Standard 3-bladed, hydromatic propeller (23E50473-6565A-18). This manual covers the general DC-3 and the version C-53D ―Troopship‖. Especially the individual with serial number 11730, LN-WND, operated by ―Stiftelsen Dakota Norway‖

01 JAN 2010

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7.1.1 Aircraft main dimensions

Type

General:

Wing:

Stabilizer and elevator:

Fin and rudder

Fuselage

01 JAN 2010

Description

Numbers

Span Length Height (on ground) Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) length Distance of MAC Leading Edge from fuselage nose Wing loading (GW 12200kg) Power loading Wing root Profile Wing Tip Profile Total Wing Area Taper Ratio Angle of Incidence Dihedral Sweep Back (Outer wing station 123) Root Chord Length Tip Chord Area ( Station 398) Total Aileron Area Aileron Area (Behind hinge line) Wing Flap Area Trim Tab Area (R/H aileron only) Spa Stabilizer and elevatorn Total Area Stabilizer Area Total elevator Area Elevator area (Behind hinge line) Trim Tab area (Both sides) Angle of incidence Total Area Fin Area Total Rudder Area Rudder Area (Behind hinge line) Trim tab Area Maximum Length Maximum Width

28,96 m 19,65 m 5,46 m 138,1 inches 224,4 inches 133,0 kg/m2 5,1 kg/HP NACA 2215 NACA 2206 91,8 m2 9,14 +2 degrees 5 degrees 15,5 degrees 4,32 m 1,42 m 9,6 m2 7,2 m2 7,8 m2 0,18 m2 8,13 m 16,7 m 8,9 m 7,8 m2 5,7 m2 0,34 m2 0 degrees 7,9 m2 3,5 m2 4,3 m2 3,3 m2 0,28 m2 19,65 m 2,47 m

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DAKOTA NORWAY

7.1.2 Turning radius

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7.2 Airframe 7.2.1 General The aircraft is of semi-monococue construction and it is mostly constructed of 24 ST aluminum alloy. The steel parts like bolts, axles etc. are in general of chrom-molybdenum steel, partly also of nickel-steel (tensible strength 85-100 kg/mm2). The inflexible hydraulic lines etc. are of 52SO. The control surfaces are coated with cloth. The aircraft is constructed by riveting. The major components are fitted together with bolts or screws which fulfill the US standards. The rivets are of type A1ST except in certain places where D17ST rivets are used because of greater stress.

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7.2.2 Fuselage The fuselage is constructed of ribs, longitudinal stiffeners and coating sheets. Coating thickness is 0,6-1,6 mm depending on the location. Except in cockpit the floor structure is made of 0,5‖ ―apache‖-sheet which is fastened to the floor beams by bolts. The cabin floor is equipped with fastening sheets for passenger seat installation. The fuselage is heat and sound isolated by glass fiber carpets. The walls and the ceiling are coated by gallon.

01 JAN 2010

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7.2.2.1 Fuselage layout and emergency equipment The figure refers to Dakota Norway’s C-53D, LN-WND. This aircraft has six (6) emergency exits. Two located in the cockpit area. One in the ceiling above the pilots and one beside the floor left of the observer seat. The remaining four (4) is situated in the Cabin. There are 3 fire extinguishers onboard. Two in the cockpit and one in the cabin. The aircraft also carries a first aid kit, stored in the left overhead rack beside the first row. In addition two (2) fire axes are situated in the aircraft. One mounted on the emergency exit on the left side beside the observer seat in the cockpit. Number two situated on the aft bulkhead beside the toilet. It is one two (2) emergency flash lights mounted on the front left wall of the passenger cabin and one behind the right pilot seat. There are 27 life vests, including three (3) children’s life jackets Refer to chapter 7.17 for more details on emergency equipment and placement Figure below shows all emergency exits, including the main door, onboard LN-WND

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7.2.3 Wing The fully cantilever wing has three spars. The wing is attached under the fuselage with 8 bolt joints. These are in the locations of the three spars and an auxiliary spar in front of them. Moreover, the fuselage sides are fastened to an angle bar over the center wing with smaller bolts. Coating thickness is 0,6-1,6mm depending on the location. There is a corrugated stiffener sheet below the upper coating for eliminating compressing forces. The engine and leading gear brackets are attached to the center wing with bolts. The fuel tanks are located between the main spars. Outer wings are attached to the center wing with angle bar/bolt joints. Wing tips are fastened with screws to the outer wing.

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7.2.4 Stabilizers, fin. The stabilizers and the fin are also fully cantilever and of box construction. The right and left stabilizers are interchangeable and they are fitted together with an angle bar/bolt joint in the aircraft centerline. The stabilizers are equipped with angle bars on both surfaces for attaching to the fuselage side wall structure with bolts. The fin is fitted to the fuselage with screw joints 7.2.5 Rudder, aileron and elevator All of the movable flight control surfaces are of box construction and covered with cotton coating and painted.

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7.2.6 Airframe major components

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7.3 Flight Controls 7.3.1 General The flight control system consists of independent elevator, aileron, and rudder systems. All flight controls are directly controlled and are operated by dual wheel and rudder pedals, witch are moved mechanically. The trim control is also mechanical. The trim control handles in the control pedestal is common to both pilots. Wing flap movement is controlled hydraulically by a lever located on the hydraulic control panel within the reach of both pilots.

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7.3.2 Elevator control Elevators are balanced statically as well as aerodynamically. Each half is hinged to the stabilizer at two points. Movement is transferred by cables and bellcrancks. The movement is linked from the horn of the torsion tube common to both control columns to the elevator yoke by double cables which are supported by pulleys. The back movement of the columns is limited with screw bolt limiters mounted on both walls of the cockpit. The forward movement is limited by a similar limiter mounted on a floor beam. The elevator movement is additionally limited by rubber pads around the yoke. 7.3.3 Rudder control The rudder is mechanically controlled by a duplicate set of hinged rudder pedals incorporating toe brakes. The pedals can be adjusted forward or aft for proper length by means of the adjusting lever mounted on each rudder pedal.

The rudder is also fully balanced. There are four hinges. The steering is accomplished by the same manner but with only one set of cables. There are screw bolt limiters at the pedal end of the cables. At the rudder end the movement is limited by limiter cables which are located in the tail cone on the elevator upper surface.

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7.3.4 Aileron Control The movement from the control wheels to the ailerons is linked by rack chains, cables, levers and rods. The movement limiters are attached to the rack chain ends inside the control columns. Both ailerons are fastened with six bearings each and they are balanced with counterweights located inside the aileron leading edge. 7.3.5 Trim Controls All control surfaces except the left aileron incorporate controllable trim tabs. They are moved mechanically by cables, drums, screws and rods. A fixed trim tab projects from the trailing edge of the left aileron and it is adjustable only on ground. 7.3.5.1 Rudder trim crank Rudder trim is mechanically controlled by rotatable crank mounted on the aft face of the control pedestal. Movement of the trim tab is shown on the indicator immediately below the crank. 7.3.5.2 Aileron trim Crank Aileron trim is mechanically controlled by rotatable crank mounted on the aft face of the control pedestal. Movement of the trim tab is shown on the indicator immediately below the crank. 7.3.5.3 Elevator trim wheel Elevator trim is mechanically controlled by a hand wheel located on the left side of the control pedestal. Movement of the trim tab is shown on a indicator adjacent to the hand wheel.

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7.3.6 Control surface locks The rudder, both ailerons, and both elevators are locked while on the ground by use of five control-surface locks. The locks are felt-padded and equipped with small bungees which hold the firmly in place when slipped into position between the control and fixed surfaces. When not in use, the locks are stowed in the aft baggage compartment.

