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Mircea Eliade YOGA IMMORTALITY AND FREEDOM Hunab Ku BAKTUN DRAFT MIRCEAELIADE250

YOGA IMMORTALITY AND FREEDOM

Patanjali and the Yoga-Sutra. - TECHNIQUES OF THE MEDI-tion. - Roads to Freedom. - HISTORY OF PRACTICES yogis. - THE BUDDHIST YOGA. - The Hatha Yoga, Tantrism, alchemy. THE EROTICA MISTICA shamanism.

EDITORIAL THE PLEYADE BUENOS AIRES Original French title LE LIBERTE ET immortalité YOGA Translation by Susan from ALDECOA In memory of my illustrious and venerable protector Maharajah Sir Manindra CHANDRA NANDI OF KASSIMBAZAAR, my guru, DR. Surendranath Dasgupta,


Director of the Sanskrit College, Calcutta and my teacher Nae Ionescu, University of Bucharest PROLOGUE The story of the discovery and interpretation of India for the European mind is really exciting. Not-so we shall regret the discovery geogrdfico, linguistic and literary, or shipments and searches, in a word, everything that constitutes the foundation of Hinduism Europe, but mainly to cultural adven-tures caused by the increasing revelation of the lan-guages, Indian myths and philosophies. Raymond Schwab, in his beautiful book La Renaissance Orientale (Payot, 1948) has described a good number of these cultural adventures. But the discovery of India prosi-gue, and nothing makes us think that this brought to term, because a culture andlisis reveals fordnea primarily as bus-cdbamos or what estdbamos prepared to discover. The Discovery of India habrd recently completed when the creative forces of Europe are inevitably exhausted. When it comes to spiritual values, the contribution of philology, however indispensable it may be, does not exhaust the richness of the object. It would certainly have been superfluous to want to understand the budis-mo while the texts were not edited correctly, and how-do the various Buddhist philology were not formed yet. Ana-give that comprehension of this vast and complex spiritual phenomenon was not infallibly secured by these excellent instruments work are critical issues, multilingual dictionaries, the historical monograph. Of abor-give an exotic spiritualism, especially man understands what std predestined to understand their vocation, their own cultural orientation and the orientation of the 'historical moment it belongs to. This truism is of general application; The image we have created the "inferior societies" during the nineteenth century, largely derived from the positivist attitude, anti-religious and a-metaphysics of some excellent explorers and ethnologists, who treated "savages" with the ideology of a contempordneo of Auguste Comte, Darwin or Herbert Spencer was found between "primitives" in any aspect, "fetishism" and "childish" religious, simply because you could not see anything else. It took the thrust of European metaphysical thought-border ate of this century, the religious revival, the multiple procurement action of depth psychology, poetry, the microphysics, in order to understand the spiritual horizon of the " primitiveing "the structuring of its symbols, the function of its myths, its mystical maturity. In the case of India, the difficulties were considerable mds even, on one hand, it was necessary to forge the tools, advance the philology; on the other hand, selecting those aspects of Indian spiritualism mds permeable to the European mentality. But, as expected, what seemed mds-permeable was just mind what mds replied to the urgent problems of European culture. The interest in comparative philology Aryan-Hindu, was mainly forcing sdnscrito study by mid-nineteenth cen-tury, as well as one or two generations atrds, India was seen "taking place under the impulse of philosophy idealistic or through the charm of the primary imdgenes who had just returned to discover the roman-ticismo alemdn. During the second half of last century, India was interpreted primarily in terms of mythology naturist and cultural fashion that the latter had


established in Europe and America. Finally, the rise of sociology and cultural anthropology in the first quarter of this century, has inspired new perspectives. All these experiments were the prize because respon-dian primarily to the problems inherent in European culture. While the various access methods used by Western scholars could not always reveal the intrinsic values of spirituality hindu, why not give less help and little by little, the co-Menz India to assert its presence in the European consciousness. It is true that for a long time, this presence is revealed particularly in comparison gramdticas scanty, timidly, India made their appearance in histories of philosophy, where the oscillating position laba, according to the fashion of the day, between the alemdn idealism and "mint-ability pre-logic" when the interest in sociology was imposed, there were long epilogue on the caste system. But all these attitudes are explained by taking into account the horizons of modern Western culture. When a culture included among its capital problemus the explanation of a language law or a social struc-turing, invoking to India to resolve this etymology or illustrate such a stage of social evolution, did not mean to diminish India, was well mds assurances of respect and admiration. Moreover, the forms of access were not bad in itself, they were just too individual, and your opportunity to unveil the spiritual content of a large and complex intellectualism was limited, because of that, to the same extent. Fortunately, the methods are perfect and the failures of the past is not lost: soon learned to not renew the mistakes of predecessors. Simply measure the progress of the studies of Indo-European mythology, from Max Muller, po-der to judge the gains that draw a George DumĂŠzil knew, so no-regret of comparative philology, but also of sociology, of history of religions and ethnology to give a precise and infinitely mds mds fruitful, major categories of the mythical Indo-European thought. Everything leads us to believe that at the current time becomes possible mds exact knowledge of Hindu thought. India has entered the circuit of History and the European spirit, rightly or wrongly, is inclined to take seriously mds philosophies present people in history. Moreover, especially after the last generation philosophical, std European spirit being taken on an increasingly intense mds defined with respect to issues of temporality and historicity. During mds of a cen-tury, the better part of the European scientific and philosophical effort was devoted to andlisis of the factors "condition" to be human hand could be demonstrated to what extent cudnto and std man conditioned by his physiology, by their heredity, their social, cultural ideology involved, by his subconscious, and, above all, by history, by its historical moment and by their own uniqueness personal history. This latest discovery of Western thought, namely that man is essentially an temporal and historical, that is not, nor can it stop being "a product of the history, philosophy still dominates Europe. Some philosophical reach the conclusion that the only task worthy and valuable offered to man, is free and fully assume this temporality and historicity this case any choice would be equivalent to an escape toward the abstract and untrue and would pay the sterility and death, which inexorably punished in the treason made history. Not for us to discuss these arguments. Senalonos however, that the problems that excite the European consciousness prepare pupils to better understand the Indian spiritualism: mds Moreover, the in-cite to use for his own philosophical work, an ancient Indian experience. To explain: it is the human condition which constitutes the subject of recent mds European philosophy, especially human temporality, the temporality is what makes possible all other "constraints" and that, ultimately, makes man a being "conditioned", a series of vague and evanescent "conditions". However, this problem of "conditioning" of


man (and its corollary, almost neglected in the West: the "de-conditioning") is the central problem of Indian thought. From the Upanishads, India did not feel worried mds than one problem, and large: the structuring of the human condition. (What he has done that, not without reason, that all Indian philosophy has been and is still "existentialist.") Europe would have interest in learning because: 1) what India has thought of the multiple "conditioning" human, 2 째) how I approach the problem of temporality and historicity of man, 3 째) solution found for the anguish and despair, inevitably triggered by the notion of temporality, the parent of all " constraints. India is dedicated, with unparalleled rigor on the other hand, to analyze various human condition. We hasten to add that he did not to reach a precise and coherent explanation of man you (such as in Europe in the nineteenth century, when it was believed to explain the man's hereditary or social conditioning), but to know far areas ranging swim conditions of human beings and see if there is something even beyond these con-ditions. It is for this reason that, long before the deep psychology of the sages and ascetics Indians felt compelled to explore the dark areas of the subconscious, had found that the physiological condition, social, cultural and religious were relatively fdciles to delimit and therefore, to dominate, the major obstdculos for ascetic and contemplative life arose from the activity of the subconscious, of vasana samskara and "impregnation", "waste", "latency" which is what the psychology of what designated as deep content and structure-tions of the subconscious. Moreover, this anticipation is not pragmdtica certain modern psychological techniques as really valuable, but their use in order to "deconditioning" of man. Since knowledge of the systems of "conditioning" could not, as far as India, have your goal in itself, it was important not knowledge, but the master, is working with the contents of the subconscious to "burn . Already truth through yoga methods that hopes to reach such amazing results. And these results are primarily of interest to the psychologists and philosophers of Europe, That we understand well: it is not in any way pro-prdctica Yoga put to European scholars, which otherwise is difficult mds glimpse of what some fans, or pro-set to various Western disciplines, the application of the me-yoga or taking all their ideology. Another approach seems fruitful mds mu-cho, which is to study it carefully mds possible the results obtained by such methods of exploring the psyche. All immemorial experience concerning the human con-duct is generally offered to European researchers, would be unwise, at least not draw out of it. Mds As mentioned above, the problem of the human condition, ie temporality and historicity of human beings, super-carriers are at the core of European thought and obsessed same problem from the outset, the Indian philosophy. It is true that the terms found in this "history" and "historicity" in the sense that currently have in Europe, and rarely found-ing the word "temporary." Moreover, it was impossible Encon-trarlos under a precise description of "History" and "historicity". But the important thing is not the identity of philosophical terminology: it suffices that the problems are homologous. However, it is wise mu-cho atrds time that Indian thought attaches considerable importance to the concept of Maya, which resulted, quite rightly, by illusion, cosmic illusion, illusion, magic, becoming, unreality, and so on. But, mds observe closely, we realize that Maya is "illusion" because it participates in the Self, because it is "becoming", "temporality" cosmic evolution, certainly, but also historical events. It is therefore possible that India has not ignored the relationship between illusion, temporality


and human suffering, though in general have expressed their wise that suffering in cosmic terms, we realize, on reading them with due attention, they thought of human suffering as a "becoming" is "conditioned by the structures of temporality. We have tried and that problem (Symbolisme religieux et angoisse, collective volume. Goisse L'an-du temps present et les devoirs de l'esprit. Inter-national meetings in Geneva, 1953) and we shall return to it. What the modern Western philosophy called "being in situation", "consist of temporality and historicity," is to-parallel in Indian thought "existence in the Maya." If you reach-ing to approve the two horizons flosoficos-Indian and western-everything India from thinking about the Maya offers some today for us. We will realize this when reading, for example, the Bhagavad-Gita, the andlisis of human existence takes place in a language that is familiar: the illusion Maya is not only cos-economic, but also and primarily historical, not only existence in the eternal cosmic evolution, but especially life in the Tieme-po and in history. Bhagavad-Gita for the problem arose, just as in Christianity, in these terms: HOW you solve the paradoxical situation created by the dual fact that the man on the one hand, is in the time devoted to history Std and on the other side knows that SERD "doomed" if they become consumed with the temporality and historicity, and that, therefore, must find at any price, in the world, a path leading to a trans-historical and a-plan temporary? It leerd mds forward the discussion of the problems posed by the Bhagavad-Gita, but noted that they all represent different solutions applica-tions of Yoga. Thus we find here too, Yoga. Indeed, the third point above mds, concerning Western philosophy, namely the solution proposed by India to trigger panic-nothing for the discovery of our temporality and historicity, the means by which one can remain in the world without being "consumed" by Time and by history, the answers provided by Indian thought imply mds or less directly, some knowledge of yoga. We calculate, therefore, the interest it represents for European scholars and philosophers, familiarity with this problem. Again, it is not accepted, quite simply, one of the solutions offered by India. Spiritual value, not acquired as a new brand of automotive vile. Above all, there is neither philosophical nor syncretism "Hinduization", let alone for this heinous hybridity "spiritual" inaugu-pared by the Theosophical Society and continued, aggravated by the Innu merables pseudo-morph contempordneas. The problem is com-plicated mds: it is important to know and understand a thought that occupies a front row position in the history of universal spirituality. It is important to know now, because on the one hand, it is now, having been overtaken by the rhythm of His-tory all cultural provincialism, we are compelled-both Europeans and non Europeans to think in terms of World History and forge universal spiritual values and, moreover, is only now that the problem of the situation of man in the world dominates the European philosophical consciousness. Now this problem is super-carriers at the heart of Indian thought. Perhaps the philosophical didlogo behave, especially at first, some disappointments: many researchers and philosophers consider podrdn western Indian andlisis a little simplistic, and ineffective solutions proposals. All technical terminology tax-true tradition is spiritual, not without a lexicon: it is possible that such western philosophers regard as outmoded, rough, damaged the Indian philosophical lexicon. But these risks are minor didlogo. Major findings of aca-bardn Indian thought to be recognized, under the guise of philosophical lexicon, and despite the. It is impossible, for instance, no notice of one of the great discoveries mds India: the witness-consciousness, self awareness of their physiological


and psychological structuring of their temporary status, awareness of the "liberated", ie of one who has got rid of temporality and, therefore, knows the true, untold freedom. The conquest of this absolute freedom, spontaneity perfect, is the subject of all philosophies and all Indian mystical techniques, but mainly through Yoga, one of the many forms of yoga, which India thought it could secure . It is the main reason why we found it useful to draft a sufficiently complete exposition of the theories and prdcticas of Yoga, to tell the his-tory of its forms and increase the place of Yoga in the entire Indian spiritualism. We started writing this book after three years of studies at the University of Calcutta (1928-1931) under the direction of Professor Surendranath Dasgupta, and after a sixmonth stay at the ashram in Rishikesh, Himalayas. The first version, written in English, translated into Romanian by ourselves and retranslated into French for some friends, appeared in 1936 under the title: Yoga, Essai sur les origines de la mystique indienne (Libreria Bucarest-Paris. Orientalist Paul Geuthner). The vices of youth and inexperience were there worse by des-such misunderstandings due to double translation: but still, the text was marred by many errors idiomdti-ing and printing. Despite these serious shortcomings, the work was well received by specialists: the views of Louis de la ValleePoussin, Jean Przyluski, Heinrich Zimmer, V. Papesse, to cite only the missing, has long encouraged us to pre-pare a new edition. The corrections included and the added material had resulted in a text that departs significantly from the 1936 edition, except for some pdrrafos, the book has been completely rewritten for the purpose of adapting it, where possible, to the point of view. (Part of this new version had been already used in the book published in 1948: Techniques du Yoga.) In the footnotes, we have retained only a minimum of references. The bibliographies and list of items, the precision required by mds particular aspects of the problem and, in general, all technical discussions have been grouped at the end of the work in the form of short appendages. We wanted to present a book accessible to the reader not internalized, without leaving the scientific rigor: the encontrardn Indianists bibliogrdficos supplementary materials and elements at the end of the book. ISERD necessary to add that none of the exhaustive bibliographies? We have used the French translations of Pali texts and sdnscrito which we found convenient. If the translation of the Yoga-Sutra and comments once we have departed the current interpretations, we do given the oral educa-tion of our teachers Hindu, and the first Professor Surendranath Dasgupta, whom we have translated and co-enced all important texts of yoga-darsana. As it is presented, the book is especially directed to specialists in the history of religions, psychologists and philosophers. Most of the content Std commentary dedicated to different forms of yoga technique and history. There are excellent works on the system of Patanjali, especially those of Dasgputa, we have not thought it necessary to dwell too much on that subject, nor on Buddhist meditation techniques, since this re-gard to have an abundance of critical literature. We insisted on the contrary, on the less known aspects or imperfectly studied: the ideas, symbolism and yoga methods, as expressed in Tantrism, alchemy, folklore and aboriginal devo-cion. We have dedicated this work to the memory of our patron, the Maharajah Sir ManindraChandra of Kassimbazaar Nandi, who allowed us to, through a scholarship, our stay in India, and the memory of our mds expensive teachers: Nae Ionescu and Surendranath Dasgupta. In the teachings of the first start we owe our philosophical training and guidance. With respect to Surendranath Das-gupta, not only introduced us to


the heart of the thinking in-given: for three years was, in turn, sdnscrito our teacher, our teacher and our guru. / What all three rest in peace in their faith! We started the preparation of this new issue for some time, but we had not been carried out without the help of happy circumstances. By agreeing on a research fellowship for the Bollingen Foundation, New York, allowed us to dedicate ourselves for several years to this book: that the directors of the foundation receives mds here my sincere gratitude. Thanks to our dear friends, Dr. Rene Laforgue Laforgue and Delia, we could, since 1951, work-jar in unexpected conditions, have secured our deep gratitude mds. Finally, we feel particularly obliged to our great friend, Dr. Jean Gouillard who, this time also, wanted to read and correct the French manuscript of this work, it's a real pleasure for us to express our recognition. Mircea Eliade Paris, 15 September 1954. DOCTRINES CHAPTER ONE YOGA STARTING POINT Four key concepts and supportive, four "key ideas", we immediately introduced in the heart of Indian spirituality: karma, maya, nirvana, and yoga. You can write a coherent his-tory of Indian thought on the basis of any of these fundamental concepts or "powerful ideas" inevitably forced oars sees us talking about the other three. In terms of Western philosophy, we will say that since the post-Vedic era, India has been covered mainly include: 1) the law of universal causation, the man who sympathizes with the cosmos and condemns him to transmigrate indefinitely; is the law of karma, 2) to the mysterious process that creates and sustains the Cosmos, and to keep it, makes pos-sible "eternal return" of stocks: the Maya, the illusion cos-mica supported (most severe even: valued) while this man blinded by nescience (avidya), 3 째) the absolute reality "placed" in some hand beyond the cosmic illusion woven by Maya, and also outside the limits of human experience conditioned by karman: pure Being, the Absolute, with whatever name it may be known: the Self (atman), Brahman, the unconditioned, the transcendent, immortal, indestructible, Nirvana, etc.., 4 째) finally, the means to reach the Being, the proper techniques to acquire the liberation (moksha, mukti): all these me-dia or techniques is in fact Yoga. It is then understood to be raised, for the Indian think-ing the fundamental problem of all philosophy: the search for truth. For India, the truth is not essential by itself, is becomes essential because of its soteriological function, poique knowledge of the truth helps to free man ai. The pose-sion of truth is not the supreme goal for the Indian sage: what is the release, the conquest of absolute freedom. The sacrifices we are willing to support the European philosopher to achieve see-ing in itself and for itself-sacrifice of the religious faith of worldly ambi-tion, wealth, personal freedom and even life - such sacrifices are not accepted by the Hindu sage if not with a view to the release. Free equivalent to forcing another plane of existence, to appropriate another way of being above the human condition. For India, not only the metaphysical knowledge results in terms of rupture and death (the "break" the human condition, one died for all human), but


knowl-edge that this necessarily implies a prolongation of my nature - tica: the rebirth of a way of being untied, which means the release, absolute freedom. By studying the theories and practices of Yoga will have occasion to refer to other "key ideas" of Hindu thought. Meanwhile, let's start to separate the meanings of the word yoga. Etymologically, derived from the root yuj, "link", "hold", "yoke", "put under a yoke," from which also arise in Latin Jun-gere, jugum in English yoke. The term yoga generally serves to refer to any technique of asceticism and any method of meditation. Obviously these asceticism and those meditations have been valued differently-tion by the multiple forms of Indian thought and mystical movement. As we will see soon, there is a Yoga "classic", a "system of philosophy" expounded by Patanjali in his treatise lebre ce-Yoga-Sutra. and this system we must start to understand the position of Yoga in the history of Indian thought. But alongside this Yoga "classic", there are countless forms of "popular", unsystematic, yoga, yoga is also the non-Brahmins (Buddhist and Jain yoga) and yoga especially structure "magical" " mysticism, "etc.. At bottom, is the term yoga itself that enabled this great variety of meanings: In fact, if yuj etymologically means "link", it is nevertheless clear that the "loop" that this action should lead to tie presupposes , as a precondition, the breaking of ties between the world-spirit to do. In other words, the release can not be done if we did not mind after "detached" from the world if we did not eat dents to escape the cosmic circuit, indispensable condition without which never come to find ourselves or dominate us: even in its meaning "mystic", ie even meaning union, yoga involves the detachment after the area, with regard to emancipation. world. Its intensity depends on the efforts of man ( "put under a yoke"), his self-discipline, thanks to which you can get in concentrating the mind, even before he asked, as in mystical varieties of yoga-aid divinity. "Flirting", "hold", "put under a yoke", all that seeks the unification of spirit and abolish the automatic dispersion and characteristic of the secular consciousness. For schools of Yoga "devotional" (Mystic), this "unification" does not precede more clearly see the union-Dader, the human soul to God. What characterizes Yoga is not only prdctico appearance, but also its structure initiation. Yoga not only learn, we need the guidance of a teacher (guru). In India, strictly speaking, the other "systems philosophy", like any science or traditional craft, are taught by teachers, being so very beginning: for millennia are transmitted orally, "mouth-to hearing ". But yoga has even more precisely in its character of initiation, because as in other religious initiations, the yogi begins to leave the secular world (family, society) and, guided by his guru, is engaged in learned-ness successively the behavior and values of the human condi-tion. When we have seen how the yogi strives to lose contact with the profane condition, we will realize that the sounds to "die for this life." Indeed, witnessing a death followed by a revival with another rnodo be: the represented by the release. The analogy between Yoga and the initiation is emerging but even if we think of the rites of initiation, "primitive" or not, who will build a "new body," mystical "(symbolically assimilated to the body of the newborn, is - primitive gun). Now, the "Mystical Body" that will allow the yogi inserted into the transcendent mode, plays an important role in all forms of yoga, particularly in the so-centrism and alchemy. From this point of view , Yoga incorporates and extends, on another level, the archaic and universal symbolism of the initial financing, and crowded in the Brahmanic tradition (where just started, is called the "twice born"). The re-birth of Initiation is defined, in all forms of Yoga, including


access to a mode not profane and hardly describable, as expressed by the Hindu schools under different names: moksha, Nirvana, asamkr-ta, etc.. Of all the meanings it has in hindu literature shovel-bra "yoga", the best statement is the one dealing with the "philosophy" Yoga (yoga darsana) as it is exposed to the treaty of Patan-jali, Yoga -Sutra, and in his comments. A darsana obviously not a system of philosophy, in sentidooccidental (darsana: sight, vision, understanding, perspective, doctrine, etc. from the root drs ....,: see, contemplate, understand, etc.). . But that does not cease to be a system of coherent statements, extensive human experience, which is interpreted as a whole in order to "free people from ignorance" (for a variety may be the acceptable tions ignorance of the term). Yoga is one of six "systems philosophy" Indian Orthodox (Orthodox in its meaning: two per tolerated Brahmanism, unlike heretical systems such as Buddhism and Jainism). And this Yoga "classic" as is formulated by Patanjali and interpreted by commentators, is also the most known in the West. Therefore begin our investigation by a review of the theories and practices Yoga, as expressed by Patanjali. We have several reasons for doing so: first, because the work of Patanjali is a "system of philosophy", and secondly because they are condensed in the large number of indica-tions regarding the technical practices and the approach set ascetic Board, indications that other varieties of yoga (varieties unsystematic), deformed or rather with colors to suit their own concepts, and finally because the Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali is the result of an enormous effort not only to collect and classify a set of practices ascetic and contemplative known recipes by India since time immemorial, but also to value, from a theoretical point of view, rendered, justified and include-aldolase, in a philosophy. But Patanjali is the creator of the "philosophy" Yoga as-lieve it-or could be, "the inventor of the techniques yogis. The my-mo confesses (Yoga-Sutra, I, 1) that does nothing but publish and correct (atha yoganusasanam) doctrinal traditions and techniques of Yoga. The company's exclusive Indian ascetics and mystics, she knew, in fact, long before, yogic practices. Among the techniques recipes preserved by tradition, Patanjali has chosen and verified by centuries of experience. As with the tables-cerniente theoretical and metaphysical foundation that Patanjali gives these practices, his personal contribution is minimal. Does nothing but take up roughly the Samkhya philosophy, or-denada for theism based on a quite superficial, which enhances the practical value of meditation. The Yoga and Samkhya philosophical systems are so similar that most of the concepts expressed SADOS are valid for one another. The essential differences are few: 1) while the atheist Samkhya, Yoga is theistic, since it postulates the existence of a supreme God (Isvara), 2 째) while that, according to the Samkhya, the only way to salvation is the metaphysical knowledge, Yoga attaches considerable importance to the techniques of meditation. In short, the effort-dader see Patanjali was devoted to the coordination of material removed from the Samkhya philosophical-technical prescriptions concerning the concentration, meditation and ecstasy. With Patanjali Yoga, which was mystical tradition, became a "system of philosophy". The Hindu tradition considers the Samkhya and the oldest darsana. The meaning of Sankhya seems to have been "dis-cnminaciorT '. Being the main object of this philosophy on decoupling the spirit (purusha) of matter (prakriti). The treaty is more anti-guo Karika the Samkhya of Isvarakrsna: the date has not yet been definitely established, but by no means can be after the v century after Christ (see note I, 1 at the end of the book). Among


the comments of the most useful Karika Samkhya Samkhya Tattva-Kaumudi is, of Vacaspatimisra (eleventh century). Another important text is the pravacana Samkhyasutra "(probably fourteenth century) with commentary by Anirudh (fifteenth century) and Vijnanabhiksu (sixteenth century). We should not exaggerate, of course, the importance of chronological-gia Samkhya texts. In general, understands all Hindu philosophical concepts treated prior to the date of writing, of-ten very old. If you are in a philosophical text-ods new one does not mean why has not previously been addressed. What seems "new" in the Samkhya-Sutra can often undeniably old. Has been given too much importance to the allusions and divisive, "he eventualmen are discovered in these philosophical texts. Such references may well be aimed opinions far older than Aque-llas that appeared to relate to. While you may specify in India, where it is more difficult than in other towns-the date of re-drafting reports of the various texts, much more difficult to establish the chronology of philosophical ideas themselves. As the Yoga, Samkhya also had a prehistory. Most likely, the origin of the system must be sought in the analysis of the constitutive elements of human experience, in order to distinguish those in the hour of death, leaving the man and Aque-opments that are "immortal" in the sense that accompanies the soul at its destination after death. A similar analysis is now in the Satapatha Brahmana (X, 1, 3, 4); divides human beings into three parts "immortal" and three deaths. In other words, the "origins" of Samkhya are bound to a mystical character problem, namely that human remains after death, which is the true Self, the immortal element of being human. A long dispute, which still continues, affects the person of Patanjali, the author of the Yoga-Sutra. Some Indian commentators (King Bhoja, Cakrapanidatta, Caraka commentator in the eleventh century, and two of the eighteenth century) identified it as Patanjali, the philosopher who lived in the second century BC. The identification was accepted by Liebich, Garbe and Dasgupta and rejected by Woods, Jacobi and A. B. Keith (see Note I, 2). Anyway, in definitively, these controversies about the age of the YogaSutra are of little importance, since the techniques of asceticism and meditation expressed by Patanjali are certainly of considerable antiquity, not part of their discoveries, or those of his time, had been tested many centuries before that. Moreover, the Indian writers rarely have a personal system: the vast majority of cases are content to make traditional doctrines in the language of his time. This is verified in most typical form even in the case of Patanjali, whose only objec-tive is to compile a practical manual of ancient technique. Vyasa (VII-VIII century) made a comment about this, the Yoga-bhasya and Vacaspatimisra (ninth century), a gloss: Tattvavaisaradi that appear prominently among the contributions to the understanding of the Yoga Sutra. King Bhoja (early eleventh century) is the author of the commentary Rajamartanda, and Ramananda Saraswati (sixteenth century) wrote Maniprabha. Finally, Vijnanabhiksu made mention of the Yoga-bhasya, Vyasa, in his remarkable treatise varttika Yoga (on the editions and translations of yogic texts, not-ta I, 2). For the Samkhya and Yoga, the world is real (not illusory, according to the concept of Vedanta). However, if the world exists and per-hard, so due to "ignorance" of the spirit: the many for-most of the cosmos as well as the process of manifestation and desenvolvimiento, exist only in relation to the extent that the Spirit, the Self (purusha) is ignored, and because of this ignorance of metaphysical order, suffering and enslaved. At the


precise moment that the last I've found your freedom, then recent creation, in contogether, will be reabsorbed into the primordial substance. It is this fundamental statement (about you explicitamen-made) that the cosmos exists and endures through nescience of the man who can find the cause of the depreciation of Life and the Cosmos; depreciation that none of the great buildings of post-Vedic Hindu thought has been covered to conceal. Starting from the time of the Upanishads, India rejects the world as it is and devalues life as revealed in the eyes of the wise: ephemeral, painful illusion. A concept such as this leads neither to nihilism or pessimism. Flooded was rejected and despised this life, because we know that there is another thing, mds alla of becoming, of temporality, of suffering. In terms religious, one might almost say that India rejects the Cosmos and the inner life, because longs for a world and a way of being sacred. The Hindu texts repeat this argument to fatigue, according to which the cause of "slavery" of the soul, and as a consequence the immediate source of endless suffering, lies in the solidarity of man with the Cosmos, in their participation, active or passive, direct or indirect, in Ja Nature. Let us be clear: solidarity with a world not sacred nature involves participation in a professional na. Neti! Neti! exclaims the sage of the Upanishads: "jno! jnol; You are not this, nor this one!". In other words, you do not neces belonging to the Cosmos in decline, as you see it, you're not necessarily deposit-trated to this creation, we necessarily, under the proper law of your being. Well Being unable to maintain any relations with non-being, however, Nature has no real ontological reality: it is indeed universal becoming. To-cosmic shapes, for more complex and majestic it is, eventually disintegrate: the Universe itself periodically resorbed by "big solutions" (mahpralaya) in the primary mold (prakriti). Now, all that becomes, evolves, dies, disappears, does not belong to the realm of being; explain once again, is not sacred. If solidarity with the cosmos is the consequence of a progressive demystification of human existence and therefore a fall in ignorance and pain, the road to freedom necessarily leads to a de-solidarity-CRC for the Cosmos and secular life. (In some forms of tantric yoga, this des-solidarization is followed by a desperate effort resacralizacidn of existence). And yet, Cosmos, Life, have a lens function ambivalence. On one hand, project to the man in suffering and thanks to karma, included in the endless cycle of transmigration on the other hand, help you, indirectly, to seek and find "salvation" of the soul, the autonomy, absolute freedom (moksha, mukti). But the man suffers, in effect, meaning that is more united with the cosmos but it invades the desire for freedom and thirst tormented him most of salvation. Illusions and cosmic forms are put in that way, and that virtue and not in spite of their own ma-gia, and through suffering that fuels his tireless ceaselessly becoming-the service of man, whose purpose is ma suppressor deliverance, salvation. "From Brahman to the single blade of grass, the Creation (srsti) is for the good of the soul, until it reaches the supreme knowledge." (Samkhya-Sutra, III, 47.) Supreme knowledge, ie the liberation not only of ignorance, but also and primarily, pain, suffering. EQUATION OF PAIN – EXISTENCE "Everything is sorrow for the wise" (duhkameva sarva vivekinah) writes Patanjali (YogaSutra, II, 15). But Patanjali is not the first nor the last to see this universal suffering. Long before the Buddha had proclaimed "All is pain, everything is ephemeral" (sarvam


duhkam, sarvam anityam). Here is the leitmotif of the entire

the post-Indian Upanishads. Soteriological techniques, like metaphysical doctrines do find their reason for being in this universal suffering, because their value depends on the measure in which liberates man from the "pain". The human experience of any nature whatsoever, engenders suffering. "The human body is pain, because pain is the seat of the senses, objects, perceptions are suffering, because they lead to suffering-up: the pleasure is still suffering because of this continued sufferings" (Anirudh, the Commenting on the Samkhya-Sutra, II, 1). E Isvara Krsna, author of the Samkhya oldest treaty, states that the basis of this philosophy are the desire of man to escape the torture of three trials: the celestial disgrace (pro-convened by the gods), of misfortune Terrestrial (caused by the na-ture), and pain inside or body (Samkhya Karika, I). And yet this universal pain does not end in a "pessimistic philosophies. No philosophy, no Indian gnosis fall into despair. The disclosure of "pain" as the law. there may, on the contrary, be regarded as the conditio sine qua the liberation: this universal suffering is therefore intrinsically. a positive value, stimulating. Constantly reminds the wise and Unceta as they are stuck but a thrive to achieve freedom and bliss: retreat from the world, shed assets and ambitions, radically isolated. Moreover, man is not the only one suffering: pain is a cosmic necessity, an ontological modality which is delivered to all "form" which manifests itself as such. Whether we are gods, or tiny insects, the mere fact of existing in time, to have a duration, involves pain. A difference of gods and other living beings, man has the possibility of leaving behind their condition effectively and thus abolish suffering. The conviction that there's a way to end the pain-certainty common to all Indian philosophy and mysticism, can not lead to "despair" or the "pessimism". The suffering is indeed universal: but if we fix ourselves to free us from the, then, is not definitive. Indeed, if the human condition is forever devoted to pain and at the same time is determined, as any condition, by karman1-all in 1 remember the meanings of karman: work, action (unavoidable consequence of acts performed in a previous life), output, outcome, and so on. dividual who share this condition can be overcome, because everybody can override the karmic forces that run it. "Freedom" of suffering that is the goal of all philoso-lies and of all Indian mysticism. Since this release is obtained directly by the "knowledge" as taught, for example, the Vedanta and the Samkhya-or by means of techniques, as they believe get with Yoga, the majority of schools in Buddhist - The fact is that science has no value if it pursues the "salvation" of man. "Beyond that, nothing deserves to be known," says Svetasvatara Upanishad (I, 12). And Bloja, co-menting the text of the Yoga-Sutra (IV, 22), says that science is not aimed at the liberation, this lacks any value. Misra Vacaspati begins his commentary on the treaty of Isvara Krsna: "In this world, but the audience did not hear the preacher who sets out facts which knowledge is necessary and desired. Na-die pay attention to those doctrines which no one wants to expose as happens to the insane and the vulgar, good for business, but ignorant of the sciences and the arts "(Tatt-vaKaumudi, pag. I, ed. G. Jha, Bombay, 1896). The same author, in his commentary on Vedanta-sutra-bhasya, determines which knowledge is necessary: "No person wants to know what lucida devoid of any certainty or to have no use ... Or no importance"


(Bhamati, ed. Jivanandn -Vidyasagar-Bhat-tacharyya, ps. 1-2, Calcutta). In India, the metaphysical knowledge is always a thin-ability soteriological. Also, one is appreciated and sought by knowledge metaphysical (vidyajnana, prajna) is the Knowledge of the realities end: because it only supplies us with this release. It is indeed through the "knowledge", tore-dose of the illusions of the phenomenal world, man "wakes up". "Through knowledge" means practicing the withdrawal, which will have the effect of him recover their own midst. so that they coincide with his "true spirit" (purusha, atman). Knowledge is transformed into meditation and metaphysics becomes redemptive. Everything, even the "logic" india has had in its infancy, soteriological function. Manu uses the term anviksaki ( "science of the controversy," logic) as an equivalent of at-mavidya ( "science of the soul, the atman), ie metaphysics (Manusmrti, VII, 43). The fair argumentation, according to the rules but it frees the soul: this is the starting point of the Nyaya school. Moreover, the first logical disputes, they will give off darsana Nyaya subsequently, they referred specifically to the sacred texts, the different interpretations that are pres-taba such and such a display of the Vedas, all these disputes were designed enable the exact fulfillment of a ritual, according to tradition. Now this sacred tradition, as expressed by the Vedas, was revealed. Under these conditions, seeking the meaning of words is to be in constant contact with the Logos, with absolute spiritual reality, and supra-liistoiica superhuman. Just as the accurate pronunciation of Vedic texts has resulted in effective ritual to turn the maximum, equally accurate comprehension of a sentence in Vedic purifies the intelligence and thus contributes to the liberation of the spirit. Any "ignorance" biased ago abolished the man give a step toward freedom and bliss. The considerable importance all Hindu metaphysics, and even that technique of asceticism and contemplation that this method is the Yoga, give the "knowledge" is very easily explained taking into account the causes of human suffering. The misery of human life is not due to divine punishment, or an original sin, but ignorance. Not any ignorance, but only ignorance of the true nature of mind, ignorance makes us confuse the spirit with the psycho-mental experience, which makes us attribute "qualities" and predicates for that principle is eternal and autonomous spirit, in a word, an ignorance of metaphysical order. It is therefore natural to be a metaphysical knowl-edge that comes to remove this ignorance. That know-ledge of metaphysical order leads to disciple to the threshold of enlightenment, that is until the real "me." And it is this know-ledge of self-respect not profane, but in the ascetic and spiritual meaning of the expression "the objective of much of the Hindu theory, though each is" another way to get iale on. For the Samkhya and Yoga, the problem is clear. Since its origin-frimiento is the ignorance of the "spirit" that is done to confuse the "spirit" with psycho-mental-states the release shall be obtained only after removing this confusion. The differences in this regard, separate the Samkhya and Yoga are negligible. Only the method is different: the Samkhya seeks liberation through gnosis exclusively, while that for Yoga meditation techniques are indispensable and an ascetic. In both darsana human suffering has its roots in an illusion: the man thinks, in fact, that his life rnental-psycho-activity of their senses, feelings, thoughts and volitions, is identical to the spirit, the ego. It confuses two realities so opposite and wholly autonomous, among which there is no real connec-tion, but only illusory relationships, since the ex-perience psycho-mental not of the spirit, but to the


nature (prakriti) as the stages of consciousness are refined products-two of the same substance that is on the basis of the physical world and the world of life. Among the mental and inanimate objects or living beings, there is only difference of degrees. But between the psychic and the Spirit there is an ontological difference: they belong to two different modes of being. The "li-liberation" is when this truth has already been covered, and how-do spirit recovers its initial release. Thus, according to Samkhya, who wishes to obtain his liberation must begin with an insight into the essence and forms of Nature (prakriti) and the laws governing their evolution. For its part, the Yoga also accepts this analysis of the Substance, but only agreed to the practice provides value-tive, the only experiment capable of revealing the autonomy and sovereignty of the Spirit. We therefore before exposing the methods and techniques yoga, watch as they conceived the Samkhya darsana Substance and Spirit, just as the cause of their false solidarity, see, finally, that the road is actually pre gnostico -cone biopsy with this "philosophy". It is necessary also to determine which proportion match Samkhya and Yoga doctrines, and distinguish, in the second darsana theoretical claims, those that use "mystical" experience, absent in the Samkhya. SELF The spirit (soul)-like transcendent principle and autonomy-mo-is accepted by all the Hindu philosophy, with the exception of the Buddhists and materials (lokayata: see Note I, 3). But it is very different paths to the various darsana try to prove their existence and explain its essence. For the Nyaya school, soul-spirit is an entity without qualities, absolute, you unconsciously. By contrast, Vedanta defines Atman as being Sacciodananda (sat: the be-kit: consciousness-ananda: bliss) and con-siders the Spirit as a single reality, universal and eternal, dra-matically committed to the illusion temporary Creation (Maya), The Samkhya and Yoga deny the spirit (purusha) any and all attributed buto relations, according to these two philosophies, "all of which can be true for the purusha, who is and who is known (this is, of course, that metaphysical knowledge that results from the contemplation of one's own way of being). As the atman of the Upanishads, the purusha is inexpressible (the phrase neti, neti "jasi no! Jasi no!" Of Brhadaranyaka Up III, 9, 26, is in the Samkhya-Sutra, III, 75). His "attributes-tion" are negative. "The spirit is the one who sees (Saksina: witness), he is isolated, (kaivalyam), indifferent, inactive spectator," writes Isvara Krsna (Samkhya Karika, 19) and Gaudapada, as co-mentary, insists on purusa eternal passivity. The autonomy and passivity of the spirit are traditional epithets, as evidenced by the Samkhya-Sutra, I, 147, commenting on this text, Anirudh cites the famous passage from Brhadaranyaka-Up. IV, 3, 15: "This purusha is free" (Asanga, "without ties") and mentions the Svetasvatara Bhiksu Vijnana Up VI, 2 and Vedanta-sara, 158. Being irreducible, des-fitted qualities (nirgunatvat), the purusha does not have 'intelligent cia (Ciddharma, S.-Sutra, I, 146) it is free from desires. As desires are not eternal, it does not belong to the spirit. The spirit is eternally free (S.-Sutra, I, 1, 2), the "states of consciousness", the flow of psycho-mental life are foreign. If we are presented purusa anyway as "agent" (kartr), this illusion is due to both human and that sui generis approach called yogyata 2 which designates a kind of pre-established harmony " 2 Vyasa (ad Yoga-Sutra, I, 4) and Vacaspati Misra (Tattva Kaumudi, 31), point out that "sui generis approach that has no beginning" is not due to spatial or temporal correlation


between ego and intelligence: is a yogyata, or metaphysical order correspondence between Spirit (purusha) and the product more subtle substance, the buddhi. This "closeness" which is one of the biggest challenges of Indian theory in general. is explained in the Samkhya and Yoga by the teleological instinct of na-ture (prakriti) that, without realizing, "Works" for the liberation of the Spirit. See below. As for the eight possible hypotheses to explain the relation purusha-prakriti, see Vyasa, ad Yoga-Sutra, II, 23. tween these two realities are fundamentally different than I (pu-Russian), intelligence (buddhi: where the latter, as we will see, just a "more refined product" of matter or primordial subs-tance). The same position is maintained by Patanjali: the Yoga-Sutra, II, 5, reminds us that ignorance (avidya) is to con-sider the ephemeral (anuya) impure (asuci), painful (duhkha) and non-spirit (anatman) as being eternal (nitya), pure (suci), bea-titude (sukha) and spirit (Atman). Vyasa (ad Yoga Sutra, II, 18) points out once more that perception, memory, reason-ing, etc., In fact belong to the intelligence (buddhi) and is only an illusion for purposes that are attributed the purusa these mental faculties. (See also Bhoja ad Yoga Sutra, II, 20 and Note I, 4.) But this concept raises purusa of itself, difficulties. If, indeed, the spirit is eternally pure, impassive, self-autonomous and irreducible, ^ and can accept the left accompanied by the experience psychomental? as such relations possible? Let us examine the most out of this problem solution proposal by the Samkhya and Yoga as our understanding of the relation that can maintain the self and nature. We will see then that the effort of the two tends darsana especially the problem of the true nature of this "relationship" that unites rare to prakriti purusha. But neither the origin nor the cause of this paradoxical situation has been debated in order in the Samkhya Yoga. ^ Because I have accepted, in effect, be drawn into an orbit strange, the Life in particular and breed as well as man is, the historic concrete man, devoted to all drama, fighting all suffering? ^ When, and sometimes that started this tradition-Gedi of man's existence, if it is true that the ontological modality of the spirit is, as we saw, exactly opposite to the human condition, being the eternal Self, free and liabilities? The cause and origin of this situation the spirit and the experience, here are two aspects of a problem that the Samkhya and Yoga considered insoluble, and which exceed the current capacity of human comprehension. Indeed, the man knows mercy and understanding of what the Samkhya Yoga called "intellect" buddhi. But this "intellect" itself is but a product-ex-tremely fine, true-of matter of primordial substance (prakriti). Being a product of Nature, a "phenomenon", the buddhi can not maintain relations of knowledge but with other phenomena (which are part, as from the infinite number of creations of the primordial substance) could in no way co - nocere the ego; as it could not sustain any kind of relationship with a transcendent reality. The cause, as well as the origin of this paradoxical association of self and life (ie, matter) only an instrument of knowledge different from buddhi and not in any way involve the matter, could ever possibly understand. However, such knowledge is impossible in the present human condition. That knowledge is "revealed" only "one who, had broken their chains-do, has surpassed the human condition: the" inter-reading "has no part in this revelation, which is rather the knowledge of self, the Self itself.


