superego) and an individual “ethical” voice of conscience that speaks to us directly. The latter comes from the Self, the Great Inner Man, and is often experienced as a divine bidding. For us, however, the great difficulty is to feel which of these two authorities is applicable in a given situation, since this is not always immediately clear, and our own wishes often cloud our vision. Thus we see that ethical conflict is a proper part of the process of individuation, one that cannot be dealt with successfully without our accepting the feeling side of us. When such difficult moral problems arise, no one is in a position to judge others. We all have to solve our own problems and find out ourselves what is right for us. Thus an ancient Zen master said that we should do as the cowherd does, “who stands watch with his stick, so that his ox will not graze his neighbor’s field.”17 It is clear for all to see that the insights of depth psychology relativize officially prevailing moral rules and compel us to make many subtle, individual judgments in all areas of law, education, and moral theology. The discovery of the unconscious is perhaps the most revolutionary thing that has happened in recent centuries, but it is so new and so radically different that great numbers of people prefer to behave as though nothing has happened. It takes inner uprightness and courage to enter into relationship with this newly discovered force and to take it seriously, thereby running the risk of a revaluation of existing values.
The Anima as the Woman within the Man The “ultimate” questions referred to above do not always come up in the encounter with the shadow. Much more often behind him or her another inner figure emerges as a personification of the unconscious. This takes the form of a woman in a man, and in a woman, that of a man. Often it is they who are at work behind the shadow, throwing up new problems. C. G. Jung called them anima and animus. The anima embodies all feminine psychic qualities in a man—moods, feelings, intuitions, receptivity to the irrational, his personal capacity for love, his sense of nature, and most important of all, his relationship to the unconscious.18 It is no accident that in ancient times many peoples used priestesses (think, for example, of the Greek Sibyls) to enter into relationship with the will of the gods. The way the anima initially manifests in an individual man usually bears