Caution: Do not actuate flaps with aileron control locks installed

7.3.7 Control movements (in degrees)

01 JAN 2010

Up

Down

Elevator

30

20

Elevator Tab

12

12

Aileron

27

18

Aileron Tab

12,5

12,5

Wing Flaps

-

45

Left

Right

Rudder

29,5

29,5

Rudder Tab

12

12

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DAKOTA NORWAY

7.3.8 Wing flap The metal wing flaps are composed of four sections which extend from the inboard end of the left wing aileron under the fuselage to the inboard end of the right wing aileron and are of split trailing edge-type. The flaps are hinged to the under side of the center wing section, and are hydraulically lowered or raised as a unit. The flaps have a travel of 0 to 45 degrees, and can be set to any position in this range. Wing flap is hydraulically controlled by a lever in the cockpit. In the hydraulic panel there is also a relief valve which makes it impossible to lower flaps and perhaps damage the structure with strong drag forces caused by too high airspeed.

7.3.8.1 Wing flap control lever The wing flap control lever, located on the hydraulic control panel, has UP, DOWN and NEUTRAL positions. Movement of the lever to the DOWN position directs hydraulic fluid pressure to the wing flap actuating cylinder down-line to lower the flaps. When the control lever is placed to the UP position, the flow is of fluid is reversed to raise the flaps. When the flaps are positioned UP or DOWN as required, the control lever should be returned to the NEUTRAL position (half way) to trap the fluid in the actuating cylinder and hold the desired flap setting.

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7.3.8.2 Wing flap selector positions

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7.3.8.3 Wing flap position indicator A mechanically actuated wing flap position indicator is vertically mounted on the left instrument panel left side. Any movement of the wing flap actuating cylinder is shown by an equivalent movement of the pointer on the indicator by means of a flexible steel wire, sheathed in a tube and connected to the actuating cylinder at one end and to the indicator needle at the other end. The placard positions are UP- ¼ - ½ - ¾ - DOWN.

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7.3.9 Wing flap system drawing

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DAKOTA NORWAY

7.3.10 Wing flap system (ghost view)

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7.4 Landing Gear 7.4.1 General The landing gear consists of main gear and tail gear. The main landing gear is hydraulically retractable but the tail gear is not. The hydraulically operated main gear is extended or retracted by two hydraulic actuating cylinders, one in each nacelle, and controlled by a lever located on the hydraulic control panel in the cockpit. A mechanical safety latch is provided to prevent inadvertent raising of the main gear. In event of landing gear hydraulic line failure, the gear will free-fall when the landing gear control lever is moved to DOWN position. The tail wheel is not retractable, but is full swiveling and can be locked in the trail position. The weight of the main gear is held only by the hydraulic fluid which is locked in the upside of the actuating cylinder. The gear will be locked down by hydraulic pressure in additionally by mechanical latches. A throttle actuated warning horn will sound when the gear is not down and locked. The main wheels are equipped with hydraulic brakes and there is also a parking brake system installed in the aircraft.

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7.4.2 Main gear Each main gear is composed of wheels, an axle, two chock struts with torque arms, a truss strut with landing gear safety pin brackets attached to the upper ends of chock struts, and a brace strut which will carry the horizontal landing gear forces. Landing chocks will be absorbed by the chock struts. When a strut is compressed, the fluid which is in the upper part of the strut is forced to move trough a small opening into the lower part. Smaller bumps during taxiing will be absorbed by air which is locked in the strut end. Each gear incorporates a wheel of size 45 x 17.00-16 and the pressure is 3,3 kg/cm2. The wheels are equipped with Goodrich Hayes brake system of expanding rubber shoe type.

01 JAN 2010

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DAKOTA NORWAY

7.4.3 Retraction mechanism The landing gear will be extended and retracted by an actuating cylinder which is fitted to the nacelle upper structure in front of the landing gear brackets. The actuator piston is attached to a bracket in the center of the truss strut. When the gear is retracted, the actuating cylinder will be compressed and it will pull the lower end of the truss strut forward causing also the chock struts and the wheel to move forward. This motion, when continued, will retract the gear i.e. the retraction is centered around the aft bracket of the landing gear.

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DAKOTA NORWAY

Wheel rotation will stop when the wheel touches a brake shoe which is mounted on the wheel well front wall. When the gear is fully retracted, it’s axel ends will lean against rubber bumpers which are mounted on the wheel well sides. The retracted gear is partly visible. A hydraulically operated compensating cylinder is provided for quicker retraction.

NOTE: Avoid heavy use of the brakes before retraction after rotation of the aircraft. This can cause rotation of the wheel on its rim.

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DAKOTA NORWAY

7.4.4 Landing gear lever The landing gear actuating cylinder is controlled by the landing gear lever which is located on the hydraulic panel in the cockpit. The lever has tree positions, UP, NEUTRAL, DOWN. Depending on the selected position, pressure is routed from the hydraulic pressure source to the up- or down-side of the actuator. When the lever is in the neutral position the up-line as well as the down-line are closed and the fluid is locked in the both ends of the actuating cylinder. The down-side pressure can be read out from an indicator which is located beside the hydraulic system pressure gauge on the cockpit right wall.

Caution: When the aircraft is left on the apron for a longer period, the landing gear lever must be left in DOWN position so that possible thermal expansion of hydraulic fluid would not damage the hydraulic lines.

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7.4.5 Latch Mechanism The landing gear is locked down by means of the landing gear latch which also prevents the gear lever from being moved in advertently towards UP position. The basic latch mechanism is located in both nacelles in front of the wing front spar. The mechanism incorporates a spring loaded latch which automatically engages a notch in the piston rod end of the actuating cylinder, when the gear is reaching the fully extended position. The securing or the opening of the latches is accomplished by cables which are connected to a common latch lever which is mounted on the floor between the pilot seats. The mechanism is also connected to the restriction device of the landing gear lever by rods and levers. The latch lever has three positions. When it is secured down by a clip (POSITIVE LOCK), the catch and dog mechanism in the gear lever root will prevent the gear lever from being moved up. At the same time the latch will be secured and it is not able to be raised out of the notch. When the clip is disengaged the latch lever will raise automatically to the SPRING LOCK position and the securing of the latches will open. The latches still remain in the notches but pressed only by springs. The gear retraction is begun by pulling the latch lever up (UNLOCKED). The latches will raise out of the notches and the restriction device of the gear lever does not prevent the lever from being moved any more. When centering the gear lever after retraction, the latch lever snaps automatically in SPRING LOCK position. Now it is ready to lock the landing gear when it is extended again. Refer to paragraph7.4.6 for placement and pictures. NOTE 1: The latch lever must not be moved and secured down until the landing gear is fully extended. NOTE 2: If the levers have been operated out-of-sequence and the latch lever has jammed in UNLOCKED position, the restrictor dog must be pulled forward to allow the catch to spring into normal position. The latch lever will then return to SPRING LOCK position. NOTE 3: The landing gear latch must be released (LATCH in raised position) before the main gear can be retracted because a catch and dog prevent the landing gear lever from being moved in to the UP position. 01 JAN 2010

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7.4.6 Latch mechanism overview

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7.4.7 Landing gear operation

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7.4.8 Landing gear safety pins Landing gear safety pins are provided to prevent inadvertent retraction of the landing gear when the aircraft is on the ground.