The Samkhya know the cause of "servitude", ie the human condition, suffering, ignorance is metaphysical, that under karmic law is passed from generation to generation, but the historical moment that This ignorance made his appearance could not be established, as it is impossible to determine the date of creation. The union of self and life as well as the "be-servitude" that results from it (for I) have no history are beyond the time they are eternal. Wanting to find a solution to these problems is not only superfluous, it is a trifle. These problems are ill posed, and according to ancient custom Brahminical (sankara, ad Vedanta-Sutra, III, 2, 17) observed by Buddha himself several times, to ill-posed problem is answered with silence. The only certainty we have in this regard is that man is in that condition, give it the earliest times, and that the goal of knowledge is not left empty-bus of the first cause and the historical origins of this condition, but the. release. LASUBSTANCIA Patanjali refers to as circumstantial prakrti (Yoga-Sutra, IV, 2, 3) and its modalities, guna (Yoga-Sutra, I, 16, II, 15, 19, IV, 13, 34, 32) and only to fix their relationship to psychomental life and the techniques of liberation. Hereby acknowledges the laborious analysis of the substance followed by the authors Samkhyanos: it is these that we will use mainly for understanding the structure and procession of the substance. The prakriti is so real and eternal as purusha, but, unlike Spirit, is dynamic and creative. Although perfectly creation dora and inert, this primordial substance has, so to speak, three "modes of being" that allow different forms manifest-ing tries guna call: 1 sattva (brightness mode and intelligence) 2 째 rsjas (mode of driving energy and mental activ-ity 3 째) tamas (inertia static mode and the psychic darkness). These guna not be considered as different from the prakrti therefore are never separated, in any physical phenomenon, there psychomental biological or three at a time, but in unequal proportions (it is precisely this inequality which allows the appearance of a "phenomenon" of any nature whatsoever: in other words, the primary balance and consistency thanks to whom the guna were in perfect balance, per-sistirian forever). This demonstrates that guna have dual charac-ter: aim, first, because they are phenomena of the world-do abroad and, secondly, subjective, and that support, nourish and condition the psycho-mental life. (Es why we work so duce tamas as "inertia principle of matter"-meaning goal-like "darkness of consciousness creates obstacle-do by the passions" psychophysiological sense. On guna see Note also I, 5.) From the moment he leaves his initial state of perfect balance (Alinga, avyakta) and takes the specific conditions for its "theological instinct" (which we'll discuss) the prakrti b3ajo presents as a mass of energetic call Mahat ( " the big one ") .3 Driven by the momentum of evolution (parinama," development ", procession) passed the state prakrti mahat that of ahamkara, meaning apperceptive mass unit, devoid even of experience" personal ", but taking the vague idea of being an ego 3 Samkhya-Sutra, I, 61: "Prakrti is the equilibrium state of sattva rajas and tamas. From prakrti surgio mahat; of Mahat, ahamkara; of ahamkara, the five Tanmatra and the two sets of organs of the senses of Tanmatra emerged stulabhutani (material elements, molecules). This sutra summarize all the processes of manifestation (or "cosmic


procession") under review. Other texts: Samkhya-Sutra, I, 129, II, 10, 15; Isvara Krsna, Samkhya-Karika, 3, 40, 56; Vyasa. ad. Yoga-Sutra, II, 19, etc.. (Hence the expression of ahamkara; aham = ego). By adopting this apperceptive mass, the process of "evolution" is divided into two opposite di-rection, of which one leads to the world of phenomenological less objective, the other that of subjective phenomena (sensitive and psychomental). The ahamkara has the power to transform qualitatively, according to any of the three predominant guna. When sattva predominates (the mode of brightness, purity and understanding) within the ahamkara, make their appearance the five cognitive senses (jnanendruya) and sisters, "the internal sense," the latter serves as a link of union between perceptual activity and the activity biomotriz (Aniruddha, comment on Samkhya-Sutra, II, 40), base and receptacle of all impressions, coordinates the biological and psychological, including the subconscious. When, however, the equilibrium is dominated by the rajas (energy driving experience that makes possible any physical or cognitive) are the five senses cona-tion (Karmendriya) who are breaking through. Finalrnente when it comes to tamas (inertia of matter, the darkness of the conscience, the barrier of the passions), are the five Tanmatra, the five elements "subtle" (potential), the genetic core of the world fi-physical, they appear. Of these Tanmatra derived as a process of condensation that tends to produce increasingly coarse structures, atoms (paramanu) and molecules (sthulabhutani-literally, "thick material particles), which in turn give rise to organisms We plant (vriksa) and animals (sarira). Thus, the human body, as well as their "states of consciousness" and even his' intelligent cia "are all creations of one and the same substance. Observe that, according to the Samkhya and Yoga, the Universe-ob-jective or subjective is but the evolution of an initial phase of nature (ahamkara), that where he first emerged, homogeneous mass and energy the consciousness of individuality-ity, a apperception illuminated by the ego. For a double process of development and creation, I think the double ahamkara universe inside and outside, counting those two worlds with elective mutual correlation. Each direction corresponds to a specific atom, the same as each atom corresponds to a Tanmatra * But every 4 For example, the "sound-potential" (Sadbh-Tanmatra) produces, by agglutination with the molecules' the atom space (akasa-anu) which correspond to each do these products contain the three guna, but in unequal proportions; each product is characterized by the supremacy of a guna, or, in the later stages of creation, by the predominance of a Tanmatra. It is important to understand the notion of evolution in the Samkhya. Parinama means development of what exists potentially in the Mahat. It is not a creation, not a surpassing, or realization of new forms of existence, but simply the actualization of the existing potentials in the prakriti (beneath his housing-te mahat). Compare "the evolution" in the Indian sense, a! Western-organism evolve, it would grow large contusion. No form is new, says the Samkhya. exceeds the possibilities of existence-were already in the Universe. In fact, for the Samkhya, nothing is created in the Western sense of the word. The creation exists from eternity and shall not ever be destroyed, but will return to its original appearance of absolute equilibrium (the vast resorption, Mahapralaya). This concept of change is justified by a particular theory of causation. Because if the effect exceeded the cause, which would have serious serial in quantum causes a non-


existent, which would acquire existence in the effect. But, asks the Samkhya, ^ as this non-entity could be the cause of an entity? ^ As might arise from the non esse esse? Vacaspati Misra (in Tattvakaumudi, 62, and more detail in Nyayavartikatatparyatika) said: "Yes" If he claims the production of an entity for a non-entity, then this, as there is everywhere and at all times, should result in everywhere and at any time, any adverse effect and mud. "Commenting on the Samkhya Karig IX states:" The effect is an entity, that is, before the operation there is causal "(Tattva Kauniu-di, 62)." If the effect were a nonentity before the causal operation, could never be brought into existence "(ibid., 64. SS I, 115 and 118, with comments, and Aniruddha mainly in SS I, 41; logic on Samkhya, see Note I, 6). Between cause and effect relation there is a real and determined. But if the effect does not exist in the case, ^ it would be possible relationship between ens and non-ens? ^ That would intimate union possible between the absentee Subjective order-in-the sense of hearing: and radiant light energy (tejastanmatva) produces the radiating atom and the visual sense, and so on. ence and present? "In these conditions, says Isvara Krsna (Kari-ka, XIV), all that can be done for the cause, is the manifestation or development of the existing effect. To illustrate with an example the theory of causality, Vijnana Bhiksu writes (Samkhyapravacanabasya, I, 120): 'Just like the statue, already in the blo-that stone is revealed only by the sculptor, as the causal activity does nothing but breed that action by which an effect occurs, giving us the illusion that only exists at the present moment. Samkhya texts provide many details about the aham-kara, but what matters for our brief is that the ahamkara is defined as "knowledge of self" (Isvara Krsna, 24). We must remember that this entity, while "material" does not manifest as a sensory, physical, but is homogeneous, mass Energo-tica and pure, without any structure. According to the Samkhya, the ahamkara becomes aware of himself, and through that process, is passed (sarva, emanation) in the series of eleven principles psychic (manas or internal sense, which coordinates the powers of the soul, the cin - co cognitive senses and the five senses conative), and the series of physical power (Tanmatra). Watch the utmost importance that the Samkhya, as almost all hindu system, gives the principle of individuation Ja "consciousness of self." Note that the genesis of the psychic world is an act, that this knowledge of self (the one put forward, is ab-solute than the "awakening" of purusha) comes from the evolution of the physical world, and that psycho-physiological phenomena and objectives have a common mold, then the only difference that separates them is the formula of the guna. sattva dominates the psiqui-cal phenomena, the cracks in the psychophysiological, while products of the "commodity" products are made up of increasingly dense iner-tion of tamas (anu, Tanmatra, bhutani). The Samkhya-Yoga also offers a subjective interpretation of the three guna when considering their "looks" psychic. When sattva predominant-mine the mind is calm, clear, understandable, virtuous dominated by the cracks, this turbulent, unstable, uncertain; Aug-Biada by tamas, this dark, confused, passionate, brutal (see YS, II, 15, 19, with comments). But this subjective human Appreciation of the three modalities cosmic goal does not contradict his character, not being "outside" and "interior but mere verbal expressions. With this physiological basis, it is understood that the Samkhya-Yoga regarded all


psychic experience as a simple process "material". Morale suffers: purity, goodness, are not quali-ties of spirit, but a "purification" of "subtle matter" re-presented by conscience. The guna permeate the entire universe and establish a rapport exists between the man and the Cosmos, is-ing this two entities invaded by the same pain of existence and serving both at the same absolute self, the world Extranet and dragged by a destination, unintelligible. In fact, the differ-ence between the cosmos and man is one of degree, not essence. Thanks to parinama, matter has infinite forms (vikara) compound and increasingly varied. The Samkhya believes that a creation so large, a building of forms and complicated to the point agencies, requires a justification and meaning out of it. A primary prakrti, report and eternal, may make sense, but the world as we see it, is not a ho-mogenea substance, by contrast, offers considerable number of structures and different ways. The complexity of the Cosmos, the infinity of its "forms" are elevated to the rank of the Samkhya meta-physical arguments. The "Development" is undoubtedly the product of our ignorance metaphysics, the existence of the universe and polymorphism of Life are due to the false belief that man has of himself, it confuses the real with the states I psychomental. But, as we observed in previous pages, we can not know what the origin and cause of this erroneous belief. What we know, what we see is that prakriti has an "evolution" of the most complicated-tion and is not simple, but "composed". Now the good sense made us all there belongings benefit of another. Thus, for example, the bed is a whole composite of several parts, but this elaboration is not temporary ordenada for itself but for the benefit of man (Karika, 17, with comments, V. Misra, 120: SS, I, 140-144 with comments by Anirudh and Bhiksu Vijnana). The Samkhya revealing the ideological character of Creation, if indeed the Creation did not have the mission to serve the spirit it would be absurd, devoid of meaning. Everything in nature is composed, all must therefore have a "superintendent" (adhyaksah), someone who can use these compounds. The "superintendent" non-serious mental activity or state of consciousness (being themselves ex-tremely complex products of prakriti). There must be an entity for exceeding the categories of substance (guna) and acting with a view of its own (Vacaspati Misra, 122 in the Karika, 17). But still, there must be a reason, a cause to which mental activity this subject, which are geared toward "pleasure and pain." Because, says Misra (123), pleasure could be experienced and not speci-fied for pleasure's sake, and if the pain experienced, serious and not a pleasant experience, but painful. Thus, the two qualities (pain and pleasure) can not exist nor be specified-ing until they are oriented toward a single reason or cause that exceeds the experience. It is the first evidence of the existence of the spirit that reveals the Samkhya: samhatapararthatvat purusasya, that is: "Knowledge of the existence of spirit, by the combination, for the benefit of others," copiously repeated axiom in Indian literature (S . Sutra, I, 66; Vacaspati in Karika, 17; Brhadaranyaka Up, II, 4, 5) and takes Yoga (Yoga Sutra, IV, 24). Vacaspati adds, if anyone would object by saying that the evolution and heterogeneity of the substance are intended to serve other "com-positions" (as the case, for example, the chair, being a "com-posed" created with a view to that other "composite" is the human being), can answer these compounds must exist for other compounds in turn will serve them: the series of interdependence would lead to a regressus fatally ad infinitum . "And then," to which we can avoid that regressus, continuous Vacaspati,


postulating the existence of a rational principle obviously has sen-ed not needlessly multiply the number of relations between the com-positions "(Tattva Kaumudi, 121). In accordance with the principle, spirit, the self is a simple principle and irreducible, autonomous, is-static, non-productive, not involved in mental activity and sensory, and so on. Although the self (purusha) that ensured the delusions and confusional prakrti tions of this motion by the "teleological instinct" com-pletely inclined toward "liberation" of the purusha. Remember, "from Brahma to the last blade of grass, the Creation is for the benefit of the spirit until it has reached its-prema wisdom" (S. Sutra, III, 47). ESP1RITU-NATURE RELATIONSHIP If Samkhya-Yoga philosophy does not explain the reason and origin of the strange partnership between the spirit and experience, at least tries to explain the nature of their association, the defi-venting the character of their mutual relations. These are not real relationships, in the true sense of the word, such as exist for example between external objects and perceptions. The true relations imply, in effect, change and plurality, however, here we have some rules essentially opposed to the nature of spirit. The "states of consciousness" are merely the products of prakriti, and can not maintain any kind of relationship with the spirit, as this is above all experience. But, the Samkhya and Yoga is the key to this paradoxical situation-the more subtle, but clear of mental life, ie the intelli-ICTP (buddhi), under the aspect of pure "luminosity" (sattva) possesses a specific quality: that of reflecting the spirit. The understanding of the outside world is only possible thanks to the reflection of the purusha in intelligence. But the self is not disturbed by this thought, nor loses its ontological modalities (impassive, eternity, etc.).. The Yoga Sutra, II, 20, said substantially: the seer (drastr, ie the purusha) is the absolute consciousness (the "clairvoyance" by Anton-farmhouse) and even when kept pure, known knowledge ( "look at the ideas that are presented "). Vyasa interpreted thus: the spirit is reflected in the intelligence (buddhi), but not even close, not unlike her, as this is modified by knowledge, ever changing, the objects, while purusha, avail-NienD a continuous knowledge in a way also is (purusha) knowledge. Moreover, the purusha does not differ completely from buddhi, then, though pure, knows the knowledge. Patanjali uses another image to define the relationship between intelligence and spirit: as the flower is reflected in a glass, so the intelligence reflects the purusha (Yoga Sutra, I, 41). But only one igno-rants can be attributed to crystal flower qualities (shape, color, dimension). When the object (the flower) moves, its image is mue-ve in the crystal, although this remains motionless. It is illusion to believe that the spirit is dynamic because it is the mental experience. In reality, there is more than an illusory relation (upadhi) due to a "correspondence simpdtica (yogyata) between ego and intelligence. From the earliest times, the spirit is deposit-trated by this illusory relation with psychomental life (ie the "matter"). This is due to ignorance (avidya, YS. II, 24) and while the avidya is maintained, there is the existence, under karma, and with it the pain, insist a little on this point. The delusion or ignorance consist of confusion we make between the immobile and eternal purusha and the flow of psychomental life (S. Sutra, III, 41). Say, "I suffer" "I wish" "I hate", "I know" and think that this "I" refers to the spirit is to live with the illusion , and prolonged, as all our acts or intentions, for the simple fact to justify the prakriti, the "matter", are conditioned and di-ligidos by karma. This means that every


action that part of the illusion (ie, which is based on ignorance, in the Confusion between the spirit and the non-spirit) is either the consummation of a virtuality created by an earlier act or projection of other po-petition that demands, in turn, updating its consummation in the present existence or coming into existence. In establishing the follow-ing equation: "I want" - "the spirit willing," some force is unleashed by that same or another has been incurred. Because the confusion which is expressed as this equation is a "moment" eternal circuit of cosmic energies. We have here the law of existence is transubjective, like all law, but its validity and universality are at the origin of suffering that affects life. There is only one path to salvation with-quist: knowing the mind properly. The Samkhya does nothing but prolong the tradition Upanishads: "He who knows the Atman through (the ocean of suffering)" (Chandogya Up, VII, 1, 3). "For knowledge, the liberation, by ignorance, servitude" (Samkhya-Sutra, III, 22, 23). And the first stage of the conquest of this "knowledge" is as follows: to deny that the Spirit has attributes, which means ne-gar suffering as we are concerned, I consider it as a goal-cho, without ties with the spirit, ie, devoid of courage, sense (since all the "values" and all "meanings" are created by intelligence while reflecting the purusha). Pain exists in the unique experience as it relates to human personality regarded as identical to purusha, the Self. But as this relation is illusory, can be easily removed. When purusha is known, the values are invalidated, the pain is not just pain, no pain-no, but a simple fact, "fact" that although it retains the sensory structure, loses its value, its meaning. Is risked understand this point, capital khya Sam doctrines and Yoga, and which has not been emphasized enough, to our-ing trial. In order to get rid of the pain, the Samkhya and Yoga deny the pain as such, thus removing any relationship between suffering and the self. From the moment we realize that the self is free, eternal and inactive, everything that happens: pain, feelings, volitions, thoughts, etc.., No longer belong to us. All this is a set of cosmic events, constrained by laws, certainly real, but a reality that has nothing in common with our purusha. The pain is a cosmic, and the hombre or supports that fact contributes to its perpetuation only to the extent that it accepts to be swayed by an illusion. Knowledge is a simple "awakening" that reveals the essence of self, of spirit. Knowledge is not "produce" anything, immediately reveal the reality. This immediate and absolute knowledge, which should not be confused with intellectual activity, psi-logical essence, is acquired through experience, but by a revelation cion. Nothing divine is involved in this, because the Samkhya denies the existence of God (Note I, 7); Yoga accepted, but we'll see Pa-lanjali does not give too much importance. The revelation is based on knowledge of ultimate reality, that is, in this "awakening" in which the object is identified with the subject completely. (The "I" "envisions" to himself, does not "think" because the thought is in itself an experience and as such belongs to the prakrti.) For Samkhya, there is no other path than this. The hope continues and even worsens the human misery that is only happy that per-gave up all hope (S. Sutra, IV, 11), "because hope is the greatest torture there, and despair, joy, more ineffable" (text of the Mahabharata, Mahadeva commentator quoted by the Ve-Dantin in S. Sutra, IV, 11). The rites and religious practices do not tie-nen no value (S. Sutra, III, 26) and which are based on desires and cruelty. Every ritual act, for the same reason that implies an effort, creates a new karmic force (SS, I, 84-85). Morality itself leads nowhere decisivo.5 Indifference (Vairagya - renunciation), Orthodoxy (sru-ti) and meditation are but indirect


instruments of salvation. The only way is direct and definitive. to the Samkhya, metaphysical knowledge (S. Sutra, III, 23). The cognitive process is naturally made by the intellectual-to, but this is a highly evolved form of "matter". ^ How, then, is it possible for the liberation (mukti) is done by creat-ing collaboration of prakrti? The Samkhya answers with the teleological argument: the matter (prakriti) acts instinctively towards the release of the "soul" (purusha). The intellect (buddhi), being the most perfect manifestation of prakriti easier, thanks to its dynamic potential, the release process, serving as a preliminary to the revelation stair. Yoga takes exactly the same position (Yoga-Sutra, II, 18, etc..) Prakrti makes the experience possible, while pursuing the release of the Self. When mind is co-Sutra, Vyasa adds an important caveat: in fact, he says, slavery is not simply the location of intelligence (buddhi) when the final goal has not yet been reached, and the release is nothing that the state in which this goal has been conquered. In the next chapter we will see through that psycho-physiological techniques can, according to Yoga, achieving this goal. For the Samkhya, the release is obtained almost automatically when the intelligence (buddhi) leads man to the threshold of "deawakening". When this revelation has already been done, the intellect, as well as other psycho-mental elements (therefore, materials) that are wrongly attributed to purusha, are withdrawn, de-pledge of the Spirit to be reabsorbed into the prakriti, similar in this a "dancer who is retiring after having satisfied the de-seo's Seror (this comparison is very common in both the Mahabharata and in the Treaties Samkhya: Karika, 59; Samkhya-Su 5 was already a cause Upanishads: the Kausitaki Up III, 1, states that the sins disappear with the possession of true knowledge. Mathar commentator proclaims that you can eat meat, drink wine and make love, and all those sins are abolished by knowledge of the doctrine of Kapila (ie by Samkhya). Later we will discuss the spiritual implications of this position. tra, III, 69). "Nothing is as sensitive as prakriti, from the mo-ment that states:" I am recognized "and not shown to the eyes of the Spirit" (Karika, 61). It is the state of the "liberated in life" (Jivanmukta): the scientist is still alive, because it must consume the karmic residue that still fits (such as the potter's wheel continues to roll because of the speed gained, but the pot is finished and ; Karika, 67 Sam.-Sutra, III, 82). But in the moment of death, as it leaves the body, this com-pletely purusa "liberated" (Karika, 68). ICOM is possible the liberation? In fact, the Samkhya-Yoga has realized that the "spirit (pu-Russian) can not be born nor destroyed, that is neither slave nor active (actively seeking the release) is not thirsty for freedom or release" ( Gaudapada, Mandukhya-Karika, II, 32). "His form is such that these two possibilities are excluded" (Samkhya-Sutra, I, 160). The Self is pure, eternal and free, no vassal could be because they could maintain relations with anything other than the mismo.6 But the man believed to purusa this slave-dents and thinks she might be released. Are these illusions of our psycho-mental life. Because, in fact, the spirit "enslaved" is free from all eternity. If your release seems to us a drama, it is because we put ourselves in a human point of view: the spirit is a "spectator" (Saksina), as well as the liberation (mukti) is the knowledge of their eternal freedom. I believe suffering, I believe


to be is-clavizado, I want the release. At the time habiendome understand, "awakened" that "I" (asmita) is a product of matter (prakriti), while I understand the whole existence has only been a string of painful moments and true spirit "watched impassively" the drama of the "personality". So therefore there is no human personality as the endpoint, but a synthesis of psycho-mental experiences, and destroyed, in other words, stop acting, since revelation is a fact. Similar in this all the creations 6 However, no difference between the Spirit and the one released in-even in an easement cupntra illusory: the upadhi. This "false relation" is the basis of the mysterious association between purusha and psycho-mental states, precisely because man does not realize that a relationship is illusory. of the cosmic substance (prakriti), the human personality (asmita) acts, she also, in order to "wake" that is why, after completing the liberation, it becomes useless. The situation of the spirit (purusha) as conceived by the Samkhya and Yoga is something paradoxical, though pure, eternal and intangible, the spirit is given however to associate with matter, if only as illusory and know his nature and "liberate" this also forced to use a tool created by 1 "prakrti (on this occasion, intelligence). Surely, if we examine wellthings, human existence appears to us to drarnatica and meaningless. If the spirit is free, IPOR that men are doomed to suffer in ignorance or fight for a freedom they already have? If the purusha is perfectly pure and is-tic, which allows the impurity IPOR, becoming, the experience, the pain and history? Behold questions that could multiply. But Indian philosophy reminds us that we should not judge the self from a logical point of view or historical, that is, investigating the causes that determined the state of affairs. We must accept reality as it is. It is true also that the position of Samkhya is, in this respect, difficult to maintain. Also, to avoid the paradox of this I absolutely isolated from nature and yet the author, despite the, human drama, Buddhism has entirely removed the "soul-spirit", considered as spiritual irreducible unit replaced by the " states of consciousness ". Vedanta, for e. Instead, anxious to avoid difficulties with regard to the relations between the soul and the universe, denies the reality of the universe and regards it as maya, illusion. The Samkhya and Yoga-quired not to deny the ontological reality of the Spirit or Substance. Moreover, the Samkhya has been attacked, mostly because of this doctrine, both the Vedanta as Buddhism. (See the criticism directed by Sankara, comment on the Brahma-Sutra, II, 2, 1, 10, against Samkhya metaphysics; Notes I, 8, 9, on the relations between the Samkhya and Buddhism.) Vedanta also criticizes the conception of the plurality of the self (purusha) as it was formulated by the Samkhya and Yoga. There are, in fact, say these last two darsana, purusa many as there are men. And each is a nomade purusa, this com-pletely isolated, because the self can not have any contact or with the world around them (derived from the prakriti), nor with the other spirits. The cosmos is inhabited by those eternal purusha, free, in-moviles; nomades among which is impossible any communication. According to Vedanta, this conception has no basis and the plurality of self is an illusion. We are there in any case a tragic and paradoxical conception of spirit, which is well separated not only from the world of phenomena, but also of the other "I" liberated. However, the Samkhya and Yoga-two were forced to postulate the multiplicity of purusha, for if there had been but a single Spirit, salvation would have been infinitely more simple problem, and the first man freed had dragged the liberation of all mankind. If there were no more than one


universal Spirit, the concomitant existence of "spirits liberated" and "slave-zados spirits" would not have been possible. But still: neither death nor life, nor the diversity of the sexes and actions, etc., Podida would coexist, in this case (Karika 18). The paradox is obvious: this doctrine reduces the infinite variety of phenomena to a single principle, the matter (prakriti) derives from a single parent to Uni-verse physical, life and consciousness, and postulates, however, the plurality of the spirits, although by their nature these are essentially identical. The doctrine thus joining what seems so differentthe physical, vital and mental-and isolation which, especially in India, it seems so universal and unique: the spirit. Examine more closely the conception of liberation (moksha) in the Samkhya and Yoga doctrines. As for most Hindu philosophical schools-except, of course, those who are influenced by the mystical devotion (bhakti) - the liberation is, in fact, liberation from the idea of evil and pain. It is not knowledge of an existing situation, but over which spread their veils of ignorance. Suffering destroys itself from the moment they realize that is foreign to the spirit, but that does not concern the "personality" human (asmita). Indeed, imagine the life of a 'liberated'. This will continue working for the potential-old stocks, as well as those of his own existence before the "awakening", ask to be updated and consumed, according to law Karmic. But this activity is no longer his own, is objective, mechanical, disinterested, in a word, and not to act towards its "fruit". When the "liberated" acts, has no awareness of "I act" but of "men act" I did not drag the process on a psychophysical. By failing to act and the power of ignorance, no new nuclei are created and karmic. Cuan-do all of the above "potential" are destroyed, the release is absolute, final. We could say that has not released the "experience" of the release. After the "awakening" acts with undifferentiated, and when the last molecule is clear from the psychic, integrates a mode of being unknown to mankind, because it is absolute: a kind of Buddhist nirvana. The "freedom" that the Hindu knowledge acquired through metaphysical or Yoga, is nevertheless real, concrete. It is see-ing that India alone has sought the release negatively, because she wants to be specific, positive, freedom. Does indeed-you, "the liberated in life" can extend as far as you want its scope, it has nothing to fear as his actions no longer have implications, and therefore no longer have limits. Since nothing can enslave and the "liberated" can afford all in any kind of activity, for which work is not already, as a function of "self", but a simple instrument impersonal. And in the following chapters we will see to that limit has been the situation of "witness" a transpersonal existence. On the soteriological conception of the Samkhya, it seems audacious. The Samkhya and Yoga are based on the initial basis of all Hindu philosophies: pain. By promising to free him from the pain, the Samkhya and Yoga are obliged, at the end of his journey, to deny the pain as it is, human pain. This path, considered from the viewpoint of salvation, does not lead to anything, since part of the axiom that the mind is absolutely free-that is untainted by the pain-and ends in the same axiom, namely that the I just illusory form is drawn into the drama of existence. The term that is important in this equation, the pain is left aside. The Samkhya does not eliminate human suffering, lo. denied as a reality, denying that it can maintain a real relation with the ego. Suffering exists because it is a cosmic fact, but loses its significance. It suppresses pain by ignoring it as such. Indeed, this suppression is not empirical (it-tupefacientes, suicide) and that from the Hindu standpoint, any empirical solution is illusory, being herself a karmic force. But the


solution of the Samkhya rejects the man outside of humanity, then that solution is feasible only through the destruction of human personality. Yoga practices proposed by Patan-jali have the same goal. These solutions may seem soteriological "pessimistic" Western man, for whom the personality remains, nevertheless, as the cornerstone of all morality and all mystical. But for India, what matters most is not so much the safety of the person-ality as the obtaining of absolute freedom. (Later we will see that the deep significance of this freedom leaves far behind Western formulas more exaggerated, the Indian will, in effect, lawyers lir, in a sense, the creation, reintegrating all forms in the primary unit). From the moment that this freedom can-not be gained in the present human condition and that personality carries the suffering and drama, it is clear which are the human condition and the "personality" which should be killed. This sacrifice is, moreover, largely rewarded through conquest, made it possible, for absolute freedom. Obviously, one could argue that the sacrifice required is ex-inafter as for its fruit may still have some interest. The human condition, whose disappearance is required, ino is actually and yet, the only title of nobility of man? This eventual observation of Western man, the Samkhya and Yoga respond in advance, stating, while not over-past the level of psycho-mental life, man alone can pre-judge "states will be transcendental price the disap-pearance of normal consciousness, any value Taxation with respect to such "states" is automatically invalidated by reason only that he who utters it is defined by its own conditions, that is an entirely different from that on which it wants to try. THE STRUCTURE OF THE PSYCHIC EXPERIENCE Yoga begins where classical Samkhya ends. Patan-jali appropriates almost entirely on the dialectics Samkhya, but does not believe that metaphysical knowledge can, by itself, lead man to the supreme liberation. In fact, Gnosticism does nothing but prepare the ground for the acquisition of freedom (mukti). The release must be conquered, so to speak, thanks to a superior control, especially by an ASCE-cal technique and a method of contemplation that are none other than the Yoga-darsana. The purpose of Yoga, such as the Samkhya, is its "first normal consciousness in favor of an awareness of another capacity, able to understand thoroughly the true metaphyseal music. However, the suppression of consciousness is, for Yoga, easy to get. Besides the gnosis, the darsana means also "a practice" (abhyasa) asceticism (tapas), in short: a physiological techniques, which is a subsidiary of strictly psychological technique. Patanjali defines Yoga as well the "Suppression of the states of conscience" (Yogah cittavrttinirodhah, Yoga-Sutra, I, 2). Yo-gui The technique assumes, therefore, the experiential knowledge of to-dos "states" that "wave" to a normal consciousness, profane, unlit. These states of consciousness are unlimited. But they all fall into three categories, corresponding to three possibilities of experience, respectively: 1) errors and illusionstions (dreams, hallucinations, misperceptions, misunderstandings, etc.). 2) to all the normal psychological experiences (all that feels, perceives or thinks the layman, who does not practice yoga), 3 째) parapsychological experiences triggered by the technique yogi and accessible only to initiates. For Patanjali, to each of these "classes" (or categories) of experiences, it is a science or science group, according to which regulates the experience, and force a re-experience the limits assigned when it overdoes. The theory of knowledge, for example, as well as logic,


have the task to avoid the errors of the senses and conceptual confusions them. The "psychology", law, morality aimed at the entirety of the "states of consciousness" of a normal man, states that while those priced and classified. As for the Yoga and Samkhya, all psychological experience is caused by ignorance of the true nature of the Self (purusha), is that psychic facts "normal" though real from a purely psychological point of view and valid from the point of so-logical view (not to be illusory, as the dream or hallucination) are false anyway from the metaphysical point of view. Metaphysics, in effect, recognizes as valid only a third category of "states", particularly those that precede and prepare the liberation samadhi. The aim of Patanjali Yoga is therefore to abolish the two first mere categories of experience (arising respectively the error and error metaphysical logic) and replaced by an "experience" static, supersensible and extra-rational. Thanks to the samadhi, is definitely on-going human condition-that is dramatic, born of suffering and consumed in suffering, and finally obtain the total freedom to which the Indian soul so ardently aspires-ticular. Vyasa (ad Yoga-Sutra, I, 1) classified as follows patterns of consciousness (or "mental maps" citta bhumi); 1) unstable (ksipta) 2 °) confusing, dark (MUDHA); 3) to stable and unstable (viksipta), 4 °) was set at a single point (ekagra), 5 °) fre-nothing completely (niruddha). The first two methods are common to all men, then, from the Indian point of view, psycho-mental life is generally confusing. The third form of consciousness, viksipta is obtained by setting "occasional and temporary-mind" spirit, through the exercise of care (eg, in an effort of memory, or sometimes a problem mathema-tical, etc.). but this form is temporary and does not offer any course help you to liberation (mukti), since it is obtained by Yoga. Only recently the last two methods mentioned are "states" Yogis, that is caused by the asceticism and meditation. It Vyasa (ad Yoga-Sutra, I, 2) that exposes the fact that all normal consciousness is capable of manifesting itself in three dif-ferent ways, according predominates either of the three guna. For man, his life and consciousness as well as the cosmos in its entirety, are emanations of one and the same prakrti, which di-duce in their sole qualification for the predominance of one of the three approaches constitute the substance, namely guna. Indeed: 1) when the sattva (purity, illumination through comprehension nected with interpreter) that dominates the con-science, this is manifested as prakhya (brightness, lighting, your state of mental clarity and serenity) , 2 °) when the rajas (energy) is pravrtti consciousness, is active and full of energy, tense and voluntary; 3 °) when the tamas (darkness, heaviness) is the conscience Sthiti, is inert, lost in a state of rest and interferesment. As we see, the Patanjali Yoga keeps intact the immemorial Indian tradition in which the man (the microcosm) is homologous to the macrocosm, but does not alter that tradition in the fact that such approval transpose the vocabulary of his own "physical" according to which are the three guna-to identically as in Nature and in Life, as in "states of consciousness". Obviously, this classification of modes and the "rules" of consciousness is not made with a view to mere knowledge. On the one hand, integrates the "psychology" Yoga in ecumenical Indian tradi-tions, where are the classifications and regulatory approvals. Moreover-and this is most important, the phasing of the states of consciousness according to a hierarchical or-den is, in itself, a means of dominating and dispose of at will. Because unlike the Samkhya, Yoga deals with destroying one after another, to different


groups, species and varieties of "states of consciousness" (cittavrtti). However, this destruction can not be obtained if you do not start to know, experimentally, so to speak, the structure, origin and intensity of what was destined to destruction. "Experimental knowledge" means here: method, technique, practice. Nothing is available without action (kriya) and not practicing asceticism (tapas), here is a leitmotif of the literature yogi. The books II and III of the Yoga-Sutra are more particularly devoted to this activity yogi mind (purifications and bodily attitudes breathing techniques, etc.).. That's why yoga practice is essential. Indeed, only after having received, through the experience the first results of this technique, we can have faith (sraddha) on the effectiveness of the method (Vyasa, ad YS, I 34). Yoga practice includes indeed a long series of exercises to be carried out consecutively, without haste, without impatience, without being driven by "individual desire" to get more rapi-mately the "conjunction" (samadhi). Vyasa (ad YS, III, 6), reminds us in this regard that only recently after having conquis ed by a certain "level" (bhumi) or after having tried 7 "Action" does not mean, however, agitation, all efforts to pre-cio. Misra Vacaspati particularly insists on two points: a) the action (Kriyayoga) should not be exaggerated, so that the physiological balance is not changed, b) should not be done with a view of the "fruits" (ie : with "thirst" with "passion") of desire should not be "hu-mano" from the satisfaction of the appetites and ambitions, but the wish-lime-mo-out of the "human" and experimentally all forms of exercise a yogi (meditation, contemplation, etc..), it is impossible to pass a piano above (except of course in the few cases where the yogi-ing from certain inner-reading exercises thought per FOREIGN-sons, etc. .- concentrates his thought on God, Isvara: "With regard to the nature of the immediate level below (above), continues Vyasa Yoga practice can only revealing larnosla. ^ Why? Because it has been said (in scripture): Yoga should be known by Yoga, the Yoga Yoga manifests, etc. ".. The negation of the reality of experience yogi or the criticism of some aspects by a man for whom immediate know-ledge of the practice is strange is not accepted, as the yogis states exceed the condition that when we criticize, we confined. "It'sa matter of women striving to establish the superiority of truth through discursive arguments, but it is men conquering the world through your own power," says a text (Tantratattva, I, 125) that, while Late , ex-prisoner attitude characteristic of schools and tantric yogi. The term abhyasa ( "practice, exercise, application") is often used in treaties hatha-yogis. "Through the abhyasa gets the win, the practice makes a release. The perfect consciousness comes with the act. The acting is obtained Yoga (abh-yasa) ... You can cheat death by the abhyasa ... Through the practice is gained the force of prophecy (vak) and the power to go anywhere for the simple act of vo-Glue... " (Shiva Samhita, IV, 9-11). We may cite such texts indefinitely: all support the need for direct experience of realization of the prac-tice. Patanjali, and after countless yogis and tantric master, known to cittavrtti, the "whirlwinds of conscience" can not be con-trolled and finally abolished, if previously not "experienced". In other words, we can free ourselves of existence (samsara) unless we know life in concrete form. This explains the for-paradoxical theology of creation which, according to the Samkhya and Yoga, first "strings" the human soul, and the other of inciting li-sions. In fact, the human condition, though dramatic, is not hopeless, as the experiences themselves tend to release the spirit (particularly engendering disgust of samsara and the nostalgia of renunciation). But even it is only through the experiences you get freedom. Also, the gods (videha,


"disembodied")-who have no experience because they do not have a body-less existence condition of the human condition and can not achieve the full release. The ambivalent function of experience-which in turn is-clavizan "the man and encourage" free "- is typical of the Indian spirit. Later, when we address the variadades "ba-rroca" Yoga (Tantric, the erotica mistica, etc..), We will reveal deeper metaphysical implications. Of course, however, we can discover a trend in Yoga specified entity and, therefore, we have found in Samkhya darsana. It is the tendency toward the concrete, into the act, to the experimental test. Indeed, even the Yoga "classic" of Patanjali (and even most other kinds of Yoga), gives the experience of great importance, namely the knowledge of the different states of consciousness. And this is hardly surprising, knowing the objective that, in general, pursues yoga, and that is rarified, dyslexic and finally abolish car, the aforementioned states of consciousness. This tendency to know in concrete, experimental, in order to end the domination of what we already possessed in some way, by knowledge, is carried by the outer limits Tantrism. The Subconscious In analyzing the "physical individuality" Patanjali discovered five classes, or rather five "parent" productive psycho-mental state (cittvrtti) ignorance (avidya), the sense of individuality (asmita "person"), the passion , attachment (raga), disgust (dV), and a love of life, the "will to live" (abhinivesa: YS, II, 3, and the commentary of Vyasa). It is not five separate mental functions: the psychic body is a whole, but their phases are plentiful. Vrtti All classes are "painful" (klesa), therefore the human experience, as totajidad is dolorqsa. Only vrtti Yoga can suspend and remove suffering. Thus, the yogi should "work" and "manage" those who-are vrtti psychomental current. Its cause is ontological, well understood, ignorance (Yoga-Sutra, I, 8). But, unlike the Samkhya, Yoga claims that the abolition of metaphysical ignorance is not sufficient to obtain the total destruction of the states of conscience. That's because, although the "whirlwind" of mo-tion was defeated, without further delay, others would come to replace CVS-ing them, emerging from the vast reserves of latencies buried in the subconscious. The concept of designating vasana these latencies is of paramount importance in the Yoga philosophy: the text of Patan-jali means "specific subconscious feelings. The obstacles which these subliminal forces stand in the way that leads to liberation are of two kinds: first, the feed vasana relentlessly psychomental current, to the infinite series of the cit-tavrtti on the other hand, and that by virtue of their specific mode (subliminal, "germ"), the vasana constitute an enormous obstacle to me because they are inaccessible, difficult to master and control. For the same reason that is the ontological status of "potential", its own dynamism requires vasana to demonstrate, to "be updated" in the form of acts of consciousness. In this way the yogi, although it has a long practice and has traveled many stages of their ascetic itinerary, she risks being beaten by the invasion of a powerful current of "whirlwind" psychomental two by precipitation vasana. "The vasana originate in memory," writes Vsaya (ad Yoga-Sutra, IV, 9) thus underlining its subliminal character. Life is a continuous discharge of vasana manifested by vrtti. In psychological terms, human existence is an act of subconscious uninterrupted through the experiences. The vasa-na determine the specific nature of each individual, and this con-


ditions is consistent both heredity as the karmic situation of each individual. Indeed, everything that defines the specificity of the individual incommunicable, like the structure of human instincts, is produced by Vasan, by the subconscious. This is transmitted either as "impersonal" from generation to generation (through the language, customs, civilization: ethnic and historical transmission) either directly (through the karmic transmigration, remember this re-gard to the karmic potentials are transmitted through a "soul body, linga, literally" subtle body "). Much of human experience is due to this racial and intellectual heritage, forms of action and thoughts created by play of vasana. These subconscious forces determine the life of the ma-jority of men. Only through the Yoga can be co-nised, controlled and "burnt." All states of consciousness are "painful" (klesa). This modality "painful" states of consciousness explained, on the other hand, dynamism frantic: It seems that the states of consciousness deal with its dazzling appearance polymorphous, resonant, to compensate for its "impurity" (klist: it can be also translated as "state of sin," "stain"), its lack of ontological reality (since, as we saw, are but the temporary manifestation of cosmic matter). The speed with which the "whirlwind" underway in the consciousness of a profane man is comforting. The fate of the matter is being continuously transformed, and if this trans-formation without truce or rest, is "painful" (klesa) allows (and even, to exacerbate the pain, facilitate) the out-of cosmic circuit. For what characterizes human consciousness, and Cosmos in its entirety, is the uninterrupted circuit established between the different levels biomentales. The acts of man, raised by the states psychomental (cittavrtti) actually originate other cittavrtii turn. But these states of consciousness are themselves the result of subliminal update latencies, the vasana. Thus, the latency-aware circuit-acts-latencies, and so on. (vasana-vrtti-karmavasana, etc..) offers no solution of continuity. And because they are manifestations of cosmic matter (prakiti;. All these forms of "psychic substance" are real and, as such, could not be destroyed under an act of knowledge (such as in the classic example of the Indian philosophy, the illusion of encountering a snake is destroyed when, looking closely, we realize that the "snake" was in reality a cane). The combustion of these states subliminal spoken Yoga means in fact, that I show the flow of psychic life. In this case, the mental energy which, being determined by the karmic law and designed by ignorance, oc-paba until then the horizon of consciousness, which itself darkened-sale (jtambien it!) of the orbit "individual" within which movie (asmita, personality), and left to itself, termine to reintegrate the prakriti, the primary parent. La free-ture of man "free" while a fragment of this sphere, allowing the return to primordial unity where appropriate. The "circuit of psychic material" ends through yogic technique. In this sense we can say that the yogic contributes directly and personally to the rest of the field, to the abolition of a fragment, at least of the Cosmos. We will see later that the profoundly Indian yogi has this contribution the rest of matter and the restoration of the primordial unity. Notes that according to Patanjali, there can be, in an awareness states full of "painful" (klist, "impure"), other states that are "pure" (aklista). Moreover, if any, could not manifest itself as the states are locked by klist. This is how the authors explain the treaty Yoga ge-nero solidarity of human evil, pain, and the resistance which opposes the human condition itself to the message of renunciation. Pain is a universal reality, but there are few who have the courage to aban-financing and the strength to go until the final for the ITIN-uirio of the release, for while life is dominated by the klist, all under the beyond is


blocked immediately doomed. This nostalgia for the isolated pure states (aklista, "pure" non-moral sense, but metaphysical) arises the desire for knowledge and knowledge is through that reveals the nature of experience and that can be removed klist after higher cognitive process (Viveka, discrimination metaphysics). As we shall see, the role of the subconscious (vasana) is significant for psychology and yogic technique, for it is he who determines not only the actual experience of man, but also their native predispositions as well as a voluntary decisions future . So it's useless to try to alter states of consciousness (cittavrtti) while latencies psychomental-ten is not controlled and dominated. If you want the "destruction" of cittavrtti be successful, it is essential to break the circuit subconscious awareness. This is what yoga is achieved by implementing a set of techniques whose overall goal is the annihilation psychomental flow, his "detention". Before considering these different techniques, we note in passing the depth of psychological analysis of Patanjali and his eat-taristas. Long before psychoanalysis, yoga demonstrated the importance of the role played by the subconscious. Indeed, the dynamics which the subconscious is the most important obstacle they must overcome the Yogi says Yoga. That's because the latency-as if a strange impulse led them to become self-extinction-want to come to light, and become, updated states of consciousness. The resistance that opposes the subconscious acts of renunciation and asceticism, to any act that could result in the liberation of the self, is like the sign of the fear that the subconscious experimented with the thought that the mass of latency unexpressed even unable to fulfill his destiny and be destroyed before they had time to manifest and updated. That thirst for updating this vasana yet possessed by a thirst for extinction, "resting", found in all levels of the Cosmos. Although the extinction of the latencies psychomental gadas li-only update it marks a change in the pattern of nature, the fact remains that each of the ma-ifested vasana as states of consciousness perishes as such; ciertamen-te, other vasana take their place, but vasana about the same, when you upgrade, simply ceased to be. The intensity of biomental circuit derives precisely from the fact that the "latency" and "ways" to always tend to cancel themselves. Any "appearance" and any "disappearance" on the horizon as well as vital on the horizon psychomental reveals, however, the rejection of self, the desire to stop being who you are. Seen from this angle, any "form" any "appearance" and all "prior" whatever that populate the universe is driven by the same instinct that im-pressed release the man. The Cosmos entirely the same trend holds that man to return to the main unit. When certain forms of Mahayana Buddhism speaks of the salvation of the entire cosmos, refer to the reintegration and the final rest of the "stuff", the "beings" and the "forms". We talked earlier in this similarity between yoga and psychoanalysis. The comparison can be established, in effect, with some reservations, all in favor of Yoga. Unlike psychoanalysis, yoga is not only in the subconscious libido. She reveals the circuit linking consciousness and subconscious as a receptacle to the matrix and, simultaneously, of all acts. selfish gestures and intentions, that is dominated by the "thirst for fruit" (phalatrsna), by the desire for self-satisfaction, satiation, propagation. It comes from the subconscious and the subconscious returns (thanks to "sow" karmic) whatever you want to manifest itself, ie have a "form", expressing its "power", to specify their "individuality". Even if this trend of "form" at the bottom corresponds to the tendency of self-extinction of the latencies own, (because as we said recently, the update


latencies constitutes both his "suicide") is not less true that from the standpoint of pure spirit (purusha), this trend is a trend as selfish: it aspired to the "fruit". That is, a profit. Always unlike psychoanalysis, Yoga believes that the subconscious can be overcome by sufficient asceticism and even conquered, I-dents, the technique of unification of the states of consciousness, of which we'll talk soon. Experience parapsicolo-logical and psychological East Yoga in general and in particular the more ex-lying and better organized than the experience in which Western theories are based on the structure of the psyche, it is likely therefore that, to this point , yoga is right, and the subconscious, paradoxically, can be known, dominated and conquered. CHAPTER II THE TECHNIQUES OF AUTONOMY THE CONCENTRATION IN ONE ITEM " The starting point of yoga meditation is the concentration on one object, it can be, indifferently, a physical object (the eyebrows, the tip of the nose, a luminous object, etc..), A pen-cessing (some metaphysical truth) or God (Isvara). This concentration continued strong ekagrata called ( "one point"), and obtained by the integration of the flow psychomental (sar-varthata, multilateral attention, discontinuous and diffuse, YogaSutra, III, 11) . It is the very definition of the technique Yogi Yogah cittavrttiniro-Dhaher (YS, I, 1). The ekagrata, or concentration on one point, as a result has immediate censorship lucida prompt and all the distractions and mental automatism and truly do dominate the secular consciousness. Dropped to the determination of the organizations (themselves produced by sensations and vasana) the hom-bre invade letting the day pass by countless times as dis-pairs and outside it. The senses and the subconscious continually introduced into the consciousness objects that dominate and modify, according to shape or intensity. The associations spread awareness, the violent passions, the "thirst for life" is betrayed by reaching out. Even intellectuals efforts, man is passive, because the fate of pro-fane thought (not by ekagrata braking, but only by occasional concentrations, ksiptaviksipta) is being designed by the objects. After the appearance of "thought" actually hides a glow in-defined and messy, fueled by the feelings, words and memory. Yogi's first duty is to think, or not to be thinking. That's why yoga practice begins with obstructing the river ekagrata mental and thereby constitute a "psychic block," a strong and unified continuum. Ekagrata exercising tends to control both the flow generating mental sensory activity (indriya) and the subconscious-sufficient (samskara). Control is the ability to intervene at will and the immediately in the operation of these two sources of "whirlwind" mental (cittavritti). A yogi can get how-do like the discontinuity of consciousness, in other words, can provoke-anytime, anywhere recognize her "treachery of his attention in a" single point "and become unresponsive to any sensory stimulus or mnemonic. Ekapleasing thanks to a genuine commitment is obtained, ie the power to govern freely to an important sector of activity biomental. The eka-grata, in itself, but can not be done by running numerous exercises and techniques that physiology has a crucial role. We could not reach the ekagrata if, for example, the body takes a tiring or just uncomfortable, nor whether this disorganized breaths, arrhythmic. That's why Yogi technique, according to


Patanjali, practice involves several categories of physiological and spiritual exercises (called anga, "members") that must be learned if you want to get the ekagrata, and even beyond, the highest concentration, samadhi . These "members" of Yoga can be both considered as part of a group of techniques and stages of spiritual ascetic itinerary as last stage is the final liberation. They are: 1) the restraints (yama) 2 °) disciplines (niyama) 3 °) the attitudes and positions of the body (handle-na), 4 °) the rate of respiration (pranayama), 5 °) emancipating-ing the sensory activity of the domain of external objects (pratyahara) 6 °) concentration (Dharana), 7 °) yogi meditation (dhyana), 8 °) samadhi (Yoga-Sutra, II, 29: is this Sutra Patanjali begins Yoga of the techniques that prosi-gue in Book III). Each class (anga) of practices and disciplines is a definite goal. Patanjali hierarchy so these "limbs of yoga" that the yogi can not do without either of them, except in certain cases. The first two groups, Yama and Niyama, are obviously unavoidable preliminaries any asceticism, therefore offer no particular species-cally yogi. The "restraints (yama) purify some reprobate by all moral sins but tolerated by social life. But the moral commandments can no longer be that "Brant here-as in civil life without risk for immediately who seek liberation. Any failure immediately accused, in Yoga, its consequences. Vyasa (ad YS, II, 30) makes some clarifications, not devoid of interest, with respect to the five "restraints" include: ahimsa, "no kill" satya "not lie"; asteya "not steal"; brahmacarya "abstinence" apa-rigraha, "not being greedy. "Ahimsa" means not causing pain to be al-Guno, and never in any way. The restraints (yama) and disciplines (niyama) that follow are rooted in ahisma and tend to improve the ahimsa (...). Truthfulness (satya) con-sists according to the word and thought with action. The thoughts and words correspond to vision, hearing and Income-down. The words are pronounced in order to communicate knowledge. You can only say that the word has been used for the general good and not for harm, when that is not misleading or confusing, or sterile. However, if states have been detrimental, has been pronounced by typing "without deceit, without confusion, or sterility, that word is not true, only a sin (...). So, everyone must think very carefully, and then recently to express the view-ing for the good of all beings (...). Theft (stey) is the illegal act of taking things belonging to others. Abstention from theft (asteya) is the destruction of the desire to steal. The brahmacarya is the restraint of the secret forces (ie, the generating force: Brahmacargam guptendriyasyopas-thasya samyamah). The absence of greed (aparigraha) is the non-appropriation of things outside, and is a consequence of an understanding of sin consists in dedicating itself to excess goods.Thus and the damage caused by the accumulation, conservation or dis - destruction of possessions. These "restraints" may be recognized by all eti-tion performed by an apprentice yogi as much as any honest and pure. His practice did not seek any state-speci cally Yogi, but a human state "purified", superior to common humanity. This purity is essential in ul-stage deterioration. Through her selfish tendencies are suppressed, and create new centers of experience. Sexual abstinence is aimed at conservation of nervous energy. Yoga gives prime importance to these "secret forces generated power-ra", which, when used, scatter the most precious energy, weak-as brain capacity and become difficult to concentrate, if, by contrast, are dominated and "restrained", facilitate contemplative ascent. You must add, however, that sexually abstain (brahmacarya) means not only


deprived of sexual acts, but to burn the same carnal temptation. The instinct is not permanent underground necer diffuse into the subconscious, or be "exalted" as the mystics, but simply destroyed, "uprooting" of consciousness and the senses. Parallel to these restraints, the yogi should practice niyama, or a series of "disciplines" and psychic body. "The cleanliness, serenity (samtosa) asceticism (tapa1s), studying yoga and metaphysics effort to make God.1 (Isvara) reason for one's actions are the disciplines" (Yoga-Sutra, II, 32 ). Neatness (willow) means inner purification organs: thus, food waste and toxins are quickly eliminated (this is accomplished through a series of "purges" artificiality, which insists on the Hathayoga, ie Yoga that focuses almost exclusively on the physiology and the "subtle physiology. Vyasa notes that" sauce "also implies the removal of impurities of the mind." The absence of desire to amplify the newants of existence, " This is the definition of serenity (sam-cough). "The tapas (asceticism) is to support anti-rials situations, such as the desire to eat and drink, heat and cold, the stand and the sitting: the absence of words (kastha mauna) and the absence of mime that would reveal feelings or thoughts (akara mauna; Vasaspati Misra points out that "the absence of facial directions, through which" looks after the intimate secrets of the spirit, is the self-control, so that thought is not made at random and anyone "). The study is the knowledge of science relating to the 1 As noted S. N. Dasgupta (Yoga as Philosophy and Religion, p.. 87 and ff.), Only latesuch as commentary and Vacaspati Bhiksu Vijn-na-believe that Isvara away the barriers created by the prakrti, barri-ers that are powerful obstacles in the path of the yogi. liberation of existence (moksha), the repetition of the syllable OM, 2 etcetera. "(Vyasa, ad Yoga-Sutra, II, 32.) Clearly, even during these exercises (which are rather of moral and devoid of structure in short yogi) difficulties arise is produced mainly by the subconscious. On the disorder is caused by doubt the most dangerous obstacle in the feel tired of the concentration. To overcome it, Patanjali recommends "The implementation of contrary thinking" to (avoid or out) the disorder because the doubt, the introduction of opposites "(II, 33: vitarkabadhane pratipaksabhavanam. Vitarka Some translators interpret as" guilty thoughts and translate thus: "in order to evi-tar the dislocation caused by the guilty thoughts." Realm-te, vitarka means "doubt, uncertainty, and Patanjali evi-dentemente refers to the" temptation through the doubt, "they know and com-beat all treaties ascetic). In his commentary, Vyasa suggests some useful thoughts for the moment of doubt. In the next sutra (II, 34) Patanjali explains the nature of these "doubts" or "vices" (see Note II, 1, on the obstacles to concentration yogi). Already it is interesting to note that the yogi fight against any of these "obstacles" has ma-logical character. Any temptation is to overcome a force of the yo-gui appropriates. Such forces are obviously moral is magical forces. Giving up a temptation not mean so-regret "purified" in the negative sense of the word, is also making a real gain, positive, and the yogi extends his power that way about what he had begun to resign. But even there comes to dominate not only the things that he had resigned, but also a magical force infinitely more precious than the objects themselves. For example, who does the saying-tioning asteya (not steal) "is closer to the all the gems" (YS, II, 37). We shall return to discuss this "po-der magic" (siddhi) that the yogi acquires through its discipline. This prompted, indeed, to give even this "magic power" 2 The mystic syllable Om embodies the mystical essence of the entire cosmos.


