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Cf. H. von Beit, Symbolik des Märchens (The Symbolism of the Fairy Tale) (3 vols., Berne: Francke, 1952, 1956, 1957), vol. 1, Introduction. 6. Lüthi, Das europäische Volksmärchen, pp. 107f. 7. As Jung showed in his article “A Psychological View of Conscience,” the unconscious can disclose moral tendencies, but these are not always in agreement with our conscious moral code. See CW 10, pp. 437ff. 8. A. Jolles, Einfache Formen (Simple Forms) (2nd ed., Darmstadt, 1958). 9. Ibid., p. 240. 10. Cf. “Der Bauer und der Teufel,” (The Farmer and the Devil) in Die Märchen der Weltliteratur, vol. 2, no. 123 (Jena, 1922). All quotations from fairy-tale collections are translated from this volume, unless otherwise stated. In the following references this edition is quoted as Grimm. For an English-language edition see Grimms’ Fairy Tales for Young and Old, tr. R. Mannheim (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1977). On the theme of the outwitted devil cf. A. Wünsche, Der Sagenkreis vom geprellten Teufel (Sagas revolving around the Outwitted Devil) (1905), passim; and J. Bolte and G. Polivka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmärchen der Gebrüder Grimm (Comments on the Brothers’ Grimm’s Fairy Tales) (5 vols., Leipzig, 1913–1932). In the following references this standard work is quoted under the abbreviation B-P. 11. A shepherd arranges for the devil to build it on the understanding that the devil is entitled to the first soul who crosses it; when the bridge is ready, the shepherd sends a billy goat across. 12. Grimm, vol. 2, no. 120. 13. Märchen aus Sibirien (Fairy Tales from Siberia), no. 18, p. 81. 14. Russische Volksmärchen (Russian Folktales), no. 41, pp. 236ff. 15. E.g., “Sturmheld Ivan Kuhsohn,” in Russische Volksmärchen, no. 22, p. 105. 16. Grimm, vol. 1, no. 34. 17. Ibid., nos. 26, 27. 18. Cf. Grimm’s fairy tale “Der arme Müllersbursche und das Kätz-chen” (The Poor Miller’s Boy and the Little Cat), ibid., no. 61, and B-P under “Dümmling.” 5.

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