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7.4.9 Landing gear indicator lights The 28V DC landing gear red and green indicator lights are located on the middle lower part of the instrument panel. Micro switches are mounted next to the landing gear lever and on each main gear. The switches are actuated by movement of the landing gear lever and the main gear to indicate position of the main landing gear and lever by means of red and green indicator lights. The green light will come on when both main gear are down and locked and the lever is in the NEUTRAL position. If the landing gear is retracted, or in any intermediate position or down and unlatched, or the landing gear is down and latched with the lever not in NEUTRAL position, the red indicator light will come on. The red indicator light will go off when the landing gear is down and locked and the lever is in the NEUTRAL position. There is a dimming switch situated between the green and red indicator light

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7.4.10 Landing gear warning horn A 28V DC warning system connected to the gear will make a horn sound if any other landing gear switches are open and both throttles are moved towards CLOSED position (manifold pressure 15 inches or less). A warning system connected to the wing flaps will make the horn sound if the gear is not locked down, the gear lever in NEUTRAL and the latch lever in SPRING LOCK or POSITIVE LOCK position and the flaps are lowered 1/4 or more. NOTE: No switch is provided for silencing the horn

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7.4.11 Landing Gear Hydraulic system

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7.4.12 Tail gear The tail gear is composed of a gear spindle, a gear fork, a chock strut, an axle, a wheel and a locking device. The steel tube spindle is attached to the fuselage with a hall bearing in the middle of the tube and with a spherical, ball bearing equipped mounting at the upper end. The lower end is joined to the gear fork and the chock strut which is of the same type as those in the main landing gear. The wheel is made of molded magnesium. The tire size is 22 x 9.00-6 and the pressure is 3,5 kg/cm . The axle ends have plugs for attaching a tow bar. The tail gear can be locked by means of a latch which is hinged to the fuselage structure. The latch is pressed by a spring against a slot in the lock bracket which is mounted on the gear spindle. When pulling the tail wheel lock lever in the control pedestal to UNLOCK position, the latch is pulled out of the slot by a cable and the tail gear is able to swivel free ( 360° ).The latch engages the slot only when the tail gear is aligned. The lock bracket is secured to the spindle by a dural pin which will break, if there are excessive side forces against the wheel. The tail gear is then able to turn free and there will be no damage to the fuselage structure.

Caution: Before towing the aircraft or making a turn, be sure that the tail gear is unlocked. 7.4.12.1Tailwheel lock lever The manually operated tailwheel lock lever is located on the control pedestal below the throttle levers, and has LOCK and UNLOCK positions. The LOCK position locks the tailwheel in the trailing position for takeoffs and landings. The UNLOCK position allows free swiveling of the wheel for taxiing. NOTE: The tailwheel must be centered in the tailing position before the tailwheel lock will engage.

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7.4.13 Tail gear schematics

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7.5 Brakes 7.5.1 General The hydraulic brakes can be applied by means of either left pilot or right pilot rudder brake pedals (toe brakes). The pedals are connected to two brake control valves which are contained in a single housing mounted on the floor beam in front of the pedals. The left pedals have effect on the right valve which controls the hydraulic pressure of the left wheel brake shoe. The right pedals control the left valve and the right wheel brake shoe.

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7.5.2 Hydraulic brake system Application of toe pressure on the rudder brake pedals allows hydraulic fluid under pressure to flow trough the brake control valves and brake operating lines to the brake actuating cylinders. The brake actuating pistons force the brake shoes against the brake drums to produce the braking action. The pressure applied to the brake is proportional to the toe pressure applied to the rudder pedals. When the rudder brake pedal is released, springs return the brake shoes to the off position, and the excess hydraulic fluid flows trough the brake operating lines to the brake control valve and into the return line to the hydraulic reservoir. A parking brake mechanism is provided to hold the brakes on when the aircraft is parked.

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7.5.3 Parking brake The left pilot pedals are equipped with a locking device which allows the pedals to be locked in the pressed position. Locking is accomplished by pressing the pedals forcibly and simultaneously pulling out the mechanical parking brake control knob mounted on the lower part of the control pedestal and after that releasing the pedals again. The hydraulic system pressure must be at least 500 psi when locking the pedals in order to make sure that the aircraft would not move for example during engine starting. The brakes are released by pressing simultaneously both brake pedals. NOTE: The parking brake is locked and released by means of the left pilot brake pedals only.

CAUTION: Do not set the parking brakes during flight

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7.5.4 Brake system schematic

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7.6 Power plant 7.6.1 General The aircraft is equipped with two 14-cylinder, air-cooled, 1200 BHP double radial engines which are manufactured by Pratt & Whitney. Engine type designation TWIN Wasp S1C3 G ( R-1830-92 ) .

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7.6.2 Engine description in numbers

Type

Engine Pratt & Whitney R-1830-92

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Discription

Values

Engine Capacity

1830 Cu.in (29,99 liters)

Bore

139,7 mm

Stroke

139,7 mm

Compression Ratio

6,7:1

Supercharger

Singel-stage, Radial

Supercharging Ratio

7,15:1

Supercharger Diameter

279,4 mm

Direction of rotation

Clockwise

(Crankshaft and propeller)

(From rear)

Propeller Gearing ratio

16:9

Dry Weight

Approx. 605 kg

Maximum Diameter

1250 mm

Maximum Length

1565 mm

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7.6.3 Construction, main parts The engine is composed basically of following parts: front section, crankcase section, cylinders, supercharger section, front accessory section and rear accessory section. 7.6.3.1 Front Section The front section consists of propeller gearing, propeller thrust bearing which supports the propeller shaft forward end, scavenge pump for oil from gear housing and valve rocker cap oil collector, governor control mechanism and oil pressure lines to the propeller. 7.6.3.2 Crankcase section The crankcase section is divided to three consecutive parts, the joints of which are on the symmetrical levels of the' cylinder rows. The crankshaft main bearing is in the center part. The double-throw crankshaft in supported by three roller bearings. Each cylinder row has a separate master rod with 6 link rods. 7.6.3.3 Cylinders The cylinders are made of steel and the aluminum molded cylinder beads are screwed on them. Cooling fins are cut around the cylinder barrel and the cylinder head. In the heads there are valves with their mechanisms and the spark plugs. The pistons are of aluminum and they have 5 piston ring grooves. There are 3 compression rings and 3 scavenge rings, two of them in the same groove. 7.6.3.4 The Supercharges The supercharger chamber contains the supercharger with the diffuser and an outlet for boost pressure gauge. The fuel/air mixture is fed from the chamber to the cylinders through 14 steel tubes. 7.6.3.5 Front accessory section The front accessory section has brackets for the carburetor, the primer nozzles and the oil pressure gauge transmitter 7.6.3.6 The rear accessory section The rear accessory section is surrounded by generator, tachometer generator, vacuum pump, fuel pump, oil temperature transmitter, starter and magnetos. The oil pump and the oil pressure relief valve are inside.