Theophany is itself reduced to a phoneme. The findings in this regard are legion. Interestingly, however, that Vyasa approval, the science knowledge of salvation to a technical mis-tica, and it is not repeated here more than the syllable OM, and not dedicated to formulate theories to Carse thereon. and renounce the human passions, in return for which it was agreed that power. The conception of this almost fi-physical balance between denial and magical fruits of renunciamien-to, is remarkable. The physical purification, says Patanjali, a feeling that new vo is welcome: the apprehension of one's body and breaking the contact with other bodies (II, 40). Through the purification fi-sica ekagrata is obtained, ie, authority over the senses and the ability to know the soul (II, 41). Compliance with himself, sobriety, provide a "joy unspeakable" (II, 42), and as such asceticism (tapas, physical exertion used as a means of purification) away impurities and opens a new power over the senses is ie the possibility of transcending the limits of the senses (vision, audition nitida, guess-ture of thought, etc.). or delete at will (Vyasa, ad II, 43). YOGI POSITIONS (ASANA) AND THE DISCIPLINE OF BREATHING (Pranayama) Latest from the third "member of Yoga" (yoganga) start-za yogi technique itself. This third "member" is asana, which refers to the position well known yogi that Yoga-Sutra (II, 46) defined as follows: sthirasukham, "stable and enjoyable." In-asana against the description of many treaties in Hatha Yoga in Patanjali, such a description is only sketched, since the asana is learned through the explanations of a guru and not descriptions. The important thing is the fact that the asana gives a rigid body stability while the mi-nimo reduces the physical effort. This avoids the irritating feeling of fa-tiga, the enervation of certain parts of the body, the processes governing physiological and enables, thereby, to deal exclusively with the attention the fluid part of consciousness. At first, the asana is uncomfortable and even unbearable. But after a train-ing, the effort required to keep the body in the same position becomes minimum. However, and this is of capital importance, the effort must go, the meditative position tor-mined to be natural: it is only then when it facilitates concentration. "The position is perfect when the effort to accomplish it disappears, so that no more movement in the body. Similarly, his perfection is met when the spirit is processed in an infinite ma (anantasamapattibhyam), ie, when it makes the idea of infinity its own content "(Vyasa, ad Yoga-Sutra, II, 47). And Vacaspati writes, commenting on the interpretation of Vyasa: "The practicing asana must make use of an energy con-sisting of the efforts to remove natural body. Otherwise, the ascetic view that we speak here may not be realized. As regarding the "spirit become infinite" means a total suspension of attention to the presence of his own body. The asana is one of the techniques characteristic of Hindu asceticism. We find in the Upanishads, and even in the Vedic literature, but the allusions to the asana are more abundant in the Epic and Purana. It is clearly in the literature where asana hathayogui play an increasingly important role: the treaty Gheranda-Samhita describes thirty-two varieties of asana. See-ing, for example, as you get one of the easiest and most common meditation position, the padmasana: "Place your right foot on the left calf, and similarly, the left foot over right calf: cross your hands on asid back and the talo-tions of the feet (right hand on the right and the left heel on the left heel). rested her chin on your chest


and Fix your gaze on the tip of the nose "(Gheranda-Samhita, II, 8). There are lists and descriptions of asana in most treaties and tantric hathayoguis (See Note II, 2). The purpose of these positions I-ditate is always the same: "The absolute cessation of disorder on the part of opposites" (dvandvanabhighatah, Y.-S., II, 48). These are evident in certain "neutrality" of senses and consciousness is not disturbed by the "presence of the body. It performs the first stage aimed at isolation of conscience begin to be up-two bridges that allow communication with the sen-Sorial activity. The transcendental asana neatly mark the human condition. If this "detention", this invulnerability on the contrary, the outside world, represents a regression to the condition plant or a transition to the divine archetype, Expressed iconographically, we shall see later. For the Momen-to be content with observing that the asana is the first step it Creto given towards the abolition of human modes of existence. The truth is that the position of the body immobile, hieratic-imitates a condition other than the human condition: the yogi, in a state of asana can be approved to a plant or a statue divine could not possibly be homologous to man, who by definition are mobile, agitated, arrhythmic. With respect to the body, the asana is a ekagrata, a concentration in one pun-to-the body is "tense", "concentrated" in one position. As the ends ekagrata fluctuations and the dispersion of the "states of consciousness" ends the asana mobility and avail-ability of the body, reducing the infinity of possible positions to one position archetypal iconography. We will see at once that the trend of "unification" and "aggregation" is proper for-mat techniques yogis. The deep meaning of these "unifications" will be revealed a little later. But his immediate goal and jumps off the light and the abolition (or overcoming) of the human condi-tion resulting from the refusal to adapt to human inclinations most elemental. The refusal to move (asana) to be swept away by the rushing current of the states of conscience (ekagrata) will be followed by a series of "negative" of all kinds. Most important-and anyway, the most especificamen yogi-te these several negative-is the discipline of breathing (pranayama), or "refusal" to breathe as the ordinary men, ie, so arrhythmic. Let's see how Patanjali defines this refusal: "The detention is pranayama (viccheda) movements Inspiratory and expiratory (svasapracvasayoh), which is obtained after the asana has been made" (Yoga-Sutra, II, 49). Patanjali speaks of "detention" for the suspension of respiration, but the rhythmic pranayama turn begins, as slowly as possible, breath-that is their original purpose. There is considerable amount of texts dealing with this technique Hindu ascetic, but most do nothing more than repeat the traditional formulas. Although pranayama is a yogic exercise specific, and important, Patanjali sutra only dedicates three. Firstly, your concerns are the theoretical foundations of the practices as-faceted; find technical details in the comments of Vyasa, of Bhoja and Vacaspati Misra, but abundant in the hathayoguis-treated. An allusion to Bhoja (ad Yoga-Sutra, I, 34) reveals the profound meaning of pranayama: "To be preceded all functions of the organs of respiratory function, as there is a link between respiration and consciousness, in their respective functions-breathing, being suspended all organic functions, making the concentration of consciousness in a single object. This asserts-ture seems important, he says that "there is a link between respiration and mental states. We are much more than the simple observation of the mere fact that, for example, the respi-ration of an angry man is agitated, while that of which is concentrated (albeit in provisional form and without any purpose pro-piously yogi ) becomes rhythmic and calm on its own. The relationship linking the rate of respiration in


the states of consciousness referred Bhoja, and that was certainly seen and experienced by yogis since ancient times, this relationship has served as a tool of "unification" of consciousness. The "unification cion" that talk should be taken in the sense that, ha-cer your rhythmic breathing, and gradually calm, self-gui can "get inside", ie experimentally and feel quite certain lucidity states of consciousness which, being one awake, are inaccessible, and especially the states of consciousness character-ised to sleep. (That's why very often, the novice of prana-yama has managed to sleep just take common respiratory rhythm to the rhythm that characterizes the dream.) Indeed, it is true that the breathing rate of man who sleeps is slower than that of a man awake. In making, thanks to pranayama, this rhythm of sleep, the yogi can enter without giving up his lucidity, "states of consciousness" themselves of sleep. Indian ascetics known four modalities of consciousness (other than the "static state") daily consciousness, the dreams of sleep, sleep without the sound and the "cataleptic consciousness. Through pranayama, is increasingly extending the spinnaker-ration and aspiration (the purpose of this practice is to let the largest possible interval between these two moments of respiration) the yogi can thus penetrate all forms of consciousness. To the profane man, there is a discontinuity between these different forms, going from state "awake" state "asleep" unconsciously. The yogi should instead preserve the continuity of consciousness, ie that must penetrate, fir-me and bright, each one of those "states" 3 But the experimentation of the four modes of consciousness that corresponds naturally to a certain breathing rate, and the unification of the "conscience" (which follows from the fact that the yogi suppresses the gap between these four modalities des) , can only be made after a long practice. The imme-diately purpose of pranayama is more modest. This exercise was first acquired a "continuous consciousness", without which there can be no meditation yogi. The breath of man is generally arrhythmic profane this varies according to external circumstances or mental tension. This irregularity causes a dangerous psychic fluidity, and therefore instability and dispersion of attention. Efforts, one can get to watch. But the effort, for Yoga, is a "externalization". The breath should be rit-mica, so unless it can be "forgotten" altogether, at least not so bothered by discontinuity. So, this is through pranayama, to suppress the res-expiratory effort: doing rhythmic breathing must become automatic, so the yogi can forget it. 3 In the Himalayan asrams of Hardwar, Rishikesh, Svargashram, where we live between September 1930 and March 1931, numerous sannyasi trusted us that the purpose of pranayama was to penetrate to the practitioner in the state turiya "cataleptic". We see some who passed much of the day and night in deep "meditation and breathing barely percep-ble. Without doubt, the cataleptic state can be voluntarily pro-Dumps by experienced yogis. The mission of Dr. Teresa Brosse, India (see Ch Laubry and Teresa Brosse, collected papers on the yogis in India, by simultaneous recording of pulse, respiration and electronic trocardiogramas, "Presse medicale", No. 83 October 14, 1936) demonstrated that the reduction of respiration and heart contraction to the degree that takes place only at the threshold of inevitable death, is a genuine physiological phenomenon that yogis can be made voluntarily and not at all the effect of autosuggestion. Needless to add that such yogis can be buried safely. "The restriction of the respi-ration reaches such a degree, sometimes, that some yogis can, without risk, has updated infor-mation buried for some time, with an air VOLUME totally inadequate to ensure their survival. This small reserve of air is , according to them, designed to enable


them to make some inspirations to return to previous state in case of an accident that made them leave their state of yoga, keeping it in danger po "(Dr. J. Filliozat, Magie et Medicine. Paris. 1943 . pp. 115-116, Journal Asiatique, 1937, pp. 521-522). Through pranayama, the yogi comes to know immediately the pulse of his own life, the organic energy discharged by the suction and the expiration. We would say that pranayama is as an application of mind led to organic life, a knowledge of the act, a lucid and quiet entry into the very essence of life. Yoga recommends to the faithful to live, not leave-it to life. Sensory activities overpowered the man, alter and disintegrate. The concentration of this function is vital that results in respiration, in the early days of practice, inexpressible feeling of harmony, wholeness rhythmic, melodic, a leveling of all physiological fluctuations. Followed-tion, reveals a vague feeling of presence in the body, a calm consciousness of one's greatness. These are evidently the-te, simple facts, accessible to everyone as evidenced by all who tested this preliminary discipline of breathing. Professor Stcherbatsky (Nirvana, p. 15, note 2) said that, according to O. Rosenberg, who had tried some yoga exercises in a Japanese monastery, one might compare this nice feeling "to music, especially if performed in person." Respiratory rate is obtained through the harmonization of the three "moments": the aspiration (Puraka), expiration (recaka) and the retention of the air (khumbaka). Each of them should occupy the same duration. With practice, the yogi comes to on long enough, the aim of pranayama is, as stated by Patanjali, the suspension as long as possible of respiration, which are obtained by spacing the pace gradually. The duration of the breath is to measure a matrapramana unit. According to the SkandaPurana a matra corresponds to time needed for respiration (ekasvasamapi matrapranayame nigadyate). The Yogacintamani respiration was determined that this respect to that of the dream, which is equal to two and a half shovel (a shovel is the time to wink). In the practice of prana-yama, matrapramana is used as the unit of measure, ie, which gradually reduces each "moment" of up to respiration of one-twenty-four matra. The measures these matra yogi either mentally repeating the mystic syllable OM as many times as needed, either by moving successively fingers izquierda.4 4 Yoga Aphorismus with the commentary of Bhoja Raja (Calcutta 1883), Excursus: Pranayama IN EXTRA-INDIAN asceticism The method to obtain the rate and breath-holding is in the techniques of "mystical physiology" studied by H. Maspero in their work procedures to "feed the vital principle" in the ancient Taoist religion (Journal Asiatique, April-ju-ing, July-September 1937, ps. 177-252, 353-430), there is called "respiration embryo ", t ai-si. The main purpose of this exercise is to obtain respiratory Long Life (tch 'anh chen), which the Taoists interpreted as "a material immortality of the body itself" (Maspero, 178). The "embryonic breathing" is not therefore co-mo pranayama, a year before the meditation, exercise nor a helper. On the contrary, is sufficient unto itself. The "embryonic breathing" serves as pranayama, to prepare the merger and the penetration of spiritual awareness in areas inaccessible to her, but realizes a process of mystical physiology "after which the body's life is prolonged indefinitely. Taoism is reminiscent of Hatha-Yoga, which is similar in some ways, as well as certain erotic practices that there are (the retention of semen) remind us to Tantrism (see below). But what remains a concern for China, first, is always indefinite prolonga-tion of material life, while the haunting thought of India is the conquest of spiritual freedom, the transfiguration, the "deification" of the body .


Here is some Taoist texts dealing with the breathing technique-tory. "You need to be installed in a separate room, close the doors, placed in a bed that has a flexible mat and pillow-hada two and a half inches in height, lying with the body in proper direction, close your eyes and hold the air in the diaphragm-ma-chest, so a hair placed over the nose and mouth does not move (tchongki Tchen, Maspero, 203). An author from the late sixth century, Li Ts 'ientch' eng, recommends "keeping acos-graph, hands and eyes closed, hold your breath until you reach 200 and then recently expelled from inside the mouth "(MASP-ro, 203). Retain the air, here the most important. After long exercise, is can get to keep the air time pp. 43-42; Dasgupta, Yoga as Philosophy and Religion, pp. 145-147; Rosel, Die Grundlagen psychologischen, pp. 32-36, etc.. 3, 5, 7, 9, breaths, then 12, 120, etc. To achieve immortality, it is necessary to retain the air in the lungs by the breathing space of 1,000. It is much harder to practice the technique for the "internal respiration", ie breathing "embryonic". As this is purely internal, is not holding your breath in the manner of the ancient Taoists. An example capital: "Every time we have plenty of time, after having absorbed air, take a piece of quiet, uninhabited, undo her hair, loose clothing and lie down, with the body in correct position, to stretch hands and feet not close (hands), ensure that the mat is clean, the sides of which hang to the floor (...). Then ar-Moniz breaths: when they encountered (each) instead (which corresponds viscera to each), tragar (the air). until we hold so unbearable. Darkening the heart to not think (for the Chinese, the organ of thought is the heart), let the air go where want, and when we will be unbearable, mouth open and eject; just expelled the air, breathing is fast, harmonizing breaths, after seven to eight puffs, its rate ra-calm quickly. Then restart again to melt the air in the same way. If we have time to spare, stop after ten "foundry (...). We can not melt the breathing every day, every ten or five days, if we have time, or if we feel that we can not communicate, if the four members feel extremely hot, then jhagamoslo "(Maspero, ps. 220-221 ). Some of the results reached by this "embryonic breathing ria" similar "to the" powers "yogis (siddhi). Then they can" to enter the water (without drowning) or walk on fire (without burning) " assures us the famous treaty oral formulation is rapportant efficace et secrete various procedures souffle d'absorb it (Mas-but, p. 222). The retention of the air is particularly prominent in the cure of diseases in "(Maspero, p. 363). "It brings the breath, then down and held for as long as possible: meditating on the diseased area, through thinking there is carried through the air and also thought it made fighting the disease, tra-shoot force the passage blocked. When we can no longer hold the air is expelled and is restarted from twenty to fifty times; exercise should be stopped noticing the sweat covering the sick place. Is restarted daily at midnight or five, the rate at the cure "(Maspero, p. 364). In the neo-Taoist practices, the role of thought becomes more important. The "Discourse" of SSEU-ma tch 'engcheng reminds us that "those who absorb the air (...) should follow the think-ing when that comes into their guts, that the humours (of the viscera use) are penetrated (by air), each (entrance-da) in accordance with (viscera), headed, so the air may circulate throughout the body and cure all diseases ... "(But-but, p. 369) . It is likely that at least in its neo-Taoist way, the discipline has suffered respiratory


influence of Tantric Yoga: Certain respiratory practices and sexual simultaneously entered China from the seventh century of the Christian era (see below) . Dr. Jean Filliozat concluded for a copy of India, categorically: "Taoism could not have copied the notion of the physiological role of respiration systematized in this way, the old Chinese medicine because it did not exist "(Taoism et Yoga in Vietnam, No. 3, August 1949, ps. 113-120). On the other par-te, in China there were certain techniques archaic shamanic structure, who programmed the imitation of movements and breathing of the animals (see our book Le shamanism archaĂŻque et les techniques de l'Extase, p . 402). Breathing "deeply and quiet" of ecstasy was like the breathing of the animals during hibernation, and we know that spontaneity and fullness of animal life was, for the Chinese, the quintessential model of a perfect existence harmony with the Cosmos. Marcel Granet joint function admirably sums orga-cal and spiritual this embryonic respiration, characteristic of both organic and full of ecstasy. "Whoever wants to avoid vertigo pamaking and should learn to breathe not only through the your throat, but the whole body from the heels. Only this breath, deep and silent, refines and enriches the subs -tance. Moreover, respiration is imposing both dur-ing the hibernation and during ecstasy. When breathing with the neck bent or extended laminar get to breath and five-taesenciar its vivifying power. The ultimate goal is to establish a kind of internal circulation of the vital principles in such a way that the individual can remain perfectly waterproof and endure without molestation from the immersion test. became one waterproof, independent, invulnerable, from the moment you see po - art of eating and breathing in a closed circuit, a powerful way to an embryo "(Marcel Granet, La pense chinoise, Paris, 1934, ps. 514515). It is possible, then, that Indian influences in the media have acted neo-Taoist claiming for, not scientific Chinese medicine, but the tradition of "mystical" autocto-na: now, this still had the nostalgia immemorial of bliss and spontaneity animals. However, Lao Tzu (Tao Te Ching, 6) and Tchouang Tse (Chapter 15) already knew the "respiration methods. The breathing technique is also used by the mystic island-mica (J. Goldziher, Vorlesungen der Tiber Islam, Heidelberg, 1910, p. 164, M. Moreno, Muslim mystics and Indian mysticism in Lateranensi Annali, 1946, ps. 102 -- 212, esp. p. 140, and especially L. Gar-det, La mention du nom divin (dhikr) dans la mystique musulmane, "Revue thomiste, 1952, ps. 641-679, 1953, ps. 197-213, study uti-ized below). Whatever this origen5 res-expiratory technique within the Islamic tradition, it is clear that some Muslim mystics of India have been copied and practiced the financial years yogis. (One of them, Prince Muhammad Dara Shikoh, attempt to develop a mystical synthesis Indo-Islamic Mahfuz-ul-Hak, Majma-ul-Bahrain or the mingling of the two Oceans, Calcutta, libraries Indica, 1929.) The technique of dhikr has sometimes surprising formal analogy with the Hindu discipline of breaths. Hughes (Dictionary of Islam, London, 1885, p. 703 et seq.) Re-took the information that a priest of the border region had practiced ghana af-dhikr so getting suspend breathing for nearly three hours. (Concerning the dhikr, see below.) An interesting problem is raised by the hesychasm. Cer 5 It is known that, according to some authors-and first Max Horten, Indische StrĂśmung Mystik in der islamischen (2 vol. Heidelberg 1927-28) - Sufism would have been a powerful influence hindu. Louis Massignon mos-ing the exaggeration of this thesis (Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la vie mystique musulmane, Paris, 1922, pp. 63 and 80) and Mario Moreno has lately come to negative results regarding the importance


of The Indian contribution to the Islamic mystical tradition (p. 210). But the particular problem of erecting the Muslim breathing techniques is raised. Preliminary cough ascetic meditation methods used by the Mon-jes hesychast present point of contact with the techniques yogis mainly with pranayama. Here's how the Father Irenaeus Hau-slierr summarizes the essence of the method of prayer hesychast "double Comporta exercise, onfalopsia and indefinite repetition of the prayer of Jesus:" jSenor Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me! "Sen -Tarsus in the dark, heads down, staring in the middle of the belly, in other words, the navel, trying to discover there the lu-gar of the heart, without pause, repeat this exercise, always accompanied by the same invocation, following the rhythm of breaths, as slowly as possible, and with perseverance in this mental prayer was over to find what was sought, the place of the heart, and with and in all sorts of wonders and science "( Irenaeus Hau-Sherr, La Methode dOraison Hesychaste, Orientalia Christiana, vol. IX, 2, Rome, 1927, p. 102). Here is an excerpt from the solitario6 Niceforo (second half of the thirteenth century) recently translated by Jean Gouillard (Petite Philocalie of priere du coeur, Paris, 1953, p. 204): "As for you, as I told you, sit down, focus your mind, enter it, "he re-spect to your spirit-in the nose is the path that takes your breath to get to the heart. Push it, compel it to descend to your co-razon while the intake air. When they arrived, really the subsequent joy, you have nothing to regret. As the man who returned home after an absence does not hide his joy of being able to find his wife and children, so the Spirit, once bound the soul, overflows with unspeakable joy and pleasures. Brother's mine, usually because your mind not to rush to get out of there. At first, you need encouragement, it's the least we can say, to bear this confinement and the narrowing interiors. But once you have contracted the habit, and not experience any pleasure in the external circuits. Because "the kingdom of God is within us" and for anyone who is looking to this, the whole outside world becomes vile and negligible. " In the eighteenth century, doctrines and techniques were fa-family hesychast yet for the monks of Athos. Here is some frag-ments Encheridion the Hagiorita Nicodemus: "... This return of 6 The first witness, with date certain, the prayer of Jesus combined with breathing techniques (Jean Gouillard, Petite Philocalie, pag. 185). spirit, beginners should get used to making it as taught by the divine Parent-tioned Fasting: bowing his head and chin support-ing high in the chest ... "(I. Hausherr, p. 107)." Why is necessary to keep the breath in meditation. Because your spirit or the act of his spirit from his youth are accustomed to des-parramarse and sensible things scattered about the outside world because of this, when she prays this prayer, to not breathe continuously as required by nature, but re-take your breath a little, until the word has said the prayer inside once, and then her breathe, as the divine Fathers taught. Because, as a result of this momentary retention of respiration, the heart is annoying and clingy and experimented suffering by not receiving the necessary air to their nature, and for its part, the spirit, thanks to this method is focus more easily and goes to the heart (...) Because through this checkpoint-cion momentary breathing hard and thick heart-giie you love, and the humidity of the heart, to be conveniently compressed and warmed, becomes Consequently tender, sensitive, humble and more willing to shed tears of compunction and easily (...) Because that short because of retention and the heart feels pain and discomfort through the trouble and that suffering, the poisoned bait vomits pleasure and


the sin which had swallowed above ... "(p. 109). Finally we should mention the basic treaty, La methode de la sainte et priere attention, long attributed to Symeon the New Theologian: "The booklet could be of Nicephorus's contemporary if not of the same Nicephorus, as he thinks, not without reason Irenaeus Hausherr (Jean Gouillard, cited, p. 206). The Reverend Father Hausherr had included an edition and translation into the pamphlet in his work: The method hesychast of prayer (the portion that interests us is translated on pages 164-165). We reproduce here the new translation of Jean Gouillard (Petite Philocalie, p. 216): "Then sit in a quiet cell, isolated in a corner and dedicate to do this I say: shut the door, your spirit rises above all purpose vain or passenger. Then, put your chin to your chest, eye directs the body to-gether with all your mind, the center of your body, ie the om-Blige, compresses the suction air that passes through the nose so as not to breathe easily and mentally searches inside your bowels in search of the site of the heart, to which all powers "of the soul like to visit. At first, you will find darkness and opacity stubborn, but if you persevere, if day and night practice this exercise, you will find, joh, wonder! happiness without limits. " Fi-nally, one might cite other texts by authors hesychast eg Gregory of Sinai (1255-1346), of which Philocalie Petite Jean Gouillard includes some major fragments (on the "positions" ascetic for prayer, p. 248 ; on the retention of respiration, p. 249). Also will always look forward to the apology of hesychasm Gregory Palamas (1296-1359) "the last great name of Byzantine theology. (See some excerpts on the work of Jean Gouillard, p. 269-285). Do not be fooled by these external analogies with pranayama. The discipline of breathing and posture are intended, among hesychast, preparing mental prayer, in the Yoga-Sutra, the exercises seek to "unification" of consciousness and the preparation of meditation, and the role of God (Isvara) is quite modest. But it is equally true that the two techniques referred to are under the phenomenological aspects, sufficiently similar to the problem of influence of physiology on the Indian mystic hesychasm can be raised. Not going to elaborate here on such a comparative study hesychasm, see K. Holl, Enthusiasmus und bei Bussgewalt griechischen Monchtum, Leipzig, 1898, p. 214 et seq., M. Jugie, Les origines de la mĂŠthode d'oraison des Hesychast, Echos d'Orient, 30, 1931, p, 179,185, Dr. Andre Blum, Contemplation et ascese, ortho-doxe contribution in CarmĂŠlitaines Etudes, 1948 (Technical and contemplation) p. 49; LHesychasme, Yoga Chretien? Yoga, edited by Jean Masui, Paris 1953, p. 177-195, and the list of topics and bibliographies submitted by Jean Gouillard, Petite Philocalie, P. 22, 37 and L. Gardet, La mention du nom divin, p 645 onwards. "Concentration" and "meditation" YOGA The asana, pranayama and have succeeded in eliminating ekagrata-if only for the short time that lasts the year-the human condition. Motionless, with his breathing rhythm, fiJando their gaze and attention on one point, the yogi mentally beyond the profane mode of being. Begins to become autonomous with respect to Cosmos, the external stresses do not disturb already (in effect having surpassed the "opposite" is insensitive to both cold and heat, and light to dark, etc.). Sensory activity and not projected outward to the objects of the senses psychomental current and is not forced or directed by the distractions, the automatic and memory, this "con-centrated", "unified". This "retreat" outside of the Cosmos is accompanied by a self submersion whose progress they sympathize with the


"withdrawal". The Yogi turns itself takes possession of himself, surrounded himself with "defenses", more and more powerful to defend against an invasion from outside, in a word, it becomes invulnerable. It is understood that such a concentration, tested in to-two levels (asana, pranayama, ekagrata) is accompanied by increased attention with regard to organic life itself. The layman feels his body as diametrically opposed to the yogi's body sensation while it lasts the year. The body stability, decreasing the respiratory rate, the cam-po weakens the awareness to coincide with a point, as well as the echo that thanks to this, the yogi has the lowest click-ture of the inner life All this makes it comparable to the yogi with a plant, apparently. Moreover, such approval does not imply-ing any determination derogatory, although it corresponds to reality. The plant form is not for the Indian consciousness, an impoverishment, but the opposite: an enrichment of life. In Puranic mythology, as well as in iconography, the lotus rhizome and are the symbols of cosmic events. The creation is symbolized by a lotus floating on primordial waters. The always mean excess vegetation, fertility, hatching of all germs. Regarding Indian painting (for example, the frescoes of Ajanta) the beatitude of the characters is expressed through gestures soft, undulating vines like skis: one has the impression that the veins of these mystical figures running instead of blood, plant sap. A priori, therefore, this approval of the yogi in a state of concentration in a plant is not completely false. The Indian, thinking of the closed circuit continuous-circuits organic life to devoid of acrimony and explosive moments, he feels a nostalgia that takes real event category. We do not believe, however, that the abolition of the human condition through the stillness, the tax rate of respiration, the concentration in one point, they aim to take this extreme step back which means the integration in the vegetable form. Everything persi-gue, in the Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali and primarily what was persi-ment in the other species of Yoga, clearly tarnish such a hypothesis. The symmetries found in vegetable posture, breathing and concentration yogis seem per-fectly explained by the archaic symbolism of the "renaissance". Morphological-mind, could approve the asana and pranayama to the "embryonic breaths" used by Taoism, 7 to the position "embryo" that so many people impose their dead before burial (in the hope of a speedy return to life), and finally to certain ceremonies of initiation and regeneration carried out in closed spaces, symbol of the matrix. We can not stress more about these ceremonies here: say only that they assume the entire projec-tions of practicing magic in auroral time in a tempus illud mystical. Incipit vita nova (and any regeneration is a "new na-ment") that is not possible if the time has not been abolished, and the "story" also, if the current time does not match the mystical moment of beginning, ie the creation of the worlds, the cosmography. In this sense, the body position and breathing embryonic yogi, although pursued (at least in the Yoga-Sutra, and other forms of Yoga) one ob-jective can be regarded as ontological conditions, em-bryonic, vegetative . Moreover, the asana and ekagrata imitate a divine archetype: the yogi position, in itself, has religious value. It is true that the yogi does not mimic the "gestures" and the "passions" of divinity, j and with reason! Because the God of the Yoga-Sutra, Isvara, is a pure spirit that not only has created the world, but also intervenes in history, neither directly nor indirectly. What the yogi imitates, then, is the absence of actions, at least that the proper mode of pure spirit. The defeat the human condition, the "liberation" 7 The purpose of this breathing is, according to Taoist sources, to imitate the respiration


of the fetus in the womb. "On returning to base, the origin, ale-Jamos to old age, we return to the status of fetuses," this said in the preface of Tai-si K'eou Kiue (oral formulation of embryonic respiration) cited by Maspero in Los procedures for "Nurturing the vital principle" in the ancient Taoist religion (Journal Asiatique, April 1937). purusa perfect autonomy of all this has its archetype in Isvara. The renunciation of the human condition, or practice yoga, has religious value in the sense that the yogi imitates the mo-modality Isvara: immobility, concentration itself. In other varieties of Yoga, asana and clearly can acquire ekagrata religious value by the simple fact that the Yogi, through them, becomes a living statue, imitating iconogra-graphic model. The act of making rhythm and already at the limit, suspend respi-ration, greatly facilitates concentration (Dharana). Because, says Patanjali (YS, II, 52, 53) through pranayama the veil of mist you, tears and intellect acquires capacity (yogyata) Concentration (Dharana, II, 53). The yogi can check the quality of its concentration through the pratyahara (which usually you word translates as "shrinkage of the senses" or "abstraction" but we prefer to translate as "power to release the activity sen-Sorial of the domination of external objects). According to the Yoga-Sutra, II, 54, one might consider when pratyahara as the faculty by which the intellect (citta) has a sensation as if the touch was real. In discussing this Sutra, says Bojhan senses, instead of heading toward the object "remain in themselves" (svarupamatre svasthanam). Although the senses and not to go towards external objects, and that its activity ceases, the intellect (citta) does not thereby lose its property of having sensory representations. When the citta want to know an external object, it uses a sensory activity, it is thanks to the powers available can-cer cone object. Being obtained directly by the contemplation, this "knowledge" is, from the standpoint yogi, more effective than normal consciousness. "So writes Vyasa, wisdom (prajna) of the yogi knows all things, as they are" (Yoga Bas-hya, II, 45). This subtraction of sensory activity domain of external objects (pratyathara) is the final stage of asceticism psychophysiological. Henceforth, the Yogic vera no longer "distracted" or "troubled" by the senses, sensory activity, by memory, and so on. Any activity is suspended. The citta which is the mass-ordering and clears psychic sensations coming from abroad, can serve as a mirror for objects without the senses come between him and the object. A layman is unable to acquire that freedom, because his spirit, rather than remain stable, is, however, constantly violated by the activity of the senses, the subconscious and the "thirst for life". In making the citta vritti nirodhah (suppression of the psycho-mental states), the citta remains within itself (svarupamatre). But this "autonomy" of the intellect does not result in the suppression of the "phenomena". Being detached from the phenomena, the yogi still watching. Instead of knowing, as now, through the forms (rupa) and mental states (cittavrtti), the yogi contemplates directly the essence (tattva) of all objects. Autonomy with respect to stimuli from the outside world and also with respect to the dynamic subconscious autonomy that made through the pratyhara enables the yogi to experience a triple technique that would call samyama books. This term desig-na to the final stages of yogic meditation, the last three "members of yoga" (yoganga), namely: the concentration (Dharana), the "meditation" itself (dhyana) and stasis ( samadhi). These spiritual exercises are only feasible after sufficient repetition of the physiological and other exercises when the yogi has mastered his body perfectly, your subconscious and psychomental flow. These exercises are called "subtle" (antaranga) to give well to


understand that involve no new physiological techniques. Thus it seems that the yogi who begins one of them (the concentration, for example) is maintained within its limits with difficulty and it happens to slip, against his will, in the "meditation" or "stasis". This is why these three exercises yogis have a name common to the three samyama (Vacaspati Mis-ra, ad Vyasa, III, 1), The "concentration" (Dharana, from the root dhr, "gird, keep oppressed-mido") is actually a ekagrata, a "fixation on a single point, but whose content is strictly notional (See note II, 3). In other words, Dharana, and is thereby distinguished from the ekagra-ta, whose only goal is to stop the flow psychomental and "fix it in one point," dharana make that "fixing" in order to understand . Consider the definition expressed by Patanjali: "fixing the mind on one point (desabandhaccittasya Dharana, Yoga-Sutra, III, 1.). Vyasa states that the concentration is usually on" the center (cakra) of the navel, the lotus the heart, in the light of the head at the tip of the nose or the lan-gauge or in any foreign place or object "(ad YS III, 1). Vacaspati Misra adds that you can get without dhardna help of an object on which to focus attention. Commenting on the Yoga-Sutra, I, 36, Vyasa was already talk of the merger "the lotus of the heart," for which came to an experience of pure light. Do not forget this detail: the "inner light" discovered by the concentration in the "lotus of the heart". The experience is already attested in the Upanishads, and always in relation to the encounter with the Self (Atman). The "light of heart" was exceptionally fortunate in all post-mystical method Hindu Upanishads. A purpose of the text of Vyasa, describes long-Vacaspati Misra mind the lotus of the heart: it has eight petals and is situated, his head down, between the abdomen and chest: he must turn left (head up) holding his breath (recaka) and focusing on the intellect (citta). In the center of the lotus is the solar disk and the letter A, and that is the center of the waking state. Above, the moon disc with the letter U, is the sleep center. Higher still is the "ring of fire" with the letter M: the middle of deep sleep. Finally, above this latter is in-cnertra the "highest circle, whose essence is the air" is the center of the fourth state (Turiya, "cataleptic"). In the latter lotus, more exactly in its pericarp, is located the "nerve (nadi) of Brahma" facing upwards flowing into the circle of the sun and the other circles: there begins susumna called nadi, which also crosses the outer circle. There's the center of the citta, by concentrating on this very point, the yogi gets citta consciousness (ie conscious of consciousness). We followed as closely as possible the text of Vacaspati-Misra, with the risk of boring the reader. But it is a "physiological gia mystical" or "subtle" of "organ" that reveal its existence solely in the course of the years of meditation and yogic concentration. This problem will stop us sit down again when pre-meditative techniques of Tantrism, then we will have an opportunity to demonstrate the relationship between "subtle organs", the mystical lyrics, and states of consciousness. However, it is im-portant to note now that the classical yoga tradition, represented by Patanjali, knew and used the schemes of the "mystical physiology" called to occupy an important place in the his-tory of Indian spirituality. In his treatise on Yoga-sara-Samgraha (ed. C. Jha, p. 43), Vijnana Bhiksu cites a passage from Isvara-gita, according to which the duration of Dharana extends the length of time occupied by twelve pra-nayama . "The time required for concentrating the mind on an object (Dharana) equals the time occupied by twelve pranayama" (ie controlled by twelve breaths, and holds equal-days). Extending a dozen times this concentration on one object,


you get the "meditation yogi," the dyana. Patanjali defines well the latter: "A unified current of thought" (YS, III, 2) and Vyasa add to this definition the following gloss: "Continuum of good faith attempts mental (pratyayasyaikatanata) to assimilate the object of meditation, book ! of any other effort to assimilate other objects (pratyayantarenaparamrsto). Vijnana Bhiksu (Yogasora-Samgraha, p. 45) explains this process as follows: when, at the point where he has practiced Dharana, the spirit gets to keep some time to himself, in the shape of the object of meditation, without any interruption caused by the intrusion of another function, then you come to dhyana. Bhiksu gives as an example the contemplation of another god Vishnu or one believes lodged in the lotus of the heart . It is superfluous to point out that this "meditation" yogi differs entirely from secular meditation. First, the table of the normal psychomental experience, no continuum of mind can acquire the density and purity which allow us to achieve the yogic procedures. Second, secular meditation stops either in the outer shape of the objects on which you meditate, and in value, while dhyana can "penetrate" to objects, "assimilate" its roots. Behold, by way of example, the medi-tation yogi regarding the "fire", as is taught today (meditation begins with concentration, Dharana, al-gunas on hot coals that are ahead of Yogi), not regret that so-yogi reveals the phenomena of combustion and its deeper meaning, but also allows you to: 1) identify the process physicochemical which operates on the embers, the combustion process that takes place inside the human body 2) to identify the solar fire with fire, and so on., 3) to unify the content of all these fires, in order to obtain a vision of existence considered "fire", 4 째) to enter the interior of the cosmic process, and to the astral level (the sun) and to the physiological level (human body) as to the infinitesimal level (the particle of fire), 5 째) to reduce all these levels to a pattern common to all, ie the prakrti considered "fire", 6 째) "dominate" the fire inside, thanks to pranayama, upon cessation of respiration (respiration = fire of life), 7 째) finally, extend, through a new "penis "treachery", the "domain", which is grilled in front of him this time (because if the combustion process is identical across the entire universe, everything "domain" part of this process leads to their in-fallibly "domain" total), and so on. In giving this description, close approximation of some of the exercises relating to the "meditation with regard to fire, we had no pretensions to prize open the mechanism of dhyana, we have been content to bring up some samples. Its more specific exercises, moreover-and this should not surprise us-are indescribable. What is difficult to explain is the act of "penetration" in the "Substance of Fire": we must not conceive of this act or as a variety of poetic imagination or intuition of Bergson type. What clearly distinguishes these two irrational impulses to "meditation" yogi, is its consistency, the state of clarity that accompanies it and that leaves no advise it. Indeed, the "mental continuum" not ever escape the control of the yo-gui. In no time this continuum is enriched laterally, through uncontrolled associations, analogies, symbols, etc.. In no time, meditation is no longer an instrument of penetration into the essence of things, ie finalme8nte, an instrument of knowledge, "assimilation" of what real.8 THE ROLE OF Isvara Unlike Samkhya, Yoga affirms the existence of a God, Isvara. This God, Let us understand well, is not creative (for the Cosmos, life and man, as we have been "created"


by the prakrti, since all come from the primordial substance). But Isvara can speed in some men, the release process, helps us to arrive soon to samadhi. This God, mentioned by 8 As we will see, meditation yogi played one of the most important roles in Buddhist techniques. Patanjali, is rather a God of the yogis. It can only come to the aid of a Yogi, is a man who has already elected to Yoga. Moreover, the role of Isvara is quite modest. You can, for example, make the yogi who takes it as its concentration to obtain the samadhi. According to Patanjali (YS II, 45) that divine assistance is not the result of a "desire" or a "feeling"-because God can not have no desires or emotions-but that of a "sim-Patia metaphysics" between Isvara and purusha, sympathy explained by the correspondence of their structures. Isvara is a free purusa from eternity, never reached by the klesa. (Y. S., I, 24). Vyasa, the mind is co-text, notes that the difference between "liberal spirit rado e Isvara lies in this: the first is found in other times, in relation (even illusory) with psychomental experience. while Isvara was always free. God is not attracting nor by rituals, nor by devotion, not by faith in his "grace" but its "essence" works instinctively, so to speak, with the self that seeks to free by Yoga. It is rather a metaphysical order sympathy, which joins two related entities. It might be said that this sympathy that Isvara shows with respect to certain yogis, those men who seek liberation through yogic techniques, has exhausted the capacity that God possessed to inquire about the fate of humans. That is why Patanjali and Vyasa not reach accurately explain the intervention of God in Nature. You realize that I go into the dialectics Isvara Samkhya-Yoga somewhat irregularly. Indeed, the Samkhya states (and Yoga endorses this assertion) that the substance (prakriti) is working for their "instincts" to teleological "in the liberation of man. Thus, the role God plays in the acquisition of this freedom is devoid of importance, the cosmic substance release will take care of the numerous "I" (purusha) prisoners in networks illusory existence. Patanjali, although introduced in the dialectics of the "sote riologica Samkhya doctrine this new element is Isvara perfectly useless, does not recognize the importance they give their com-ments late, however. What matters first in the Yoga-Sutra, is the technique in other words, will, self-control and concentration of the yogi. ^ For that, however, felt the need to introduce Patanjali there to Isvara? Because Isvara corresponded to an experimental order of reality: Isvara can indeed induce samadhi, a condition that the yogi practices Isvarapranidhana, ie the worship of Isvara (YS II, 45). When pro-put together and classify all yogic techniques valued by "classical tradition, Patanjali could not do a whole series neglect experiences that only the concentration in Isvara had made possible. In other words: at the Yoga tradition of pub-wholly magical, that is only appealing to the will and personal strength of the ascetic, there is another tradition, "mystic", in which the final stages of yoga were practiced by least facilitated through a devotion-even very convoluted, very "intellectual" - towards God. Moreover, as presented through Patanjali and Vyasa, Isvara is devoid of God's greatness and all-powerful creator-rous, and pathos inherent in the dynamic and severe God of the mystical variety. Isvara is not, in short, but a yogi archetype: a Ma-croyogui, very probably, a mold of some sects yogis. Indeed, Patanjali notes that Isvara is the guru of the Elders of time immemorial: it adds, Isvara is not bound by Time (YS I, 26). Remember now, however, a significant detail which perfectly capture-fied only later: in a


