neath the beneﬁt. Ivory is not just about getting clean; rather, it is associated with the deep meaning of cleanliness: renewal, purity, and innocence. (It is for this reason that such publicity and outrage surrounded the discovery that an actress who had once been in pornographic ﬁlms was the model for the drawing of a mother’s face on the box of Ivory Snow. Procter & Gamble immediately replaced the model and the packaging.) Eastern Airlines did not just get you from here to there; it was “The Wings of Man.” Nike did not say it was a better athletic shoe; it said, “Just Do It,” summoning the discipline and determination required to ﬁnally “go for it”—to get in shape and to win. And even its name—the name of a winged goddess, as we have discussed previously—taps into a deep archetypal meaning associated with being ﬂeet of foot. Just wearing Nike shoes might encourage a runner to push to run faster or longer, simply because the shoes carry the association of heroic effort. Because owning the category meaning can propel a brand to a leadership position, we have been conducting archetype studies across a range of categories. Both qualitative and unusual quantitative approaches have been employed. In the process, we are discovering new ways to get at the essential meaning and experience of a category. Much of the research in this section of the book was conducted by Margaret Mark in her position at Young & Rubicam and as a private consultant.
How to Identify Category Essence from Consumer Memories In a major study we conducted for the automotive industry, we were determined to avoid the usual rationalizations and clichés common to asking drivers about what they want from an automobile brand. Instead, we began with a framework of fundamental psychological needs: achievement, aggression, belonging, independence, sexuality, status, etc. For each need, we generated adjectives, phrases, images, and descriptions of situations, summarized in Figure 7.1, which were then incorporated into a questionnaire. In the actual interviews, respondents were ﬁrst asked to free associate, recalling their earliest memories of ﬁrst getting behind the wheel of the car, putting the key into the ﬁrst car that they ever owned, and the like. Following this exercise, they responded to the