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7.6.4 Equipment, systems The basic engine includes following systems: Air inlet system, carburetor system, priming system, lubrication system, ignition system, cooling system, exhaust system, starting system and measuring and control systems. Additionally the engine serves as the primary power source for many auxiliary systems like the electrical power system ( generator General Electric 2CM80B5 ), the hydraulic system ( hydraulic pump Pesco 1P582-CA ), the instrument vacuum system and the compressed air de-icing system ( vacuum pump Pence 3P207-JA ) and the heating system. 7.6.4.1 Air inlet system The air for burning is taken by a scoop located on the top forward edge of the engine accessory cowling. Ram air is routed to the carburetor throat through a duct. This duct includes a controllable door which allows hot air from the inside of the engine cowling to be mixed with the cold ram air. The electrically powered carburetor air temperature transmitter is located close above the carburetor throat. 7.6.4.2 Carburetor system The air is routed from the scoop to the carburetor throat (injection carburetor Bendix PD12 H4), where it is "measured". The air flowing in this Venturi-tube has a changing pressure depending on the tube tapering. These varying pressures control a poppet valve by means of a membrane. The pressure fuel passes to the carburetor through that valve. The fuel pressure is generated by a fuel pump (Thompson TFD-3500) which is mounted in the rear accessory section. The fuel will vaporize when being exhausted against the supercharger impeller after being measured by several valves and nozzles. An important part of the carburetor is the automatic mixture control which senses air temperature and pressure and controls the particular forces of air which adjust the fuel valve by means of the membrane. The automatic mixture control can be disengaged by moving the mixture control lever on the upper right side of the control pedestal to FULL RICH-position. The other three positions of the lever are AUTO RICH, AUTO LEAN and IDLE CUT-OFF. These "standard" mixtures are made in the mixture valve which is located in the regulator part of the carburetor. The pressure of the fuel/air mixture will be increased in the supercharger and the mixture is routed through the inlet manifold and admission valves to the cylinders. More of the fuel system in paragraph 7 . 7

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7.6.4.3 Priming system This system supplies fuel to the engine during starting. The fuel is taken from the carburetor, from which it is routed through two lines to the priming nozzles, either of them located at each side of the front accessory section close below the carburetor. The system consists of an electrically driven solenoid valve which is controlled by means of a switch on the right overhead panel in the cockpit. The fuel pressure is generated by a booster pump ( Peeco 2P-R600CWXA-2 ) during engine starting.

7.6.4.4 Lubrication system

Refer to paragraph 7.10.

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7.6.4.5 Ignition system Each engine has two independent ignition circuits. They have their own magnetos (Scintilla SF 14 LN-3) in the rear accessory section. The right magneto supplies ignition current to the front spark plugs and the left magneto to the rear plugs (Champion RHB37N). The ignition lead group is located in front of the forward cylinders.

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7.6.4.6 Cooling system The hydraulically operated cowl flaps are attached to the aft edge of the engine cowling, and controls the airflow through the nacelle. The fl a p adjustment is controlled by the cowl flap hydraulic control handles on the cockpit right wall. The selector has following positions: CLOSE-OFF-TRAIL-OFF-OPEN. When the TRAIL position is selected, the hydraulic system pressure does not have any influence to the cowl flap actuators and the flaps move depending on the airspeed only. The bulbs of the cylinder head temperature measuring system are fitted to the rear spark plug grommet, in the left engine in cylinder number 13 and in the right engine in cylinder number 3.

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The excessive heat from the engine is partly exhausted also by oil flow. The oil is cooled in a cooler ( AiResearch 87151-155-13 ) mounted under the engine inside a fairing in the lowest cowling.

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7.6.4.6 Exhaust system Behind the rear cylinder row there is an exhaust gas collector, into which the gases are routed through the exhaust valves and outlets of each cylinder. The gases are routed from the collector to outside air through an exhaust pipe mounted on the outer side of the nacelle. The heat exchanger manifold is fitted around the exhaust pipe. In the manifold the heating air is warmed before entering the system.

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7.6.4.8 Starting system The electrically driven starter ( Jack & Heintz JH 3 R ) energizes the flywheel, from which the kinetic energy is transferred to the engine crankshaft through an electric coupling. The tension for the ignition circuit is supplied by an ignition vibrator during engine starting. The vibrator will be connected simultaneously with the flywheel coupling. If the electrical coupling will suffer from malfunctioning, the coupling is able to be performed mechanically by using a lever mounted behind the starter. 7.6.4.9 Measuring and control systems The engine adjustments are accomplished by control levers in the control pedestal trough rods, bellcranks, cables and pulleys. The engine instruments are collected to the center instrument panel, where they are within the sights of both pilots. 7.6.4.10 Engine installation The engine is mounted in the steel tube beds which are attached to the center wing. The eight engine fastening points are equipped with rubber dampeners. The bed is fastened to the firewall by four brackets. The engines are surrounded by cowling plates which are connected together by quick fasteners. Every fluid line except the feather pump oil line is equipped with a shut off valve by the firewall. When pulling the shut off handles in the cockpit, all fluid will be prevented to flow to the engine.

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7.6.4.11 Cockpit and engine controls

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7.6.4.12 Pratt & Whitney R-1830-92 illustration

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7.7 Propellers 7.7.1 General The Three-bladed, constant-speed propellers are manufacture by Hamilton Standard and their type is 23E50. The pitch controlled hydraulically and the propellers are fully featherable. They are equipped also with an alcohol de-icing system. The propeller diameter is 352 cm and it weighs ca 180 kilograms.

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7.7.2 Construction The narrow-type propeller blades ( 6505A-18 ) are made of aluminum alloy. The pitch control range is 18°- 89°. Inside the propeller hub there is a cog arc which can be turned by means of a piston which is able to move in the direction of the propeller-shaft. When the piston is moving forward, the propeller pitch will increase and vice versa. The back side of the piston is normally affected by the oil pressure from the governor and the front side by the oil pressure from the engine.

7.7.3 RPM-control The rpm-controlling governor is located in the front section. The governor is supplied by power and lubrication from the upper part of the propeller gearing. The governor is controlled by an rpm-control lever in the control pedestal through cables. In the lower part of the governor (Hamilton Standard 4G8) there is a cog pump which supplies pressure oil behind the piston through a borehole in the propeller axle. This oil flow is proportional to the engine revolutions because of being forced through an overflow valve which is controlled by an centrifugal limiter in the governor. The oil flow from the governor tends to move the piston forward but it is opposed first by oil pressure in front of the piston - which is equal to the engine lubrication oil pressure and secondly by the propeller blade tendency to move towards low pitch. Rpm-controlling-, i . e . the propeller pitch changing is accomplished by moving the rpmcontrol lever which causes resistance to a spring in the governor. The spring controls the opening of a control valve which allows the oil pressure to reach the back side of the pitch changing piston. It will find a way to a new balance and changes the pitch consequently. The propeller governor control range is 1200-2700 rpm. NOTE: If the governor control cable break, the spring will return the control valve to 2400-2500 rpm position.

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7.7.4 Propeller feathering system The propeller blades are moved to feathered position by oil pressure behind the piston. This pressure is supplied by a special, electrically driven booster pump. This feather pump supplies oil to the propeller hub through the governor but past the control valve. The feather pump is located in the wheel well and it is fed by oil from the oil tank bottom through the tank drain line. NOTE: The engine lubrication oil outlet is located slightly above the tank bottom level, so that there is always 1 ½ US gallon of oil for the feather pump in the tank, in an eventual leak in the oil supply system. The feather pumps are started by feather buttons, which are located on the overhead panels on corresponding sides. When the button is pushed in, the circuit between the feather button holding coil and the solenoid switch in the wheel well junction box will close. The holding coil will hold' the hut-ton in and the solenoid switch connects current to the feather pump motor. When the propeller blades have reached the feathered position the oil pressure will raise rapidly causing the feather pump control circuit to be disconnected by a pressure switch in the governor. The solenoid switch w i l l then disconnect the feather pump motor current and the feather button w i l l pop put. The unfeathering cycle is begun by pushing the feather button and the control circuit w i l l again close. The pressure in the propeller-hub raises and the sleeve of a distributor valve at the forward end of the propeller shaft moves forward allowing the oi l from the feather pump to flow to the front of the piston. The piston starts to move back and the unfeathering action begins. The feather button must be held in manually in order to avoid the pressure switch to disconnect the control circuit. When the engine has reached 600-800 rpm, the feather button is pulled out to the neutral position. The feather pump current is d i sconnected, the action stops and the distributor valve sleeve will move to normal position by spring force.