dialectic of liberation where their presence was not necessary, Patan-jali has a "God" which gives, indeed, only a modest role: Isvara can facilitate the obtaining of samadhi who take it as an object of its concentration. But samadhi, as we shall see, can also be obtained without this "concentration in Isvara. Yoga practicing the Buddha and his contemporaries may very well do without this "concentration on God." We can well imagine a Yoga accept all the dialectics Samkhya and we have no reason to believe that a similar Yoga, Magic and atheist, has not existed. However, would be introduced at Patanjali in the Yoga Iswara, Iswara was then, as it were an experimental idea: indeed, appealed to Isvara yogis, but had been released by observation technique exclusive Yoga. We note here the polarity magic, mysticism, we learn to know better, in all its forms, which are innumerable. What is noteworthy is the increasingly active role it plays in the commentators Isvara late. Misra and Vijnana Vacaspati Bhiksu, for example, attach great importance to Isvara. It is true that these two commentators interpret Patanjali and Vyasa in the light of spiritualism to them contemporary. Now they lived in a time when the whole India was steeped in mysticism and devotional events. But precisely this almost universal victory of the "mystical" is one of the most significant when it comes to Yoga "classic", that's why I moved away from the "magic" that originally characterized it. Thus, under the joint influence of certain ideas of the Vedanta and bhakti (devotion mistica), long-Vijnana Bhiksu stops on "the special grace of God" (Yoga-sara-Samgraha, p. 9, 18-19, 4546). Another commentator, Nilakantha, says God, although doing nothing to help yogis in the manner of a magnet (see Dasgupta, Yoga as Philosophy and Religion, p. 89). The same author agrees to Isvara a "will" can predesti-ordinate the lives of men, because "forcing those who want to raise to do good deeds, and those they want to do-ing flattened misdeeds" (p . 88). jQue far away are we, then, the modest role assigned to Isvara Patanjali! Enstasy AND HYPNOSIS Recall that the last three "members" of Yoga (yoganga) represent "experiences" and "states" so closely linked that they are called with the same name: samyana (literally, go together, vehicle). Carry on samyana then some "pla-no" (Bhumi) means: there make both the "concentration (Dharana), the" meditation (dhyana) and stasis (samadhi): this "flat "or level can be, for example, inert matter (the earth, etc..) or the incandescent matter (the" fire ", etc.).. The passage of the "concentration" to "meditation" does not require the ac-tion of any new technique. Similarly, exercise does not need any additional yogi to perform the samadhi from the time in the Yogi has succeeded in "focus" and "meditate." Samadhi, 9 the "in-stasis" Yogi is the end result and the crown-ing all the efforts of the ascetic and spiritual exercises. 9 The meanings of the word samadhi are: union, wholeness; absorption in, total concentration of mind; conjuration. It is generally translated as "concentration", but then there is a likelihood of confusion with the dha-rana. For this reason is that we have chosen to translate in-stasis, stasis, conjunctions. Countless are the problems to be overcome if we want to understand what this "stasis" yogi. Even leaving aside the meanings adjacent samadhi adopts the concept in Buddhist literature as well as classes in "mud-cas" Yoga and taking into consideration only the meaning and value assigned by Patanjali and his commentators, difficulties remain yet. Because on the one hand, the samadhi expresses an "experience" indescribable every


point of view, moreover, this "ENSTAT experience" is not univalent, its forms are numerous. Let us try, proceeding in stages, to see it re-fiere samadhi. This word is used in principle in its acceptance epistemological: Samadhi is that state of contemplation in which thought immediately internalizes the object's shape without the aid of the imagination (svarupa) in its essential aspect and as if "it were emptied himself "(arthamatranirbhasam svarupacunyamiva, YS, III, 3). Commenting on this text, Vacaspati Misra cites a passage from Visnu Purana (VI, 7, 90) which says that the yogi that I miss the "imagination", and does not consider the act and the object of meditation as different from one another . There is a real match between the knowledge of the subject and the object of knowledge: This item is no longer presented to consciousness in ways that delimit and define it as a phenomenon, but "as if emptied of self." Illusion and imagination (Kalpana) are so definitely abolished by the sama-dhi. Or as expressed Vijnana Bhiksu (Yoga-sara-samgrana, p. 44) leads to samadhi "when released dyana separate notions of meditation, the object of meditation and meditative subject, and remains only in the form of order thought ", ie an-when there is nothing more out of this new ontological dimension represented by the transformation of the" object "(the Mundo) in" knowledge-possession ". Vijnana Bhiksu adds that there is a clear difference between dhyana and samadhi: meditation can be interrupted, ' "if the senses come into contact with attractive ob-jects, while a state of samadhi is invulnerable, com-pletely closed to stimuli . We must not consider this state yogi, however, as a simple hypnotic trance. The "psychology" hindu knows hypnosis, and attributes it to a state of casual and temporary concentration (viksipta). Some texts of the Mahabharata reveals the popular Hindu conception concerning the hypnotic trance: According to this concept, that trance is not only an automatic barrier at the "river of conscience" and not a yogi ekagrata. The fact that yogis not confused with trance hypnosis yogis are clearly highlighted in a passage from the Mahabharata (XIII, 40, 46, 47, 50-51, 41, 13, 18). Devascarman, which should set out on pilgrimage in fulfillment of a vow, asks his disciple, Vipul, to protect his wife, Ruci, the enchantment of Indra. Vipul then looks into his eyes and Ruci becomes unconscious of the influence of magnetic my-ated (uvcsa raksane Yukta abudhyata na ca sa tam, 40, 59). Once the operating fixed gaze, his spirit enters the body and this is Ruci "petrified like a painting." Upon entering the room Indra, Ruci would get up and do their duty of hostess, but "having been immobilized and subjugated" by Vipul "was unable to make a move. Indra spoke: "Calls by Ananga, God of Love, I've come for your love, | oh, you, (female) happy smile!" Ruci, who wanted to answer, "He was unable to get up and talk" because Vipul "had sub-yugado their senses through yoga chains (babandha yogabandhaic ca tasyah sarvendriyani sah) and he could not move (Nirvikar: unchanged , 41, 3-12). The hypnotic process is summarized as follows: "uniting (samyojya) rays from the eyes of the rays to the eyes of her, get into your body, such as wind ef penetrates through the air" (40, 56-57) .10 For oti or side Kallat Bhatta in his treatise Spanda Karika, describes the differences between the hypnotic trance and sonambulo type, and viksipta status samadhi.11 is but a shutdown of mental flow emotional or volitional origin, we must not confuse this barrier with the samadhi, which is obtained exclusively through the ekagrata, or after the plurality of mental states (sarvartha) has been suppressed. (Y. S., Ill, 11).


The hypnotic trance is certainly means yogis, but pn itself is not an experienced yogi. Vipul's episode proves that even non-technical literature, hypnosis was known and described with considerable precision. See below. or S. N. Dast; uptu. Yopa Philosophy, pag. 352. Lindquist Sigurd dedicate a whole book. Die Mvthcden des Yoga (Lunja, 1932) to demonstrate the ca-mttiT hipntjlico of r \]) eriencias yogis. Minimal contact with yoga sustcntacion would have saved the theory of so reckless. Samadhi "With support"

More than a "knowledge", samadhi is a "state", a form of Yoga ENSTAT specified. We will see then that this "state" enables the I autorrevelaci6n (purusha), through an act that is not part of an "experience". But not just any samadhi reveals the self, nor any "stasis" final liberation becomes real. Patanjali and his commentators go-tion distinguish species or stages of supreme concentration. When samadhi is achieved with the help of an object or an idea (ie, setting the thinking at a point in space or an idea), the stasis Samprajnata called samadhi (enstasy "supported" or "differentiated"). When, however, samadhi is obtained outside of any "relation" (either outside or menial order), ie when you get a "conjunction" in which no in-terviene any "otherness", but is sion simply a deep understanding of self, is the asamprajnatasamadhi ( "stasis" no differ-ences ") that done. Vijnana Bhiksu (Yoga-sara-Samgraha, p. 4) notes that the Samprajnata Samadhi is a medium of free - cion to the extent that it allows the understanding of truth and put an end to all kinds of suffering. asamprajnata But samadhi destroys the "impressions (saáš skÄ ra) of all history mental functions" and get up to stop the forces already karmicas highlighted by the previous activity of the yogi. During the "stasis differentiated, continuous Vijnana Bhiksu, all mental functions are" detained "(" inhibited ") with the exception of the function that" meditating on the object ", while the asamprajnata samddhi away any "consciousness": the set of mental functions is blocked. "During this stasis, there is no other trace of the mind (citta) outside impressions (samskara) left-das ago (by its past performance) . If these perceptions do not exist, there would be no possibility of return to consciousness. " We are therefore in the presence of two kinds of "states" or diferentesr the first series is acquired through Yogic technique of concentration (Dharana) and meditation (dhyana): The second class includes in fact only one " state ", namely the in-stasis unprovoked, the" abduction ". No doubt even this assem-Prajnatara samadhi is always due to the prolonged efforts of the yogi. It is a gift, not a state of grace. We can not reach it without first adequately tested in samadhi species contained in the first class. It is the culmination of Innu merables "concentrations" and "meditations" that preceded it. But without the call arrives without provoke him, without expressly prepare ourselves: that's why it can be called: a "rapture". Clearly, differentiated, involves several stages: this is because this is perfectible and not calling a "state" absolute and irreducible. Generally refers to four stages or species "arguments" (Savitar-ka), "nonargumentative" (nirvitarka), "reflective" (Savica), "adrenal-inflected" (nirvicara; YS I, 42-44). Patanjali also knows another terminology: vitarka, VicÄ ra, ananda, asmita (YSI, 17) .12 But as noted Bhiksu Vijnana, when playing this second list, "the four are purely


technical terms are conventionally applied to different forms of realization. These four forms or stages of samadhi Samprajnata, continues Vijnana Bhiksu, re-present an ascent: the gratia of God (Isvara) allows, in some cases directly reach higher states, and intonation is useless ces returning backwards to make prelimi-nary statements. But when this divine grace intervenes, perform the four stages gradually while keeping the same object of meditation (ie Visnu). These four stages are also the name of Samapatti, "coalescences (YS, I, 41 in the com-ments of Vyasa and Vacaspati Misra, see also Note II, 4). In the first stage, savitarka ( "argumentative"-YS, I, 42 - because it presupposes a preliminary analysis) is thought identify with the object meditated on "essential whole," for an object consists of a thing, and a notion of a word, and these three "aspects" of reality are, during meditation, in perfect correspondence with thought (citta). The savitarka samadhi is obtained through the concentration on objects in their true aspect faced Substantial (sthula, "rude") .- is a "direct perception" of objects that extends to both its past and its future. For example, he says Vijnana Bhiksu if savitarka samadhi practices with respect to Vishnu, is faced with 12 It has been found long ago the parallelism of the four Samprajnata samadhi and the four Buddhist dhyana. Note II, 4. this God under way Substantial and located on the celestial region belongs to him, but also is perceived as it was in the past and as will be in a more or less distant future. Which means that this kind of samadhi, although produced by the "coalescence" (Samapatti) with the aspect "rude" a reality (in our example, the direct perception of the embodiment of Vishnu) is not yet reduced to the immediate object, but it "seeks" and "assimilates" also in its temporal duration. The next stage, nirvitarka ( "non-argumentative") is given by Vyasa submitted in these terms (ad YS, I, 43): "Citta becomes nirvitarka after the memory has stopped working, ie after they cease logical associations or verbal at the time that the object is empty and meaningless name, when the thought is reflected immediately taking the shape of the object and shining exclusively with this object if (svarupa). In this meditation on thought is freed from the presence of "I" since the act of cognition ( "I know this object" or "this object is mine") does not occur: instead thought is (becomes) the object (Vacaspati Misra, I, 43). The object is no longer known by the associations of ideas-that is integrated into the series of representations, located by rekciones extrinsic (name, dimension, use, type) and for saying so depleted by the usual process of abstraction of thought profane-but is understood directly in its existential nakedness, as a concrete fact and irreducible. Note that in these stages, the re-samadhi Samprajnata candle as a "state" obtained through a certain "knowledge." The contemplation enables enstasy: which, in turn, enabling you to penetrate deeper into reality, causing (or fa-cilitate) a new contemplation, a new "state" yogi. It is necessary to always remember this step of "knowledge" or "state" because, in our view, is the hallmark of samadhi (as, on the other hand, the whole "meditation" Indian). Samadhi occurs in the "split level" that India tends to perform and that is the paradoxical way of being to know. This "experience" supra-in which reality is dominated and assimi-lated by knowledge, eventually leading to the fusion of all modalities of being. We'll see a little later if they reside alii the logic and the main function of samadhi. For now, we insist that both the savitarka as nirvitarkasamadhi are "knowledge states"


achieved by the concentration and meditation on the formal unity of the "objects". But these steps must be overcome if we are to penetrate the essence of things. This is how the yogi meditation begins Savic ( "reflexive"), the thought does not stop and the appearance of material objects is (objects composed of aggregates of atoms, particle physics, etc.). On the contrary, direct knowledge of those cores thought infinite-Simale ENERGY treaties call Tanmatra Samkhya and Yoga. It pat me on the aspect "subtle" (suksma) dQ matter; is penetrated, says Vijnana Bhiksu until ahamkara and prakriti, but this meditation is also accompanied by the consciousness of Time and Space (not of the "experience" of a given space of a given period, but the conscience of the categories time-space). When thought is "identify" with Tanmatra without experiencing the "feeling" that by their energetic nature. produce these Tanmatra, ie when the yogi to assimilate "in perfect shape, without this resulting from a feeling of pain, pleasure or violence, or inertia, and so on., and without being conscious of Time and Space obtained nirvicara status. The think-ing then merges with those infinitesimal energy nuclei which form the true foundation of psycho-fi universe. Is this a real immersion in the essence of world-do physically, and not only qualified and individual phenomena-ized (Vyasa and Misra Vacaspati discuss these stages in their com-ments on Yoga-Sutra, I, 44, 45) . These four stages of samadhi Samprajnata bijasamadhi are called (samadhi with seed) or salambana samadhi (with "medium"), then, explains Vijnana Bhiksu, they are in relation to a "substrate" (support) and create trends that are as "seeds" for future functions of consciousness (see also Bhoja, ad YS, I, 17). In contrast, asamprajnata samadhi is nirbija "seeded" because absolute knowledge discovers the ontological ple-tude, where being and knowing are not severed and-two. Fixed in samadhi, consciousness (citta) can now have the immediate revelation of the Self (vuruso). For the mere fact that this awareness is carried out, abolished the pain of existence (Vijnana Bhiksu, Yoga-sara-Samgraha, p. 5). Also in this section of the enstasy-so difficult to define-known two other varieties of contemplation: 1) anandanugata (when, abandoning all perception, even the realities of "subtle", experienced the joy of eternal brightness and sattva self-consciousness), and 2?) asmitanugata (which is reached when the intellect, Buddhi, completely isolated from the outside world, but that does not reflect the self). Vijnana Bhiksu (op. cit, p. 12) explains the name of this last contemplation with the fact that the Yogi attains his own ego and includes: "I am (ASMI) other than my body." It also called dharma-megha-samadhi, the "cloud of dharma" (YS, IV, 29), traduction difficult technical terms, because Dharma can be a lot of meanings (order, virtue, justice, foundation, etc.. ), but that seems to refer to an abundance (rain) of virtues that fills the yogi immediately. This simultaneously experience a sense of sa-turing and breaking over the world, a feeling of "jbasta ya!" with respect to all knowledge and consciousness, and this total renunciation leads to asamprajnatasamadhi, the enstasy undifferentiated. For mystical yogis, is at this stage that intervenes the revelation of God (Isvara) as expressed Vijnana Bhiksu (op. cit, p. 13), using a traditional image (per-banks within the smrti, when the twenty-fifth principle-that is the purusha, the Self-realize their heterogeneity with respect to the other twenty-four principles (which depend on prakriti), is how we perceive, not the twenty-sixth principle, which is the Supreme Self, God. After the contemplation of his own ego-goal of the advocates of Samkhya-comes the contemplation of God. But as I have-we have noted, Vijnana Yoga Bhiksu interprets in light of the mystic staff. We shall see what are the


implications This "reflection" of the self, fully achieved in the "samadhi without support" members are not exclusively ENSTAT, as they use human cl ontological regime in its entirety. S1DDHI or "wonderful power" Before addressing the problems posed by asamprajnata samadhi, look closely at the results of other species samaatii. The only results that may be of interest to the Yogi are, and obviously those practical reasons, namely the penetration in regions that are inaccessible to normal experience, the possession of consciousness areas and sectors of reality Tonces-up has been, so to speak, invulnerable. Only when this stage Hega determined meditative discipline Yogi acquires these "miraculous powers" (siddhi), discussed in Book III of the Yoga-Sutra, suffers from 16. Through the "concentration" of "meditation" and making the samadhi with respect to an object or an entire class of objects, in other words practicing samyama, 13 the Yogi acquires certain "powers" Eyepiece-cough * with respect to or experienced objects. Thus, for example, by exercising the samyama for the distinction between the "object" and "idea", the yogi knows the cries of all criatu-ras (YS, Ill., 17). By practicing samyama with respect to waste subconscious (samskara), the yogi knows its previous stock (III, 18). Through samyama exercised with respect to the "notions" (pratyaya) the yogi knows the "mental states" of their fellows (III, 19). "But that knowledge of mental states does not mean knowledge of the objects that have ori-ginado, since the latter are not in direct union with the thought of yogi. He knows the mental emotion of love, but do not know the object of love "(Vyasa). The designation samyama just remember-the last three "limbs of yoga" means the Dharana, dhyana and samadhi. The yogi begins by focusing on a "thing" about an "idea", for example, on waste subconscious (samskara). As has already been achieved with-ekagrata get cerniente of the waste begins to "meditate", ie Larla magically assimilated to appropriate them. The dhyana, the meditation, samadhi Samprajnata makes possible, Species BIFA samadhi, the samadhi with support (in this case, the supports are obviously the same residues subconscious). Through stasis made based yogi to the waste, you get not only an understanding and assimilation of such waste magic (which the Dharana and dhyana and had attracted), but the transmutation of "knowledge" in "possession . Results in Samadhi: the * 3 samyama Recall that designates the last stages of yogic technique: the concentration (Dharana), the meditation (dyana) \ samadhi. identifying the meditator meditates thus. Al-stand such waste subconscious to the point they become waste, the Yogi knows not only a function • of waste, but putting it back in the environment where it was taken out-ran in a word, the yogi can revive ideally (ie without the "experience" of it) their previous existences. As we will see later, knowledge of past lives is also a very important role in Buddhism, this is com-prises if we consider label "out-of-time" constitutes one of the main themes of asceticism hindii. Saljr of tiemrjo is achieved, take the opposite direction (a "against the grain", jpta titoman), ie, reintegrating the "moment" that had made major rock the existence-first, which is in complete cycle basis) of transmigration, the "existence" seed "Later we can appreciate the importance of this technique yogi (see p. 179). To remember the other example (YS, Ill., 19): thanks to samyama concerning the "notions", the yogi fully performed on the infinite series of psycho-mental states of their


fellows, because from the moment that "dominates within "a notion, the yogi sees on a screen as all states of consciousness that this notion is likely to cause the soul of the other men. See a myriad of situations that this notion may be a sub-drar, as it has assimilated not only the contents of the "noci6n. but besides that it has entered into its internal dynamism, has endorsed the human destiny that had that notion, and so on. Some of these powers are even more wonderful. Patanjali mentions in his list of siddhi, all the "powers" that legendary obsession-nan, with equal intensity, mythology, folklore, and the metaphysics of India. Unlike the folk texts, Patanjali gives al-gunas summary clarifications thereon. So, trying to explain why the samyama concerning body shape may make it invisible to the practice, Patanjali says that the vol-ago samyama see the body imperceptible to other men, and "the absence of and direct contact with the light of the eyes, the body disappears "(YS, Ill., 20). Is this the explication Patanjali gives us aja concerning appearance and disappearance of yogis, milaero mentioned in countless religious texts, alchemical and Hindu folk. Let Vacaspati Misra's commentary: "The body is composed of five essences (tattva). It becomes an object visible to the eye thanks to the fact that it has a form (rupa, which also means" color "). It is through This rupa that the body and as they become the objects of perception. When the yogi exercises samyama concerning the shape of the body, destroys the visibility of color (rupa) is the cause of the perception of the body. Also , when the possibility of perception is suspended, the yogi becomes invisible. The light engendered in the eye of another person, no longer makes contact with the body, which has disappeared. In other words, the body of the yogi is not object of knowledge for any other man. The Yogi is gone, when you want to avoid being seen by anyone. " Misra Vacaspati This text tries to explain a phenomenon yogi by the theory of perception, without recourse to the miracle. Moreover, the general trend of the Yogic texts of some importance is the metaphysical phenomena explain everything and make-do hidden basis of "power" acquired by the practitioner, and exclude any supernatural intervention. Patanjali also mentions other "powers" that are obtained by samyama such cdmo knowing the time of death (YS, Ill., 21) or extraordinary physical powers (III, 23), or the knowledge of things "subtle "(III, 24, etc.). By practicing on the moon samyama obtained knowledge of the solar system (III, 26); on umbilical plexus (nabhicakra), knowledge of the body system (III, 28); on the cervical canal (kanthakupe), the disappearance of hunger and thirst (III, 29); on the heart, knowledge of the spirit (III, 33). "Whatever the Yogi wants to know, must comply with samyama relation to that" object "(Vacaspati Misra, ad YS, Ill., 30). This "knowledge" obtained through techniques samyama is in fact a possession, a take-up of the realities on which the yogi meditates. All that is "thought" isby virtue of meditation magic-absorbed, possessed. It is not difficult to understand that the profane have always confused those "powers" (siddhi) with the vocation of yoga. A yogi was always regarded in India as a mahasiddha, a holder of occult powers, a "sorcerer" 14 That this opinion ** Bhqja (ad YS, Ill., 44) gives the following list of eight "great powers" (tnahasiddhi) the yogi: 1. animate (reduction), ie the lowest power vofverse as atoms, 2. Laghima (lightness), the power of becoming so lightweight wool CCMO 3. gunman (weight) tf. mahima (cualkier of ilimitaprofana not completely mistaken, makes us see the whole spiritual history of India, where the sorcerer has always represented, if not the leading role, at least an important role. India could not ever forget that man can become, in


certain circumstances, "man-god". India could never accept-ing the current human condition, made of suffering, helplessness and insecurity. She always believed that there were god-men, sorcerers, he always had before them the example of the Yogis. Clearly, all these men-gods and sorcerers have wished to overtake the human condition. But very few of them managed to surpass the condition of Siddha, the condition of "sorcerer" or "god." In other words, too few were those who came to veneer the second temptation: to settle in a "divine condition. We know, in fact, that the concept of India, the waiver-up has a positive value Whoever feels resignation why not dimmed, but elcontrarioenriquecido: for the force that gets to give up a pleasure far exceeds any the pleasure he had rejected. With the denial, the asceticism (tapas), men, demons or gods can become prune-ous to the point of becoming threat to the economy of the entire uni-verse. In rnitos, legends and stories, there are numerous episodes in which the main character is an ascetic (human or demon) that through the magic power obtained through "denial" mob until the break of a Brahma or a Visnu . To avoid such an increase of sacred power, the gods "tempt" the ascetic. Patanjali does the same temptations heavenly alusi6n, ie from the divine beings (Y. S, III, 51) and Vyasa gives the following explication: when the yogi reaches the last stasis differentiated gods approaching the and, to tempt him, tell him, "Come here and enjoy in heaven. These are tempting delights, this gift is adorable Marcella, this elixir removes the aging and death", etc.. Con-tinue tempting him with celestial women, eyes and ears supernaturalism, promising to transform his body into "diamond body", in short, offer to participate in the condition di ble), to touch any object at any distance (eg the moon, etc.) 5. Prakamya (irresistible will), 6. ISITV (supremacy over the body and manas), 7. vasitva (domination over the elements), 8. kamavasayitva (fulfillment of desires). See note II, 5). vina (Vyasa, ad Y. S., III, 51). But the divine condition is still far from absolute freedom. The Yogi is obliged to reject "those magic mirror", those "false sense objects that partake of the nature of suefio", "only desirable to ignore-ing" and persevere "No task, obtaining the final liberation. Because, as soon as the ascetic agree to use the magi-cal forces acquired through their restraints, eliminates the possibility of acquiring new forces. Renouncing the worldly life ends up looking rich in magical forces, but which yields to the tempta-tion to use them, is ultimately just a "sorcerer" who lacks the power to overcome. Only a new denial and a victorious struggle against the temptation of the magic, bring a new spiritual enrichment of the ascetic According to Patanjali, and according to all-classical yoga tradition to name the metaphysical Vedan-tina, who despises all "power "- the yogic siddhi countless uses in order to regain the ultimate freedom, the asamprajnata samadhi, in any way to obtain the domain-fragmentary and provisional" elements. Because it is the samadhi and not the "hidden powers" that represents the real "domain". Does indeed-you, Patanjali tells us (III, 37) these powers are "perfections" (this is the literal meaning of the term siddhi) in waking state (vyuttha-na), but they are obstacles in the state of samadhi, which is natural good when you consider that to Hindu thought, every possession implies slavery on the possessed. And yet, as noted below, the nostalgia of the "divine status" conquered by force, as malogical, has not ceased to haunt the yogis and ascetics. More so since there, according to Vyasa (ad. YS, Ill., 26), if a similarity between certain gods, inhabitants of the heavenly


realms (in the Brahmaloka) and yogis in the process of siddhi, ie own-ers of "perfection" Samprajnata obtained through samadhi. Indeed, says Vyasa, the four species of Brahmaloka gods are by their very nature, a "spiritual situation" that correspond to the four kinds of samadhi differentiated. By the very fact that these gods detuvie-rum in the state of samadhi "supported" ( "to seed") are not released, have only an exceptional condition, the same as that obtained yogis to become owners of the "perfec-tion." This gloss of Vyasa is important shows that yogis are approved to the gods, in other words, the path of yoga-by the "magic" and "religion" that involves "leads to a mythological perfection, it will the characters in the Hindu pantheon. But as it pursues only the Vedantic knowledge of the absolute Being (Brahman), the real yogi is not tempted by the situation divine, that brilliant, so it's no less "tied" and strives to come to the knowledge and the possession of self, that is, the final liberation represented by asamprajnata samadhi. Samadhi "UNSUPPORTED" AND FINAL RELEASE Among the various degrees of samadhi Samprajnata oscillating tion is a continuous, not only due to the instability of thought, but to link intimate, organic, between the rates of samadhi with support. The Yogi passes from one to another, and his conscience is exercised disciplined and purified, respectively, in different varieties of contemplation. According to Vyasa (ad. YS, I, 2), at this stage the yogi still tell the difference between his own conscience completely purified mind and the ego, that is, you see the difference between citta reduced only to its mode of being light (sattva) and purusha. When this difference disappears, the Yogi attains the asamprajnata samadhi, then all vrtti is abolished, "burned" only impressions are unconscious (samskara, YS, I, 18, with the commentary of Vyasa), and at a time until these impalpable samskara are consumed (YS, I, 51): we then true stasis "without seed" (nirbijasamadhi). Patanjali notes (Y. I, that there are two species of sama-dhi undifferentiated, or more precisely that there are two paths, two ways of achieving it: the path tecnico (upaya) and the nature trail (bhava). The first is Yogis, who conquered the samadhi by Yoga, the second is that of the gods (videha, "disembodied") and a class of superhuman beings called "absorbed" into the prakriti (prafcrttfaya). We find here too the Yogis approval of the gods and supernatural beings that we have seen with regard to the various stages of samadhi Samprajnata. In commenting on the Sutra of Patanjali, Vyasa and Misra Vacaspati underline the superiority of enstasy obtained by yogis through the technique as the "natural" that enjoyed by the gods is temporary, but will last thousands of cos-mic cycles. We note also the persistence with which proclaims the superiority of human Yoga addressing the conditions of the gods, apparently privileged. Vijnana Bhiksu sees things in a somewhat different (Yoga-sara-Samgraha, p. 18). For him, the upaya pratyaya or method "artificial" (in the sense that it is "natural", which is a construction) is to practice on Isvara samyama, or if there is no mystical v ica-cion on himself Yo. Regarding the second ca-mino, or method "natural" (bhavapratyaya), some yogis can. No enstasy obtain undifferentiated (and therefore the final liberation) through its single desire, in other words, it is no longer a conquest made by technical means, is a


spontaneous operation: it is called bhava, "natural" Vijnana Bhiksu 15 tells us, jus-rectly because it comes from birth (bhava) of the beings that they do, rise to auspicious hour, thanks to the results of the practice of yoga during a previous existence. This second camino, bhavapratyaya, videha characterizes (disembodied beings), to prakrtilaya (beings absorbed into the prakriti) and other deities-des. As an example of videha, Vijnana Bhiksu Hiranyagar-bha quotes and other gods do not need a physical body, they are capeace to exercise all physiological functions in one body "subtle". The prakrtilaya are supernatural beings, immersed in meditation on the prakriti, or the prakrti animated by God, cross (mentally) the Cosmic Egg and pierce all wrappers (avarana, "kits"), ie all levels of Grund cosmic manifestation through primary and the situation gets so Divinidad.18 15 Vijnana Bhiksu here separates the interpretation of Vyasa and Vacaspati Misra (ad., YS. I, 19): the latter interpreted the term bhava as referring to "world" and "worldly life, profane." The sense of sutra would be the following, in this case: the gods have caused a satnadiii ror secular media (bhava) and not as interpreted Bhiksu Vijnana: the enjoy a samadhi gods caused by natural (or spontaneous neously). 16 Patanjali (YS, I, 20) cites the five media through which the obtained the samadhi yogis asamprajnata: faith in the path yoga (scraddha). Will energy (virya), memory (tmrti), samadhi and wisdom (prajtia). In fact, Patanjali takes up in this tutra some "members of Yo Vyasa (ad. YS, Ill., 55) summarizes with these words over the asamprajnata Samprajnata samadhi: for enlightenment (prajna, "wisdom") produced spontaneously when the yogi is in a state of dharma-megha-samadhi, takes place absolute isolation (kaivalya), ie the liberation of the rule of purusha prakriti. In turn, Vacaspati Misra (ad YS, I, 21) tells us that the "fruit" of the asamprajnata Samprajnata samadhi, and the "fruit" of this, in turn, is the kaivalya, the liberation. Proceed in the wrong way to consider this kind of spirit as a mere "trance" in which awareness is empty of all content. The undifferentiated enstasy not the "absolute emptiness". The "state" and "knowledge" that term that expresses both concern the absentee total tia object in consciousness, not consciousness absolutely emptied. Because consciousness is danced at that time, saturated by a direct intuition of being total. As Madhava says, "we should not imagine nirodha (permanent detention of all experience psychomental) as a non-existence, but rather as the support of a particular condition of the Spirit". Is enstasy of total emptiness, without sensory content, unstructured intellectual unconditioned state is no longer "experience" (because there exists no relation between consciousness and the world), but "Revelation". The intellect (buddhi), have completed their mission, retires, divesting purusha and the prakriti is returned. The self remains a founding free, autonomous: it sees itself. Consciousness "human" is suppressed, ie, that no longer works but since its constituent elements are reabsorbed into the primordial substance. The yogi attains liberation: which one died, no longer maintains any relation with the world is a "living dead". It oljivanmukta, the "liberated in life" 17 and not living in the time and under the rule of Time, ga "(yoganga) with which we obtain the liberaci6n. Bhiksu (p. 18) suggests that in case of doubt to the application of some of these media, the yogi can obtain samadhi


asamprajnata by devotion to God (YS, I ., 23), because, he says, attracts devoci6n gratia of God. But as we said already, V. Bhiksu always placed first piano teoista and mystical aspects of yoga. 17 For an analysis of the "impersonal situation" of jivanmukta that no more than a "witness-consciousness, without reference to me, see Roger Godel, Essais sur Vexperience libiratrice (Paris, 1952). We should note that the state of jivanmukta can also be obtained by other Messina in an eternal pr. sense, in a nunc stans with Boethius defi-nia to eternidad.18 Here is what would be the situation for the yogi in samadhi while asamprajnata watch from the sidelines, judged from the standpoint of the dialectic of liberation and the relationship between ego and the substantia, as this dialectic has been prepared by the Samkhya. In fact, if we consider the experience of various samadhi, the possession of the yogi is more paradoxical and infi-nitamente more impressive. Indeed, note that mean the "reflexi6n" of purusha. In this act of supreme concentration, "knowledge" amounts to a "apropiaci6n. Because without intermediary purusa revelation is the same. discov-ery time the pilot of an ontological modality inaccessible to pro-fane. This moment is hardly conceivable in another form as a paraddja, because we would know, once in alii, determinate, at any rate, enough that we can talk yet about the contemplation of the self or an ontological transformation of man. The simple "reflection" of the purusha is more than an act of mystical knowledge, because it allows the domain purusha itself. The Yogi takes possession of itself through an "undifferentiated Tiada stasis, whose only content is being. Betray the hindu if we reduced this paradox of possession becomes a simple "conocirnien-to of himself" for deeper and all this was. The "taking of possession of himself" radically change the regime in fact ontological man. The "self-discovery, selfreflexidn of purusha, bring a" split level "to the cosmic scale, after its advent, are abolished modalities of reality, being (purusha), coincides with the non - -be (man propiously said), knowledge is transformed into "domain" magic, thanks to the absorption of the known by the knower. And co-mo, this time, the object of knowledge is pure being, stripped of all form and every attribute, samadhi leads to the assimilation of that pure Being. Self-purusha revelaci6n of turns amounts to be in possession of all its fullness. Asamprajnata In samadhi, the yogi is in fact the whole being. god that proposed by the classical Yoga, but we can prepare for uti rhino obtenerio disciplines hoisting of meditation and yogic concentration. See our study is: Symbolisme mdiens du Temps et de VEtemite, volume: Images et symboles (Paris, 1952), ps. 73-119. Obviously, your situation is paradoxical, because he lives, and yet this released, has a body and yet known and this fact is the purusha; lives in time and participles both of immortality, and finally agrees with the whole being, although ยง 1 is not only a fragment, and so on. But spirituality hindu, from the beginning, tends to make this paradoxical situation. ^ What are these "god-men" that we just talked about, but the 'geo-metric place "where match human and divine, just as being and nonbeing, death and eternity, the Everything and the fragment? And perhaps a greater extent than in other civilizations, India has always lived under the sign of the man-god ". REINTEGRATION AND FREEDOM Recapitulate the stages of this long and difficult route pro-posed by Patanjali. His goal, at


first glance, it is well defined: free man from his human condition, gain absolute freedom, make the unconditioned. The method includes multiple techniques (physiological, mental, mystical), but all have one common trait: their antiprofano character, or rather, anti-human. The pro-fane lives in society, get married, start a family, the loneliness and Yoga prescribes absolute castidac. The profane is "possessed" by their own uniqueness life, the yogi refuses to "let live" stance precludes her, the immobility of the asana, the continuous movement, prana-yama opposed to agitated respiration, arrhythmic, diverse, and suefia to get the total retention of the respiration, the chaotic flow of life psychomental, responding with "fixing the mind on one point," the first step towards the final retraction of the world of phenomena, you will get the pratyahara. All yogic techniques invite the same gesture: do the exact opposite of what human nature compels us to do. The isolation and the samyama casti-ing, there is no solution of continuity. The orientation is always the same inclination to react against the "normal", "pro-fana" in short, "human". This total opposition to life is not new, either in India or in other countries, the archaic and universal polarity between the sacred and the profane is easily recognizable. Historically, the sacred was always something "completely different" to the profane. And judged by this criterion, the Yoga of Patanjali, like the other Yoga, retains a religious value. The man who rejects his own condition and reacts against it knowingly, trying to abolish it, is a hom-bre thirsty for the unconditioned, of freedom, "can" sum-do, one of the many modalities of the sacred. This "reversal of all human values" that the yogi seeks, this otherwise recovered by a long tradicibn Indian, because in the Vedic perspective, the world of the gods is exactly counter to our river (the right hand of god corresponds to the iz-left hand of man, a broken object in this world remains intact in the other world, etc.).. The yogi, by the refusal to oppose the secular life, imitating a transcendent model: Isvara. And even if God takes the role in the fight for the release is pretty mediocre, this imitation of a transcendent mode retains its religious value. Note that it is in stages, the yogi becomes disinterested in life. Start by removing less essential habits of life: comfort, leisure, futile loss of time, the dispersion of their mental powers, and so on. It then attempts to unify the most important functions of life: respiration, consciousness. Disciplining the respiraci6n, make rhythm, reduce to a single type-that of deep-suefio equivalent to the unification of all varieties tract. The continuous ekagrata in life psychomental piano, with the same purpose: frjar the stream of consciousness, psychic effect a continuum without a crack, "unify" the thought. Even the most elementary of the techniques yogis, healthy, suggests a similar purpose, because if we ever get to be aware of the "totality" of our body, experienced as "uni-ty", could only be testing one of these positions hierati-cas. The extreme simplification of life, calm, serenity, body stance, the rate of respiration, the concentration in one spot, and so on., All these exercises the same object, the abolition of the multiplicity and fragmentation, reintegrate it-grate, unifying, totalizing. When he retired from secular life, the yogi is another, deeper, more true-because he has pace, the life of the Cosmos. Indeed, we can speak of early yogis as an effort to "cosmization" of man. Transforming the chaos of life biomental profane, in a Cosmos, here's ambition to guess at all psychophysiological techniques, from asana to ekagrata. We have shown in other work


us, 10 that a number of yogic and tantric practices-can be explained by the purpose of harmonizing the body and the life of man to the stars and cosmic rhythms, first the moon and sun, and this important question we will stop several times in this book. Unable to get the final release without knowing a previous stage of "cosmization" can not be passed directly from chaos to freedom. The intermediate phase is the Cosmos ", ie the realization of the pace in all spheres of life biomental. Now this rit-mo is not indicated in the structure of the universe itself, for the role" unifying "played by stars, the moon in particular. (Because it is heterogeneous realities.) physiology Much of my Indian-tice is based on the identification of the "suns" and "moons" in the human body. In truth, this "cosmization" is only an intermediate stage, which indicates just Patanjali, but it is exceptionally important in other schools in Indian mysticism. Obtained following the "unification", the "cosmization" continues the same process: remake man with other proportions, gigantic and experience guarantee macrotro-pikes. But this can not Macrotropo on either, but a temporary existence. Because the ultimate goal will not be achieved until the yogi gets to "retire" to his own center and para-Tarse completely the Cosmos, becoming impervious to the ex-perience, unconditional and autonomous. This "retirement" is equivalent to a final rupture level, to an act of real importance. Samadhi, with all its equivalents tantric, is by its very nature a "state" Paradoxically, it is empty and fills while endlessly being and thinking. Note that the yogic and tantric experience more important to make a similar paradox. In pranayama, life co-exists with the retention of breath '(retention is, in fact, blatant contrdiccion life), in the tantric experience essential (the "regression of semen") "life" matches with the "dead" you "means the return to" virtuality ". It is superfluous to add that the paradox is involved in the very role of Indian ritual (as, on the other hand, in another ritual), because, thanks to the power of ritual, an object enters the divinity either a "frag 19 See our article: Cosmical homology and Yoga (Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art, June-December 1937, p. 188-203). tion "(in the case of the Vedic sacrifice, the brick altar) coin cide with the" All "(the God Prajapati), the Non-Being with Being, under consideration from this point of view (that of the phenomenology of the pa-Radoje), samadhi is located in a well-known line in the his-tory of religions and mystical: the coincidence of anti-rivers. It is true that this time the match is not only symbol-lica, but also practical, experimental. Through Samadhi, the yogi transcends and unites opposites in a single experiment, the empty and overflowing, life and death, being and nonbeing. But still: samadhi Like all paradoxical statements, amounts to a reintegration of the different forms of reality in a single mode: the fullness of undifferentiated before Creadon, the primary unit. The yogi who reaches samadhi asamprajnata also designed a dream, human spirit that haunts the des-of the beginning of the story: the whole match, retrieve the unit, redo the initial nonduality, abolish the weather and the creation and in particular, to remove the bipartition of the real objectsubject. We would be wrong in rough shape when we consider the su-prema reintegration as a simple regression to the primordial instinct. Not too often repeated that yoga, like so many mis-ticos, flows into the plane of the paradox and not a conscientious extinction easy and banal. As we shall see, knew India from time immemorial the multiple "trances"


and "ecstasy" obtained through intoxication, narcotics and other basic means to empty the consciousness following the correct method, we have no right to assimilate those samadhi countless species of spiritual evasion. Liberation is not equivalent to "deep sleep" of prenatal existence, but apparently the recovery of the total obtained by the undifferentiated enstasy is similar to the bliss of human fetal preconsciousness. We must always take into account this fact, which is the capital: the yogi works on all levels of consciousness and the subconscious in order to make its way to the transconciente (knowledge-posesi6n the self, the purusha). Enters the "suefio deep" and the''fourth state (Turiya, the cataleptic state) with extreme hicidez, and not sink into self-hypnosis. The importance attached by all authors to states of over-conscious yogis, Reintegration tells us that the end is done in this direction and not in a "trance" mas o meno ' deep. In other words, the recovery, through samadhi, the initial nonduality, this new element brings about the primary situation (which existed before the bipartition of the real object-subject): knowledge of the unity and bliss. There is a "return to origin", but with the difference that "the liberated in life" recovers its original location, rich with the dimensions of freedom and transconciencia. So the yogi does not recover, automatically, a situation "given" but is returned to the original fullness after having set up that way of being unprecedented and paradoxical: the consciousness of freedom, which does not exist, neither side of the Cosmos or in living standards, nor in the levels of "mythological divinities (gods, dew), but only in the Supreme Being, Isvara. This is where the character is best appreciated Yoga initiatory, for in the initiation also "killed" one for "born again" but this new revival does not repeat the "natural birth"; the candidate to the profane world is not at the die during the initiation, but a sacred world, which corresponds to a new way of being, inaccessible to the "natural" level (profane) on the availability. We would be tempted to see this ideal in fact conscious conquest of freedom, the justification offered by Indian thought to the fact, cruelly absurd and useless at first glance, that the world exists, that man exists and that its existence in the world is an uninterrupted series of illusions, suffering and despair. Because, when released, the man founded the dimension of spirituality litertad and "enter" in the Cosmos and Life, is, "<> cir, forms of conditioned existence and sadly blind. CAPfruLo III

YOGA AND BRAHMINISM Ascetics and "ecstatic" IN THE VEDAS So far, we discussed the doctrines and yogic techniques as they are systematized and expressed in Patanjali's Yoga-Surra and comments. But in opposition to others darsana the yogadarsana not exclusively a philosophical treatise: it enforces, so to speak, on a large number of practices, beliefs and aspirations of pan-Indian. Yoga is present everywhere, both in the Indian oral tradition and in Sanskrit and vernacular literatures. Obviously, this Yoga is not always protean system resembles the "classic" of Patanjali: it is rather traditional cliches to which are added, over time, a growing number of practices


and beliefs "popular." In such a way that Yoga has finally become a specific dimension of Indian spiritualism. This prestige, pro-teiforme presence pose a serious of consequences: <<, not be the Yoga, a creation entirely indigenous to India, the product not only of the Indo-Europeans, but also and mainly from the popula-tions pre-Aryan? In short, you could say that Yoga has come to be imposed as a valable technique universally, supported by two traditions: 1) that of the ascetics and "ecstatic" attested from the Rig-Veda, and 2) the symbolism of the Brahmana, the teo-rials mainly to justify the "internalization of the sacrifice." This millennial river integration process, which leads to one of the greatest spiritual synthesis of India, brilliantly illustrates what is phenomenon has been called its mechanism becomes clearer as we approach the Middle Ages. We found in the Vedas more than rudiments of Yoga cla-psycho: instead, these old texts take account of some ascetic disciplines and ideologies "ecstatic" that permanently without direct relations with Yoga itself, they have become similar to the yogi tradition: for this reason is that the nom-bramos here. But do not confuse these two categories Ispiritual rights: the ascetic method, the techniques of ecstasy, are attested in IndoEuropean texts, to name the other Asian peoples, while yoga is only found in the India and in cultures influenced by Indian spiritualism. Thus, a hymn of the Rig Veda (X, 136), speaks of muni long hair (kesin), dressed in "mugre'oscura" belted by the wind and in which "the gods come" (2). Which proclaims "the embryo-guez of ecstasy have risen more wind alia. You, mor-such, you can not receive more than your body" (3). The muni flies through the air (4), is the steed of the wind (vata), Vayu's friend, "spurred by the gods" dwells in the two seas, on the east and the west (3; Ath. Veda XI, 5, 6, XV, 7, 1); "going down the path of the Apsara, the Gandharva and wild animals, knows the thoughts" (6) and "Rudra baby with the cup of poison" ( 7). They wanted to see in this muni with long hair, the prototype of the yogi. In fact, it is a kind of ecstatic that pre-sents only a distant resemblance to the yogi, the main power blow, but this siddhi is a magic spell medially known world. The allusions to the steed of the wind, drinking poison with Rudra, the gods, indicating rather a technique chama-nizante. Much more important is the description of "ecstasy": the muni "spirit disappears" leaving her body, guess the thoughts of others, dwells in the "two seas". It is these experiences that go beyond the sphere of the profane, states of consciousness of cosmic struc-ture, moreover achievable by other means than those of ecstasy. We are required to use this term whenever we refer to an experience or a state of consciousness of cosmic scale, but not always the case of "ecstasy" in the real sense of the word. The Vedas also refer to other supernatural experiences in relation to the mystical (Ekavratya, Brahmacarin, Vena, etc..), Which likely represent archetypes of certain deified ascetics and wizards. The deification of man, the "man-god" is a dominant motif in Indian spiritualism. Ekavratya, already known for the anthem, dark place of the Atharva Veda (XV, I), is considered by the Jaiminiya Brahmana Upanishad (III, 21) as the original deity of Vratya, and in the P rasna Upanishad and the Culik Upanishad becomes a sort of cosmic Principe (Hauer, Der Vratya, p. 306). Ekavratya most likely represents an exemplary model of this mysterious group, the Vratya, which has wanted to see sivaitas ascetics (Charpentier), mystical (Chattopadbyaya), precursors of yogis (Hauer) and representatives of non-Aryan population ( Winternitz, see Note III, 1). A


whole book of the Atharva Veda (XV) is devoted to them, but the text is unclear, however, highlights the fact that Vratya practice asceticism (remain standing for the space of a afio, etc..) Know a discipline of respiration (assimilated to the cosmic vari-ous regions: Atharva Veda, 14, 15), approving his body to the macrocosm (18, 1). This mysterious confraternity was nevertheless important as a special sacrifice, the vratyastoma, had been organized to reintegrate its members into the Brahmanic society. The texts devoted to vratyastoma and mahavrata (rite solstitiale with persistent good number of archaic elements) allow us to glimpse the mysterious characters: wearing a turban, were ves-ted in black and covered their shoulders with two plexus of sheep, one white and one black: as a badge they wore a steel-tipped cane, a Adorno around the neck (Niska) and a drawn bow (jyahroda). The lance wand (<iprototipo of sivaita sula?) and arch, magical weapons par excellence, are shamanism in some asiaticos.1 A cart pulled by a horse and a mule instead of serve them for slaughter. During acompafiaban them vratyastoma other characters, chief among them was a Magadha and pumscali (Ath. Veda, XV, 2); The former seems to have desempefiado the role of cantor, and pumscali was literally a prostitute during the mahavrata, was taking place in this carnal coupling with the Magadha (or a brahmacarin: Jaiminiya Brahmana II, 404; Apas 1 Eliade, Le Chamanisme, P. 258 (tree-lance between losDayak) Dominik Schroder, Zur Religion der Tujenin Sininggebietes (Anthropos, 1952, p. 18; 1953, p. 248 forward: throw of the Spirits "among Tuje, etc.).: Bow in Asian shamanism, this book later on, and so on. Srauta tamba Sutra, XXI, 17, 18; Hauer work cited, p. 264). This last ceremony included a number of elements of magic ar-Caicos fertility: offensive and obscene dialogues, swinging ritual, carnal coupling. ^ _ The sexual union is attested in the Vedic religion (the anthem of the Ath-Veda erotic, XX, 136; the asvamedha, etc..), But recent pa-sara to be a mystical technique after the triumph of Tantrism (see below). During mahavrata the Hotra swings on a swing and was referring to the three types of respiration, prana, vyana and apah (San-khayana Srauta Sutra, XVII; Hauer, 258), perhaps this will probably be breathing a discipline that involves the detention of respiraci6n, but it is unlikely that this exercise was a pra-r.ayama? During mahavrata the Hotra played, with a branch of Udumbara a hundred harp strings declaring: I hit you for prana, and vyana apah. The swing is called "ship that leads to Heaven", the officiating "bird that flies to heaven" (Tandy-Ma-ha-Brahmana, V. 1, 10), the girls who danced around the fire were, they too, birds flying in the sky (V, 6, 15). Images from the celestial boat and birds are often in the Brahmanic literature: on the other hand, do not belong exclusively to former Indian tradition, since they are at the heart of shamanic ideology, the symbolism of the "Center World "and the magical flight. As for the swing, plays a role in fertility rites, but is also attested in contexts chamanicos.3 This complex is quite muddled, and traditions preserved in con-texts are confusing and sometimes contradictory. Ekavratya Besides, the archetype of vratiya deified, find the Brahmacarin, conceived, also cl, as cos-scale character of mica: initiated with antelopeskin suit black, with long beard, Brahmacarin travels east to North Ocean and creates the worlds, he exalts "as an embryo within the immortalized Of the other allusions to the respiration in the Atharva Veda (V, 28; XV. 15, 17) could induce recaka knowledge, and kumbhaka Puraka, see Hauer, Yoga-praxis der Angang F.


