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vesting are very different from those of the upper class. The more upscale consumers quickly laddered to Ruler (control) values and, sometimes, to Explorer (freedom) values. The ultimate benefit of saving and investing, for them, is the self-determination and freedom that money can provide—the ability to do what you want, when you want to. The ultimate benefits desired by middle-class folk, on the other hand, all centered on affiliation and security needs—holding things together for the family and preserving its stability and security. We also explored early “imprinting” experiences, memories of when people were little children accompanying their moms and dads to banks. The more upscale consumers remembered it as an exhilarating ‘‘grown-up” experience, especially the memory of getting their own bankbooks. The more middle-class people, on the other hand, remembered banks as cold and forbidding places, places where you couldn’t bounce your ball or finish your ice cream. These findings on category essence forced our client and us to face the very different category meanings held by different segments of the population, decide on some targeting priorities, and, finally, position the bank effectively. Masculinity, Femininity, and Category Essence In some languages, masculine or feminine pronouns are used to describe inanimate objects, as a tacit acknowledgment that even nonliving things may have a spirit or “energy” that is either inherently malelike or femalelike. Similarly, some, but not all, product categories can have a “gendered” energy influencing their archetypal identity. In identifying the gender of your product, it is important to remember that “masculine” and “feminine,” as used in this context, do not imply that a masculine product is only, or even primarily, for men or that a feminine one is for women. Rather, we are using masculine and feminine sensibilities or qualities of consciousness, not sex role prescriptions or descriptions. Gender is, of course, a complicated concept. Both the masculine and the feminine distinction carry a wide variety of attributes. Although Virginia Slims has defined an identity as a woman’s cigarette, the gender of smoking is decidedly masculine, and so a tough, aggressive posture appropriately found its way into their communica-

Profile for Lewis Lafontaine

Mack, Margaret - Hero and Outlaw Archetype  

Mack, Margaret - Hero and Outlaw Archetype