CAUTION: If the feathering button fails to pop out after the propeller has reached the feather position, it must be pulled out manually or the propeller will unfeather

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7.8 Fuel system 7.8.1 General Each engine has an independent fuel supply system which consists of fuel tank, selector valve, filter, electrically driven booster pump, shut-off valve and engine-driven fuel pump. Additionally, there are a priming system and measuring systems for the quantity and the pressure of fuel. The aircraft is equipped with two auxiliary fuel tanks. Both engines are normally supplied by fuel independently but it is also possible to supply cither engine from any tank. 7.8.2 Fuel tanks The fuel tanks are made of aluminum sheet. They are located in the center wing between the center spar and the front spar. The auxiliary tanks are located in the center wing between the center spar and the rear spar. The outlets are located on the tank fuselage side. Each tank is equipped with filler, water drain, drain vulva, vent line and quantity floats.

FUEL QUANTITY DATA CHART- GALLONS Fully serviced and usable TANK

NUMBER OF TANKS

USABLE FUEL (each)

FULLY SERVICED (each)

Main

2

202

204

Auxiliary

2

199

200

TOTAL USABLE FUEL

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805

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7.8.3 Fuel tank selector valves The tank selector valves have four channels and they are located in the center wing front spar near the aircraft center-line. The selector handles are mounted in the cockpit on both sides of the control pedestal. The control motion is linked by cables.

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7.8.4 Fuel Filters The fuel filters are located in the center wing beside the tank selector valves and they are made of tightly weaved metal net. Each filter in connected with the outside air by a valveequipped drain line.

7.8.5 Fuel booster pumps The electrically driven fuel booster pumps supply fuel pressure during engine starting and also secure fuel flow during take-off and landing in case of an eventual malfunction of the engine driven fuel pump. The booster pumps are located near by the joint between the fuselage front section and the center wing, left of the aircraft centerline. The pump motor switches and the indication lighting are located in the cockpit overhead panel.

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7.8.6 Fuel shut-off valves The shut-off valves which cut off every fluid flow to the engine in case of an eventual engine fire (except the feather pump oil supply ) are located behind the engine fire-wall. Both valves have the control lever below a hatch in the central cockpit floor. The levers are secured in OPEN position by a thin copper wire.

7.8.7 Fuel pumps Each engine has a fuel pump which is located in the rear accessory section. The pump is a four-bladed rotary pump which is capable to supply the needed fuel flow alone. The pump include en adjustable relief valve which will keep the fuel pressure constant regardless of the engine, revolutions. The valve includes a spring loaded membrane which will open when the pump rotates at high rpm and allow the excessive fuel to flow back to the pump top chamber. At low RPM the valve remains closed and all fuel is supplied to the carburetor. The pumps are equipped with bypass valves which allow fuel to flow past the defect pump in case of pump malfunction.

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7.8.8 Fuel quantity indicators The tanks have o common quantity gauge in the center instrument panel. The gauge is equipped with a switch for selecting the tank being measured. The indications are given in liters. The system measures basically the current from a potentiometer which is driven by a float device in each tank. The system current is taken from DC-bus. There is also a dipstick provided for manual tankage measuring. The stick in stored in the rear cargo compartment.

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7.8.9 Fuel pressure indicators The fuel pressure is measured from the line between the carburetor and the primer solenoid. The gauge ( a double manometer ) is located in the center instrument panel.

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7.8.10 Fuel system diagram

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7.9 Lubrication system 7.9.1 General The engines have independent lubrication systems which lubricate and cool the engines and also take part in the propeller feathering cycle. These lubrication systems can be divided to two parts: (1) The internal oil circulation. (7.9.2) (2) The external oil circulation. (7.9.3)

7.9.2 Engine external oil circulation This system incorporates following parts: -

oil tank oil cooler oil thermostat shut-off valve systems measuring the pressure and the temperature of oil.

The tank capacity is 29 US gallons. The normal tankage is 25 and the minimum tankage for take-off 23 US gallons. Because the engine oil supply outlet is located slightly above the tank bottom level, the full amount cannot be used for lubrication. The remains, about 1, 5 US gallons, are reserved for propeller feathering. The feather pump is supplied by oil from the tank drain line which is attached to the lowest position of the tank. The tank is equipped with a filter and a dipstick. There is no special oil quantity indicator.

NOTE: The quantity is checked without screwing the dipstick.

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The oil cooler ( AiResearch 87151-155-13 ) is mounted under the nacelle and its purpose is to cool the oil return flow to a desired temperature value. An oil thermostat is located in the upper part of the cooler and it will forward the return flow either through the cooler or to the tank depending on the oil temperature.

The oil pressure gauge line is attached to the engine front accessory section. The gauge is located in the center instrument panel. In the same panel there is also an oil temperature double indicator. Its electrical sensor bulb is attached to the engine rear accessory section.

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Figure 1.38, Oil pressure indicator

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7.9.3 Engine internal oil circulation A pump is located inside the engine and it is supplied by oil from the oil tank. The pump forwards oil through a filter and a relief valve to the lubrication points, and to the governor. The oil which has been gathered from the propeller gearing, the crankcase and the accessory sections is pumped by scavenge pumps back to the tank through the oil cooler.

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7.10 Hydraulic system 7.10.1 General The following systems are operated hydraulically: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

landing gear brakes wing flaps cowl flaps (doors) Windshield wipers.

The normal system operating pressure is 650-875 psi and the maximum pressure 1050 psi. The normal fluid quantity is about 8 liters. The hydraulic supply system is discussed in this paragraph. Refer to the corresponding system descriptions.

7.10.2 Operation The following system is incorporated in hydraulic operation: -

Engine driven hydraulic pumps Hydraulic reservoir Shut-off valves Pressure regulator Accumulator tank Pressure gauges Hand pump

7.10.2.1 Engine driven pumps The pressure is generated by two hydraulic pumps ( Pesco IP 582-CA ), which are attached to the engine rear accessory sections. Each pump is capable to supply full pressure for the whole system. Pump outlets are equipped with non-return valves.

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7.10.2.2 Hydraulic reservoir The pumps are gravity-fed from the hydraulic reservoir which is located in the hydraulic panel in the cockpit rear bulkhead. The supply outlet is attached slightly above the reservoir bottom level, so that it will not become empty in case of an eventual leak in the system. The remains ( about 3 liters ) can be used with a hand pump only. The hand pump supply outlet is in the lowest position of the reservoir. The filler neck in the cockpit is equipped with a metal-net filter and there is also a fluid level sight gauge along the reservoir side. An hydraulic fluid reserve can is placed on the floor behind the hydraulic panel.

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7.10.2.3 Shut-off valves In the event of an engine fire the system is equipped with shut-off valves on the fire-wall. The valves are operated by the same control levers as those for fuel and oil systems.