10; Vratya, P. 291. For the five rhythms of breath, see Note III, 2. 8 Frazer. The Dying Cod (London 1918) p. 156-277; nuestrc shamanistic-mo, p. 127. ing "red dress, practice covers (Ath. Veda, XI, 5, 6-7). In mahavrata, as we saw, a brahmacarin (- Magadha) ritually joined with pumscali. We assume that Vratya representing a mysterious confraternity belonging to the vanguard of the invading Aryans (Hauer). However, there were distinguished the Kesin Rigvedic too: in some comments, Ruda is called Vratya-pati (Hauer, p. 191) and the Mahabharata Vratya reserve the term to de-designate to sivaitas Bacchae (Hauer, 233). These trends orgias-tions must not consign to oblivion the cosmic structure of their "mystical" experience. However, this type of experience-ba occupies a very important position among aboriginal peoples, pre-Aryan, which makes it difficult, sometimes, to decide which things belong to the Indo-European contribution to the substrate and which preAryan, on his arrival India, the Indo-preserved, they also, a certain number of elements of archaic culture. TAPAS AND YOGA The equivalence between the religious archaism ar-Indo-European and Aboriginal CAISM this entry well in relief for the practice and theo-ry of the lids. This term (literally "hot, burning") indicates the ascetic effort in general. The tapas is clearly attested in the Veda feigning (eg p.1. VIII, 59, 6: X, 136, 2, 154, 2, 4, 167, 1 109, 4, etc.). And powers are creators, both the cosmic and the spiritual piano, through the ascetic tapas becomes clairvoyant and participates in the quality of God. Prajapati creates the world "inflame" dose "to an extreme degree by the ascetic (Aitareya Brahmana, V, 32, I), it creates, in effect, a kind of magic sweat. For the Brahmanic theory, Prajapati himself was a product of tapas, at first (aggressive) the Non-being (asat) became spirit (manas) and acalorandose (atapyata), gave rise to smoke, light, fire and end-mind to Prajapati (Taitt.Br. II. 2, 9, 1-10; in others, the Non-Being is represented by the primordial waters, Br Satapatha XI, 1, 6, 1). But the cosmogony and sweat anthropogony are mythical motifs also found elsewhere (eg North America). You are probably linked to an ideological Jogia shamanic shamans are known to in-troducon Americans in steam baths to provoke profuse sweating (our Shamanism, but this habit on the other hand, is but one aspect of a larger ideological complexity, prior to shamanism itself: we refer to the "magical heat" and "mastery of fire" (see Shamanism, below). Magically increase the body's own heat or do-undermine the fire until it becomes insensitive to the temperature of the grill, are two prestigious universal own-medicine men, shamans and fakirs. However, as we shall see later, one of the techniques tantric yogi par excellence-is precisely to produce internal heat ( "mystical heat"). The continuity between known and oldest technique is tantric yoga on this point, undeniable. The "sweating creative" and the magic of heat production were equally familiar to the Indo-Europeans. The human couple na-cio sweat of Ymir and the cause sweating in the body of Ga-Jomard, Ahura Mazda created man. The Irish hero Cuchulain comes out as "heated" in his first hazafia warrior (the equivalent of a military initiation), which sets off the plates and rings of Cuba where he had buried, the same "rage-burning" on-Contra the hero of the Nartes Caucasians, as demonstrated Badraz.4 ^ Georges Dum zil, several vocabulary terms "he" ROIC "Indo-European-rage, ferg, wut, less-expressed precisely this" extreme heat "and that" anger "that characterized in other levels of sacredness, the


incorporation of power. Number of episodes from the mythology or Indian religious folklore show us mortals to gods or reduced to ash through the covers of a great ascetic. The Indo-Europeans knew about the technique and \ i ideology of the "magical heat" because it still depended archaic spiritual horizon, like some Asian ethnic groups. But it is mainly in India that have been developed, with an amplitude unknown elsewhere, the practices of asceticism, and an extremely complex ideology has formed around the notion of tapas. In other words, in the Indian soil is where the tradition ma 4 Ymir Gajomard A. Christensen, honune Le premier et le premier roi dans lTiistoire tegendaire des Iraniens, I (Uppsala, 1918), p. 14, 36, H. Giintert, Der Arisch WeUkimig und HeUand (Halle, 1923), p. 348; Sven S. Hartman, Gayomart (Uppsala, 1953): Cuchulainn, Batradz: G. DumĂŠzil, Horace et les Curiaco (Paris 1942) p. 35, idem sur les LSgendes Nartes (Paris 1930) p. 50, 179. gica an archaism, and universal impact, co notional full expansion, unprecedented in any region of the earth. (See III, 3). It is important to know how the caps were treated by the technique yogui.5 A preliminary observation: this "flushing" ritual was not just reserved for ascetics and "ecstatic". The soma sacrifice demanded of the officiant and his wife diksa compliance with, the rite of consecration that included the evening ascetic, silent meditation, fasting, and also the "heat", the lids and the ritual could take from a day Even a yr. However, the soma sacrifice was one of the most important of the Vedic and Brahmanic India is like saying that the caps were part of the religious experience of the Indian people in total. From there seems to be that, theoretically, there was no solution of continuity between ritual and the techniques and contemplative ASCE-tics: the difference between the officiant and tapasvin was at first minimal. The continuity between ritual and asceticism is also seen elsewhere: in the Christian world, monks and laity pray the same prayers and share the same religious calendar, but vary the degree of their personal experiences. But it is im-portant to stress the unity of the fundamental conceptions existed since the Vedic era, to better understand the meaning of the subsequent Hindu synthesis, carried out mainly by means of assimilation and homologation of religious values and even extra-extraBrahmanical Aryans. However, the tapas, which is obtained by ensuring fast near the fire, and so on., Is also obtained by the retention of respiration. The retention of the respiration desempefiar start, especially since the time of the Brahmana, a ritual role: to sing the Gaya-trastotra, do not breathe (Jaim.-Br. Ill, 3, 1; Kausit. Br XXIII , 5). Recall the references to the respiration in the Atharva Veda (XV, 15-18). More accurate is the information of Baudhayana Dharma Sutra, IV, 1, 24, according to which heat is produced magic rete-NienD the respiration. (The MajjhimanikayaJ, 244, etc., Us-thing the same tradici6n). We shall see in what sense are targeted all these indications: in order to devote himself to the sacrifice of soma, 5 The Yoga-Sutra refteren four times to the spiritual value of Tapas; II, 1, 32, 43, VI, 1. lids must practice and become "hot", being the "heat ma-gic" the sign par excellence of the remoteness of the human condition, from the "profane". But the heat is effected by means of discipline or the detention of respiration, which will allow one hand, assimilation techniques to methods orthodox yogis, Brahmans, and secondly, to assimilate the yogi tapasvin: in order we perceive the bold and homologation of the Vedic


sacrifice with the techniques of ecstasy. This homologation has been possible mainly by theories of the Brahmana with respect to sacrifice. It is unnecessary to recall the importance of sacrifice, since Vedic times. The sacrifice is all powerful. The same gods subsist on ritual offerings: "It is the sacrifice, Indra, who has made you so powerful ... It is the worship that helped you when lightning struck the Dragon" (Rig Veda, III, 32.12) ... It is the sacrifice the principle of life and soul of every god and every (SatapathaBr, VIII, 6, 1.10, etc.). ... At first the gods were mortal (Taitt, samhitta, VIII, 4, 2,1, etc.). ... became divine and immortal by sacrifice (ibid. VI, 3, 4, 7, VI, 3, 10, 2, and so on., living in the present land as men live in the present from heaven (ibid. , III, 2, 9, 7, etc.).. But above all, sacrifice expresses the level of action, "works" the desire to remake the world, to gather the members of Prajapati. The myth is known: when Prajapati created the world, its members fell away and the gods have "reconstructed" (Taitt. Br I, 2, 6.. 1, etc.). By the sacrifice is Prajapati rebuilt (Taitt. Samhita V, 5, 2, 1 ) but that can also be understood in the sense that it is Prajapati "reconstructed" so you can repeat the cosmo-Goni and that the world can endure, continue. As noted by Sylvain Levi (op. cit, p. 79-80) slaughter not done, it expands, it continues: it is necessary to prevent that slaughter This paradoxical description of the slaughter-expressed as a continuity that is however a return to primordial unity, to the fullness of Prajapati pre-Creation-fiuicion not alter its essential: to ensure "the second birth." Effec 6 were the main texts in the work of Sylvain Levi, La Doctrine du sacrifice dans les Brahmanas (Paris 1898); A. Coomaraswamy, Hinduism and Buddhism (1943). tively, the initiatory symbolism of sacrifice is emphasized by its sexual symbolism and gynecological. The texts are clear (Sylvain Levi, p. 104, cit). The Aitareya-Brahmana, I, 3, makes clear exposition homologation system: "The priests embryo trans-man in him whom give diksa. Doused it with water, water is the virile seed (...) Le they enter the special hangar, is the parent who makes the diksa, they pit him well in the matrix for you. they cover it with clothes: clothes, is the amnion (...) It is put over a skin black antelope: the chorion in fact, is above the amnion (...) Pufi Keeps closed: indeed, the fetus has Pufi closed while in the womb, the child to, at birth, the little pig is closed ( ...) will remove the skin of antelope to get into his bath: that's why the world fetuses are deprived of the corium. Keep your clothes on entering the Bafia and that is why that the child is born covered by the amnion . This symbolism is not creation of the Brahmana. Universally, the initiate has been likened to a newborn and there are examples where the hut initiatic was seen as the belly of a monster (Frazer, Spirits of the Corn, I, p. 225): the candidate) was alii " swallowed "ritually" killed ", but also in an embryo. As the purpose of sacrifice was to obtain, after death, heaven (suarga), a common dwelling with the gods, or quality of God (devatma), and find here a symmetry with the fundamental concept of the initiation archaic of which were believed to ensure the initiated, the better conditions in the afterlife. But still: the initiation ritual is not just about death and rebirth, but also includes a secret gnosis However, the "science" of the Brahmana, but are concentrated around the mysteries of sacrifice desempefia an equally important role. T "This world (the world of the gods) belongs only to those who know" (SatapathaBr. X, 5, 4, 18). In the Brahmana, the phrase


"he who knows well (and evam veda) is repeated too often. Over time, the "science" of sacrifice and liturgical techniques loses its value, and a new science, the knowledge of Brahma comes to replace it. i The symbolism Gynecologists and Obstetricians of the initiation is prolonged in the images of philosophical learning: Socrates claimed the mission of the midwife in effect, assisting at the birth of the "new man", helps the delivery of "one who knows." ÂŁ 1 road is so open to rsi Upanishads and, later, the Samkhya teachers, for whom the real science is sufficient to obtain the liberation. Because 'the sacrifices are comparable to the canoes' rowing in the ocean and the constant danger of being swamped "as the Munddka Upanishad (I, 2,1). "Interiorizing RITUAL" Soon, the sacrifice was assimilated into the lids. The gods were ob-immortality not only through sacrifice, but also through asceticism. The Rig Veda (X, 167.1) states that forced Indra the sky thanks to tapas, and this idea is pushed too far by the Brahmins: "The gods have conquered their divine rank with the austerity" (Br. Taitt. Ill 12,3, 1, etc.).. Because the caps is also the "sacrifice". If in a Vedic sacrifice offered to the gods, soma, melted butter and the sacred fire, the ascetic practices are offered a "sacrifice interior" in the physiological functions that substitute for the libations and ritual objects. The respiration is often identified with an "unbroken libaci6n" Vaikhanasasmarta sutra, n, 18, speaks of pranagnihotra, ie the "daily sacrifice of respiraci6ri" 8 The conception of this "inner sacrifice" is fertile, and allow for the ascetics and rnisti-ing, even the most independent, staying within the Brahmanism, and later, of Hinduism. Here is a text that pranayama Brahmins is approved to one of the most famous varieties of Vedic sacrifice, the Agnihotra (fire oblation that every home ought duefio-namente everyday practice of mafiana before dawn and after dusk ): I call "internal Agnihotra. Mentra speaks, the man should not res-Piraro, and offers his respiration to the word. Here are two offerings continuous and immortal in suefio and waking, the man offered without interrupci6n. The other offerings have a purpose and 8 we find the same text in assimilation and physiological functions of the organs to the various fire ritual objects necessary for the sacrifice. "The luminous Atman is the officiant, the intellect is the wife, the lotus of the heart is the vedi, the body hair is the grass dharban; Garhapatya prana is, the apana is Ahavaniya; the vyana is Daksinagni; the udana Sabhya is fire, the fire tamafia is Avasathya; are the five fires (of sacrifice). The sense organs are the sacrificial vessels, objects of the senses, taste, and so on., the substantia sacrificers. " partake of the nature of the act (karma). The ancients, who knew the true sacrifice offered no Agnihotra (kausi-taki-Brahmana Upanishad, 11, 5). We find the same concept, more discreetly, in the Chandogya Up, V, 19-24: the true sacrifice is the offering of the respiration, "which offers the Agnihotra without knowing this (sa ya idam avidvan) is like that (...) that make the offering on the ashes "(V, 24, 1). This form of sacrifice is usually called by the name of "sacrificiomental. We'd call it rather "interiorizaci6n ritual" as it implies, apart from the oration of mind, a deep assimilation of the physiological functions of cosmic life. This approval of the organs and physiological functions gicas regions and cosmic rhythms is a pan-Indian made. Footprints found in the Vedas, but in truth it is only in the so-centrism which came to acquire the consistency of a system (and this, in large part is due to the contribution of experimental techniques yogis).


The texts quoted above refer, undoubtedly, certain ascetics who practiced pranayama, approved by them to the particular called Agnihotra sacrifice. This is not only a validation example, by the Orthodox tradition, an exercise that, if mis-mo, was devoid of ties that join this tradition. However, the homologation results in substitution practices (which she justifies it). Asceticism thus becomes an equivalent of the sacrifice, the Vedic ritual. Since that time com-prises that so easily penetrated other practices I-guis in the Brahmanic tradition, and how they were accepted. Moreover, we should not imagine that this homologous-mation was made in only one direction. There are always the fervent supporters of yogic practices which seek to obtain the brah-ancestor-worship the validation of his attitude and his method. The same ortodoxia has taken the initiative, often. The tiny number of "he-regiments" that has marked the three thousand years of Indian religious life is partly due to the incessant efforts of the many sec-tions and currents to be validated within the tradition, and secondly side to the relentless action and assimilative "hinduizante" of orthodoxy. Orthodoxy, in India, means first of all spiritual domination of a caste, the Brahmins. His "system" theological and ritual can be reduced to two elements: l9) the Vedas are con-sidered as elements of an unchanging scriptural corpus, 2?) Slaughter is the most important alii. The two elements are "is-static" par excellence. And yet, the religious history of India Indo-Aryan is revealed as essentially dynamic, in perpe-tua transformation. A double fact explains this phenomenon, nourished and sustained done so far by the Brahmin orthodoxy: 1) 'through the hermeneutics, the Vedas have been reinterpreted constantly, 2 째) approvals through mystical, or religious rituals, all the complexity religious and mystical extra-Orthodox has been reduced, so to speak, to a common denominator and finally absorbed by the orthodoxy of the divinities Assimilation "poor neighborhoods" autochthonous by Hinduism is a current phenomenon (see Note IV, 4) . Obviously, this absorption orthodoxy but did not make in times of crisis, ie, when their old patterns and doctrinal ritualized them no longer satisfied with their own schemes for farmers and when major "experiences" or ascetic-mystical sermons extramural occurred. We can distinguish in the course of history, a reaction against the Brahmanic ritual schemata, and also against an excess of "abstraction" reaction whose starting point is at the very heart of Indian society. This reaction volume to increase as India is more "brahmanizada" and "Hinduized", ie when the absorption of the elements and extra-extraBrahmanic Aryan is more intense. Symbolism and Gnosis in the Upanishads The also, its against the ritualized ism. They are the expression of experiences and meditations I-chas outside Brahman orthodoxy. Responded to the absolute necessity of the abstract schemas of ritualism were far from complete. The Upanishads rsi shared, in this regard, the position of the yogis much as each other, leaving orthodoxy (the sacrifice, ta civil, family) and in utter simplicity engaged in search of the absolute. It is true that the Upanishads are held in the metaphysical Hnea \ of contemplation, while that uses yoga asceticism and meditation techniques. But the osmosis between the media and yogis Upanishads has not been interrupted ask. Some yogis bastavSon methods accepted by the Upanishads, by way of preliminary exercises of purification and contemplation.


We did not go into detail here: the mass, considerable, Upanishads theories, we will retain only those aspects concerning our topic. (Texts and bibliographies in Note III, 5.) It is known that the great discovery of the Upanishads has been the articulation sys-theme of identity of atman and brahman. Now if you-Nemos into account the meaning of brahman from Vedic times, the Upanishads discovery involved the following consequence: immortality and absolute power were returning to be accessible to all to strive to penetrate gnosis and appropriate knowledge of the mysteries, for the Brahman stood for all that: it was the immortal, the imperishable, the powerful. It is difficult to summarize in a single formula all the meanings that holds Brahman in Vedic texts and postvedicos, beyond doubt, this term expresses the ultimate reality and unattainable, the Grund of all cosmic manifestation and all experience, and consequently, force of all Creation, whether cosmological (the universe) or simply ritual (sacrifice). It is useless to recall the almost unlimited number of your IDs and approvals (Brahmana is identified in the fire, word, sacrifice, the Vedas, etc.). The important thing is that in all ages and all levels of culture The Brahman has been considered and expressly called the impereced ^ ro, the inimitable, the basic principle of all existence. And it is significant that in the Vedas, the mythical image is skambha Brahman, the cosmic pillar, the axis mundi, a symbol which does not require demonstration archaism, as is found among both hunters and herders in Central Asia and north and in the "primitive" cultures of Oceania, Africa and the two Americas (see our Shamanism, below). We variqs him in the AtharvaVeda (X, 7, 8, etc.). Identjficado Brahman with this skambha (literally strut, support, pillar), in other words, Brahman is the Grund which holds the World, yez to the cosmic axis and ontological foundation. We follow the procedure for preparing primary symbol dialectics about the Axis Mundi: first, the axis is always in the "Center of the World, supports and connects the three cosmic zones (Heaven, Earth, region subterranea), symbolizing both the "cos-mizaci6n" (manifestation of forms) as the norm, the universal law, the supports and maintains separate skamhba to Heaven and p. Earth, in other words, secures and prolongs the World, preventing a return to chaos, confusion on the other hand "in everything skambha this po-seido by the spirit (atmanvat), everything that breathes" (Atharva Veda, VII , 8, 2). Presented and the path to take the theory upanishad-sion: to be identified in the "axis" of the universe (in its "Center" at its beginning) is found at another level in the "center" of the spiritual Man in the atman. "He who knows Brahman in man, knows the Supreme Being, knows the skambha. (Ath, Veda, X, 8, 43). We see the effort made to isolate the ultimate reality principle impossible to formulate in words: Brahma is recognized as the Pillar of the Universe, support, base, and the term Pratishan, which expresses all these notions, is already widely used -dents in the Vedic texts, in the Mahabharata and the Puranas, Brahma is called Dhruva, "fixed, immobile, firm and permanent" (see the texts collected by Gonda, Notes on Brahman, ps. 47-48). But knowing the skambha, the Dhruva, is to possess the key to cosmic mysteries and find the "Center of the World" in the depths of our being. Knowledge is a sacred force because it solves the riddle of the universe and the riddle of the Self. In ancient India, as in the other sociedade6 traditional science-tual secret was a class, the mysteries specialists, teachers of the rites: the Brahmins. As expected, the universal principle, Brahman, is identified man-Brahman: Brahma hi brah-manah is a leitmotif of the FEXT postvedicos (Gonda, p. 51). "Knowledge of Brahman is an eternal incarnation of the


dharma" (Mono, I, 98); "wise men are those who hold all the worlds" (Mahabharata, XIII, 151, 3; Gonda, text ci-tion, p . 52). The brahman brahman is identified because it knows the structure and origin of the universe, because he knows the word that expresses all that, as Vac, the Logos, you can transform anyone into brahman (Rig-Veda, X, 125, 5 ). As phrased in the Brhad-yaka Upanishad.lll, 8.10, who knows the imperishable (aksa-ram, ie Brahman) that is Brahman. In sum, one sees Brahman fly-by knowing the Being, the ultimate reality, and the possession of this knowledge is translated by the appropriation of juerzu par excellence, the sacred force. The classical Upanishad systematically in formulating the identity atman (the self) - brahman (- skambha, Dhruv, aksara) showed the way to emancipate-se of the rituals and works. It is at this point that you are with Upanishads rsi ascetics and yogis; partieroD of other premises and responding to other vocations (less specula-rying, more technical and "mystical"), these latter acknowledged, they, too, that true knowledge of the mysteries is translated by the possession of a boundless spiritual strength, but rather inclined to push this knowledge of self through techniques semicontemplative, semi-physiological. Identify the cosmos to your body, leading to certain approvals edge micro-and macrocosmic attested in the Rig-Veda, the cosmic winds will be "dominated" two "as a function of respiratory rate, the sfccmb / ia-cosmic pillar column will be found vertebral; the "Center of the World"-trate festers in a period (the "heart") or an axis (across the cakra) inside your body. In the late text begins to ob-serve a dual movement of osmosis: the yogis take advantage of the aura of the ancient Upanishads and adorn their writings with the epi-teto of "Upanishads", the Upanishads rsi used in the recent prove-cho although great fame of yogis, than they can achieve both liberation and domination of the world-do magic. That's why a quick review of the elements pre-yogis Upanishad present for them can only be instructive to help us glimpse the progress of the acceptance of Yoga by Brahma himself, as well as the prodigious polymorphism of the first. Because, lest we forget, is the rich and eventually extrana morphology of Yoga "baroque" which we deal on. IMMORTALITY AND RELEASE The term yoga in its technical sense, is the first time in the Taittiriya Upanishad, II, 4 (atma yoga) and Katha Up, II, 12 (adhyatmayoga), VI, II (the text next to more classic sense) etc.. but notice the presence of yoga practice in the oldest Upanishads. Thus, a passage from the Chandogya Up, VIII, 15 (atmani sarvendriyani sampratistha "focusing on whether your senses to-two") to infer the practice of pratyahara; equally, often found in the Brhadaranyaka pranayatna Up (for example, I, 5, 23). Knowledge in the Upanishads, brings the liberation of Death "jConduceme death to immortality!" (Br. Up, I, 3, 28): "Those who possess knowledge are made immortal" (Katha Up, VI, 9; VI, 18, vimrtyu, "released from death"). The practice yoga, as used by the Upanishads, pursues the same objective. And it is significant that in Katha Up, is just mind-Yama, the king of the dead, which reveals both the supreme knowledge and Yoga. The same affabulation this Upanishad (inspired by another part in an episode of the Taittiriya Brahmana) is original and mysterious young Brahman reaches Naciketas Infiernos and Yama to obtain the satisfaction of his three votes, requests information on the fate of man after death. The decline and the last three days in Hell are start-cal issues well known: it is thought, of course, in shamanic initiations and the Mysteries of antiquity.


Yama Naciketas informed the secret of "fire way to Heaven" (I, 14); fire that can be understood as ritual fire, or a "mystic fire" ori-ginado by the lids. This fire is "the bridge to the supreme Brahman" (III, 2), the image of the bridge, already commonplace in the Brahmana, is in the earliest Upanishads (Chand, Up, VIII, 4, 1-2); moreover, is attested by numerous and significant traditions generally initiatory passage from one mode to another (see our Shamanism, ps. 353, 419). But the most important are the teaching concemientes the "granviaje" habertratado after in vain to lure Naciketas this problem, propose-pilation innumerable earthly goods, Yama reveals the great mystery, the atman, which "can not be achieved by exegesis, not by intellect, nor by much study. It can only be reached by Yama select "(II, 23, trans. L. Renou). The last row mystical hue betrays a more pronounced in the next chapter, by the referenda to Vishnu (III, 9). The man who is master of himself is compared to a skilful driver who knows how to dominate your senses: a man that reaches liberation. "Know that the atman is the owner of the car, the body is the chariot itself, that the reason is the driver and thought are the reins. The senses are the horses, they say, and the objects of the senses, your (...). The race that has learned with yoked always thought, is subject to the senses are like good horses to the coachman (â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x2013; ). He who has knowledge, and is supplied with thought, always pure , arrives at that place where one is born again "(III, 3-4,6, 8, trans. Renou). Although no yoga behalf, the image is specifically Yogi throw the reins, the driver and the good horses> us back to the etymon yuj, "man-tner oppressed, put under a yoke" (same image in the Maitrayani Vp., II, 6). Moreover, another verse helps to determine: "He was com-prises under the name of Yoga, this firm grip on the senses. Then it becomes one focusing ..." (VI, 11; VI, 18: "Then Naciketas, having received, through the teaching of Death, this science and comprehensive description of yoga, leading to Brahman was exempt from old age, was released from death). Final-mind, a detail of physiology Yogi kept a slogan in the Chandogya Up, VIII, 6, 6, we are told that "there are one hundred a vein in the heart, of which only one rises to the head; going up for her to immortality "(VI, 16). This allusion is important: we reveal the existence of a system of mystical physiology upon which subsequent texts, notably the Upanishads yogis and tantric literature, provide details with increasing frequency. "The man who has the knowledge coachman to the thoughts by way of reins, reaches the other side of the trip, the supreme place of Visnu" (tadvisnoh paramam sodhvanahparamapnoti padam), said the Khata Up (III, 9 -) . There is still the Visnu of epic poetry or that of the Purana, but their role in this early Yoga Upanishads that is used to obtain both the knowledge of the atman as immortality, and the trend indicates the large non - thesis further: The three main paths of liberation: upanisbidico knowledge, technique yoga, bhakti, will be phased-approved and integrated mind. This process is further advanced, yet in a Upanishad of the same era, the Svetasvatara, that instead of Vishnu, Siva worships. Nowhere is so frequently expressed the equality of mystical knowledge and the immortal-ity. " 9 immortality through God (I, 6), when Hara (Shiva) is cone-down, "stop the birth and death" (I, 11), who knows Rudra (Siva) becomes immortal (III, 1) Lord who recognizes as the supreme Brahman, attains immortality (III, 7), "the man who truly knows him,


goes alia of death, there is another path" (III, 8) immortality ( HI, 10; III, 13), the Spirit is the owner of immortality (III, 15), which is known triumphs over death (IV, 15, 17, 20), gods and poets who have co - nocido the essence of Brahman hidden in the Vedas and Upanishads have been The predominance of "motive" of immortality "encourages us to believe that Svetaavatara Up was written in a" mystical ", or rather was restored in such an environment, because the text has suffered nu-merous additions, over the centuries. The term "liberation" is not so often alii. But there are passages that speak of joy radiating "eternal happiness" obtained by those who know a mother Siva (VIJ 12), expression that among so many others (IV, 11, 12, etcetera) betrays a secret content of mystical experience ver - dader. The Brahman is identified with Shiva, whose name is also Hara (I, 10), Rudra (III, 2) and Bhagavat (III, 11). We oc-takee of the composite structure of nuance "sectarian" (sivaita) of this Upanishad (see Note III, 5). But it was necessary to emphasize its mystical-experimental (IV, 20) to better explain the importance it attaches to the yogic practices (II, 8-13). When it comes to traditions or "trade secrets" themselves of certain "experimented" recluses, the author himself (or one of its "Edit-res") leaves him understand. Then he tells us (VI, 21): Tor ru power of austerity and by God's gratia (devaprasadat) indeed revealed Svetasvatara wise as well as necessary, to Brahman who have crossed the ashram, the purification tada supreme accepted by the assembly of the rsi (trans. L. Silburn). Thus the yogi technique is integrated with the tradition Upanishads: technique that presents quite analogous to that of the Yoga-Sutra. Here are the essential passages: "Given the strong body upright in the three parts (chest, neck, head, Bhagavad Gita, VI, 13), into the heart by the senses and thought, a sa-bio, with the boat of Brahman traverse all rivers threaten-ing (II, 8). Having compressed the respiration in the body, regular movement lando, you ought to breathe through the nostrils with reduced breath (Bh. Gita, V, 27 ) as a vehicle NICU do with bad horses, the wise must repress their thoughts without distraction. (9) that yoga is practiced in a smooth and pure (Bh. Gita, VI, 11), no pebbles, no fire, or sand, pleasant to intemal sense of sounds, water, etc.., not dislike the look, sheltered by a depression in the ground. (10) The fog, smoke, sun, fire, wind, Phosphorescent insects, lightning, crystal, vuefto famortales (V, 6); immortality through Siva only (VI, 15, 17); "the ultimate bridge to immortality" (amrtasaparam setum, VI, 19). moon are the preliminary elements that produce, in Yoga, the manifestation of Brahman. (11) Where the quality of Yoga quintuple was produced rising from the earth, water, fire, wind and space, since there is neither disease nor old age nor death for one who has obtained a body made with the fire of Yoga. (12) Lightness, health, lack of desire, fair complexion, excellent voice, pleasant smell, decreased excreta, that is, they say, the first effect of Yoga "(13: trad. L. Silburn). We have acknowledged in passing the most important anga of the Yoga-Sutra: The asana, the pratyahara, pranayama. The aci s-cal phenomena and light that mark the stages of yogic meditation, and for which the Upanishads further emphasis will confirm the technical, experimental, of the secret tradition transmitted by the Svetasvatara. Another Upanishad the same group, the Mandukh-ya, provides critical details concerning the four states of consciousness and its relations with the mystic syllable OM. The extreme brevity of this Upanishad (s61o has twelve stanzas) is am-broadly de-fined offset by the


importance of his revelations. Because even reproduces the Upanishads theories about sleep and wakefulness. (For example Brhad. Up, IV, 4, 7; Chand Up, VIII, 6, etc..) Mandukhya offers the first homologation system between states of consciousness, mystical lyrics and, as Zimmer as see, leaning on a Cankara allusion to the four yuga. The trend towards compliance with the different planes of reality is essential throughout archaic and traditional spirituality: atesti-brada from Vedic times, is expanding the Brahmana and Upanishad. But Mandukhya marks the triumph of a long tra-low synthesis, namely the integration of various levels of referenda: Upanishads, yogi, "mystical" cosmological. Indeed, the first stanza proclaims Mandukhya eJ my-tery and the greatness of OM: w this syllable is the All. Now. This Everything, which is Brahman, which is the Atman has four parts (pada, "foot": "as the four feet of the cow," noted Sankara), on the other hand, we can distinguish four elements in the mystical syllable: the letters A, U, M and the final synthesis, the sound OM. This division quasi w antigiledad Referring to the meditation on the syllable OM, and notable in the Vedas, see Deussen, Allgemeine Geschichte der Philosophie, II, 349; Hauer, W / Yoga-Praxis der ange, 180-181. Tripartite leads to a bold homologation: the four states of consciousness are related to the four "quarters" of atman-brahmdn, the four elements of the OM and, if we consider the commentary of Sankara, with the four yuga. "What is in a state of sail, having the outward-oriented knowledge (...) is the first room, called Vaisvanara (" universal, which is common to all men ") which is the sound Vaisvanara A (9). "What is in a state of ensuefio, taking knowledge-oriented interior (...) is the second room, called taisaja (that glitters": this represents the sound U (10). "When one is asleep, and not any desire longs, and is not no suefio, is the deep suefio (susupta): What is in a state of deep suefio (...) is the third room, called prajna (the one who knows ) "and prajna is the third sound, M (11). It is considered as the fourth state which has no outward-oriented knowledge, or knowledge oriented toward the interior, or both at once, or undifferentiated knowledge: what is invisible, ineffable, elusive, indefinable, unnamable, whose essence is the experience of self (ekatmapratyayasaram), which is more diversity alia, that is quiet (Santam), cozy (sivam) without duality (advaitam) . It is the Self, who is the object of knowledge "(7, trans. Em. Lesimple, slightly modified)." And the fourth estate (...) is the syllable OM (12). A passage from the Upanishad Amrtabindu (XI, 12) points out that it should be understood as one and the same atman to all that is experienced while awake, playing or just sleeping without dreams, but one gets the liberation that has transcended these three dimensions of spirit, ie who has attained the state of Turiya. In other words, the whole experience belongs to the atman, but freedom is won only through the transcendence of experience (in the sense of know-bay experience, clear). The fourth state, Turiya, corresponds to samadhi: the total situation of the spirit, without any specification, all that in cosmological level, represents a complete cycle, invoking the four yuga as lucrative as the timeless period of Reintegration primordial unity. The turiya samadhi, represents the Spirit in their undifferentiated unity. We know that, for India, the unit is not feasible but before or after the Creation, before or after the time. The total reintegration, or return to is to the Indian spirit, the supreme goal of all being responsible. We shall find this image copies in all levels of spirituality and in all cultural contexts.


Yoga in MAJTRl UPANISAD We consider the Maitrayani (Maitri) as the starting point of the whole group of Upanishad means: it seems to have been written about the same time, or maybe a little later than the Bhagavad-Gita (therefore between the ages II before and because of our age ") but in any event prior to the didactic parts of the Mahabharata (Hopkins, The Great Epic of India, P. 33-46). As we shall see, the technique and yoga are subject ideology in Maitri Up, a more careful exposition than in the oldest Upanishads. True, the sixth chapter, which houses most of the elements yogis, chapter abnormally longer than others, seems to have been written later: but this detail important to the history of the text, it is crucial to the appreciation of the content. (Never too often repeated that the chro-nology of the drafting of religious and philosophical Indians love j corresponds to the chronology of the "invention" of its content teonco). All the verses of this chapter begin with the sixth following indication: "For this statement in other places", which shows the dependence of the Maitri Up with respect to other previous Yogic texts. Moreover, although this technique exposed yogi in twelve stanzas of the sixth chapter, we find everywhere innumerable references or allusions (eg. Disgust toward the body I, 3; everything is perishable, I, 4, III, 4; passions pro convened by tamas and rajas, III, 5, etc.). The Maitri only knows five of the eight classical anga Yoga (YS, II, 29): Missing the yama, the niyama, the asana, but Instead we find the tarka, "reflexion", "force of reason" (term fairly rare in the Yogic texts, which the Amrtabindu Up 16 explains as follows: "meditation which is not contrary to sastra" ie the Orthodox tradition ). The explication of Dharana is interesting for its physiological materialism gico: "He who oppresses the tip of the tongue and palate, cl dominates his voice, his spirit and his respiration, go to Brahman through the tarka" (VI, 20): The following paragraph (VI, 21) mentions susumna artery, which serves to channel prana "and argues (through pranayama and meditation on the syllable OM) the deep meditation through which incurred the kevalatva (loneliness, isolation). It appears, these texts, the importance given to meditation by the Maitri Upanishad hearing. Several passages bring relief to the syllable OM (VI, 3-5, 21-26): the meditation on the syllable leads to liberation (VI, 22) by this meditation is Brahman and obtained immortality (VI , 24), OM is co Visnu identity (VI, 23), all gods, all respiratory rhythms rivers, all the sacrifices (VI, 5). This supremacy of the meditation on the mystic syllable OM po-dria may explain both the concise and sincretis-mo peculiar to this kind of Upanishad, for the practical success of a hearing meditation technique, that India knew and ha-ing much time and taking into account that follows. Chapter VI, 22, gives us a very confusing essay explication of meditation concerning the "word" and "non-word" (test we can consider as a document of the prehistory of the theories concerning the physical sound, sabela ). The same chapter also states another method hearing mystical experience: "When you cover your ears with your thumbs, you hear the sound of space that is inside the heart (Brhad. Up, V, 9) and its appearance is of seven ways: (is like) the sound of a river, that of a cam panita that of a copper cup, the wheel of a car, the cry of a frog, the sound of rain, or the word in an enclosed area. After having passed this sound, which is ca-clear characteristics, will be lost in the unmanifested Brahman, the supreme sound. Alii, covered in an equally, without other individual-ity, are as flowers (Chand. Up V. 18, 1) flavor di-verse that


produce the same honey "(trans. Ana Maria Esnoul). Details on the "sounds mystical" suggest a technology-tance of meditation quite advanced hearing on the talking-oars later. The same interpretation that the Maitri Up offers of yoga practice is based on mystical auditions. "It's because (the Yogi) links in this way the prana, the syllable OM, and this universe with its innumerable forms (...) that this process is called Yoga Unity of respiraci6n, consciousness and the senses -- followed by the annihilation of all basic-to behold Yoga "(VI, 25). The working properly for six months, with the perfect union (VI, 28). But this secret "should not release more than sei bijos and the disciples, and with the express condition that these are fit to receive it (VI, 29). The Upanisads SAMNYASA The Upanishadfue Sulik written probably during the same period as the Maitri, in the simplest form we find the theistic Yoga (Deussen, Sechzig Upanishads, p. 637, Hopkins, The Great Epic, p. 100, 110, Hauer, Der Yoga ah HeUtoeg, p. 34). With the weather coFerrer, these two Upanishad are continued by two groups of short Upanishad, species of technical manuals for the use of either cultivators ascetics of the Vedanta and Yoga: these two groups are called Upanishad Samnyasa and of Yoga Upanishad (the first are written in prose, in its majority, and the other in verse: see Deussen, p. 629-677, 678-715; Farquhar, An Outline of the Religious Literature of India, p. 95). With regard to the chrono-logy of this Upanishad, we can say only that they are con-temporary of subsections didacticos the Mahabharata and probably just before the Vedanta-Yoga-Sutra and the Sutra. As presented, hold traces of that same spirit and devotion eclec-tic of the period found in these formative ideas and light approximation, syncretistic and poorly organized that are characteristic of the Epic, but imbued with the same experience theistic, devo -tion, which is transmitted to the whole mystical-contemplative literature from the Bhagavad-Gita. In the group we should mention the Upanishads Samnyasa: Up to Brahma, the Samnyasa Up (formed by pieces of different faith-chas, Up Maitrayani some contemporary, some more recently-tes), the Aruneya, the Kanthasruti, the Jdbala and Paramahamsa Upanishad. They glorify the ascetic (sannyasi) who leaves the world to pursue the contemplative life concrete knowledge), experimental, unity between the individual soul (/ Footman) and the supreme soul (Paramatma) is considered, by Paramahamsa Up (I, 2) as a substitute for morning prayers and see, "Pertina, the samdhya. Further evidence that all these adventures ascetic in search of the Absolute, seeking safety and justification along with Brahmanism. The exhortation to the renunciation is repeated ad nauseam in these Upanishads, short and rather insipid in its majority. In Aruneya (V, 1) Brahma Anuria recom-mends to surrender not only all that is human (fa-mily, property, reputation, etc..) But also to the seven spheres passed higher (Bhur, Bhuvan, Svar, etc..) and seven lower spheres (Alala, Patala, Vitale, etc.).. In some of these Samnyasa Upanishad are also allusions to decode certain heterodox ascetic orders that represent the same tradition "left hand" (vamacari) that exist in India since the Vedic period to nuestvos days. (The Paramahamsa-panis, 3, refers to certain ascetics "slaves of sense and devoid of jnana" go to "the horrible hell known by the nomber Maharaurava). ^. Seii this an indication of Tantrism "left hand"? In Brahmopanisad (II, 9) appears a curious theory of the "four places" where dwells purusa: belly button, the


co-razon, neck and head. Each of these regions corresponds to a state of consciousness: the ombb'go (or eye) Diur wakefulness-no, on the neck, suefio; to coraz6n, sleeping without sueiios (susupta) and the head, transcendent state (Turiya). Similarly, each state of consciousness correspond respectively Brahma Visnii, Rudra and Aksara (the indestructible). This theory of "centers" and correspondence between the different body parts and states of consciousness, will be prepared by Hatha yoga and Tantra. The Upanisads yogis In the brief exposition of the technique yoga as it appears in the Upanishads late, we will not use more than the group of the Upanishads Samnyasa; not contribute almost nothing new. This election is im-poses even in the group of yogis Upanishad. The latter group includes the Brahmabindu (written perhaps in the same time as the Maitri Up) Ksurika, Tejobindu, Brahma-vidya, Nadabindu, Yogasikha, Yogatattva, Dhyanabindu, Amrtabindu, all made at about the same time as the principal Upanishad Samnyasa and didactic parts of the Mahabharata (Hopkins, yoga technique in the Great Epic, pag. 379). Other co-lessons include ten or eleven Upanisads yogis, still later (Yogakundali, War aha, Pasupata-brahma etc.).. Most of these texts do more than repeat the traditional cliches, ifguiendo or summarizing the most important schemes of Yogis Upanishads, namely Yoga1attva the Dhyanabindu and Nadabindu: The latter deserve closer examination. The Yogatattva is that he seems to know more thoroughly the practices yogis mentioned eight anga (3) and distinguishes four types of yoga (Mantrayoga, Layayoga, Hatbayoga and Rajayoga, (19). At the beginning states that yoga is not enough if alone to pro-cure if we do not have equally moksa of jnana, but the magic of sor-tilegios alii as yogis are very weighted. For the first time a Upanishad gives us precise details and many of the extraordinary powers obtained by the prac - tica and meditation. alii are mentioned the four main asana (Siddha, Padma, Simha and Bhadra, 29) and lists the obstacles faced by the debutantes (laziness, chat, etc.., 30). It follows a exposition of pranayama (26) with the definition of the matra (unit of measurement for the duration of respiratory phases rials, 40), and details mystical physiology rather large (the purification of the resulting nodi by certain external signs: li body-Vianden, shiny skin, increased di-Gestiva power, etc.., 46; the kevala kumbhaka, ie the com-plete suspensi6n of respiraci6n was also expressed by physiological symptoms cal, 52) . By kevala kumbhaka can master anything in the three worlds. The power to soar through the air to control and dominate any being (bhucara siddhi) are the immediate results of yogic practices. The Yogi becomes her "Moso and strong as a god, and the women they wish, but he must persevere in chastity" to consecuentia the retention of sperm, a pleasant smell around the body of the yogi "(59). The pratya-hara is defined somewhat differently from the Yoga-Sutra "completely re-pulling the sensory organs of objects (of sense) for the suspension of respiration (68). A long list of siddhi, hidden powers, leaves see the magical medium where this Upanishad was developed, because it speaks of "clarivi-law, the power to hear and speak well, can instantly be transported over great distances, to take any form, of becoming invisible and the power to turn the iron and other metals into gold, spreading it with feces "(73). siddhi The latter clearly shows the actual relations between exisiente some form of yoga and alchemy, relaci6n be discussed later. The Upanishad Yogatattva offers a mystical physiology richer than that of the YogaSutra. The "five parts" of the body corresponds to the five cosmic elements (earth, water, fire, wind and ether), and each element corresponds to a special and mystical lyrics


