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even individual gods, which is what the Greeks later called heimarmene, “providence” or “doom.” The double meaning of doom and providence shows that this principle can be fortunate or unfortunate, and in regard to good and evil, it is often neutral. It is connected, however, with something else: according to Epimedes of Crete, the consort of Styx is not the Titan Pallas, but rather a figure named Peiras. Peiras means (according to Onians) “surrounding band” (boundary) and, derived in a figurative sense from this, “rope end” or “knot.” It is said in myths of Oceanos (the ocean surrounding the earth) and his consort Tethys, the parents of Styx, that they are peirata, the boundaries of the earth. With Peiras, Styx produced the serpent Echidna, a monster. The relationship of Styx with Peiras probably is connected with her death aspect and with her aspect of historical impermanence, for death is the inevitable factor that is the ultimate boundary of life, the definitive noose around all things. But the word nike is also often linked with peirar or peiras, undoubtedly because a victory represents a result that remains irreversible for a long time. The victor and the defeated are confronted by definite conditions (it is no accident that sports victories are measured by clock and tape!). It is a matter of final limits that nature sets us, which we do not always experience as good or just. Nevertheless, for the ancient Greeks, as well as for the Chinese, it was wisdom to hold oneself within these limits and not to infringe upon them. Styx contains not only certain limits; as a goddess of oaths she also has something to do with ultimate inner truth, since she punishes any oathbreaking so fearsomely. Even the gods must submit to her truth. This boundary-setting truth, later also called cosmic law, is difficult to grasp in itself; however, it manifests itself, in the destiny of peoples as well as in the destiny of individual human beings, as that which ultimately is just as it is. Thus what Jung once called the “mysterious flow of events” has to do with the effect of the collective unconscious on the course of world events. The collective unconscious, however, is not something static, but rather over long periods of time certain archetypes more than others are constellated within it, and that, generally speaking, is what we mean by changes in the zeitgeist. And that raises the question of whether behind this process of constellation of archetypes determining the character of a given historical period some lawful principle of order can be detected or whether it is blind chance that reigns. In his work Aion, Jung pursues this question and shows that the central symbol in the collective unconscious, the symbol of the Self, seems to come under

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Marie - Louise Von Franz - Archetypal Dimensions of the Psyche -  

Marie - Louise Von Franz - Archetypal Dimensions of the Psyche -  

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