7.10.2.4 Pressure regulator The fluid is supplied from the pumps to a pressure regulator which is also mounted on the hydraulic panel. The purpose of the regulator is to stabilize the hydraulic pressure inside given limits. It basically consists of a valve which allows the fluid to flow back to the reservoir whenever the system pressure exceeds 875 psi. The valve will close again at 650 psi. Additionally, the regulator is equipped with a release valve which opens at 1050 psi. A pressure accumulator is connected between the pressure regulator and the hydraulically operated devices. The purpose of it is to absorb eventual pressure impulses and on the other hand to store energy for assisting the hydraulic pumps during an eventually great fluid consumption. 7.10.2.5 Pressure accumulator The pressure accumulator is located in the hydraulic panel. The device is a spherical pressure chamber which is divided to two segments by a rubber membrane. The lower segment has an air charge of 250 psi unless there is no hydraulic fluid in the upper segment. When the system pressure increases, the air is compressed and it will leave space for hydraulic fluid. At a pressure of 900 psi there is 4-5 liters fluid in the accumulator. The compressed air contains energy which in used to assist the momentarily insufficient power of the hydraulic pumps (for ex. during landing gear retraction).

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7.10.2.6 Pressure gauges The accumulator pressure circuit is connected to a manometer which indicates the hydraulic system pressure (accumulator pressure).

NOTE: The pressure indicator beside the hydraulic system pressure gauge indicates the pressure in the down-side of the landing gear actuating cylinders.

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7.10.2.7 Hand pump In addition to the engine driven hydraulic pumps the system is equipped with a hand pump which can be used for the following purposes: 1. to supply system pressure without starting engines ( for ex. pressure for parking brakes before starting ) 2. to compensate engine driven pumps during flight in case of pump malfunction 3. to supply other systems with reserve fluid if the fluid is exhausted through a leak in one system. The hand pump is located in the lower part of the hydraulic panel and it is associated with a valve which is normally closed i.e. the hydraulic pressure is supplied directly to the system being used. If it becomes necessary to store energy in the pressure accumulator with the hand pump, the valve must be turned to open position.

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7.10.2.8 Hydraulic system overview

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7.11 Ice protection System Not applicable for LN-WND. The boots are all removed and the alcohol propeller/windshield anti- and deice systems are not operational and disconnected.

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7.12 Electrical power systems 7.12.1 General The basic system is 28 volt, direct current system with ground return. DC-power is supplied by two engine driven generators and two 12 volt storage batteries which are connected in series. An external power unit may be used on ground. Dakota Norway uses battery- and cross-generator start as normal start procedure. The alternating current for radios and some instrument is supplied by an inverter which converts the input direct current to 115 volt, 400 c/s , single-phase alternating current. The supply circuits as well as the consumption circuits are protected by fuses and circuit breakers against overloads and short circuits.

7.12.2 DC-power supply system 7.12.2.1 General DC The purpose of the generators is to furnish—the necessary electrical power during engine operation and in addition, to keep the batteries adequately charged. The generators, one in each engine, are of 28V, air-cooled and self-inductive. The normal operation range is 2500-4500 RPM and they are powered by the engine crankshaft with a reduction ratio of 1,4:1. Each generator is capable to supply an output of 200A which is fully adequate when operating with one engine only.

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7.12.2.2 Voltage Regulators The voltage regulators are attached to the main electrical junction box. Their purpose is to keep the generator output voltages constant ( 27,4-28,0 V ) regardless of the load and the revolutions. Additionally, they have to deal the load evenly for the generators which are connected in parallel. The voltage regulators are cooled by ram-air. 7.12.2.3 Reverse Current Relay The purpose of the reverse current relays is to connect a generator to the circuit whenever the generator output is in the normal range and disconnect it when the output drops below the battery output ( when there is a battery reverse current of 15-25A ). The reverse current relays are located in the wheel wells. 7.12.2.4 Voltmeter and Loadmeter A voltmeter, generator loadmeters and the generator switches are located on the right overhead panel. The voltmeter indicates the main distribution bus voltage whenever electrical power is supplied. The loadmeters indicate the amperage output of each generator. The two-position (ON-OFF) generator switches connect or disconnect the generators.

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7.12.2.5 Master switch The 28V DC electrical power master switch is located on the right overhead panel. It has three positions: BATTERY- OFF – EXTERNAL. Operation of the switch will open or close the battery circuit.

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7.12.2.6 Generator protection The generators are protected by two 150A fuses which are located in the wheel wells. 10A magnetic breakers protect the electrical power system against over-voltage. In the wheel wells there are also two 10A fuses which protect the generator control circuits against short circuits. Beside each fuse there is a similar spare fuse. 7.12.2.7 Circuit Breaker panel A circuit breaker panel is situated beneath the navigator seat in the cockpit. It is protected by a spring loaded door. Lights will automatically come on when the door is opened. NOTE: Because all the anti-ice systems on LN-WND has been removed 4 of the circuit breakers should be in the down position, witch is the OFF position.

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7.12.2.8 Batteries The batteries are stored under the front aisle floor in a special battery support. There are two 12V, batteries connected in aeries. The capacity of a full charged battery is 88AH. The batteries are normal lead/sulphuric acid-batteries. The battery area is ventilated by ram-air.

The primary purpose of the batteries is to supply current in case of a malfunction of both generators. Their use for ground operations is allowed in exceptional circumstances only. The batteries are able to supply electrical power about one hour if the unnecessary load has been reduced.

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7.12.2.9 External power An external power unit (mostly a 28V rectifier) may supply electrical power on ground. The aircraft receptacle is located under the forward fuselage left side.

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7.12.2.10 DC system schematic

DC Power schematic WILL BE ADDED

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7.12.3 AC-power supply system 7.12.3.1 General AC system The inverters convert 28V DC power to either 115 V AC or 26V AC power. The aircraft is fitted with two separate inverters located under the floor by the forward cargo door. They are protected by two 35A Circuit breakers in the radio rack. The inverter output by 115V is 500 VA, from which the aircrafts systems take approx. 65%, and by 26V 250VA, from which approx. 10% is used. The cycle and voltage regulators are integrally mounted in the inverter. The inverters are started by using the three-position selector switch on the cockpit right overhead panel.

7.12.3.2 AC powered systems AC-power is supplied to the following systems: 1.) Radios:

2.) Other:

ADF 1 ADF 2 VHF 1 Wing compass

7.12.3.3 AC Circuit Breakers The circuit breakers and fuses of these units are located in the radio rack except those of the wing compass. They are located in the main electrical junction box.

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7.12.3.4 AC system schematic Will be added

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7.12.4 Exterior lights The aircraft is equipped with normal navigation lights. The selector switch ban three positions: STEADY-OFF-FLASH. On the top of the vertical stabilizer there is an anticollision beacon. The landing lights are mounted in the outer wings. The left one is equipped with a glare shield. All exterior light switches are collected in the left overhead panel.

7.12.5 Interior lights 7.12.5.1 Cockpit An individual lighting is provided for each outer instrument panel. The center panel is lighted by a light unit mounted in front of the control pedestal. The lighting of the overhead panels is accomplished by 2 units under the cockpit ceiling above the pilots seats . These lights are red in color. There are also wall lights ( one unit at each side ) and a pedestal light provided for the cockpit lighting. These lights are equipped with glare shields. The magnetic compass are as well as the propeller alcohol flow-meters are integrally lighted. For the flight instrument panels there are adjustable lights below the side-windows. The direction is adjusted by turning the light unit, the intensity by turning the control rheostat in the rear end of the light unit, and color red to white by turning the ring in the forward end of the light unit.

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The middle compartment is equipped with two roof lights. The cockpit and middle compartment light switches are located in the left overhead panel except: - the outer instrument panel light rheostats are located in the lower part of each panel - the overhead panel light unit has a switch on itself - the flight instrument panel red-to-white light rheostat is in the light unit itself.