Dharam particular, Gobernabilidad by a god to make the meditation that is proper, the yogi becomes duefio of an element. Let's see what can be done in pro-cede to achieve (85): "From the ankles to the knees, is said to be the region of the prthivl (land), (Figure icono-graphic of this element) is so square, yellow and has (as a mantra) to the letter. Taking the respiration, while the point along the region of soil (prthivl, ie the ankles to knees) and contemplating Brahma (which has) four faces and four mouths yellow, (the Yogi) should practice Dharana in place for two hours. So wins the power to dominate the floor. Death is no longer a threat to if you purchased that power to dominate the floor. " Apas Element (water) is the mystic letter "oh dharana should be concentrated in the region from the knees straight. Making this Dharana, the yogi no longer has to fear death by water. (Some texts specify that, after this meditation, the man gets to float in the water). Element Agni (fire) are the letter region ra and going straight to the heart, making this place dharana yogi becomes fireproof. The region between the heart and the interGo's budge is Vayu (air), which corresponds to the letter and he that does this Dharana, need no longer fear to the atmosphere. From brows to crown extends the region of the AHAC (ether, cosmic space) to the corresponding point ka: by Dharana, acquired the power to cross the air. All these familiar siddhi in both misticc-Hindu ascetic traditions and the folklore concerning the yogis. Alii Samadhi is described as resulting in the paradoxical situation in which they find djioatma (individual soul) and Paramatma (the Universal Spirit) from the time when they will not differ from each other. The yogi can then do what he pleases: if you wish, can be absorbed by the para-brahman, if the contrary, wants to maintain its body, can be on earth and be possessed of all siddhi. It may also be-come a god, to live surrounded by honors, in heaven, take any form desired. "The Yogi can become live as long as God wills." Upon completion, the Yogatattva Up also gives a list of asana and mudra (112) of those who find some in the Hathayogapradipika. \ Amb \ m is the medi-tative position that is maintained on the head, feet in the air, position of therapeutic effects: the wrinkles and gray hair disappear after three months of this year (128). Other mudra have resulted in the Acquisition of siddhi well known-the power of gliding through the air, knowledge of the future, and even immortality (through cofroUmudra). Immortality is often roamed In this Upanishad sc Yogatattva technique reveals a yogi revalued to the dialectics hiz Vedantin: jtvotmo and the pa here to replace ramatma purusa and Isvara, the "b * and Pero, More significantly, this nuance Vedantin is earperi-mental stress that characterizes all of this Upanishad. The text retains the character of a technical manual with strict indications for use of the ascetics. The objective of this former prisoner distiplina alii this clearly: the obtention of the condition of "man-god," an endless life span and total freedom. This is the leimotio baroque of all varieties of Yoga, which give the greatest Tantrism amplitud.11 The Nadabmdu Up presents a mythical personification of the mystic syllable OM, which envisions as a bird, whose right-hand wing would be the letter A, etc.., Describing then cosrnico value (the dif-ferent worlds that belong to it, etc. . 1-5). It follows a series of twelve dharana with indications on the fate of the yogis who die in this or that degree of this meditation (a-worlds that Iran near that God was, etc.).. The reason held Vedantin of the serpent and the rope that is used for the explication and discussion of the theory of illusion, is also mentioned alii. But the most interesting part of this Upanishad is the


description ii Furthermore, tantric elements are not lacking: we know the Kundalini (82) and two sexual prowess mudra, vafroli and khecart (126). CIBN of auditory phenomena acompafian certain yogic exercises. By the sound perceived in Siddhasana position, which makes him deaf to every sound from the outside world, the Yogi reaches the state in a fortnight turiya (31-32). At first the sounds perceived are violent (similarity above the ocean, thunder, waterfalls), then take a musical structure (of Mardala, bell and horn) and finally, hearing becomes very sensitive (sounds de vina, flute, from abe-ja, 33-35). The yogi must strive to get more sounds for your-tiles is the only possible way to progress in their meditation. Finally, the yogi proved experimentally the junction with the sound lacks Parabrahman (asabda). This state-vo meditatio probably resembles a cataleptic state, since the text states that "the yogi remains dead is freed (muk-ta). His body, in that state unmani (made at the time that has passed the audition yogi mystic) is "like a piece of wood, she feels neither hot nor cold, neither joy nor pain" (53-54). He hears no sound and This Upanishad suggests, also originated "experimental" was undoubtedly made in a specialized yogi "auditions mystical", ie to obtain the "ecstasy" through concentration on the sounds. Let us not forget that such a "concentration" is obtained only through the application of a technique yogi (asana, pranayama, etc.). And that its ultimate goal is to transform the entire cosmos in a wide theophany sound (with referendums to "sounds mystical" , see Note HI, 6). The most abundant indications Upanishad techniques and re-wakes mystical, of all the Upanishads late, is undoubtedly the Dhyanabindu. His magical and contrary to the obvious devotion from the first row, which says that the sins of one man, for more serious they are, are destroyed by the dhyana-yoga. It's exactly the point of view of Tantrism extremist: the total emancipation of the adept, with respect to all moral and social laws. The Dhyanabindu, such as Nadabindu, beginning with an iconographic description of the syllable OM, which must be "provided" as identical with Brahman. Each of the letters of the syllable (a + u + m) has a color "mystical" and is accredited to a god. Moreover, assimilation to the gods (devoid of any religious value here and regarded as iconographic symbols) is not particular to the syllable OM. Pranayama is also identified with the three main gods of the Vedic pantheon: Brahma is considered the aspiration. Visnu the suspension (of respiration), Rudra's expiration. However, it is advisable to get the pranayama through concentration on the syllable OM (19). In the text we are referring to the physiology "subtle" is especially strong. Detailed (25) that the "lotus of the heart" and Trienta has eight petals and filaments. Pranayama acquires special value, the inspiration to be effected by the "three mystical vein, susumna, Ida ypingala and absorbed" between the eyebrows ", a place that is both" the root of the nose and the abode of immortality "(40). Asana is mention four, seven cakra (centers) and ten nodi names (the "veins" of "Hindu mystic physiology) .12 Similarly, it cites (66) the" awakening "of Paramesvari, ie Kundalini Tantric specifically on the process that will already be-ing opportunity to speak. It also reveals an element of magic erotica, a technique with certain analogies with gestures "or" giasticos "of vamacari (gropes" left hand ") and the sahajiya sect. Obviously, these are only indications, not detailed and comprehensive instructions. Thus, for example, make sure that whoever efectiia the khecarimudra1 ' "never nopierde his seed, even embraced by a woman" (84). (The is


therefore the detention of seminal emission, the tantric way.) later, "the bindu (which means secret language semen virile) does not leave the body while undergoing khecarimudra. When the bindu reaches the genital region, is forced to retrace path through the power of yonimudra. This bindu is of two kinds: bianco and red. The bianco is called Sukla (semen), red is the name of the maharaja. The cracks, coral-like color, is in ge-Nital organs (in the yogi-tantric texts the cracks does the secretion 12 The number of asana, the text reads (42) is considerable, but the four main ones siddha, Bhadra, Simha and padma. The list of seven calera jde (44) is the tantric treaty. Our text details there nodi 72,000 of which only 72 are mentioned in the Scriptures are the most important round, pin-gala and susumna: Brhadarankaya Up II, 1, 9; Prasna Up Ill, 9. khecarimudra enjoys is the extraordinary reputation in the literature tantric yogi-later, to freeze the semen virile, we obtain immortality. See the texts reproduced by S. Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, p. 278. See also the following pages of this book. of the female genital organs). Semen dwells on the site of the moon, halfway between ajnacakra (regi6n front) and the thousand-petal lotus (Sahasrara). The union of these two secretions is very rare. The bindu is Siva, and the cracks is Sakti: the semen is the moon, the cracks is the Sun, by its union gives a perfect body. "In the lexicon of Indian erotica mistica, all these terms have a precise meaning. Visibly, this is the "split level" of the unification of the two polar principles (Siva and Sakti) of the transcendence of all opposites, obtained through a very secret erotic practices, which we'll talk. But now we should stress the experimental nature of this Upanishad and Tantric. Verify, then, that this flow of magic erotica, which is multiplied later in the Tantras, was, in his origins and des-versed in yogic practices, and that from the outset, these practices encompass certain values, and could be accepted and uti-lized by "vias" multiples. The technical nature, experimental, of the Upanishads yogi group worthy of note. We found no longer a requirement) of pure knowledge of the dialectic of the Absolute as the only instrument of liberation. Atman-brahman identity is not acquired through the contemplation and simple and pure, but on the contrary, is performed on an experimental basis, through a technique of an ascetic and mystic physiology: in other words, through a process of transformation of the human body into a cosmic body in the veins, arteries and organs clearly true play a secondary role with regard to "centos" and "veins" in which they can be experienced or "awakened" the forces cos -lance or divine. This tendency to the concrete and the experimental-even if the "concrete" means almost anatomical localization of certain cosmic forces is characteristic of all mysticism of the Middle Ages. The devotion, the cult of personality and subtle physiology happen fossilized ritualism and metaphysical theories. The road to liberation tends to become ascetic itinerary, a technique is learned more easily than Vedantic metaphysics or Mahayana. MAGIC AND YOGA "BRAHMANIZADOS" THE RGVIDHANA Magi, ascetic, contemplative, they are generally working to see the increasingly substantial body of ritual texts and com-ments. Sometimes this is only allusions in the case, for example, a class of cramana, black magicians who speaks Apastamba-sutra (2, IX, 23, 6-8): "make your wishes for the Simply thinking about them, eg (desire to) make it rain, or to give fertility, clairvoyance, to move as rapidly as thought, or other similar desires. Certain siddhi become like a leitmotif, especially the ability to move and fly through the air Samaveda a brahmana of the Samavidhana specializes in magic, includes


among the "powers" (III, 9, 1). The Rgvidhana, recopilacion Late but important because the authors manage to exploit the Vedic sukta magic-end, specifically a certain diet and certain rituals allow-ten away, leave this world flying through the air and train to see and hear from afar, as someone who is in a very high (III, 9, 2-3). This latest mystical experience is already registered and Japan's navy arctic shamanism (Eliade, Chamaorganisms, ps. 69, 205, etc.).. The Rgvidhana includes all sorts of magical practices, yogi and mystic type. This collection illustrates the process ideally hinduizaci6n of Vedic tradition: we see clearly alii assimilation of beliefs and non-Brahmanical practices and most probably non-Aryan all the technical details of magic, ecstasy or contemplation are integrated and validated by cifas Vedic scriptural. The praise of magic is at the height of the exaltation of ri-tual and secret knowledge. By using magic, they can force rain to cause the supreme deity (II, 9, 2), by the power of meditation can strike down the enemy (I, 16, 5), through appropriate rites can do emerge from the water a krtya dangerous female demon (II, 9, 3). Just have to know well the sacred texts for the realization of to-dos desires (I, 7, 1). Through certain rituals one becomes able to remember his former existences (II, 10, 1), specifically wonder this yogi. Pranayama is well known (I, 11, 5): he "must practice up to 101 times (I, 12, 1) while mentally repeat the syllable OM (I, 12, 5). But recently from Chapter III find the exposition of the technique yogi. You have to practice yoga at half-night, "when all men sleep soundly" (III, 36, 2) in an appropriate place position you sit in asana, "clasping hands position of honor "(36.4, since meditation is the name of Narayana, 36, 1) and with eyes closed-ment-" in the inmost heart, "the syllable OM (36, 5); if not then heard nor seen anything, if "there is already a reflection on the subject of Yoga, then we have achieved what they sought" (37, 1). On the pranayama, we must exercise in "doing hisbir "the sisters to just below the navel, then to just below the heart, to" fix "between the eyebrows (the" supreme place ") and fi-nally in the skull, where, again through the breath, do it again down to navel (37, 2, 38, 1). "supreme place" is part of Brahman. Through this exercise, Yogi is the Self, one becomes holy and reaches the highest state (parama, 37, 2 -- 4). is made concentration (Dharana) fixing the sisters in the sun, fire, moon, on the tops of the trees, the tops of mountains, sea, etc.. (38, 5, 39, 1 ). Then one can move to the light higher, at the starry sky: as the Supreme Spirit, the yogi becomes capable of seeing his own self (39, 3-4). Yet another text (41, 4) ensures that you can get the "divine eye" by magic formulas and offerings made by fire: the old position, the primacy of ritual magic, which strives to maintain its prestige. All these practices yogis are already registered in highly qualified by the devotion. The text points out that although no reaching the desired goal-the vision of the self-should not be aban donate it "appreciates those who want it" Narayan should be thought like being in the center of solar (42, and this foreshadows the tantric iconography. For Moreover, it is stated that Visnu can only be achieved through of the bhakti (42, 6). An earlier text (III, 31, 1) quoted bid and gave details about the cult of the "imperishable is ne Cesario "in the body fix itself and that of the gods (32, 2). Another text (III, 30, 3-6) brings the mem-ory organs where they


should be "completed" the 16 stanzas (sukta) held the Rig Veda hymn X, 90 (Purusasukta): the first verse in his hand left, second on the right hand, and so on in the feet, knees, caderas.el navel, heart, throat region, the two arms, mouth, eyes and the skull. Now if we consider that the Purusasukta explains the creation of the universe with the sacrifice of the Giant primordial14 (Purusa) the "projection ritual" (Nyasa) of its verses in different parts of the body will result in the simultaneous identification with the universe and the gods (who, too, pa-pray it emerged from the slaughter). The Nyasa obtained at the Tantris-mo unexpected prestige, which confirms once more the sense of the great synthesis tardias Hindu: Vedic material will be integrated and enhanced cultural contexts increasingly alienated from the primordial tradition. The Rgvidhana justify everything from the ordinary magic of love to the Bhakti Yoga and through references to the Vedic scriptures. The subsequent texts and did not experience the need to justify the higher author-ity orthodox great Vedic gods, will be partly forgotten. The Purusasukta like sukta of Vishnu, says Rgvidhana (III, 35, 1), leading to heaven, "and this is the highest yoga meditation. We do not know the exact feoh this assertion, but in that time yogi technique was fully integrated with the orthodoxy. Ascetics and contemplated, "GOOD" and "bad" We will not address the history of the ascetic orders and mystical sects of India is far from our subject. But it is important to note, starting from a given text, which direction they take the ascetics, yogis and ecstatic. The most complete information at our disposal are several centuries later in the bu-ism, a fact that must be taken into account provided. But we have seen that the ascetics and mystics were already numerous since the time rgve certainty. Certain types of ammunition, and yogis of tapasvin but regis-tered only in very late texts, probably dating to the early history hindu. The Vaikhanasasmartasutra, 16 whose date can be fixed in Myth 14 Indo-curopeo, but also recorded in other ethnic groups, and the most archaic. Edition of 18 W. Caland (Library indicates, Calcutta, 1927); traduction English for the same. sixth century AD, but it contains much more ancient materials, presents a long list of "orders" ascetic are the vari-ous categories ermitafios who retire to the woods with or without their wives. We distinguish (VII *, 6) four classes of ascetics with women: l9) Audumbara, living on fruits, roots or wild plants, practicing asceticism, but with the fire ritual sramandka; 29) Vairinca, even those who practice rites (Agnihotra sramanaka, vaisvadeva) but are "completely ab-sort Narayana (theists, have chosen the path of hhakti; 29) Valakhilya, distinguished by his hair and robes des-logs or bark trees; 49) Fenapo, who are ecstatic (un-mattaka), sleep on the floor, live on "what falls to the ground" and called candrayana practice penance (meals are governed by the phases of the moon); " Narayana fix their thinking and only aspire to liberation. " The ermitafios without wives can be of many kinds: no name, but are called by names derived from his ascetic practices (those living as doves, those who eat only what the sun dry, etc.., VIII, 8). They resemble the modern fakirs of India, which shows the extraordinary power of these conservation practices. Another category is that of the ascetics who strive to obtain the release implying that other ermitafios not seek the "liberation" but perhaps immortality, joy, or yogic powers (except Fenapo, who also moksameva prarthayate ,


VIII, 7, fin). This category ermitafios soteriological trend is divided into four classes: 1) Kuticaka (which roam the famous shrines, where only eight do not eat snacks; know the essence of the "path" Yoga, yoga-tnargatattvajna, seek liberaci6n); 2 째) Bahudaka (carry a "triple stick" Tefia wear red clothes, begging for food only in the homes of the Brahmins and other virtuous people.. etc. and seek liberaci6n); 39) Hamsa (can not stay more than a day and a night in a village living in cow urine and dung, candrayana practice fasting, etc.). 49) Paramahamsa (VIII, 9, a). These last are the most interesting: represent a tradition-faceted as extremely old, Aboriginal, and foreshadow antibrahmanica certain schools-tantric yogi "extremists". Indeed, the Paramahamsa living under trees, in cemeteries or in deserted houses, and naked, and clothed. To them, "there was neither good nor evil, neither holiness nor evil, or other similar dualism. Indifferent to everything, watched with equal placidity a ball of gold or clay. Receiving food from people, from which any breed. It could decipher in the summary text here a classification essay summary of the roads leading to the liberation. The Kuticaka practice yoga, the Paramahamsa, a kind of socentrism, the Bahudaka and Hamsa, a "mystical path. Later (VIII, 9.6) the text speaks of two kinds of "renunciation of desires" (niskama) or better of the two attitudes: the "activity" and "inactivity". The activity involves the ascetic-determined circuit suprimii stocks, fortified with the knowledge of Samkhya and practicing yoga-16 gets eight siddhi. But these "miraculous forces" (siddhi), add text, are despised by the true rsi. Inactivity is the union, after death, the individual soul with Brahman (Paramatma). Then the soul enters the highest light located. alia more perceptual knowledge and is a constant source of di-cha. As we see here is a "mystical path" in which the individual soul leaves the Supreme Soul, "loses its" individual-ity "and gains immortality, bliss Etemad (anandamrta) Regarding the various "practices of inaction", yogis are divided into three categories: Saranga, Ekarsya and Visaraga.18 Each of these categories, in several species. Know to where this classification is for accurate observations, but no doubt the groups described by the Vaikhanasasmartasutra ascetics existed (some still persist in our days), even if not named in the reports found here. The Saranga include four species: 1) those who do not practice pranayama and other yogic financial years, but living with the certainty "To'm Vismia (as per-belong to one of the many currents created by the vis-nuismo ), 2) to those who practice pranayama and other exercises i "The text should be: science Samkhya (Samkyajnanaly pranayama, asana. Dharana, technical words yogis. IT We may conclude that this "mystical path" is in opposi-tion to the "trail magic" of Samkhya-Yoga, which recommended the meditation and went in search of magical powers in place of immortality. 18 The text editor, W. Caland, he notes that these names of yogis are unknown to the rest of Indian literature and Sanskrit commentary does not help us understand them. (seem to follow a Yoga "orthodox", linked to the Yoga Sutra), 3) to those who follow the "right size" anga practicing yoga eight, but beginning with pranayama (ie bypassing yama and niyama), 4 째) that are a "bad way" (vimarga) practicing yoga complete), but is against God (the text is quite dark it is, perhaps, an atheist Yoga). Ekarsya ascetics are five classes: 1) those who "come le-jos" (Durag) and practice a


meditation cosmic very close to Tantrism (union with Vishnu tempted by the "realization" of the cosmic forces that are, latent, in the "vein" Pingala. Meditation is to the experimentation of states of consciousness cosmic-solar, lunar, and so on., the method is called du-raga, with Visnu because the union takes place by the indirect route cosmic circuit), 2) to those who "come away" (aduraga) experimented diroctamente the union of individual soul with the soul cos-mica; 3) to those who "go through the forehead" (bhrumadhyaga) link his soul with the cosmic soul rejecting prana through five regions (from toes to knees, knees to the anus, anus to the heart, the heart to the palate, the palate the eyebrows) and making it back by the Pingala, 4 째) that "are devoted" (asambhakta) and have a union with the cosmic soul through an experimental meditation, that is, seeing with their eyes, saluted with their hands, etc.. (extrafio despite its name, the mystics asambhakta are true worshipers of the deity), 5 째) which "are united" (sambhakta). Visaraga ascetics are countless so called because they "are on the wrong track." Undoubtedly, we are here facing a real kind of ascetics of the left hand "(va-Macarius). To justify its origin, the text uses an old explication: to conceal" the truth ", Prajapati would have invented" the doc - Visaraga doctrine of these. "This explanation is also found in other Hindu texts, in order to justify the existence of an immoral sect. Moreover, as acknowledged by the Vaikhanasas-martasutra, these ascetics practiced penance, yoga technique known , repeating the mantra, to practice some meditations, but "they do to join the cosmic soul." They say that the cosmic soul "is in his heart." Some seek liberation, but afinnanque "meditation is not necessary". Others say the union with the cosmic soul is practiced religious rites as are described. All these contradictory details, however, do not change the character of Visaraga Heretico. We constantly check the names "those gross Visaraga" and states that for them there is liberation in this lifetime, and should not be imi-ing under any circumstances. We have summarized the information from Vaikhanasasmartasittra precisely in order to confirm the existence of certain ascetic sects and tantric yogi-in a time long before the appearance of a doctrine and a tantric literature. We are dealing with practices and beliefs that are rooted in pre-Vedic, and whose continuity has never been interrupted in India, despite the paucity of documents that mencionan.lu


In the texts are quite often lists of ascetics and yogis, but they are usually shallow (see Note III, 7). CHAPTER IV THE TRIUMPH OF YOGA YOGA AND IIINDUISMO We can continue, both in literature and in didactic and religious parties of the Epic, the gradual penetration of Yoga practice., regarded as an excellent way of salvation. It would be difficult to determine the stages of this penetration, which ultimately lead to almost total conquest of Indian spirituality in Yoga ism Let's just say that we are in contact with works whose redaction is situated in the period from the fourth century BC and the fourth century AD. But an interesting fact, approached from another point of view, is the coincidence of this triumph of yogic practices in the em-bids irresistible popular mystical devotion. Indeed, the installation of yoga technique in the very heart of Hinduism took place in a crisis of orthodoxy that is, at the precise moment that this valid in conjunction mystical movements "sectarian". During its expansion, Brahmanism had to accept, as every religion victorious, on the other hand, an amount-ing elements which initially showed extrafios, if not hos-tile. The assimilation of the indigenous religious forms, pre-Aryan, begins very early, from Vedic times (this is the case, for example, of the god Shiva). But this time, ie, early medieval India (during the period from the flowers "-ing of Buddhism to Bfiagavad-Gita), assimilation takes on disturbing proportions. Sometimes one has the impression of a revolution victorious, to which the Brahmin orthodoxy can not do anything but lean. What we call "Hinduism" data from the time, in part still unknown in the ancient Vedic pantheon is eclipsed by the enormous popularity of Shiva, Vishnu or one of Krishna. Here we could not profitably study the causes of this transformation deep and broad. However, ob-served that one of the main causes of this transformation was precisely the need experienced by the masses of poor neighborhoods, a more concrete religious experience, a mystical devotion easily accessible, intimate, personal. However, traditional practices yogis (folk, baroque, unsystematic) ofe-eian just a mystical experience of the genre: neglecting the rituals and theological science facts relied almost immedi-ing, concrete, yet not entirely disengaged from its physiological substrate. Obviously, this increasingly deep penetration of the techniques yogis in dej6 orthodoxy and find some resistors. They rose cries, sporadically, contrary to the propaganda of ascetics and "wizards", who pretended that he could not get the final liberation (mukti), m the "hidden powers" (siddhi) rather than embracing the disciplines of they. It is natural that this resistance was expressed in the first term in official circles of orthodox


Brahmanism, consisting of lawyers and metaphysical Vedan-destinations. Both sides maintained a "middle position" with regard to the ascetic and contemplative techniques of Yoga, which he judged as excessive, contrary to the Vedantic ideal. Manu writes: "If both sub-yuga their organs as their conscience, can reach its objective without torment your body with Yoga" (Smrti, II, 98) .1 In the same vein, Sankara Yoga reminds us that " leads to the possession of extraordinary powers, but "the supreme beatitude can not be reached by Yoga" 2 The true ve-Dantin choose purely metaphysical knowledge. 1 Ganganath Jha, Manu-Smrti, The Laws of Manu with the bhasya of Medhatithi, vol. I, part. II. P. 363, Calcutta, 1921, translates yogatha, according to Me-dhatithi, per by careful means, but commentators Narayana and Nandana, followed by Biihler (Sacred Books of the East, vol. 43, p. 48) give yogatha meaning "through yoga practice. * Review of Vedanta-Sutra, trans. Thibault, vol. 5, p. 223, 298. Ra-manuja, meanwhile, not denying that it can "forcibly yogi knowledge" know "everything that happens in the three worlds" and without reaching the "direct intuition" ds Brahman, says that the "concentration mistica" the spirit But the reactions of this genre are sporadic. If, indeed, 'a Vedantic tradition continues to see in Yoga practices one-half mind to enter into possession of magic powers, or, at best, a purification in order to true salvation, towards which can only drive the metaphysical knowledge is a fact that most of the legal-treaty resembles teol6gicos recovered before and sometimes exalt practices. Martha VASIS Dharma Sastra, for example, says: "Not even through the daily recitation of the Vedas, even through sacrifitios, the twice-born can achieve that condition which is obtained through the practice of Yoga" (XXV, 7) . The magic and purify-ing in this practice is incomparable: "If the retained without fatigue three times its breath following the rule of Yoga, the sins committed in a day and a night will suddenly de-rriba" (XXVI, 1). Another treaty teol6gico-Legal, Visnu-smrti, confirms the amazing value of this technique: "Whoever meditates meditator gets everything, so great is the mysterious power of meditation. It is true that in the following points-is significantly precisidn the Yogi should be designed to final liberation, and not at all enjoy the "powers" to acquire a tra-ves of meditation. Also the yogi must put aside thoughts of his mieato all that is perishable, and think only about what im-perishable. But, unless the purusha, nothing is imperishable. By joining the (thanks to a continuous meditation) the yogi obtains final liberation "(XCII, 11-14). The Yoga-Sutra does not advise otherwise. Yoga in MAHABHARATA Only parties' intent latest addition to the Mahabharata, we can speak of a "hinduizaci6n" total yogis practices, then, in this epic, which has been considerable success in nonpriestly environments, yoga has an important place. Re-cently, have made clear traces of Vedic mythology recognizable in the main characters, Pahdava (Wikander, DumĂŠzil). But the top-heroic epic and thus terminated probably between vn and vt-century BC must be supported by the bhakti (Sacred Books of the East, vol. 48, 340, 273 and 284). Mahabharata suffered numerous interpolations. It is assumed that, especially during the first two centuries of the Christian era, a great number of texts mystical-theological, philosophical and legal were introduced in the poem, either as complete set (eg, books XII, XIII ) because of loose episodes. These elements dfversos thus forming a veritable


encyclopedia of visnuista trend accentuated. One of the first portions added (which took place, apparently, before the Christian era) is the Bhagavad Gita (in Book VI), the most important of these additions is found in Book VII, Moksadhartna and is just in these books where they are most frequent allusions to Yoga and Samkhya (see Note IV, 1). Do not forget, however, that these new fragments, but rather late additions include traditions very previous amount-ing to the date of interpolation. The exact chronology of diver-sos layers of the Mahabharata is not only a desideratum still fairly chimerical, no doubt. The changes in the text of the Mahabharata with the passage of time are visible in their gen-eral lines, but very few Indiana are in agreement on the details. However, the fragments didacticos and "sectarian" added to the poem are invaluable for reli-gious history and philosophy of India. On the one hand, a number of beliefs, parallel to the orthodox Brahmins and undeniable old, occur openly on the other hand, there is where the first organized and successful impact of hindu teismo. It is in the Bhagavad-Gita we find for the first time expressed identificaci6 "of Brahman of the Upanishads with Vishnu-god who has now with his supremacy-and terrestrial avatar, Krishna. In Moksadharma, as in the Bhagavad-Gita and other passages are also frequent allusions to the Samkhya and Yoga, but as we shall see, these two disciplines are not going in their classic-Loriz darsana sense. These continual additions have hurt, obviously, the unity of the whole. Contradictions abound. The Vedas, for example, there are often regarded as the supreme authority (pramana), but also there are reads that "the Veda is engafioso" (XII, 329, 6). Bhishma's words, inspired by Krishna, tia-nen "an authority equal to that of the Vedas" (XII, 54, 2930). The "Gratia" is placed above the sruti and the scholastic (tarfai), as only she can clarify "the secret and mysterious communication of truth" (XII, 335, 5). But in general, the inference (anumト]a) and scriptural revelation (Sruti) are considered sufficient evidence of the validity of a truth (XII, 205.19, etc.).. Hopkins has collected and classified-an immense material to illustrate the doctrines and beliefs that speaks the Mahabharata-pecial into its parts "pseudo-epic." This mass composed and articulate insufficiently explained by the diversity of authors which they belong often opposing schools, each trying to impose their own religious conception bay not forget that the redaction of certain books, especially Moksadharma, Hard-ing is perhaps centuries. However, it is possible to detach the rich theological position of this part pseudo-epic: first, it reaffirms the mo-there body theistic Upanishads nuanced experiences and on the other hand, it accepts any solution that is not explicitly soteriokSgica with -contrary to the scriptural tradition. We have an edifying literature, not being home "popular", is intended to reach all environments. Latest books related to the Mahabharata are, at bottom, text visnuita propaganda, propaganda rather confusing, which uses everything that allows the exaltation of Vishnu and Krishna. It is interesting to see that the yoga has contributed extensively to sup-port this exaltation. But in the Moksadharma, Yoga cittavrttinirodha not say ere qui, as in the commentary of Patanjali, serving simply to refer all discipline practices, like the paddle-bra Samkhya means any metaphysical knowledge. The differences that consistently opposed the classical Samkhya system (which was an atheist) to the classical Yoga system (which was theistic) also erased to the point of disappearing completely.


YOGA AND Samkhya Given the request by Yudhisthira to explain the difference between these two paths, Bhishma replied (Mahabharata, XII, 11043), "The Samkhya and Yoga exalt each his method as the best means (karana) (...). Those who are guided by the Yoga, are based on immediate perception (of mystical essence: pratyaksahetava), those who follow the Samkhya, in traditional teaching (sastraviniscayah). Consider both real one and the other of these teachings Continuing with precision the lead both to the supreme goal. Have in common the purity, the repression (of desires) and mercy to all beings, the res-peto strict oaths is common to both, but the views (darsana) are not identical in the Samkhya and the Yoga "(see Note IV, 2). The non-systematic character of these two paths soteriol6gicos is evident. Although findmainly on the Gita and the Moksadharma-technical terms such as prakriti, tattva, Mahat, etcetera, in the Samkhya no side is presented as the method to distinguish the spirit of the psycho-mental experience, the starting point of the system of Isvara Krishna. The Samkhya there just means "true knowledge" (tattva jnana) or "knowledge of the Soul (atmahodha): in this respect rather presents analogies with the positions Upanishads. Not because it concerns" a mixture of ideas Samkhya and Vedanta " Hopkins as he thinks, but simply a stage prior to Samkhya and Vedanta systems. Nor is it necessary to look at certain parts of precise references to Mahabharata theistic Samkhya school, parallel to the atheist darsana Iswara Krishna. The Moksadharma (v. 11463) states that the precursors (purah-sarah) of yogis are in the Vedas (ie the Upanishads) and the Samkhya. In other words, the "truth" discovered "by the open: Upanishad Samkhya and is accepted and absorbed in Yoga, as this termcualquiers that is the meaning assigned to" applies especially to a spiritual technique. The Bhagavad-Gita goes further and states that "only the strong spirits to oppose the Samkhya Yoga, not the wise (panditah) 'Who is really duefio of one of them is assured of the outcome of the two" (V, 4) . "Samkhya and Yoga are but one" (V, 5). This position corresponds perfectly to the spirit of the Bhagavad-Gita. Because, as we shall see, in this masterpiece of the Mahabharata, Krishna tries to gather all soteriological paths in a new and unique spiritual synthesis. YOGA TECHNIQUES IN MAHABHARATA In opposition to the Samkhya, Yoga Mahabharata fixed in any activity that brings the soul to Brahman while grants that many "powers". Commonly, this equi applies to the realm of the senses, to asceticism and penances of all kinds. Yoga has only sporadically in the meaning that gives Krishna in the Bhagavad-Gita, namely: "renunciation of the fruits of one's actions." This variety of meanings has been elucidated in a study by Hopkins-.3 Yoga means exhaustive sometimes "method" (Gita, III, 3), sometimes "activity" (Moksadharma, 11682), or "strength" (Moksad., and p. 11,675 ff.) or "meditation" (Moksad., 11,691, etc.), or "renunciation" (sannyasa, Gita, VI, 2), etc.. These dif-ferent senses correspond to a real morphological diversity. If the word yoga means many things, is because Yoga is mu-chas things. Epic is in effect, the meeting of countless popular ascetic traditions, each with a 'Toga ", ie a technique of" mysticism "that is proper. The long centuries in which new episodes coming up for connection, permiten all these forms of Yoga baroque secure a place (and a justificative), which results


in the transformation of the Epic in an encyclopedia. Broadly speaking, we can distinguish three kinds of events are open to an interest: 1) episodes of asceticism (tapas) that reveal practices and theories of solidarity to the Vedic asceticism and without referenda to Yoga itself; 29) episodes and speeches in which Yoga and caps are considered synonymous and the two as magical techniques, 3 째) and didactic discourse episodes that Yoga is presented with terminology and elaborate philosophically. The documents in this third category-largely contained in the Moksadharma-are the most interesting, they reveal some forms of Yoga insufficiently recorded in other texts. For example, we found practices "magical" ancient, that yogis used to subdue the gods and even to aterrorizarlos.4 The phenomenology of this magical asceticism is archaic: silence (mauna), torture, excessive (ativatapas), the "drying the body, "are not only means used by yogis but also by the kings (Mahabharata, I, 115, 24, 119, 7 and 34). To subdue Indra (ariradhayisurdevam), Pandu persist for a day in 3 Yoga technique in The Great Epic (Journal of American Oriental Society, XXXII, 1961, ps. 333-379. * Hauer, Die Anfang der Yogapraxis, P. 98 and ff. Ejtmplos found similar in certain kinds of wandering ascetics. tero standing, leaning on one foot, and ends up getting in this way the samadhi (I, 123, 26). But this does not reveal trance nin-gun content yogi, it is rather a hypnosis caused by physical means, and the relationship between man and God standing at a level necen magic. Elsewhere, Yoga confused with pure asceticism, tapas (eg., XII, 153, 36). Yati (an ascetic) and Yogi become equivalent terms and come to appoint, without differences, all being "willing to concentrate his mind" (yuyuksat) whose object of study is not the Scripture (Shastra), but the syllable my-cal OM. We realize that the "study of the syllable OM refers to the mystical audition techniques of repetition and" assimilation "of certain magical formulas (dharani) dQ enchantment, and so on. But whatever the method chosen, these practices are crowned by the acquisition of a force that our texts Hainan "power yoga" (yoga-balam). Its immediate cause is the "fimount golf's espiritn (Dharana) obtained both through" the calm and equanimity "(the" sword "6 Yoga of equanimity, XII, 255, 7) and by the decrease progresfva respi-ratory rhythm (XII, 192, 13-14). In later passages interspersed in the Mahabharata, * summaries and diagrams abound mnemotec-tails of yogic practices. Most of them reflect the traditional cliches: "The yogi, dedicated to the great vote (Mahavratasa-mahitah) lays his soul cleverly subtle (Suksma atman) in sipuientes places: the navel, neck, head, heart, stomach, hips, eyes, ears and nose, burning apri-s to all the good and bad actions, although they resemble a coati (by tamafio) and strive for the supreme yoga, is released (from the ambushes of existence) if such is his will "(XII, 301, 39 et seq.). Another text (V, 52 et seq.) Enhances the difficulties of these practices and calls attention to the danger that threatens it fails. "Testing is the great way (mahapantha) and small in number are those who walk up to the end, but very guilty (bahudosa) is 11a 5 Hopkins, The Great Epic of India, p. 181, gives some lists of the "five sins" that the yogi must "cut". Let one of them (XII, 241-3): the sex drive (kama), anger h (krodha), \ a gluttony (lobha), fear (Bhaya) and suefio (svopna). Variations abound as the had of the "five sins" is very popular in India (also known by Buddhism, for example: Dhammapada, 370).


mately one who, after having become the path of Yoga (yogamargam Asady) waiver to continue its path and retraced his steps. "peb'gro is the well known of all the magical action, triggering forces capable of killing the wizard if this is not strong enough to subjugate them through your will and to channel at will. Thanks to the asceticism of the yogi has been triggered and sacred impersonal force, similar to the energy released by any other act or religious ceremonial magic. The magic character of Yoga practice is equally curly-values on other occasions, they say, for example, which enjoys the most perfect flesh beatitudes is not Brahman, but the I-gui, and on earth, during his ascetic training, the yogi is served by women glow, but the sky has grown tenfold in the proportion of all the pleasures to which re-pronouncing on earth (XIII, 107, Hopkins, Yoga-technique, pag. 336. Hauer Der Yoga als Heilweg, pag. 68, cites a similar passage, XII, 221). FOLKLORE YOGA Hypnotism was well known, we have already alluded to (XIII, 40-41) who protected through hypnosis, the wife of his master (see page. 94). Hypnotism is explained as' penetration into the body of the other "extremely archaic belief that inspired countless tales and legends. The rsi Usa-nas, Yoga teacher, is projected onto the god of wealth, Kubera, duefio thus becoming all the treasures of this (XII, 290, 12). Another episode (XV, 26, 26-29) tells us that the ascetic way Vidura abandoned when her body against the trunk of a tree and penetrates in the body of Yudhisthira, who assimilates well all the virtues of the ascetic. It is a matter of folklore ma-gic, illustrated mainly by many tales of "introduction into the bodies" (See IV, 3). We must not forget , also, that among the siddhi acquired by yogis, Patanjali mentions the operation of "passage from one body to another" (III, 38: cittasyaparasacariracesah). In texts such as unsystematic fragmenlos added to the Mahabharata, it is difficult to separate the folk magic of the techniques siddhi yoguis.6 Although rations have been considered by Patanjali and Yoga all representatives of the "classic" as useless for the liberation, the "miraculous powers" acquired by yogis always impressed the crowds. Tantrism not rejected, are considered as immediate proof of the c "i-vinizacion of man. But in the Bhagavad-Gita, the des-siddhi not insist any role. The Message of the Bhagavad-gita The Bhagavad-Gita, one of the first mass interpolations in Book VI of the Mahabharata, Yoga gives the first-order importance. Obviously, the above and recommended by Yoga Krishna in this masterpiece of Hindu spiritualism, is neither Classical Yoga of Patanjali or the set of techniques "magical" we've seen so far, but an appropriate Yoga visnuita religious experience, a method connection with the acquisition of the unio mystica. Considering the fact that the Bhagavad-Gita re-presents not only the summit of Indian ecumenical spirituality, but also a vast synthesis assay, in which all the "paths" of salvation are validated and incorporated into the devo visnuita-ture, the importance attached there to Yoga Krishna equals being a true triumph of the yogi tradition. The strong tone that gives theistic Krishna helps us a lot to understand the function that Yoga plays in the overall in-gave spiritualism. Indeed, des conclusions emerge from this testing: 1) Yoga as a discipline can be turned mystic whose purpose would be the union of human souls and divine, 2 째) is well-like mystical experience, as has been understood and Yoga applied in large current popular devotion, "sectarian"


which are echoed in the interpolations of the Mahabharata. No ne-CESID to make here a detailed analysis of the Bhagavad-Gita (see Note IV, 4). In summary, Krishna reveals to Arjuna "yoga imperece-cal" (yogatnavyayam) and its revelations concerning: 1) the struc-ture of the Universe, 2 °) the terms of Being, 3 °) paths to • Certain passages speak of samadhi, but from a non-yogi "arre-glare, tidy," "means" apanitasya samadhim cintaya, • think of a fix for this evil (XIII, 96, 12, Hopkins , p. 337). followed to obtain the final liberation. But Krishna does not forget to add that this "ancient yoga (puratanahyogah, IV, 3) which constitutes the" ultimate mystery "is not an innovation: it has already teaching vivasvate, who then revealed it to Mommy, and manii forwarded to lksvaku (IV, I). "It is through this tradition that knew the kings-rsi, but, over time, that yoga disappeared from the earth" (IV, 2). Each time the order (dharma) falters, Krishna is manifiestael it (IV, 7), ie, reveals, in appropriate form to the "historic moment" respectively, the science that is beyond the reach of time. In other words, if, as we shall see the Bhagavad-Gita is presented historically as a spiritual synthesis, only listed as "new" before our eyes conditioned by time and by history. This is important for interpreta-tion in western hindu spirituality, for if tene-mos right to reconstruct the history of doctrines and tech-niques Indian, we must not forget that from the standpoint of India, the historical context of a "revelation" only has a limited scope, the "appearance" or "disappearance" of a soteriolo-logical formula in terms of history can not teach us anything about the "origin". According to the Indian tradition, so solidly reaffirms by Krishna, the various "historic moment" which are both time s of becoming an c6smico-ere not doctrine, but only give rise to appropriate formula of non-temporal message. In the case of the Bhagavad-Gita, its "innovations" are explained by the historical moment that I needed just one new spiritual synthesis and more extensive. Referring to the point that interests us here-the sense that the poem gives the techniques yogis-remember only that the main problem of the Bhagavad-Gita is whether the action can, it also led to the acquisition of salvation, or if mystical meditation is the only way to achieve: it is, in other words, the conflict of "action" (karma) and "contemplation" (sama). Krishna tries to resolve this dilemma (which, since the days immediately following the Vedas do not stop haunt the Hindu spiritualism) showing that the two opposing methods are equally valid, because every individual can choose the method that your current karmic situation allows prac icar: either because of the "action", either on the knowledge and mystical contemplation. Krishna is here that brings in the Toga "a yoga was not yet the darsana of Patanjali Yoga but neither" magic "they refer to other texts of the Mahabharata. Krishna EXAMPLE We could say that the essence of the doctrine revealed by na resides in this formula succinctly: jcomprendeme and imitame! Because everything that announces on its own Being and its "behavior" in the cosmos and in history, should serve as a model for Arjuna, this is the historical meaning of life while you get to understand the liberation Krishna and it does. Moreover, the same Krishna stresses the exemplary and so-istry! 6gico divine Model: Everything that the Chief does, imitate such men, the rule that the notes, is followed by the world "(III , 21). And he adds, referring to himself: "In the three worlds, there is nothing that I have to do (...) and yet per-manezco in action" (III, 23).


