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Emphasis is placed on analysis, learning, research, and planning. Quality is seen as resulting from the expertise of employees, whose freedom of opinion must be protected. The pace is measured, because thorough study is considered essential before change takes place—except in the case of newspapers and newsletters, where information must be gathered and published quickly. Dress styles and the environment tend to be understated. The dominant colors are generally gray, beige, white, and light blue. Emphasis is on the collection and analysis of data, and the chief item of value is expertise. As employees, Sages have a high need for autonomy. If you think of universities and research labs as the quintessential Sage environments, you can see that Sages want to come and go as they please (no time clocks, thank you), they like to do the work in their own manner, and they prefer peer to administrative evaluation. They are often skeptical of the ability of any mere manager to know enough to make educated decisions about their work. The Sage organization typically has a very decentralized structure, emphasizing the development of expertise rather than control. Employees are expected to know what they are doing and therefore are free to make autonomous decisions. Usually, a small administration handles the business and marketing side of things, but most of the major decisions—about the curriculum, teaching strategies, and even promotion and tenure decisions—are made primarily by the faculty, generally through a cumbersome set of committees. Faculty are completely free to come and go as they please, as long as they teach their classes and hold office hours. They conduct whatever research interests them, under the protection of academic freedom. Even in corporate America, research and development teams often have greater freedom than is allowed other corporate entities, because they simply cannot keep researchers if they are overly hemmed in. Most doctors today see themselves primarily as scientists, and they are used to managing themselves and making independent decisions. This is, of course, why managed care has so demoralized them, working as it does with a Ruler archetype bias— limiting reimbursable time and requiring approval of treatment modalities. For-profit Sage organizations also typically have decentralized and rather democratic governance. VISA was founded by Dee Hock as the first “chaordic” (his coined word, combining “chaos” with “or-

Profile for Lewis Lafontaine

Mack, Margaret - Hero and Outlaw Archetype  

Mack, Margaret - Hero and Outlaw Archetype