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7.12.5.2 Passenger cabin The passenger cabin is lighted by roof lights. The pantry and the lavatory are also equipped with lights. The rear cargo compartment is lighted from the ceiling by two independent lights. The light is controlled by a panel on the CA station on the rear wall. The spare lamps are stored in the behind the right pilot’s seat.

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7.13 Communication systems 7.13.1 General The radios are located on the aircraft left side aft of the front cargo door in a special rack. Beside the rack, facing the aisle, are the radio fuses and circuit breakers. By the side of the rack there is a junction box, in which the connections between the radio equipment, the control units, the audio selector panel and the radio instruments etc. are collected. Additionally, the inverter and some radio starter relays are located in the junction box. All radio units need direct current, the ADF’s and the VHF 1 also alternative current from the inverter. The electrical current of the radio units is disconnected by using the radio master switch except the current of the VHF 2, which is supplied directly from the aircraft battery. In this situation the NORM-EMERGENCY switch on the audio selector panel must be turned to EMERGENCY position, the VHF 2 switch up and all other switches down. The inverter switches are located on the Cockpit right overhead panel.

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7.13.2 Communication radios The aircraft is equipped with two independent VHF-stations: (1) VHF 1, COLLINS 618M-2B transmitter and receiver, 360 channels (2) VHF 2 COLLINS 618M-2B transmitter and receiver, 360 channels 7.13.3 Navigation radios Two independent ADF-systems and a VOR/ILS-system are installed in the aircraft: 7.13.3.1 ADF There are two independent ADF system installed in the aircraft. ADF 1 is operated by captain's ADF-control panel, ADF 2 by first officer's panel. The frequency range is 200 -1750 kcs. The loop antennas ore uncompensated: in the bearings 0 and 180 the error is in minimum, on both sides the error can be as great as pluss/minus 20 degrees. 7.13.3.2 VOR/ILS There is one VOR/ILS system installed in the aircraft. VOR/ILS-system is operated by captain's control unit. The VOR/ILS-switch starts the VOR/LOC-receiver and also the glide path receiver when a LOC-frequency has been selected. The marker receiver is started separately by a HIGH-LOW-switch on the left instrument panel. The selection of the G/P-channel corresponding the desired LOCchannel as well as the VOR/LOC-input changes of the instruments are accomplished automatically depending on the selected channel ( 1O8.0 - 117.9 Mcs with 0,1 Mcs intervals ). The marker-lights are located on the left instrument panel left side. 7.13.4 Audio control boxes The aircraft is fitted with two independent audio control boxes. The boxes are situated on each of the pilot’s cockpit sidewall. The boxes contain switches for Navigational aid identification, selection of communication radio for use or listening, and intercom volume.

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7.13.5 Public address system Public addressing system is not installed in LN-WND 01 JAN 2010

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7.14 Instrument system 7.14.1 General The instrument panel is divided in three parts. Both pilots have their own flight instruments on the outer panels. On the center panel there are all engine instruments and warning lights and some other instruments. The hydraulic pressure gauges and the alcohol flow-meter are located on the cockpit right wall and the electrical power instruments on the right overhead panel. 7.14.2 Pitot-static system The system incorporates two pitot tubes, of which the forward one supplies the ram pressure to the captain’s airspeed indicator and the rear one to the first officers indicator. The static pressure is taken from both pitot tubes and the supply lines unite in the static pressure selector valve from which the pressure is distributed to the airspeed indicators, the altimeters and the variometers. The static pressure selector valve is located in the center instrument panel lower part. The alternate static pressure is taken behind the instrument panel. The pitot-tubes are equipped with integral electric heaters to prevent ice from forming on the tubes. The heating can be observed from the loadmeter mounted on the left overhead panel.

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7.14.3 Vacuum system Vacuum for gyro instruments is supplied by two vacuum pumps which are connected in parallel. The pumps are mounted on the engine rear accessory sections. Vacuum is controlled by regulators which are mounted in the wheel wells. The system is also operating in single-engine situation. Vacuum is supplied to the following instruments: (1) artificial horizons (2) directional gyros (3) turn indicators. Both captains and first officers systems are equipped with vacuum pressure indicators, one located on each outer instrument panel lower part. The vacuum system is also equipped with a vacuum selector switch, mounted on the cockpit floor below the control pedestal. When the switch is placed left, the left engine vacuum pump supplies the captain's instruments and the right pump those of the first officer. When the switch is placed right, the systems are cross-feeded.

Picture of Vacum system Will be added

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7.14.4 Pitot static system schematics

Pitot static system

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7.14.5 Instrument markings and tolerances

Instrument markings

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Instrument markings and tolerancea

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7.15 Air condition systems 7.15.1 Heating system Heated air for the cabin and the cockpit is taken from heat exchangers where outside air is warmed up by exhaust gases. The temperature of the input flow is controlled by mixing outside air to the air from the heat exchangers. This is done in the two mixing chambers which are located under the fuselage. The air is taken from the aircraft outside by low mounted scoops. The air which is not used for air conditioning is exhausted through holes at the scoop aft ends. The mixing chamber valves are controlled manually by control knobs in the cockpit and in the middle compartment ( the knob location, see picture X.XX ). The warmed air is routed from the mixing chamber to the floor distribution ducts of the cabin and also to the floor nozzles in the cockpit. A separate duct routes heated air to the windshield defroster outlets on both sides of the cockpit. An air tube which routes conditioned air to the lavatory, is mounted at the aft end of the right cabin floor duct. At the aft end there is also a connection hose for ground heater. NOTE: In one-engine operations the spill valve and the mixing chamber valves must pushed to COLD position at the affected side of the system.

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7.15.2 Air conditioning system schematic

Picture of heating system and mixing units

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7.15.3 Ventilation system The passenger cabin is ventilated by ram-air from scoops which are mounted above the fuselage. The air is distributed through adjustable nozzles under the hat-rack, a pair of them being positioned over each window. The air is exhausted from the cabin through two roof outlet. They must be open also, when a high temperature is desired in the cabin. A part of the air is exhausted also through ducts in the lavatory and in the rear cargo compartment. NOTE: In one engine operations the spill valve and the mixing valves must be pushed to COLD position at the affected side of the system.

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7 . 16 Fire protection systems 7.16.1 General The aircraft is equipped with following fire protection systems and devices: -

fire warning circuits in each engine fire extinguishing system fire-wall shut-off valves portable extinguishers

7.16.2 Fire warning circuits Each engine has an independent fire warning circuit which consists of ten Edisonelements connected in aeries. Eight of those are located in the engine section and two in the wheel well. They are located in such positions where the fire hazard is greatest. Each element is based on a thermocouple (iron + constantan). When the element is affected by fire, the rapid temperature rise will generate a small current which is sensed by a relay in the middle compartment relay panel. The relay will switch on the fire warning light of the affected engine in the center instrument panel.

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The system can be checked for operation by pushing the test switch between the fire warning lights. The switch connects current to the heater of a test element which is connected in series with the warning elements. The heater will cause a fire-like situation in the test element (Temperature rise).

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7.16.3 Engine fire extinguishing system A CO2-bottle is located in the cockpit behind the first officer's seat. The contents of that fire extinguishing bottle can be shot to the desired engine by means of the levers in the fire extinguishing panel. The bottle can be discharged once only, and the contents ( about 3 k/g ) w i l l be consumed completely. The bottle is equipped with a relief valve which opens automatically when the bottle pressure increases excessively. The CO2 will then be exhausted through an outlet at the fuselage right side. The blow will also throw out the red indication label which normally covers the hole. In case of an eventual engine fire the bottle can he discharged by first turning the selector handle in the fire extinguishing panel from closed position towards the burning engine and secondly pulling the handle beside the selector ( secured down with a thin copper-wire ). The motion is linked by Bowden-cable to the bottle Valve which opens and allows CO 2 to pass through supply lines to the stainless steel tube extinguishing rings. Each engine is equipped with two rings, one of them located in the wheel well close to the fire-wall and the other between the flame-plate and the fire-wall. A bending tube supplies CO2 from the second ring to the carburetor. NOTE: There is neither fire detection nor extinguishing systems in front of the flame-plate.