Krisna hastens to uncover the deeper meaning of this activity: "If I were not always active in-fatigue, the men would follow my example everywhere. The world would not exist if I do my work, I would cause universal confusion and the end of creatures "(III, 23-24, trans. E. Senart). Accordingly, Arjuna should mimic the behavior of Krishna: that is, first, continue the action, not to contribute, by their passivity, the "universal confusion. But to act "as Krishna," I need to understand both the essence of divinity and its modes of manifestation. That is why Krishna is revealed: to know God, man knows at once the role model. However, Krishna begins to reveal that Being and Non-Being and dwell in the whole Creation "from the gods to minerals-down of the (VII, 4-6; IX, 4-5, etc.). . The continuously creates the world through its prakrti (IX, 8) but this incessant activity does not chained (IX, 9), is only the spectator of his own creation (IX, 10). It is this valuation, seemingly paradoxical, the activity (of karma), which is the capital of Yoga lection revealed by Krishna, in imitation of God who creates and sustains the world without participating in, the man will learn to do the same. "It is not enough to refrain from the action to liberate the act, the mere inaction does not lead to perfection" because "everyone is doomed to action" For more than men restrain the activity of their senses, "him whose soul is disturbed by the evocation of sensible objects "-that is most human beings-not enough to uproot the world. Even if you abstain from, in the strict sense of the word, all unconscious activity, caused by guna (III, 5) continuously chained to the world and assimilated to karmic circuit. Sentenced to action-for Ta action is superior to inaction "(III, 8)-a man must meet prescribed acts, in other words the" duties ", acts which it is committed under its particular situation. "Better to meet, albeit imperfectly, his own duty (svadharma), which meet perfectly even, the corresponding duty to another condition" (para-dharma: III, 35). These specific activities are conditioned by the guna ( XVII, 8, XVIII, 23). Krisna repeated several times that the guna come from him, but not locking, "not that I would be in them, they who are in my" (VII, 12; XIV, 5 concerning the structure of the guna). "I created the division into four classes that distinguishes guna (...) and yet not ac-tuo, irimutable am" (IV, 3). lection that emerges from this is: even accepting the "historico situation" created by the guna (which must be accepted as it guna also the result of Krishna) and acting according to the needs of this "situation", the man must refuse to enhance their actions and in consequence, refuse to grant an absolute value to their own condition. In other words, first you must deny any ontological reality "situation" human (because only Krishna is saturated with Ser) and on the other hand, must take care to enjoy the "fruits of their actions." "ACTS AND SACRIFICE" In this sense we can say that strives to "save" all human acts, for "justification" for every action profane: because by the very fact that he no longer enjoys its "fruits", the man transforms his acts in the sacrifice, ie we transpersonal dynamism that contribute the maintenance of cosmic order. However, as Krishna remembers, only acts whose immediate purpose is not chained sacrifice, "but do not react because I apartoda Prajapati sacrifice for the Cosmos could manifest itself and that humans can live and breed (III, 10). But Krishna reveals that man can also cooperate in the perpetuation of God's work: not only by


sacrifice themselves (which constitute the cul-to Vedic), but through all his actions, whatever their nature. For one who "is devoted to works of sacrifice, all activity is dissolved into nothingness" (IV, 23). It is assumed that the activity is not "strings", and not creating new karmic cores. It is in this sense that the various ascetics and yogis "sacrifice" their physiological and psychological activities, they emerge from these activities, gives them a transpersonal value and in doing so "have all the true notion of sacrifice, by slaughtering , cleared his spots "(IV, 25-30). This transmutation of secular ritual activities is made possible thanks to Yoga. Krishna reveals to Arjuna that "man of action" may be saved, in other words, escape the consequences of their participation in the life of the world, while continuing his accidn. The "man of action", ie that ro can be removed from civilian life to achieve their salvation through knowledge or mystic devotion. The only thing that must be met is this: you must give up their acts and restdtados of these, in other words, "deprived of the fruits of their actions" (phahrtrsnavairagya) act in an impersonal way, without passion, without desire, as if were a procuration, instead. If acts under this rule, strictly, his actions are no longer generating new karmic potential, or to tie him to the circuit and karmic. "Regardless of the result of the action, always happy, free from any bond, to tie this in fact does not act ... (IV, 20). The great originality of the Bhagavad-Gita lies in having INSIS-ed on this "Yoga of Action" that is made "renouncing the fruits of their own actions" (phalatrsnavairagya). This is the main reason for his success, unprecedented in the India. Because from that mo-ment, men can have hope of salvation, thanks to phalatrsnavairagya, although for various reasons, from being obli-gado to retain shared social life, having a family, preoccupations, perform duties, and even do immoral things (like Arjuna, to be killed during the war to their opponents). Acting placid, automatically, without being moved by the "desire of fruit "is to obtain a self-control and serenity that no doubt only the Yoga can confer. As Krishna says:" Ac-was being carried out without restrictions, remains faithful to Yoga. "Esia interpretation of the Yoga-technique in the which makes us see a tool that enables us to extricate ourselves from the world, still living and acting in the-is characteristic of the great effort of synthesis of the author of the Bhagavad-Gita, who wanted to reconcile all vocations (ascetic, mystic, active) as he had already reconciled the Vedantic monism to pluralism Samkhya, but at the same time highlights the extreme flexibility of Yoga, thus proving once more that can adapt to all religious experiences and to satisfy all needs. YOGA TECHNIQUE the Bhagavad-gita . The rest of this "Yoga" accessible to everyone and that is the renunciation of "the fruits of acts", the Bhagavad-Gita explained in brief as a technique itself Yogi, reserve for municipal vada ( VI, 11). Although morphologically (postures of the body, fixing the tip of the nose, etc.). This technique is ana-loga to that described by Patanjali, meditation is that Krishna speaks differently from the Yoga-Sutra. First, pranayama is not mentioned in that context. The Gita IV, 29 V, 27, refers to pranayama, but more than an exercise yogi, it is a meditation of substitution, a "ritual internalized" as those who are to be found in the epoch of the Brahmana and the Upanishad. Second, in yogic meditation Citation does not reach its peak only when the Yogi concentrates on Krishna.


"The soul serene and fearless, steadfast in its promise to-server in the path of chastity (hrahmacari), strong intellect and thinking about me constantly, practicing yoga should considerjindome the supreme goal. So, with my soul continuously engaged in meditation and subdued to the intellect, the yogi finds peace that dwells within my limits and whose end is nirvana "(VI, 14-15) .7 The 7 E. S6marl translates so that last verse: "... the yogi conquers the re-sediment, the supreme peace that has its aeisnto in me" (santim ntrvanaparamam matsamstham adhigacchati). Translation We have chosen a more free, but, we believe, closer to the spirit of the text. mystical devotion (bhakti) which seek to Krishna, this paper gives infinitely greater than the Is-ara that played in the Yoga-Sutra. In the Gita, Krishna is the only objective, the one who justifies the practice and meditation yogis, is that the "focus" the yogi, is by its gratia (and in the Gita the concept of co-Gratia starts by already form, heralding the development will have on the leafy visnmta literature), the Yogi gets the nirvana, which is neither Late Buddhist nirvana or samadhi of the Yoga-Sutra, but a state of perfect union between the soul and mysticism his God. A true Yogi (vigatakalmasah, "freed from the corruption" of good and bad) easily reaches the infinite bliss (sukham atyan-tam) caused by contact with Brahman (brahmasamsparsam, VI, 28). The invocation of Brahman in a text where the apology is not to be wondered Krishna. In the Bhagavad-Gita, Krishna is pure Spirit, the "Great Brahman" is only his "womb (yoni, XIV, 3)." I am cl Father, who provides the seed "(XIV, 4). Krisna is "The livelihoods of Brahman, and the same role with respect to desempefia Immortality, the Imperishable, the order" perfect happiness and fear (XIV, 27). But even in this context the Brahma is in place in the condition "feminine" nature of prakriti is spiritual. The muni is attained through Yoga (V, 6). "infinitabeatitud" resulting from a union with Brahma allows the yogi to see "the soul" (atman) in all beings and all beings in the Atman (VI, 29). And in the next stanza, the mystical bond between the yogi and the God is grounded in the identification of the atman Krishna beings: "One who sees me everywhere and sees everything in Me, to that I would not ever abandonment, and never leaves me. One who having fi-jado in unity, love me, I who dwell in all beings, that yogi lives in Me, whatever their way of life "(VI, 30-31). In Isa-Upanishad (Cap . VI), we find the same item in the stanza above (Gita, VI, 30), demonstrating that the Upanishads have been theistic currents were bequeathed to the Gita, where he developed in magnificent form. Krishna, god staff and the true source of mystical experiences (bhakti) is there identified with the Brahman of the metaphysical, purely theoretical, of the oldest Upanishads. But the highest praise lavished there are not separated by the yogi complete) of the pains and hopes of this world do, but one who sees the pain and joy of others as their own selves "(VI, 32). This is a leitmotif of the Indian mystic and par-ticularly of Buddhist mysticism. The sympathy of the author of the Bhagavad-Gita turns entirely on which such practices Yoga. If he fails in this life, reborn in a family of skilled yogis and get perfect in another life he could not carry out this (VI, 41). Krishna reveals to Arjuna that the mere fact-ber has tested the path of yoga raises man above has been limited to the rites prescribed by the Vedas (VI, 44). Finally, Krishna does not forget to mention that among the roads that lead to salvation,


the best and most recommended is the path of Yoga: "Yoga is superior to asceticism (tapas), superior even to science (jnana) exceeding sacrifice "(VI, 46). It is the triumph complete) of yogic practices. Not only are accepted by the BhagavadGita, the summit of Indian spirituality: it is carried first piano. True, this Yoga is esterified pu remnants of their magic (the rigorous asceticism, etc.). And that the most important of his old techniques, pranayama, unem-pefia only a negligible role. It is also true that meditation and concentration become, here in tools of the unio mystica with tiios is revealed as a Person. But, however, the acceptance of yogic practices for the mystical and devotion visnuita 8 demonstrates the considerable popularity of these practices, as well as his Indian ecumenism. The *: Krishna's words amount to validaci6n, before the whole Hinduism, a Yoga of devotion "of the yoga technique regarded as purely half hindu to obtain the mystical union with the personal God. A huge part of modern literature published yogi in India and abroad finds its theoretical justification in the Bhagavad-Gita. 8 See, for example, the role of Yoga in the very important "cult" Pan-caratra (Bhagavata), Note IV, 5. CHAPTER V BUDDHISM YOGA TECHNIQUE THE PATH OF NIRVANA AND THE SYMBOLISM OF THE INITIATION During the period of study and asceticism, Sakyamuni corocio both doctrines and practices Samkhya Yoga. Arada Kalama Vaisali teaching to a kind of Samkhya Preclassic and Ra-maputra Udraka explained the rationale and objectives of Yoga (see asva-Ghose, Buddhacarita, XII, 17; id. Saundarananda, XV, XVII; Majjhimanikaya, I, 164 ). If the Buddha rejects the teaching of these two masters, it is because of obesity. Of course, most of the canonical texts allege the existence of an unbridgeable gulf between the Enlightened One, his teachers and his contemporaries. Is this a polemic position be corrected. The Buddha himself proclaimed that he had found the old road and had traveled "(Samyutta Nikaya, II, 106; see other references in Coomaraswamy, Hinduism and Buddhism, p. 45 et seq.). The "old way" out of time, was that of liberation, of the Undead, and also the path of yoga. As I wrote in 1900 Emile Senart, the Buddha does not repudiate the con-together of the Indian ascetic tradition and contemplative, but the whole "is in the field of yoga who has elevated the Buddha, anything new that has entered el, has been formed in the mold of Yoga "1 The Awakened is so opposed to ritualism and asceticism brahmanitj exaggeration and metaphysical theories. Therefore takes, Ahon-giving, criticism already made by the contemplative upanishad i E. Senart, Bouddhisme et Yoga (Rev. Hist. Relig., November 1900 p. 345-364). References to Yoga in relation to Budisroo, Note V, 1. aicos fossilized against ritualism and excessive asceticism (tapas) on the other hand, opposes the pretension-represented mainly by the classical-Upanishad obtain the salvation single-mind awareness for the path of metaphysics. At first glance, the Buddha rejects both the orthodox Brahmin and the rich theological tradition of the Upanishads as the many "heresies" mystical-ASCE-tics desarroliadas the margins of Indian society. Yet


the central problem of Buddhism: suffering and liberation from suffering, is the traditional problem of Indian philosophy. The Buddhist proverb, sarvam dukham, sarvam anityam, Everything hurts, everything is temporary "may well be adopted by the Samkhya-Yoga and Vedanta (which on the other hand, sucedi6). Better understand this position, seemingly paradoxical, that is to oppose both the orthodox doctrines like the ascetic-contemplative disciplines, while taking on their premises and their techniques, if we think that the Buddha is proposed formulas surpass all the philosophers and recipes mystic of his time to free people from your domain and open "step" towards the Absolute. If the Buddha endorses the ruthless analysis which the Samkhya and Yoga submitted the pre-classic notion of "person * and psycho-mental life, it is because the" I "has nothing in common with that illusive entity, the" soul " human. But the Buddha goes further than the Samkhya-Yoga and the Upanishads, because he refuses to posit the existence of an atman or purusha. In fact, deny the possibility of any discourse on an absolute principle, and also denied the possibility of having an experience, even approximately, the true self, while the man is not "awaken-tion." Buddha also rejected the conclusions of the Upanishads theory: the assumption of a Brahman, pure spirit, absolute, immortal, Ethem , identical to the atman, but did so because this dogma was in danger of meeting with intelligence, and therefore prevented the man awake. Looking at things more closely, we realize that the Buddha rejected all philosophies and contemporary asceticism because idola mentis considered that raised a kind of screen between man and the absolute reality, the only thing verda-dero and unconditioned . That the Buddha is not addressed in any way a negation of the ultimate reality, unconditioned, but not everlasting alia the flow of cosmic and psycho-mental phenomena, while avoiding too much discourse in this regard, the test number-ing canonical texts . Nirvana is the absolute par excellence, the asamskrta, ie the compound has not been born, which is irre-reducible, transcendent, but alia of all human experience. "We would argue in vain that Nirvana does not exist on the reason that is not subject knowledge. No doubt, Nirvana is not known directly in the way they are known color, sensation, etc.. Not known indirectly through its activity, as is known in the organs of sense. But its nature and activity are the subject of knowledge (...) (...) The yogi in a state of meditation (... ) becomes aware of Nirvana, by their nature, of his work. When he left contemplation, exclaims: "\ Oh, Nirvana, destrucci6n, calm, great, escape!" The blind, the fact of not seeing and the blue or yellow, have no right to say that they see not see the colors and the colors .* Eriste not Nirvana can only be "seen" with the "eye of the saints" (ariyacakku), ie a organo transcendent, not part of the world perish. For Buddhism, as for any other initiation, the problem was in the lead and forge ways to get that "6rgano" transcendent that can reveal to the unconditioned. Recall that the Buddha's message addressed the suffering man, the man caught in the nets of transmigration. To the Buddha, as for all forms of yoga, salvation only obtained following a personal effort of specific assimilation of truth. It was neither a theory nor the escape into any ascetic effort. It was necessary to understand and yet experimentarh, "truth *. Now, as we shall see, the two sen-healers had its risks:" understanding "that" threatened to give in simple theory, and "experimentation", to invade the ecstasy. But, according to. Buddha, we can only "save" reaching Nirvana, ie surpassing the level of human experience worldly and reintegrating the level of the conditioned. In other words,


salt-varemos us dying for this secular life and being reborn in a transhuman life, impossible to define and describe. 2 Samghabhadra, quoted by L, de la Vallee-POUSIN, Nirvana (Paris, 1925), p. 73-74. Visuddhimagga, P. 507: "Can not say that something exists just because na fools perceive not." For this rawSn is that the symbolism of death, the renaissance and the initiation persist cn Buddhist texts. The monk must be staffed by "a new body," "reborn" as in other initiations, after "dead." The Buddha himself proclaimed: "I mos-trated my disciples the means by which they can create, pair-ing of this body (made up of four elements) other intellectual substantia body (rupim manoyam), complete with limbs with powers and transcendental (abhinin-Driya). It's just like when a man pulls an arrow from a CAFI, or a sword from its sheath, or a dead snake skin. The man is aware that the arrow and the coffee growing are two different things, and that the snake and its old skin are also different things, and so on. (Majjhima-Nikaya \ I, 17). initiatory symbolism is clear: the image of the snake and its spoils belong to flow more ancient symbols of mystical death and resurrection: it is also found in the literature Brahmana (Brahmana Jaiminiya, II, 134, etc.). Ananda Coomaraswamy has shown that the Buddhist ordination was a prolongation of the Vedic initiation (diksa) and fell within the scheme of initiation: the monk left his name and became "son of Buddha" (sakyaputto), since there was "born among the saints" (ariya), as I said when discussing whether Kassapa same: "Hijonatural the Blessed One, born of his mouth, born of dhatnma, shaped by the dhamma, and so on." (SamyutaNikaya, U, 221). "The importance of the guru as teacher is not a minor initiation into Buddhism than in any other Indian soteriology The Buddha taught the way and means to die with respect to the human condition, slavery and suffering - to be reborn into freedom, and the unconditioned bliss of Nirvana. But hesitated to speak of that unconditioned, not to betray-ing. If you ever had attacked the Brahmins and paribba-jaka, was precisely because it ran too about the inexpressible and pretended to define the self (Atman). To the Buddha, "arguing that the atman exists as real and permanent, is a false view" (Vasubandhu, quoted by L. de la Vallee-Poussin, p. 107, n. 2). But read what it says about the release, 8 See Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, Some Pali words (Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, IV. 1939, p. 116-190) in P. 144 et seq. "Nirvana", see that this is similar in all respects to the "liberated in life", the nonBuddhist fivanmukta. This "from this life, severed (nicchata)," Nirvana "(nibbuti) sensing whether the happiness and spends his time with the soul identified with Brahman" (AnguttaraNikaya, II, 206). L. de la Vallee - Poussin, who played this text reminds us of the Bhagavad-Gita, V, 24: "He who can not find happiness, joy, and light if only within, the yogi attains Brahman found Nirvana is Brahman (brahma-nirvanam). "We see here that continuously sense the Buddha Indian ascetic-mystical tradition, believes in a liberation in life> but refuses to define". "If the Buddha did not want to talk about released, not because the saint, still alive, does not actually exist, but because nothing precise can be said about the Released "(L. de la Vallee - Poussin, p. 112). All you can speak on e \ fivanmukta (or" nirvana "according to Buddhist terminology) is not of this world." The Tathagata can no longer be named as a subject, sen-sations, ideas, volitions, knowledge, and this release from these de-nominations, is deep, immeasurable, unfathomable as a vast ocean. Not true: it is not, is and is not, nor is or is not


"(SamyuttaNikaya, IV, 374). It's exactly the language of mysticism and negative theology, is the famous neti! Neti! Of Upanishad. The jhanas AND SAMAPATTl To obtain the status of the unconditioned, in other words, to die to this life radically secular, painful, illusory, and rebirth (jen another "body"!) To the mystical life which will allow access to Nirvana, the Buddha uses the yogic techniques, ready to correct and supplement them with a very deep "compression" of the truth. Note that the preliminaries of asceticism and Buddhist meditation are similar to those recommended by Yoga-Surra and other classic texts. The ascetic must choose a secluded spot, a forest at the foot of a tree in a cave, a cemetery, or even a stack of straw in the middle of the field-position colocarse in asana and begin your meditation. "By the thirst of the world away, his heart is free from desire and purifies his mind of greed. The desire to avert evil, keeps his heart free from enmity, welcoming and compassionate toward every being, and purifies the spirit of malevolence. By taking his laziness and in torpecimiento, gets rid of them both, conscious of light, lucid and due-not of himself, purifies his mind of sloth and hindered-treatment (• • •) • When away the doubt remains as it has been but the perplexity alia: No longer in uncertainty about what is good, purify your mind of doubt "4 Although contained elements "moral", this meditation has no sense of ethics. Its purpose is to purify the conscience of the ascetic, must include them prepared for higher spiritual experience. Yogi meditation, as interpreted by the Buddha in certain texts of Dighanikaya, aims to be the "remake" the conscience of the ascetic, that is build to create new "immediate experience" of his psychic life and even his life biological need that through concrete gestures-all walking, the position of the body, respiration, etc. .-, rediscover the ascetic, in concrete form. the "green-des" revealed by the Master, that is to transform all his move-ment and gesture of meditation pretexts. The Maha-Patthana Suttanta Satti (Digha, II, 291) points out that the bhikku, des-for having chosen a lonely place for meditaci6n, must become aware of all physiological events that even the moment was fulfilling automatically and unconscious. "Aspiring hon-mately, fully understood the long aspiration, breathing out briefly comprises, etc. practices (...). And be aware of all expirations (...) of all his aspirations, and exercise in slowing the pace of their exhalations (...) and aspirations ...". This process is not a simple exercise but also A meditation on the "truths" Buddhist, a permanent experimentation of the unreality of materia.8 Such is the end of the I * Udumbariko Sihan Suttanta, Dighanikaya, III, 48 (Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Buddha, VDL III />. 44). See also Dialogues, vol II, 327; Vinaya Texts, 1.119, etc: Veanoos as 5. est & exph'cado the text by the commentator: the yogi must ask: ^ in which these aspirations are based and expirations? Are based on the subject and the subject is cueipo material, and the body are the four efementos material, etc. "(Warren, Buddhism in Translation *, ed. VIII, 1922, Harvard Oriental Series, p. 355, ti ' 1). This is therefore a meditation on breathing rate, that part of the analytical understanding of the human body that serves as pretext to understand the complex nature, "painful" and transitional body. This "understanding" sustains and justifies meditation, as it reveals the fragility of the ascetic life and forces him to persevere in the path of salvation.


ditaci6n: fully assimilate the "truths" furdamentales, transform them into a "continuous experience, dissemination, so to speak, on the whole being of the monk. Indeed, here, which later said the same text from Dighanikaya (I, 292). . An ascetic in his way forward and pledge, fully understands what he is doing, to watch or to observe (an object) fully understands what he is doing, to raise the arm, or drop it fully understands what he is doing, the take your cloak, clothes, or your pot of food, fully understands what he is doing, eating, drinking, chewing, to taste (...) (...) to evacuate by walking, sitting, to sleeping, being awake, talking or silent, understands perfectly what he does. " The goal toward which this clarity is easy to understand it. Without respite, and whatever you do, the Bhikkhu must understand both your body and soul, in order to make effective, as con-tinue, the friability of the phenomenal world and the unreality of the "soul" . Sumangala VUasini The comment draws the following conclusion with respect to the meditation on bodily gestures: "They say it is a living entity that walks, a living entity that relies, but ^ there is actually a living entity that ac-mine or to rest? There are none. " (Warren, cited, p. 378, note). But this permanent attention to physiological life itself, this technique for the destruction of the illusions created by a false conception of "soul" are only preliminary. The true Buddhist meditation begins with the experimentation of the four psychological states called jhana (dhyana in Sanskrit). We do not know exactly which meditative technique chosen and experienced by Buddha. The same formulas are often used-ised to express different contents. (Remember the disturbing variety of meanings of the word yoga through all Hindu literature). It is likely, however, that at least part of the meditation technique used by the Buddha has been preserved by his disciples and transmitted by the primitive ascetic tradition. ^ How could lose a body of spiritual exercises of such richness and coherence, or as it would leave maul, a tradition that the direct teaching of the Master desempefia so considerable a role? But, according to the texts collected by Caroline Rhys Davids (Dhyana in early Buddhism, Indian Historical Quarterly, vol. Ill, 1927, p. 689-715) it is clear that the Buddha was unjhain fervent and that by practicing jhana not seeking or urging others to seek the cosmic soul (Brahman) or God (Isvara). The jhana was for half of experimentation "mystic", an access road to the supersensible realities, but not a unio mystica. This experience prepared the yogi monk, to a "higher science" (abhijna) whose final phase was nirvana. In Potthapada Surra, 10 (Digha, l, 182) has been made if not for the first time, at least as clearly, the Buddhist meditation technique. Play some long stretches of this important text: "When the five bhikku perceived barriers (nirvana) * have been destroyed in the, is happy, happy, feel joy, joyful, feel satisfaction in all his person, having that sensation welfare, is happy, happy, his heart is calm. Freed from the wishes and all the bad conditions, enters and remains in the first jhana been caused by the de-linkage (vivekaja): "born of loneliness" remaining in the reflection and understanding, which brings joy and faith-licidad. then ceases to this idea of the desires that had previ-ous and there is the subtle and real idea of joy and peace that are born of detachment: and remains in this idea. " Then "the suppression of reflection and understanding, bhikku enters the second jhana, which, born of concentration (samadhi) 1 is characterized by internal tranquilizacidn, the unification of spirit, joy and happiness. Then is des-vanece in subtle and real idea of joy


and happiness of detachment give birth (vivekaja) and there is the subtle and real idea of joy and happiness born of concentration: and stay with this idea " . Then bhikku "for the renunciation of happiness, indifferent. Look carefully and fully conscious experience in his person the happiness of the wise men speaking (arya), when they say:" He who is indifferent and thoughtful enjoys happiness. "It's third * According to the Digha-Nikaya, 1, 71, five are Nivarana sensuality, malice, laziness of spirit and body, bodily agitation espirirual, doubt. Difleren lists. Compare with the five "sins" of the Mahabharata, XH, 241, Hopkins, The Register Epic, p. 18L 7 The samadhi of Buddhist texts, being a enstasy analogous to that of the Yoga-Sutra, has the same role as in the manual of Patanjali. The Mtmadhi seems to be a preliminary condition to the path of Nirvana. See Note V, 2. jhana. At that time fades into the idea that subtle and real joy and peace of which he possessed before, caused by the concentration, and there arises a subtle and realistic idea of happiness and undifferentiated After this, the bhikku, relinquishing any sense of comfort or discomfort, by the end of the joy and the sorrow he experienced before, enters and remains in the fourth jhana, a state of absolute purity, indifference and Thought (sati ) without welfare or Vanishing malestar.8 then the idea that subtle and real that fed previously, happiness and indifference, and there is a real and subtle idea of non-being and distress signals and remains in this idea "(Pigha Nikaya, I, 182, trans. Oltramare, Buddhist Theosophy, pp. 363-364). Do not multiply the texts relating to these four stages are jhana.9 clearly identified: 1) purify "temptations-ing" the intelligence and sensitivity, ie isolate them from the outside agen-ing, in short, get a first autonomia of consciousness, 2) to delete the dialectical function of intelligence, obtain concentraci6n, perfect knowledge of an awareness rascary, 3) to suspend all "relaci6n" both with the sensible world and with the memory, taking pleasure lucidity with only "consciousness exists", 4 째) reinstate the "opposite", fetch the bliss of "pure consciousness". But do not stop there the itinerary. You have to add four spiritual exercises Samapatti called "Variety", preparing for the ascetic "enstasy" final. Despite the rigorous description given to us, these "states" are hard to understand. Correspond to experiences not only far in excess of. experiences of normal consciousness, but also the extranettional experiences (mystical or poetic) that are understandable to the West. erroneo however would result to explain how inhibition hypnotic tions. During the meditation, is checked continuously, as we shall see later, the lucidity of a monk, on the other hand, sleep and hypnotic trance are obstacles that Indian treaties 8 Fisiol6gicamente, the fourth jhana is characterized by the detention of respirad6n, antlers-Passasa-nirodha (Oltramare, p. 364, footnote 2). . * Matfhimanikayal, 454; Abhidharmarkosa (trans. L. de la Vallee-Poussin) IV, p. 107; VIII, pag. 161. Excellent analysis on J. Evola, La dottrina of risveglio (Bari, 1943), p. 200-225. On the pseudo-<Z% ma, see Note V, 3. of meditation are well aware, and those who always puts on guard to the practitioner. Here are described as the last four dhyana (called in the terminology Samapatti asceti-ca): "And now, going alia of ideas of ways, ending the ideas of contact (Pathiga, the shock of it is any sensation) , clearing his mind of different ideas, pen-sando "infinite space", the bhikku reaches the region of the infinity of space and remains there then he passed


beyond the region of the infinity of space and thinking "Consciousness is infinite", reaches the region of the infinity of consciousness and stays there (shown infinite consciousness, since that is not already limited by sensory and mental experiences). Then, more pa-sando alia the region of the infinity of consciousness and thinking, "nothing is" arrives and stays in the region of non-existence of anything (akincannayatana, the "nihilism"). Finally, turning most alia, in the region of the nonexistence, the bhikku arrives and remains in a spiritual state that is neither the idea nor the absent-aunt of idea "(nevasannanasanna, Digha Nikaya, I, pag. 183; trans. Oltramare, pag. 365). It would be superfluous to comment on each of these stages, used zaude the numerous texts of Buddhist literature back to me-we want to redo the psychology and metaphysics of the school (see Note V, 4). But what interests us here is essentially the morphology of meditation, let in the ninth and last Samapatti. "Indeed, since the bhikku itself originated these ideas (found in dhyana can not have outside ideas; is sakasanni) passes from one stage to the next stage, and so on until you reach the supreme idea. And when he lle-gate to it, bhikku reads: "To think is worse, not think, is better. If I think, molding. These ideas may disappear and be born other ideas that would be rude. That's why pensare no more, no longer moldeare. And I do not think, no more mold. And do not think or shapes, the ideas he vanish without other, more rudimentary, born. The bhikku cessation has done. " (DhigaNikaya, I, pag. 184, trans. Oltramare, pag. 375). Another text, Late, summarizes even more directly the vital importance of this ninth and last Samapatti "venerable monks, get the Samapatti which is the cessation of all conscious perception. The bhikku that has managed to make this acquisition has no further nothing to do "(Siksasamuccaya of Santideva, Ed Bendala, pag. 48, 1902). Yogis and Metaphysics It has been recognized in these Samapatti dhyanay these, more than one point of contact with the different stages of samadhi samprajnatay of asamprajnata Classical Yoga. Moreover, they acknowledged that Buddhist yogis and non-Buddhist ascetics could have access to the four dhyana and four "varieties", until the last, the Samapatti of "unconsciousness" (asamjnisama-patti). Only, they challenged the authenticity of this ninth Samapatti when it was obtained by non-Buddhists, believed that "the destruction Samapatti of consciousness and sensacidn" (sa-majnaveditanirodha Samapatti) was a discovery of the Buddha, and constituted the makes contact with the Nirvana.10 Now if they forbade to access non-Buddhists to Nirvana, while accepting the validity of their jhana, is undoubtedly because the latter did not recognize the truth revealed by the Buddha. In other words, could not be achieved solely through the unconditional mystical meditation: it was necessary to understand the path leading to the unconditioned, without thereby risking the installed in a "Heaven" anyone believe they have attained Nirvana. This leads to the problem of "gnosis" and "mystical experience" desempefiar problem called a major role in the history of Buddhism (which is crucial in the history of Indian spiritualism). The two tendencies-that of "experimenters" (losjhain), if we may say, and the "theoretical" (the dhammayoga)-are constant in Buddhism. From early canonical texts have sought to bring them into accord. A sutra Anguttara (in, 355) on which L. de la Vallee-Poussin called us several times atenci6n, says: "The monks who devote


themselves to ecstasy (the jhayin) complain that the monks who are dedicated to the doctrine (the dhammayoga) and vice versa. On the contrary, they esti - Marse versa. Indeed, very few men who spend time playing with her body (ie, "performing, experienced i 'Referring to this, see L. of Valtee-Poussiii, Musila and Narada (Melangeschinois et bouddhiquet, V, Brussels, 1937, 0. 189-222), p. 210 and ff. wave ") the element immortal (amata Dhat, or Nirvana). Po-ing are also those who see the profound reality (arthapada) pe-netra it through the prajna, intelligence." The text underlines the extreme difficulty of the two "tracks", that of the "gnosis," the meditative experience. Few, indeed, those with experience of Nirvana, and no less rare are those who "see" reality as it is, and that, by this vision intellectual, conquered the liberation. Over time, all avenues to approach the Buddha on the path of the "experience" became equivalent: the learner and includes Canon assimilates the "doctrine of the Buddha's body, the pilgrim who comes to a stupa containing the relics the enlightened, have access to my body-tic architect Buddha himself. But in the first stage of bu-ism, the problem was the same as the one established in the Samkhya-Yoga: between the "intelligence" and "lessons ", <^ which gets primacy? There is enough evidence to prove that the Buddha always closely unia knowledge to a type yogi meditation experience. ÂŁ 1 knowledge is not worth much to him, while not "have" made "on personal experience to be had. In how-to for the experience, "meditative", the "truths" discovered by the Buddha are validated. Take, for example, the assertion of "The body is perishable. The truth of this assertion would be assimilated only when looking at a cadaver. But this contemplation of the corpse would be of value if salvation not based on truth (this body is perishable, all is perishable body, only in the law of Buddha is salvation, etc.).. All the truths revealed by the Buddha should be tested in the manner yogi, that is thoughtful and experienced. That's why Ananda, the favorite disciple of the Master, but his inimitable erudition (according to the Theragatha, V. 1024, would have learned eighty-two thousand dhamma of the Buddha himself and two thousand of sts classmates) was however excluded from the council: for it was not Arhat, ie had no "experience yogi" perfect. "In the stbavira Ananda has listened, learned, recited and meditated all kinds of sutras, the wisdom (prafna) is broad, while the concentration of thought (DTTA Samgraha) is mediocre. Now it is necessary to gather these two qualities to obtain the state (which is) the destruction of the impurities (arhatship) "11 A celebrated text of Samyutta (II, 115) confronts a Musila and Narada, each representing a degree of perfection which Buddhist. Both have the same knowledge, but is not considered Arhat Narada, as it has not done experimentally "contact with Nirvana. Let us explain in what form this connection: "As if a traveler tormented by thirst Encon-strate a well in the desert and look at the well, would have the notion of" Water ", but not pass the time playing it with his body. Similarly, I have seen it: "Destruction of existence, Nirvana, but I am an Arhat, free of vices" (Louis de la Vallee-Poussin, Musila and Narada, pag. 191 et seq.). According to the Anguttara Nikaya (III, 355), the two methods, that of the "experimenters" and the "theoretical" (the jhain and dhammayoga) - are equally vital for obtaining the condition of Arhat. For the passions, the "spots" (klesa) are of two categories: "l9) the Bureau of intellectual order, the" views "(drsti), the" in-ors ", the aberration (moha), belief in the "I", etc.., 29) the Bureau of emotional order, which in our


language are the passions, namely the aversion and desire. Destroy the "errors" does not destroy the "Passion" having recognized the character tiansitorio and harmful things nicely, but the ascetic continued wanting them and find pleasurable "(L. de la ValleePoussin, Musila and Narada, 193; E. Lamott, Le traite de la Grande Vertude Sagesse, 213). The "experience" is therefore essential to obtain salvation. But on the other hand, the "experimentation" of the four jhana and does not lead to Nirvana Samapatti if not ilumined by the "wisdom". Some texts are of opinion that the "wisdom" is sufficient to ensure the acquisition of Nirvana, without having to go to the "yogic experiences. Harivarman, for example, believes that only the "concentration" is necessary, to the exclusion of other meditative exercises (Samapatti). There Arhat who entered Nirvana without possessing any of the five abhijna ( "ma-Raville powers), but never was have access without having the "knowledge of the No Mahaprajnaparamitasastra Nagarjuna, trans. E. Lamotte. Le Traite de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse, vol. I (Louvain, 1944), p. 223. The Sanskrit original is lost, but the work has been held in several Chinese and Tibetan translations. disappearance of vices "(asravaksaya) that can by itself confer sainthood. Harivarman but shows a trend" an-timistica "anti-ecstatic (Vallee-Poussin, cited, 206) also reveal other sources, eg according to the doctrine Abhid-harm, the prajna-vimukta, the saint dry, released through wisdom (prajna) gets the Nirvana in the form exactly like he had the experience of nirodhasamapatti (id. 215). The adi-vina, In this apology of the "saint dry" resistance of the "theo-logos" and the metaphysical to the excesses yogis, which we'll talk. THE "WONDERFUL POWERS" For now, note that the way to Nirvana-the same as the path to samadhi, in the classicalYoga leads to possession of the "wonderful powers" (siddhi, Pali iddhi). Now, (and later in the case of Patanjali) this raised the Buddha a new problem: as, first, the "powers" are acquired during the initiation and inevitably are, for this very reason, precious indications on the spiritual progress the monk, but on the other hand, are doubly dangerous because it tempts the monk with a vain "magic domain in the world" and are in danger of creating confusion entr.e infidels, moreover. Indeed, iddhi can not be avoided: in a way, are the new categories of experience of the "body mis-tico" the monk is being created. Recall that the Buddhist monk, like the Yogi brahmanizante or herej'e "should die for his profane life" reborn "in a non-conditioned. However, death in secular condition becomes, in the plans we physiological, mental and spiritual, through a series of mystical experiences and magical powers who claim just over conditioned to freedom. The possession of iddhi not equivalent to the liberation, but those "wonderful powers" evi-ban at least that the monk is on the way to 'de-conditioning-it "has suspended the laws of nature in which gear was crushed condemned to bear forever kannico determinism. Therefore the possession of iddhi is not harmful in itself, but the monk must take good care of succumbing to the temptation, and especially, must avoid the exhibition of such powers in front of non-initiated people. We will soon see the reasons invoked by Buddhatwo to ban the use and exhibition of siddhi. Recall that the "miraculous powers" part of the five classes of Senior Science (abhijna, namely: 1) siddhi, 2) the divine eye (divyacaksus), 3) the divine ear (divyasrotra), 4) knowledge of thought alien (paracittajnana), 5) the recollection of former existences


(purvanirvasanusmrti). None of these five abhijna (Pali: abhinna) differs from the "powers" that are at the disposal of non-Buddhist yogi (See Note V, 5). Even the preliminary of meditation that allows their obtention are similarities before the non-Buddhist Yoga: is a matter of mental purity of pla-EGULATORS, etc.. "With the very heart serene, purified, translucent, devoid of bad agile, quick to act, firm and imperturbable, he (the bhikku) applies and bends his mind to the wonderful power modes (iddhi). Enjoy the wonderful power in their different ways: as one becomes many, being many, becomes one, it becomes visible or invisible through without Encon-strate resistance, a wall, a fortification, a hill, like the air: it penetrates the top down through the solid earth, like water, walks on water without sinking, as on land, traveling with her legs crossed and folded under toward the sky like the birds with their wings. Until the Moon , and Sun, however strong and powerful, the touches and feels with the hand reached, remaining in his body, even the Heaven of Brahma (...) With this course, which exceeds the heavenly ear ear human, hears sounds both heavenly and human, near or far (...) By entering your own heart into the hearts of other beings, other men, he knows (...) With her heart so calm, and so on. directs and inclines his mind to knowledge of the memory of their previous existences' * (Sa-manna Phau Sutta, 87; Digha Nikaya, I, 78). The same list of powers is in the Sutta Akankheya; for each iddhi, it is necessary to perform a given; 7wna. "If a bhikku wanted, my brethren, to exercise one by one, each of these wonderful gifts, though one, become multiform, being multiform to become one (...) and reach-in his own body-heaven of Brahma ; to provide then all jus-tice, which is devoted to that quietude of heart which arises within oneself, which does not reject the ecstasy of contemplation, etc. ".. This will come to a clear audition, to Vinar what happens in the hearts of others, to know the past lives, to see how beings pass from one state of existence to another, and so on. These lists of siddhi ( '-iddhi) are almost always stereotyped das and are found in all Indian ascetic and mystical literature (see previous pages, the list kept by Patanjali). Yogis contemporary of the Buddha they also possessed such "mystical powers", and Buddha did not call into question its authenticity, just as he did not doubt the authenticity of ecstasy I-guis. But the Buddha encouraged his disciples not to immediately seek the siddhi: the only real problem was the liberation, and the po-session of the "powers" threatening to distract the monk of its objective initial Nirvana. As a reaction against the excesses of mystical and magical, the Buddha did not forget to remember that the plantheo of the problem and its solution were modified in man-man in his function as such. "Truly, friend, I declare that this very body, mortal as it is, and no more than a fathom high, but conscious and endowed with intelligence, is the world, its growth, its population decline and the path at maturity '(Anguttara, II, 48; Samyutta, I, 62). For if it is true that the monk must die to his condition to feed prof ana-za expect to reach the nonconditioned, it is equally true that, be tempted by the "miraculous powers", is in danger of settling in a higher mode of existence, the way of the gods and of the Magi "and forgetting the ultimate goal, the integration of the Absolute. Moreover, the possession of this or that "miraculous" was not in any way for the propagation of the Buddhist message: other-guis and ecstatic I could do the same miracles, but still, it could get "power" by magic, without any process-ing interior. The unbelievers could believe it was simply a magical pass anyone, "If a believer (a Buddhist) announced the possession of mystical powers (iddhi), when one turns being multiform, and being turned multiforme


becomes one, and so on. (â&#x2013; â&#x20AC;˘.) The unbeliever would say, "Well, Senor, there is a spell called Gandharva. \ With this spell he does it all!" (...) "Well jKevaddha! Just because I see the danger of the practice of mystic wonders, the taunts me, the hate and are ashamed of them." And if the Buddhist yogi manifest the power of divining the thinking and feelings of the people, and so on., The unbeliever would say: "Well, Senor, there is a spell called the enchantment of the Jewels. By that makes all this enchantment the ... " (Ke-vaddha Sutta, 4; Digha Nikaya, I, 212). That is why the Buddha forbade the demonstration of siddhi: "You must not, oh bhikku, to see the miracles of iddhi the laity, those miracles that soAfter going past the power of common man. Who will he acts so guilty of a bad action "(dukkata; Vinaya, II, 112, Vinaya texts, III, 81). KNOWLEDGE OF STOCKS ABOVE Among the five (or six) High Science (abhijna) provides the ability to remember always stocks anteriores.12 Like all other siddhi and abhijna, also this mystical science is part of the pan-Indian occult tradition, Patanjali lists among the "perfections" (Yoga-Sutra, III, 18) and the Buddha himself recognized that repetition das Samaria, and occasions that the Brahmins are able to remember up to a considerable number of past lives. "Su-cedes, monks, that this or that religious (Samana) or Brahman, through its burning through your energy thanks to a perfect (...) attention of spirit, scope absorption thoughts such that Once absorbed his thought (completely pure, completely clean mind, spotless, free of impurities) said its vari-ous homes earlier in life - namely, a life, two lives, three ... four ... five ... ten ... twenty ... fifty thousand ... ... ... one hundred thousand stocks in such a way that will say: at that time I had the name, this family such caste, such a scheme of co -midas, experienced such pleasure and such suffering, reach that age. When I lost that life, into this one. Here was this behalf, that family life (...) Losing ess reach my current existence. Asi remember is how his various residences in life 12 In other classifications, this power yoga is the first of the three sciences (vidya) or the eighth of the "forces of wisdom" (jnanao praj-Nabala). According to Buddhist scholasticism, the latter belongs to Buddhists only, while abhijna and vidya are equally accessible to others; P. Demieville, Sur la memoire des existence antMewes (Bulletin Ecole Fr Extreme-Orient, p. 283-298). before, with its features, with details of the facts. "Then he says: The Self and world are eternal, sterile, straight as a coati, are stable as a pillar ..." (Dighanikaya, I, 27, trans. L. Renou, also in Digha, III, 108). But the Buddha refuses to accept the philosophical conclusions drawn by the Brahmins Samaria and the memory of his former existences, namely: the eternity of the self and the world. But exactly refuses to draw any conclusion, "Now, monks, the Tathagata knows this: those points of doctrine, so tornadoes, so treated, have this or that out, enclose a given destination. This is what that the Tathagata knows, and knows more aim: no mention of that knowledge, not talking about it, know peace through itself (Digha, i, 30). The Buddha refused to speculate upon meta-physical implications that could be inferred. of this or that experience above-normal part of their teaching, not to be drawn into discussions idle ultimate reality. In the text just mentioned, we see that the Brahmins Samana and postulate the "eternity" the world and the fact I found the same world and the same stock before I one hundred thousand. However, this conclusion is not necessarily


valid, as the Samana and the Brahmans were always there in time-and Buddha's problem, the problem of Yoga, were jus settling the "Time Out", access to the unconditioned: the comments made within the infinite sky of the trans-migration, nothing could be inferred as to the " reality "that began more karmic alia sky. As the Samana and the Brahmins, Buddhist monks are en-forced to recall their past lives. "He, who has concentrated, purified, clarified the spirit (...) becomes their minds to the knowledge of previous residences, by mem-ory. Remember the various previous residences, an existence of two stocks, three. .. four ... five ... ten ... Cincu-ta, a hundred, thousand, one hundred thousand stock (...) various periods of creation and destruction "(Majjhimanikaya ^, 22; in other texts, DemievihV pag. 284). As we see, this is the same High Science, both among Buddhists as among non-Buddhists. ^ What is this science? The texts do not say anything, show that the here-jes way off the notion of eternity, knowledge of their vi-das earlier, but the Buddhist notion being alone specified in the literature appears that in the An contiguous memory of past lives is conceived in the spirit of yoga as a 'simple supernatural knowledge "(Demieville, cited, pag. 299). From Mahavibhasa specifies the benefit that a Buddhist monk can draw from this high Science: the reluctance of intermittent (non-permanent cia) and the same opinion is shared by the Abhidharma Kosa ^ Vasubandhu (Demieville, pag. 292 et seq.). But this justification late Buddhist scholasticism not look right and reveals the triumph of the "theoretical" versus "experimental feeders" of the theory against the mystic yogi. On the use given by the Buddha to the knowledge of past lives, although we have no information as to guide us. So, for starters, remember that the Buddha placed great importance on the function of such memory: the gods lost their divine status and fall from the heavens when "his memory is confused" (Digha, i, 19). But still: the inability to recall old stocks toci ignorance equals metaphysics / Buddha makes the case of the fallen gods of heaven because of his poor memory, some of them, once made men, withdrew from the world, practiced asceticism and meditation and obtained through yogic discipline, the ability to remember their past lives, but not all (Dhiga, id.) so they do not remember the beginning of the series of stock, and because of this "neglect" have a mistaken idea of the eternity of the world and the gods. So, the Buddha placed in a privileged place the ability to recognize old stocks. Through this mystical ability, it could access the "beginning of time", implying, as we shall see, the "Time Out". Ananda and other disciples "recalled the birth" (Jatim saranti) were of "the-whoremembered-the-birth" (jatissara). A. K. Coomaraswamy has the epithet pointing or jatissaro (Muinde Panha, 78, etc..) Reminds the epithet of Agni, jdtavedas because Agni also "knows all births (visvavedajanima, Rig Veda, VI, 15, 13) and is" omniscient "(visvavit, Rig Veda, III, 29, 7, etc.).. Vamadeva, author of a celebrated hymn Rigveda, was speaking 13 Recollection, Indian and Platonic (Supplement to the Journal of the American Oriental Society, n. 3 April-june 1944, p. 1-18). to himself: "found in the matrix (garbha nu san) have known all births of the gods" (Rig Veda, IV, 27, 1, according to the Garbha Upanishad, III, 4, the memory of intrauterine life na is lost at birth), "This is what Vamaveda, found in the matrix" (itareya Aranyaka, II, 5). Krisna "knows all stocks (Bhagavad-Gua, IV, 5). So, then, for Brahmanism as for the Buddha, the memory (in short, knowledge) was a faculty" divine "and extremely


valuable," which know ',' re-cord which "proves that this" concentrated "distraction, forgetfulness, ignorance," fall "are behaviors and situations in string. In scholastic Buddhist texts we are offered pre-cisos more information on the technique used. "It is the faculty consisting of re-assembling, by way of remembrance, the course of the days, months and to reach afios remaining in the matrix and finally to the past ones: an existence, ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, a koti of stock. The great Arhat Prayekabuddha reach and overcome, through recall, 80,000 great kalpa. The great Bodhisattvas and the Buddha knows an unlimited number of kalpa " '(E. Lamotte, Traite de la Grande Vertude Sagesse, pag. 332). According Abhidharma Kosa, VII, pag. 123, "the ascetic who wants to remember their old stocks began to study the character of thinking just of dying, starting from this think-ing, traces its course considering the states that happen-ing one after another until the thought of conception . When you remember a moment of thought of the existence intermediary (antarabhaw), the abhijna this realixada. " (Nota de Lamotte, op cit. 332, No. 2). It is therefore at a given time from the closest to the present moment, and retracing the path traverse time (pa-Thomas, skr. Pratiloman "against") to get ad originem, when the first life "exploded" in sparking World Time, and closer to that paradoxical moment beyond which Time did not exist, because nothing had been said yet. It comunderstandable meaning and fhulidad of this technique is to unroll yogi time backwards. This results in true High Science, as it is achieved not only re-learn all the old stocks, but arrives at the "beginning of the world" and one turns to back "against the" must necessarily find the starting point , ultimately coincides with the Cos with the first cosmic manifestation. Reliving past lives is to understand themselves, and to some extent, to "burn" their "sins", ie the sum of the acts under the rule of ignorance and passed (this amount) from one existence to another by the law of karma. But something even more important: it arrives at the beginning of time and meets one with the No-Time, the eternal present that precede temporal experience founded by the first human existence fall. In other words, it "reaches" the non-conditioned state that preceded the fall in Time and the wheel of stock. Which means that, starting from some time in the temporal duraci6n exhaust that can reach duration run at backwards and eventually lead to the no-time, in eternity. But this is already beyond the human condition and enter Nirvana. It's what to say to Buddha that he was the only one who had re-met all its previous stock, while the Arhats knew a considerable amount of their past lives, but is "far from knowing their Taban totalidadj as to Samana and the brahmr.nes, hastened to declare as we have seen, some philosophical theories about the reality of the world and I, instead of penetrating deeper into the past and to assist the solution of all these "realities" (as the only true reality, the Absolute, was not expressible in ordinary language philosophy). We realize the importance that the memory of old stocks in the art is yogi, which persecuted the escape of Time. But Buddha did not intend that this was the only means. He claimed he could very well exceed the time, namely the abolition of the profane condition, using the "right time" (Khan), getting the "instant enlightenment" (ekaksanabhi-sambodhi Mahayanists authors), which "broke the Time "and enabled" out of the "through a ruptured niveles.14


i * See our treaty Symbolisme mdiens du Temps et de VEtervXte (in volunien Imageries and Symbols, p. 73-119), p. 106 and rig. Moreover observe symmetry between yogi technique of remembering previous lives and the psychoanalytic method to reintegrate and assimilate, through an understanding rectified, the memories of early childhood. THE PARIBBAJAKA in Buddha's time wandering ascetics countless groups of yogis and "sophistic." Some traced their antigiiedad groups to post-Vedic era. Was that a time of lush spiritual vitality: at the religious and mystical, we find dialect, magicians and even dangerous "materialists" and ity, precursors and Lokayata Carvaka. Apart from their names, little known to most of them. Its doctrines are mentioned in fragmentary form in Buddhist and Jaina texts: on the other hand, fought not only by the Jains, but also by Buddhists, are often distorted and voluntarily ri-diculizadas. It is likely, however, that among these religious and wandering ascetics (paribbajaka, skr. Parivrajaka) were power-ful personalities, teaching doctrines daring, revolutionary. Buddhist texts have transmitted to us several lists of dialects and wandering ascetics contemporary of the Buddha, the most celebrated, preserved by the Samannaphalasutta (Digha, i, 47) is summarizing the views of six Sarruma famous. From each of them tells us that he is "community leader" (gcrwcarH / o), fa-Moso "founder of a sect" (ttithakano), revered as a saint (salhusammato), revered by the crowd, older . Purana Kassapa seems to have preached the futility of the action; Makkhali Scala, the head of Ajivika advocated a very strict determinism, which we'll talk. Ajita Kesakambala professed materialism of Carvaka neighbor, Pakudha Kaccayana, the per-perpetuity of the seven "bodies", Sanjaya Velatthaputta, a dark and Nigantha Nataputta agnosticism, skepticism is likely. They are allusions to the doctrines of the "heretical" in other Buddhist texts, and especially in the Majjimanikaya (I, 513) Sam yutta Nikaya (III, 69) Anguttara Nikaya (III, 383), the latter, moreover, gives a list of ten religious orders contempora-lines of the Buddha (III, 276-277) but almost nothing is known of their spiritual techniques. In general, most of these groups "heretical" participate, with the Buddha and Mahavira, the same critical attitude to traditional values of Brahmanism: rejected both the character of the Vedas as revealed metaphysical theories of the Upanishads. Moreover, some of them, for example Makkhali Go-room, expressed interest in the structures of organic life and the laws of nature, hitherto unknown interest. Maybe they could distinguish the pure ascetics (tapas) of the dialects (paribbajaka), the latter being practiced not mortify-ing too severe. The Anguttara Nikaya paribbajaka mentions two classes: Brahmins annatitthya paribbajaka and paribbajaka: the latter mainly discussed what to samdittika dhamma concemiente ie problems related to material reality, while the former were concerned with the transcendent issues. Buda is several times of these two cla ses: With one of them, Potthapada, discussed with respect to the soul, with another Nigrodha, on the value of the ascetic life, with a third zero Ajito on "states of consciousness" (pancasatani cittat-thanani) etc. The texts that mention these talks, highlighted by the responses of the Buddha more than the doctrines and customs of the paribbajaka. At least we know that, while critical of Brahmanical institutions, led a life quite severe, and practicing pranayama, proving once again the pan-Indian character of


yoga techniques. According to the references in the texts sometimes leads to identify certain specific mortifications. Thus, for example, in-Sihan Kassapa Sutta, speaks of the ascetic Kassapa who necen standing standing continuously, others sleeping on points, on a table or even in the ground, others who eat cow dung, etc.., (this probably in order to be in permanent penance, knowing the purifying virtue of these droppings tures Hindus) .18 Each of these ascetics uses the name of that particular practice mortification. You can recognize in this penance exacerbated the same inclination toward asceticism absolutes is that even today in modern India. It is likely that the spiritual experience of these ascetics was very rudimentary-tion, and the value they attached to repentance, were purely magical. We have no indication which refers to his techniques, if they had any. Sihanadasutla Kassapa-18 (Digha, 1, 167), Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Buddha, Vol. I, 231. In UdumbarikaSihanada Sutta, the Buddha paribbajaka by reprocna to boast of his own asceticism, neglecting the others, believe that successful, and feel satisfaction for it, for a review-mars exaggerated their exploits, etc.16 This text evi - ba severe asceticism that was often practiced by certain religious also "wander", but usually they did "those from bos-that" (tapas). Laopini6n the Buddha on the ascetics this detailed in-Sihan Kassapa Sutta, where Kassapa says that what characterizes the true Samaria (religio $ o) or Brahman, is not their outward appearance, physical mortification or penance, but internal discipline, charity, self-control, the emancipation of the spirit of superstition and automation, etcetera.17 Gosal MAKKHALI AND AJIVIKA