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7.16.4 Shut-off valves In order to avoid the engine fire to spread itself, the fuel, oil and hydraulic fluid lines (except the feather pump oil line) are equipped with shut-off valves mounted on the firew a l l . They can he closed by lifting the levers installed in the cockpit floor. The motion from the levers is linked by cables and pulleys. The levers are safetied in OPEN-position.

7.16.5 Portable extinguishers Refer to paragraph 7.17, Emergency equipment

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7.16.6 Engine fire identification chart

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7.17 Emergency equipment 7.17.1 General The equipment described in this chapter is the equipment onboard the C-53D, LN-WND, operated by Stiftelsen Dakota Norway. 7.17.2 Equipment and their locations The list below states all emergency equipment onboard LN-WND The equipment on the list below shall be checked for serviceability by the flight crew before the first flight of the day

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Discription

Type of Total Placement Equipment Qty

Roof hatch in the cockpit roof. 2

Cockpit

Emergency EXIT

Navigator emergency exit on the left side fuselage beside the navigator seat. Two on the right side of the fuselage. See illustration X.X.X

4

Cabin

One on the left side of the fuselage. See illustration X.X.X Main door.

Fire Extinguisher (Hand held)

Cockpit 3 Cabin

Cockpit

Behind the entrance door in the cabin, left side, back wall. Mounted with straps on the Navigator emergency exit on the left fuselage side in the cockpit.

Fire Axe

2

Cabin

Behind the entrance door in the cabin, left side, back wall.

Fist-Aid Kit

1

Cabin

Behind the left side 1st Seat

Cockpit Flash light

Behind First Officer on the wall

2 Cabin

01 JAN 2010

(1) Behind the First Officer seat in the cargo compartment. (2) Between hydraulic panel and the cargo compartment

Front wall in front of the first seat row, left hand side

3

Cockpit

Behind Captain, Copilots and Navigator seat mounted on the wall.

Life Jackets

24

Cabin

In the overhead bins. One demo and three child jackets in the forward left overhead bin.

Safety rope

1

Cockpit

Behind Navigator seat

ELT

1

Cockpit

Mounted on the wall over the hydraulic panel

Tool Box

1

Aft Baggage Box in the aft baggage compartment compartment

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7.17.3 Emergency Exits The aircraft has 6 emergency exits in total. This number includes the main door. -

Cockpit roof escape hatch Cockpit side emergency exit Two right over-wing exit One right over-wing exit Main door

The emergency escape routes to be used in an emergency are illustrated in the figure below.

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7.17.3.1 Cockpit emergency exits The cockpit has 2 emergency exits that provide an emergency exit for the flight crew in an emergency situation: (1) Roof escape hatch (2) Side emergency exit The roof hatch is mounted in the roof between the flight crew. It is secured by two locks in the front and opens outwards. The hatch is secured with wires in the back which will ensure that the hatch will not fall off when opened in a non-emergency situation. An escape rope is placed on the wall behind the navigator seat.

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The cockpit side emergency exit is located on the left forward side of the fuselage. The door is locates on the side wall beside the navigator seat. The door opens outwards and can only be opened by two different door handles from inside the aircraft. There is a fire axe placed on the bottom half of the door.

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7.17.3.2 Cabin Emergency Exits The cabin has 4 emergency exits, these are: (1) One Main Passenger door (2) Three over-wing exits

The passenger door is located at the back left side of the passenger cabin and is manually opened or closed from inside or outside of the airplane. The door may be used for evacuation during an emergency. To open the door from the inside move the two door handles on the left side of the door to their indicated open position and push the door outward until it locks to the fuselage in fully open position. To open the door from the outside the airplane turn the two door handles on the right side of the door to their open position. Pull the door outward on its hinges until it locks to the fuselage. There are 3 removable window exits in the cabin. Two is on the left and one on the right side.

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7.17.3.3 Over-wing emergency exit operation The over-wing emergency exits are operated in three steps: 1) Remove the seat arm-rest by the wall in the exit position. 2) Break the celluloid cover. 3) Turn the handle clockwise and push the exit hatch outwards; the exit is now open and hangs free from the hinges to ease the evacuation the hatch must he supported for ex. by a pillow, clothes hanger or similar in open-position.

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7.17.3.4 Emergency exit placement

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7.17.4 Escape rope There is an escape rope hanging behind the navigator seat. On the wall behind the navigator seat is a bracket to attach the rope. The rope is long enough for use on both emergency exits located in the cockpit.

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7.17.5 Fire extinguisher There are 3 hand held fire extinguishers in the aircraft. The placement as follows: - Behind the First Officer wall in the cockpit - One in the right forward cargo compartment (in the picture) - On the aft wall in the passenger cabin, beside the door to the cargo compartment. The fire extinguishers are of the CO2 type. To operate: (1) release from the wall bracket (2) Pull out safety pin at the top (3) Aim at the base of the fire and pull the trigger.

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7.17.6 ELT (Emergency locator transmitter) The aircraft is fitted with a standard ELT. It is placed on top of the hydraulic control panel in the cockpit. The ELT is self-contained and housed in a high impact, fire retardant, waterproof case. It is fixed to the top of the hydraulic panel in the aircraft cockpit. The ELT transmits at the assigned emergency frequencies of 121,50 MHz and 243 MHz. The ELT is powered by internal batteries which are indipendent of the aircraft power supply. ELT activation is either automatic by an integral ―G‖ switch or manual by a switch located on the ELT. The inertia switch initiates ELT transmission when excessive longitudinal of 5G plus/minus 2Gs are sensed. The antenna is placed on the roof of the aircraft. 7.17.7 Flash lights The aircraft is fitted with two battery-powered hand-held flash lights. One fitted on the forward left wall in the passenger cabin. The other in a metal pockets overhead the right pilot’s seat. Spare batteries are located in the cargo compartment of the aircraft.

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7.17.8 First aid kit The aircraft has one portable first aid kit. The kit is placed in the forward left overhead rack on the left hand side of the passenger cabin. 7.17.9 Life vests The aircraft has a total of 27 operational life vests, one demonstration vest for the cabin crew member and 3 life vests for children. The vests are airliner standard, with both CO 2 cartridges and manual inflating. The vest is equipped with a white flashing beacon that will automatically be activated when in contact with water. In the passenger cabin the vests are stored in specially made bins placed in the overhead luggage rack.

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7.17.10

Fire Axes

LN-WND is fitted with two fire axes. They are placed in: (1) Cockpit (2) Passenger cabin The fire axe in the cockpit is placed on the emergency exit door beside the navigator seat. The axe in the passenger cabin is placed on the back cabin wall beside the toilet.

7.17.11 Seat belts for children LN-WND is equipped with 3 extra seatbelts for small children. These are airline standard and stored together with the child life vest in the right overhead rack in the passenger cabin.

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7.17.12 Emergency equipment placement

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7.17.13 Ditching and crash landing

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7.17.14 Safety onboard Folder There is a safety onboard folder beside each seat row on the side cabin wall.

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System beskrivelse  
System beskrivelse  

Systembeskrivelse LN-WND

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