Among the "community leaders" and the "founders of a sect" stands majestically gloomy Maskarin (Makkhali) Gosal, the chief Ajivika. Former pupil and later adversary of Mahavira, was considered by the Buddha as their most dangerous rival. Ata-fied and vilified in great shape for the Buddhist and Jain doctrines and practices are hardly the reconstituted Ajivika-able. The fee ajivika comprehending a complex system of philosophy, but apart from some quotes preserved in the books of the adversaries, nothing is left of it. Yet ajivika movement has had a long history in several generations preceded Buddhism and Jainism and recently disappeared in the fourteenth century of our era. Gosal Makkhali not claiming to have founded the order ajivika, according to a Jain text, the Bhagavathi Sutra, is considered as the 24th Tirthankar of his time and the names of some of its legendary predecessors have survived. The etymology of the word is confusing ajivika: Hoernle the root ajiva explains, "way of life or profession of a class of beings", but could also lead to the expression jivat, "long as life," alluding to the fundamental doctrine that asserted the necessity of passing through a considerable number of stocks before obtaining liberation. What distinguished Gosal of all his contemporaries was his 16 Udumbarika Sihanadasvtta (Digha, III, 43); Dialogues, vol. Ill, 39. Sihanadasutta Kassapa-17 (Digha, I, 169), Dialogues, I, 234. rigorous fatalism. "The human effort is ineffective" (pu-ri atthi Risako), this was the gist of his message, and the basis of their system resided in one word: Niyati, the "fate"


"destiny". Following the summary Samannaphalasutta, 54, Gosal believed there was "no cause, no reason for the corruption of beings, beings are corrupted without cause or reason. (...) There is no cause for the purity of beings, Beings are purified without cause or reason. There is no act performed by oneself, no act done by others, no human act, no power (...) power, (...), human force (. ..) human worth. All beings, all individuals, all creatures, all living things will not possess, * no strength, no energy, evolve as a result of fate, of contingencies, from their home state ... " (trans. L. Renou). In other words, Gosal turned against the pan-Indian doctrine of karma. According to him, all being had to travel through the sky 8,400,000 mahakalpa, and ultimately liberation occurred effortlessly, spontaneously. This determinism ruthless criminal was tried by the Buddha and this is why I attack Gosal Makkhali more intensively than any of his contemporaries: raba Buddha considered the doctrine of Niyati was the most dangerous of all. Mahavira disciple and companion for a number of years, Gosal practice asceticism, got magical powers and became chief Ajivika. He was known as taciturn ($ amyutaNikaya, I, 66, said that the "had abandoned the word") and pieces biograricos preserved by the Buddhist and Jain scriptures suggest that Scala was a powerful wizard. Kill one of his disciples using his "magic fire" (Basham, Ajivikas, pag. 60). It is just a continuation of a magical Tomeo with Mahavira and because of this curse that Cosala Makkhali dies (probably between 484-485 BC). The initiation into the order presented ajivika archaic character of the initiations into the mysteries of traditional societies. A hint of the commentary Ttitira Jataka (Jot. Ill., 536543; Bashman, cited, pag. 104) shows us that the neophyte was to burn his hands clutching a hot object. A passage from the Dhammapada commentary (Dh. Comm. II, 52; Basham, pag. 106) reveals another rite of initiation: the candidate) was buried up to his neck and tore out his hair by hair dryer. The Ajivika mind went completely naked, according to a previous custom, moreover, the appearance of Mahavira and Makkhali Gosal. Like all ascetics, begging their food and alimentation were very strict rules, many ended his life letting starve (Basham, pag. 127 et seq.). However, Buddhist and Jain questioning the asceticism of Ajivika, the former of the accu-worldliness saban (Basham, pag. 123), and Jain, not ob-preserve chastity. According to Mahavira says, Makkhali Cosala believed that an ascetic does not sin if you have sexual intercourse with a woman (Jaina Suttras, vol. II, pag. 411; other acusationes of immorality, the same book, No, 245, 270). Undoubtedly, such acusationes were inpira-mented by the polemics on the other hand, we must not forget that in India, sexual practices were used at all times, either to acquire magical powers, and to expedite the obtaining of a state of bliss. Nothing concerning the spiritual techniques Ajivika has been preserved. True Gosal Makkhali plays an original at the horizon of Indian thought: the deterministic conception prompted him to study natural phenomena and laws of Life. Gosal proposed a classification of beings according to the number of his senses, a doctrine outline of the changes in the breast of Nature (parinama-vada) based on observations perioditidad Pretis on plant life. But all this does not explain the popular success of Ajivika and survival for two millennia. The doctrine of Niyati had nothing to attract people. We must assume that the sect had its traditioner ascetic and secrets of meditation, and which owes its survival to this heritage esoterica, that is what let us understand certain references to a kind of nirvana, heaven comparable to other schools supreme mystical ( Niyati since he had not been removed, Basham, 261). Moreover, to the tenth century after Jesus Christ, the


Ajivika, as well as the whole of India, following the bhakti and ended up merging with Pancaratra. (Basham, pag. 280 et seq.; On Ajivika see Note V, 6; on Pancaratra, Note IV, 5). Metaphysical knowledge and mystical experience It can be seen, through the whole history of Buddhism, the tension between supporters of knowledge and the supporters of experiench yogi. By the beginning of our era, a third category involved in the debate, the supporters of the bhakti. The redemptive value of faith in Buddha (actually, in the Dhamma revealed by the Buddha) is not entirely absent from canonical texts. "jel having faith in me and love me, arrived in heaven!" (Majjhimanikayal, 142). For "Faith is the seed, Faith is the greatest wealth for the man here below" (SuttaNipata, 77, 182). Over time, especially thanks to the pressure of popular religious experiences, the mystical devotion won considerable importance. The Bodhisattva, the Buddha Amitabha, Avalos-kitesvara and Manjusri, the innumerable Buddhas are celestial creations tions of bhakti. Buddhism can not be exception, not either in the general trend of Indian spiritualism. The process will fa-cilitate by homologation among the many "bodies of the Buddha" by the growing importance of the mantra, and mainly for the triumph of Tantrism (see below, pag. 193). For now, we insist on the tension between the "philosophers" and "disciples of Yoga". The in-volurninosa Cyclopedia of Vasubandhu, Abhidharmakosa (translated and commented-da by L. de la Vallee-Poussin, 5 vol. Paris, 1922-1926), is par-ticularly interesting. No specific references are missing in the value of "ecstasy" to the obtaining of Nirvana (for example, II, 43, VI, 43; VTII, 33 etc.).. But even when speaking of Yogadu Vasubhan strives to rationalize mystical experiences, interpret them gradually in terms of the School is not denying the value of "ecstasy yogi" or despise those who practice it, but writing Abhidharma on, on "The supreme dharma", remains on the piano in the "philosophy". Indeed, this kind of supreme knowledge is known to reach the same result of the yogi practices. The Abhidharma is proposed to demonstrate the fluidity, and ultimately, the unreality of the outside world and so-lidaria any experience with this world for what is called "reality" was not in short but a succession of events and evaluate instantly -NESCent. Now for the "theoretical", the lucid analysis, exhaus-tive and ruthless of the "reality" was a means of salvation for the analysis overwhelmed the world, reducing its apparent soli-dez a series of dazzling appearances. Consequently, comprehending the ontological unreality of multiple universes "com-positions," physical universe, life, psychic, mental, axiomatic, and so arrived at the same time .- piano transcendental Absolute, the unconditioned and the non-compound, and could wait for liberation. The treaty Budhaghosa, Visuddhimagga, "The Way of Purity", the most luxuriant and scientific work on meditation pro-duced by the Hinayana (the middle of V century after Jesus Christ, reveals the same orientation: the stages of meditation are classified, explained, justified by canonical texts, "reasonably" interpreted. We found there, of course, all the traditional motifs of asceticism and meditation Indian: lis-tas of siddhi (starting from page. 175 especially at pp. 373406), meditation on the impurities of the body (p. 241), the spiritual benefit to be derived from the oral description of the constituent elements of the human body (p. 243), the snatches-up by through the fixing of thought in Buddha (pa-gina 144), the concentration in breathing (p. 272), and so on. But


guess what Buddhaghosa's ambition is justi-fying rather all these practices, made understandable, most "logical". The last chapter of his voluminous work entitled "benefits accruing to developing understanding," and one paragraph (pp. 703-709) is just to show that through intelligence we can get to ecstasy (Nirodha "detention of states of consciousness"). Furthermore, we Yogacara blooming after the fifth century and which reaffirms the need for experience yogi: to destroy the world of phenomena (ie, profane), and toward the unconditioned, is more faeil "retreat to the center one my-mo "through meditation and ecstasy, in lieu of analytical destruction of the world. Yogacara But that's why they did not resign 'to philosophy: in its role of "school of thought" should be ex-put their views with all the traditional scholastic frame. All Buddhist monks who were dedicated to yoga, used to fix certain objects atenci6n: kasina were, the kind of media meditaci6n known long before Buddhism. The Visuddhimaggahabla of them repeatedly (page 118: the earth, 170, 172, water, 173 colors, 174, light, etc..), 18 In the 18 Reference to fcastna Refer Dhammasangani (trans. C. Rhys Davids, Buddhists Psychological Ethics, p. 43, n. 4, p. 47, n. 2), Compendium of Philosophy (Abhidhammattha-Samgaha, tr. Shwe Zan Aung ) p. 54; La Vallee-Poussin, Etudes et Materiaux, p. 94 et seq. Tantrism, the xa kasi enjoyed great importance. Any object, any phenomenon, can be a kasina: light that slips through the crack of the door in a dark place, a pitcher, a pe-Dazo of land, and so on. Through meditation we obtain a perfect correspondence between thought and object, ie that uni-fies the mental flow suspending any other psychic activity. This technique will become popular in Ceylon as in Tibet. We have a very important text, although confused, refer ent Buddhist yoga centered kasina: this is the book Cone lished as Yogavacara's Manual of Indian Mysticism as practiced by Buddhists, edited by T. W. Rhys Davids under that title (London, 1896 Pali Texts Society) and translated by Woodward with the title of Manual of Mystic (London, 1916, Pali Texts Society). The state of text leaves much to be desired, which further complicate their impression tion. The manual, is anonymous, but we can put approximately mately the date of redaction between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This written in Pali and Sinhala and assume that its appearance as late is related to the arrival of Buddhist monks in Siam, called by King Vimala Dharma Surya (1684-1706) to Ceylon, with the pro posito revive the spiritual life of a Buddhist monastery island (see Manual of a Mystic, pag. 145 et seq.). As Is, Schematic and dark, resembling a list of recipes techniques that a proper manual. He who yogava was receiving no doubt face the teachings orally, the text to the times pointer. It is true that most of the texts of medi tacion Indians are presented under this aspect schematic summary and that the real initiation technique and kept transmitting orally, but the "manual" is very secretive. T. W. Rhys Davids and Caroline Rhys Davids tried to explain as far as pos -


ble. The translator, Woodward mentions a bhikkhu, Doratiyaveye, that was still alive in Ceylon in 1900, and had received directamenie of its the coach refused to practice, fearing al direct actions reach Nirvana because as was Boddhisattava, I-many still live many lives on earth. But home to one of his disciples yogavacara in practice, and this disciple went mad and died. Do so that, according to Woodward, no one knows already the practice in Ceylon, and confusion of the text remains unresolved. The structure of the technique yogavacara is understandable but a shame that the most interesting, or exact details of the income meditations, remain unaware. The essential feature of this technique is a complex meditation concerning the "elements". EI ascetic yogi sits in posture (asana) and pranayama begins, focusing on respiratory phases, ie, "comprising", "penetrating" every aspiration and each expiration. Then the ascetic said: "With the conscience of the eye is looking towards the tip of the nose, with the consciousness of the pen-cessing fixed on the fixed expiration and aspiration in the heart of thinking and how I prepare with the word Arahan, Ara-have ". The comment Sinhala adds: "When you have set your mind in that way, alert and kind, appear before the two ima-ments; first 'a mixed picture, then a clear picture. Once the image disappears confusing (... ) and when the picture is clean, purified of all impurities, has permeated his whole being, then, passing over the threshold of the spirit alia dia-Heat Element (tejodhatu). \ n this item, ecstasy has lucerd the color of sunrise, the Preamble is yellow, the in-trade is the color of the sun that rises in the east. By developing these three ways of thinking heat element, making-them down from the tip of the nose, the ascetic must put in coraz6n, then the navel "(Manual of a Mystic, pag. 8). Despite its relative obscurity, the text is understandable. The ini-nanced should meditate successively on the "elements", fire, water, earth, air. Each meditation includes, apart from the preliminaries, three stages: entry (access), the preamble and the ecstasy. Each of these stages corresponds to a "color", ie that the ascetic experiences a light sensaci6n specifies that while checks and drives her reverie. But he found these "thoughts coughforms" through concentration on the tip of the nose is then necessary to make them move from that "center" to the centers for the heart and the navel. After the meditation concerning the element "heat" the ascetic-repi-ing continues exactly the preliminary stages, meditation concerning the element "water", or more exactly meditation concerning the cohesion (apodhatu, as the essential virtue of the water is the cohesion). The "colors" experienced by meditation concerning the element "water" are the color of the moon vine for Ecstasy, the color of the Lotus for the preamble, the color of a yellow flower for the entry. In the following meditation, concerning the vayodhatu (the element "air" which reflects the mobility), the color of Ecstasy is the midday sun, the color of the Preamble is orange, the Entrada is indigo. And so on. In each meditation, the "colors" so obtained by concentrating on the tip of the nose, should be placed in the two centers mentioned above. Each meditation on the tejodhatu corresponds khanikapitti, ie "the arre-batamiento momentary" a meditation on the apodhatu corresponds okkantika-pitti, "the rapture invader"; a meditation on the vayodhatu corresponds ubbega-pitti The "Rapture transports-dor", etc.. After completion of the meditations on the elements, try the meditation concerning the four items at a time, after meditation in reverse, and so on. The "Manual" includes


complete sets of meditations: concerning the respiraci6n, 19 to the happiness, the five jhana, to unpleasant things, to kasina to parts of the body, the four higher states (brahmavi-hara), to the ten forms of knowledge, etc.. Each of these me-accreditation purposes is divided, in turn, in several stages, each stage go along with a "color" or uses a "color" belonging to the I-lines on the "elements". What characterizes the "Manual" yogavacara is the preponderant importance given to color sensations, each meditation is performed and verified by obtaining a continuous working color.20 The ascetic, on the other hand, on those feelings chromatin cas; removes them from their body at a distance of one hand, of one language, and "to Mount Meru" are set in certain "centers", etc.. The role that the "Manual" attached to "centers" to suspect a tinge tantric, erotic elements but are absent for full-. The physiology mystique here is reduced to the "centers" and visual experiences (auditory experiences are much more reduced days). Anyway, the character "experimental" of these meditations is evident truths and dogmas are here to experi-tions are "penetrated" create "states" concrete. The Scream 19 The disciph'na respiratory rhythm "has been considered by our Blessed as the main object of meditation, "writes the com tarista ungates (op. cit, p. 67). 20 The "colors" and the "lights" play a significant role in tantric meditation experiences. mental to Ja "this" is the motto. No fault or the "gratia", in effect, the beginning of each meditation, the Buddha is invoked, it leaves one to his gratia, also invoking the guru (Bhante, etc.). T. W. Rhys Davids note that the "Manual" included 1344 reflections (112 mental states, each exercised in many different ways, creating an equal number of "experiences"). The po-sition of the body changes with each of these meditations, which rules out the possibility of a hypnotic trance. Tions in certain meditations are eight pieces of wood applied to a candle, separated by the space of a finger. Each stage of the meditation lasts long ne-essary to have consumed a portion of the sail. When the flame touches the piece of wood, this falls to the ground, and the noise distracts the ascetic from his meditation, forced to change their position. These ongoing changes are intended, probably to avoid a possible hypnotic sleep, or the prolongation of a meditative stage to the detriment of another. In any way, constitute a means of continuous monitoring for the monks and help preserve lucidity. An interesting detail is lc mystical techniques we might 11a-sea "the creation of the necessary environment for meditation", ie the specific value that makes the image of kasina (uggalianimitta). The ascetic is projected to the image with such force that can meditar about it as if it were the real object before re-introduced. This exercise mediatacion "no object" (nirmitta) is em-pleado frequently in almost all Indian mysticism. This very brief summary of some forms of meditation in Buddhism Late yogi pennitira us understand the enormous success of tantrisjno. Indeed, the importance attached to the concrete support of meditation (kasina), the "elements" and their "image-ing", the "centers" and "colors", etc.., It is valuable from di-verse views. First, it reveals the effort to fix devel-oped in particular any meditative experience. The concentration is made possible by an excessive reduction of the consciousness of the reality of the world, but the isolated fragment is not so less real for that, and is "assimilated" as such as


concentrates, and in a way represents the reality of world-tero. It is true that the function of these media remains in the piano field, and that experimentation takes place in the very heart of consciousness. But in India, work on the awareness is not isolated from reality, or lost in dreams or hallucinations; sig instead, make direct contact with life, dabbling in the concrete. Meditate, is raised to levels of reality that are inaccessible to an outsider. In the early centuries of our era, all the "tamas contact" with Buddha ci are approved, whether the assimilation of the Awakened mensajc, ie its "body of theory" (the dharma), or its " physical body, "presented at the stupa, or its" body architec-tural "symbolized in the temples, or its" oral body "ac-conceptualize by certain formulas: each of these paths is valid, since each one leads to piano overrun profane. The "edge" philosophers "who have" relativized "and overcome the" reality "of the world immediately, as the" mystics "who strove to make his transcendence through a paradox alia jump time and experience. have contributed equally to approve the hard way (gnosis, asceticism, yoga) to methods more sen-Cilla (pilgrimages, prayers, mantra): in this world "composite" and conditioned, everything has value: Jo unconditioned, it Absolute Nirvana is so far from the perfect wisdom and the strictest asceticism, as far is the repetition of the name of Bienaven-tured or a tribute to their relics, or the pronunciation of a mantra. All these acts, and many others are nothing more than means to approach the unapproachable, the transcendent, to inexpre-saber. Strictly speaking, this evolution of Buddhist thought does not reveal too much the message of the Awakened. The Buddha had refused to discuss the Absolute, merely highlights the way to get on, and this way necessarily meant death to the profane condition, the unconditioned alia was more experience, ie ultimately , unregenerate life. The "road" was equivalent to an initiation: my death and resurrection-tica, rebirth to another mode of being. It could then try to die to the profane world based on any "sector" of that world do: he who, visiting a temple, he imagined a universe that penetrated transfisico, sanctified by the symbolism of the Buddha, look-ing to the experience profane with the same success that the monk who "retiraba_dentro of himself" through the jhana and Samapatti, or a philosopher to be logically proved the unreality of the world. In all these cases, renounced this world, after-Cendio secular experience and already involved in a form It was not even of Nirvana, but it was a spiritual exercise effective way to learn to "leave the world," was a step forward in the long process of initia-tion Buddhist, who, like any initiation, the neophyte to kill to resurrect it in a new way of being. However, over time, methods to transcend worldly-condition multiply and tend to become 'easier', ie accessible to everyone. This explains the explosive success of Tantrism. But this success was prepared in turn by the pressure of the laity within the Buddhist community and the invasion of popular spiritualities, both in Hinduism and Buddhism. All this was already provided in the Buddhist traditions, which, moreover, prolonged the Brahmanic tradition. Buddhism know that "degenerate" that the world would become increasingly thicker, darker, stained, and that the "path of the Buddha" would become unworkable, it was the pan-Hindu doctrine of cosmic cycles and decay accelerated in the last yuga. That's why Tantric term for the message itself as excel-ence of kali-yuga.


SIXTH CApfruLO APPROXIMATIONS It is difficult to define Tantrism. Among the multiple meanings of the term tantra (Rafz as "extend, continue to multiply") we inte-resa especially one: that of "succession, development, process continuum. Tantra serious "thus prolonging the Knowledge '(tanyate, vis-Ui anena taryatejnanam Tantramar). In this sense, the term was applied to certain philosophical systems (Nyaya-tantresu, etc.).. It was unclear why and after that circumstance came to designate a great philosophical and religious movement that is announced in the fourth century of our era and takes the form of a "fad" pan-Indian, from the sixth century. Because it is really a 'fashion' ; Repen-tinamente, Tantrism enjoys immense popularity among both philosophers and theologians as between "practitioners" (ascetics, yogis, etc.). and prestige also comes to the "popular" sectors. Before long, relatively, the philosophy, mysticism, ritual, morality, iconography, literature itself, feel the influence of so-centrism. It is a pan-Indian movement, it is assimilated by all major religions of India and all the schools " sectarian. "There is another important Buddhist Tantrism Tantrism Hindu, but also Jainism accepts certain tantric methods (not the" left "), and strong influences are felt in the if-tantric Vaisman Kashmir, in the great movement of the Pancaratra (around 550), in the Bhagavata-Purana (c. AD 600) and in other streams of devotion visnuita. According to Buddhist traditions, Tantrism would have been intro-lished by Asanga (c. 400), the eminent teacher Yogacara, and AD), the distinguished representative of hyamika and one of the most celebrated and mysterious characters of medieval Buddhism, but the problem of the historical origins of Buddhist Tantrism is still far from resolved (see Note VI, I). It is likely that the Vajrayana ( "Vehicle of the Diamond"), name it is known Buddhist Tantrism in general, has made its appearance in the early fourth century and reached its maximum expansion in the eighth century. The Gw / ij / osama / a-tar.fra.considerado by some as a work of Asanga, is probably the most ancient text Vajrayan-mail, and undoubtedly one of most important cough. In principle, Buddhist Tantra is divided into four groups: kriya-tantra, Carya-tantra, yogatantra and anuttara-tantra, the two first few are about the rituals and the other two on Iguis processes by which will reach the ultimate truth. Almost all texts contain references tantric rituals, as well as instructions for order yogi and philosophical pieces. According to Tibetan tradition, the four classes of Tantra would be in relation with the main types of human temperaments: the texts of kriya-tantra agree to the Brahmans and those devoted to ritual; the Carya-tantra is recommended primarily for ne men businessmen, and so on. It is interesting to note that Tantrism is developed in the two border regions of India to the northwest, bordering Afghanistan and in the eastern part of Bengal, particularly in Assam. Moreover, according to the Tibetan tradition, Nagarjuna was born in the Andhra region, south of India, ie in the heart of the Dravida Tndia. From this we may conclude that Tantrism development, especially early in the provinces hin-duizadas poorly, where the spiritual counterattack aboriginal sector was booming. Indeed, through the vehicle of Tantrism, a large number of foreign and exotic elements penetrated into Hinduism as


distinct names of deities-ing my peripheral (asamitas, Burmese, Himalayan, Tibetan, to name the divinities Dravidians ) and e 1 are recognized exotic rites and beliefs. In this respect Tantrism prolongs and intensifies the process begun at the time Hinduization postvedicos, but this time it is not only the aboriginal Indian elements, but also of being outside of India itself: the "region tantric" by Excellence is Kamarupa, Assam. We must also have eventu-gnostic influence them, which, through Iran, would have penetrated into India by h northwestern frontier. Indeed, they are checked more than a disconcerting symmetry between Tantrism and the Western mainstream misteriosofica Li were found at the beginning of the Christian era, Gnosis, Hermeticism, GrecoEgyptian alchemy and traditions of their Mysteries. At ccuparnos mainly from the application of the sadhana tantric yogic disciplines, we must leave aside, of course, some important aspects of Tantrism. Note however that for the first time in the spiritual history of Aryan India, the Great Goddess conquest a dominant place. From the second century of our era, two goddesses penetran'en Buddhism: Pirajnapara-mita, "creation" of the metaphysical and ascetics, who embodies the highest wisdom, and Tara, the Great Goddess of India native. In cl Hinduism, Shakti, the "cosmic force", is promoted to the rank of divine Madie, who sustains the universe and all its inhabitants, as well as the various manifestations of the gods. Recognizes there is, first, that "religion of the Mother", who reigned over a guamente anti-Afroasiatic Aegean area too big and that was at all times the main form of devotion among many indigenous peoples of India. In this sense, the irrepressible tantric development involves a new victory of the popular sectors pre-Aryans. But we also recognize there a kind of religious rediscovery of the mystery of Women, then, as we shall see, every woman becomes the incarnation of Shakti. Emccion mystical before the mystery of generation and fecundity, but also recognition of all that is distant, "transcendent", invulnerable in Women: this comes to symbolize the irreducibility of the sa-grade and the divine, unattainable essence of ultimate reality. The Mu-jer embodies both the mystery of Creation and the mystery of Being, all that is and that becomes, dies and is reborn in a way incomprehensible. It extends both the metaphysical and in piano e) mythological scheme Samkhya philosophy: the Spirit, the "manly" purusha, is "the great helpless," the impasse, the contemplative is working Prakrti, breeds and feeds. When a grajn danger threatens the foundations of the Cosmos, appeal to the gods to exorcise Sakti. A celebrated national myth tells how the Great Goddess. A monstrous demon, Mahis, threatening the universe and the very existence of the gods. And the whole pantheon Brahma conducted a pe-bal aid to Vishnu and Siva in anger, all the gods cast their energies together in the form of a fire coming out of his mouth These fires, when combined, formed a cloud that eventually took ignea the form of a Goddess of eighteen arms. And it was this goddess, the Shakti, who managed to crush the monster Mahis saltving at the same time to the world. As noted Heinrich Zimmer, the gods "had returned his energies to the Sakti, TJnica Force, the source of it went to] start. The result had been a major renovation of the primitive state of universal power" (Mythsand Symbols, pag. 191). Do not ever lose sight of this primacy of the Sakti-ultimately, Women and the Divine Mother-in Tantrism and all the movements derived. It is through this path that led to the mainstream Hinduism subterranea of indigenous spiritual and popular. Philosophically,


the rediscovery of the Goddess has carnal relations with the condition of the Spirit in the kali-yuga. Indeed, the authors present the tantric doctrine as a new revelation of timeless truth, for the man in the "Dark Ages" in which the spirit is deeply mourned by the meat. Hindu Tantrism specialists believe that the Vedas and the Brahmanical tradition are inadequate for the "modern" man no longer has the spontaneity and vigor spiritually he enjoyed early in the sky, is unable to directly reach Truth (Maha-nirvana-tantra, I, 20-29, 37-50), ie it is necessary to "swim against the stream" and that from the fundamental experiences and overcome your specific condition, ie, the same sources of his life here's causing "a living ritual" desempefia a decisive role in tantric sadhana, for which reason the "heart" and "sexuality" are the times of vehicles to achieve transcendence. For Buddhists, the same way, Vajrayana is a new revelation of the doctrine of Buddha, adapted to the possibilities, rather small, man, modern. In-7'antra Kalacakra as we are told the king Sucandra, approaching the Buddha, he asked the Yoga can save men's kaliyuga. The Buddha then revealed that the Cosmos is in the body of the hom-bre, I explain the importance of sexuality and taught him to control temporal rhythms through the discipline of order to escape the empire of Time. The meat, Cosmos vi-wind, weather, are three key elements of the Sad-hana Tantric. From here comes a first feature of Tantrism: their attitudes in general ascetic and antitheoretical. "The donkeys and other animals roam, they also naked. ^ Are yogis for that?" (Kularnava Tantra, V, 48). Since the human body represents the cosmos and all the gods, since the release can only be obtained based on the body, it is very important to have a healthy body and strong. In some schools tantric contempt for asceticism and theorizing is. Accompanied by the categorical rejection of all meditative practices: the liberation is pure spontaneity. Sarahs writes: "The yogis children, like many other ascetics, will never be able to find their own nature. You do not need the mantra, nor pictures, nor dharani all are cause confusion. In vain he seeks liberation through meditaci6n ... All are mesmerized by the system of jhana (meditation), but nobody has an interest in making his own ego. Another author sahajiya, Lui-pa writes back: "^ is the use of meditation? Despite it, one dies in pain. Abandon complicated because all practices and hope to get some siddhi, and accepts the Vacuum (Sun-ya) as your true nature. " From the outside, Tantrism would seem so set up an "easy path which leads in nicely, and almost without obstacles - to freedom. Because, and this we shall soon reach the vamacari think the identification with Siva and Sakti, using, in a ritual, wine, meat and carnal love. The Ktdarnava-tantra (VIII, 107) details that the ultimate union with God is obtained only through sexual union. And Guhyasamaja-tantra says hold on a pe -rentoria: "No one attains perfection to get through opera-tions difficult and tiring, but the perfection can be purchased easily through satisfaction of all desires" (ed. Bhattachanryya, Baroda, 1931, pag. 27). The same text says that lust is permitted (allowing, for example, eat any meat, and also human flesh pag. 26, etc..), that the tantric can kill any animal, which can lie, steal, adulte commit-ment, and so on. (pp. 20, 98, 120). (Noolvidemos that GuhyasamdjaTantra aims to obtain quickly the condition of Buddha! And when the House reveals the countless this strange truth, and these protesters, Buddha makes them see that what is not teaching them anything other than the boddhisattvacarya, "the behavior of the Bodhisattva". Because, he says (p. 37), "the conduct of the passions and affections (ragacarya) is the same as the conduct of a Bodhisattva (bodhisattva-


Carya), this being the best-duca (agracarya). In other words, all opposites are illusory-ing the wrong end coincides with the extreme right, the condition of Buddha can-within the limits of this sea of appearances coincide with the supreme immorality, all this because only universal Empty is, and all the rest is devoid of ontological reality. Anyone there to understand this truth-that is, above all, the truth of the Madhyamaka Buddhist, partly shared by other "schools" - is saved, ie becomes Buddha. But the "ease" of the Tantric path is rather apparent. Certainly the wrong metaphysical Sunya encouraged and justified the mu-chos vamacari excesses (eg., The "tantric orgies"). But interpretations of the dogmas disordered belong to the history of all mystical. In fact, the path tantric sadhana presupposes a long and difficult, sometimes recalling the difficulties of the alchemical opus. Returning to the text just named, the "Empty" (SUNY) is not simply a "non-being" rather resembles the Brahman of Vedanta, is essentially enamel and that's why it vajra Hainan (= diamond) . "Sunyata, which is firm, substantial, indivisible, impenetrable, impervious to fire and imperishable, is called vajra" (advaya-vajra-Samgraha, Caekward Oriental Series edition, p. 37.). However, the ideal of Buddhist Tantric is transformed into a "being of diamond", which, on the one hand, binds to the ideal of Indian and hathayogui alchemist, on the other hand brings to mind the famous equation atman -- Brahman of the Upanishads. For tantric metaphysics, both Hindu and Buddhist, absolute reality, the Urgrund, contains within itself all the dualities and polarities together, refunded, in a state of absolute Unity (advaya). The Creation and the evolution that follows from it, represents the bursting of the primary unit and the separation of the two principles (Siva-Sakti, etc.). therefore experiencing a state of duality (objects-to-subject, etc.). and then we have suffering, illusion, the "slavery". The aim of tantric sadhana is the reunion of the two polar principles in the soul and the body's own disciple. "Revealed" for the use of kali-yuga, Tantrism is primarily a practice, an action, a realization (x = sadhana). But though the revelation is for all, the trail leads to a tintrieb initiation that can only be made by a guru, we see here the importance of the Master, the only one that can be transmitted "from mouth to ear", the secret doctrine, esoteric. On this point also pre-sents Tantrism snrprendentes analogies with the mysteries of antiquity and the various forms of Gnosis. ICONOGRAFTA, "VISUAUZACION" Nyasa, Mudra In tantric sadhana, iconography plays a role essential, though difficult to define in a nutshell. Divine images are certainly "carriers" for meditation, but not exactly in the same sense as kasina Buddhists (see pag. 190). The iconography represents a universe "religious", which seeks to penetrate and absorb. This Mpenetraci6n * and this "assimilation" should be under-Didas in the immediate acceptation of terms, to meditate on an icon, it is first necessary to "transported" to the cosmic level governed by the respective deity and then assimilate it for himself, incorporating whether the sacred force that "holds" at that level, it 'creates', in a way. This spiritual exercise output behaves own mental universe and the penetration in the various University-ing dominated by the gods. Indeed, even pre-liminary exercise like this, first step towards the internalization of the icon-prafia can not proceed without the yogic discipline, without Dharana and Dhyana. However, to understand the meaning of an icon, and its symbolism-stop is not even the tantric sadhana. The real operation includes several stages: the first is "visualization Lizar" a divine image in mind construct, or more accurately still, projected on a me-kind


indoor display settings by means of a creative act of imagination . There is no question here of anarchy and inconsistency! 0 than the level of ordinary experience Uamamos "imaginacidn") is not delivered to the pure spontaneity and receive, passively, the content of what, in terms Western psychology, would call the "subconscious" individual or collective need to "wake up" the internal forces, maintaining perfect clarity and selfcontrol. The practice allows the yogi sadhaka undertake such exercises. We must respect the traditional iconographic canon, that is, "visualization Czar" what has been "seen", prescribed and codified by the teachers, and not what the imagination could project staff. When a tantric text conslruir describes how the mental image of a god, you think reading a treatise on iconography. A fragment of Satantratantra, cited by Krisnananda in his Tantrasara, 1 ex-poses the "visualization" of Durga. The goddess, like a black coati has a terrifying face, is embracing Siva and takes several garlands of skulls around his neck, her hair is loose and its expression is smiling. Do not miss a single detail: neither the serpent (naga) that serves as the sacred thread, nor the moon on the front, thousands of hands of the dead laid out around the hips, bleeding mouth, spotted the body of Saint - gre, the two dead bodies of girls do by way of earrings, etc.. The "visualization" of a divine image is followed by an exercise more difficult: the identification with the divinity that the image re-presents. A tantric adage says that "one can not worship a god if self is not God" (nadevodemm arcayet). Identifying with the Deity, to turn oneself into a god, is to awaken-ing the divine forces that lie dormant in man. It is a purely mental exercise. Peiseguido the same end result by "visualization" does not translate in terms of mental experience, albeit in short, a Mahayana tenet: the discovery of the empty universal, ontological unreality of the Universe and their "gods". But in Buddhist Tantrism, perform experimentally SUNY operation is no longer an intellectual is not the communication of an "idea" is the experience of "truth". Here is a tantric sadhana for "visualization" of the goddess Candamaharosana: you begin to imagine that amidst the heart itself is a mandala solar (red) sitting on a lotus of eight petals, the center of the mandala emerges HUM black. This syllable flow lurninosos numerous rays that pass through the immense spaces, and the rays are the guru, all the Buddha, the Bodhisattva and Goddess-harosana Candame. After having honest and having confessed their sins, after having sought refuge in the triple truth bu 1 ÂŁ 1 text reproduced by R. P. Chanda, Indo-Aryan Races (Rajshadi, 1916), vol. I, p. 137. far, and so on., the pupil is offered the same for the crimes aje forgiven us and does the expected vote-ma supreme enlightenment. Then, meditate on the four virtues, he realizes that "this world is not nature itself, of subject and objects to" meditate on the vacuum and all repeating the formula "-ing my enamel is essential knowledge Empty". Imagine then the syllable hum resting on the hilt of a sword birth of the first syllable hum black. The rays given off by this segundn syllable attract all the Buddha and make them into it. The Candamaharosana disciple meditates on "display" and not the second syllable hum. Then imagine that in the heart of the goddess there is a sword bearing the syllable hum, and in the middle of the third syllable "shows" another Candamaharosana goddess sitting on a syllable hum, etc.. By which one ends up identifying with the diosa.2 The Void is "made" through the creation in the form of cas-each of the Universes, are created from a graphic sign and destroy them after they are populated by gods. These


girls, and those cosmogo-chain theogonies occur in the very heart of discipleship: it is through pictures as he discovers the universal-ity vacui. Similar exercises are found in medieval Jaina gnosis, as also the Jain dyana suffered the influence of Tantrism. Sakalakiiti (fifteenth century), in his treatise Tattvarthasaradipaka, recom-mends the following meditation: the yogi imagine a vast ocean of milk, calm, without waves in the ocean Jambudvipa large as a lotus with a thousand petals and bright as the gold, with a pericarp of the size of a mountain of gold. He imagined himself sitting on a throne placed in the center of the pericarp, serene, without hatred or desire, ready to veneer your enemy, that is karma. This is the first Dharana. Next, the yogi should imagine a glowing lotus of sixteen petals, located in his navel. In the petals are written the four members, with am and ah and the great mantra Arhan shines amid the pericarp. Then imagine a cloud of smoke rising from the point r of the word Arhan, after some sparks and eventually sprout a flame that will extend more and more until it burns the lotus of the heart, which is the pro 2 Sadhanamala, ed. B. Bhattacharyra, I, p. 173 and ff. On the tantric iconography, see Note VI, 2. karman eight pipeline, and for that reason has eight petals. This exercise is part of the second meditation, Dharana agmxji call. Follow the maruti Dharana, during which the yogi "visualization arena" a violent storm scattered the ashes of the lotus. Des-well, imagine the falling rain and washed the ashes covering his body (the fourth is Dharana, Varuni). Finally, you must imagine yourself to God found free of the seven elements, seated on his throne, as bright as the moon and loved by dioses.3 The attvarthasaradipaka also contains recipes for various dhyana in relation to a / liturgy tantric mental structure: Imagine a lotus placed in certain parts of the body, variable quantities of petals dad who has written a letter or mystical syllable. ÂŁ 1 sadhaka Jain also used mantra, while murmuring that "shows" written in the lotus of his body (Bhandarkar, op. Cit, pp. 111-112), tantric yoga practices, moreover, are recorded much earlier in the Jain literature. The Jnarnarnava of Subhadra (circa 200 of the Christian era) go-ing contains chapters on yoga, runs long on asana, pranayama, the mandala, the four Dhyana and Dharana just summarized according to the Tattvarthasaradipaka. As in Buddhism and Hinduism, Jainism was a time in the tantric trend, though without its mystical implications of sexuality, but po-demos without, however, greater interest by the techniques as siddhi-faceted and that were among the most archaic Indian tradition, adopted by the Jains (see Note VI, 3). In relation to the iconography must remember the "pro projections ritual "of the deities in the different regions of the body, practice this quite old but revalued and enriched by Tantrism." projected "to the gods playing various parts of the body, takes place, in other words, a body homologation with the Tantric pantheon in order to "awaken" the sacred forces dormant in the flesh. We distinguish various species of Nyasa, according to their degree of internalization (see, among others, Mahanirvanatantra, III, 40, etc..) because often happens that "introduce" the deities and their symbols in the various organs of the body, a pure act of meditation. The treaty pequefio Has 3 R. G. Bhandarkar, Report on the search for Sanskrit manuscripts during the year 18831884 (Bombay, 1887), p. 110 and ff.


proposes a meditation on the the left hand fingers are identified with the five cosmic elements and the five tutelary deities, while five syllables a1 mystical "respectively bianco color, yellow, red, black and green" are "imposed" on ufias; these syllables re-presented to the five Tathagata: Vairocana, Amitabha, Aksobhya, and Amoghasiddhi Batnasambhava. To some extent, depend on the iconography-as at first tried to imitate the postures and gestures of the Buddha-the mudra, a term that offers a number of meanings (stamp, gestures, FingersteUung, disposition of the fingers, etc.). , one of which is erotica (see below, Note VI, 4). In tantric liturgy, mudra can receive various interpretations, the most common being the "realizaci6n" certain states of consciousness through hieratic gestures and postures, plus exactly by the echo effect in the deeper layers of the human being behind the re-discovery of "message" hidden in every archetypal gesture. For Hatbayoga, mudra bandha or designate a body posture during practiced pranayama and concentration in order to "freeze" the semen viril.8 But keep in mind that the tantric sadhana-articulated in a complex Liturgical the involved images, gestures and sounds at once. (Referring to the various meanings of mudras see Note VI, 4.) MANTRA, DHARANI Since Vedic times it was known the value of the "sounds mistH *". From the Yajurveda, OM, the mantra for excellence cia, go / prestige to universal has been identified with Brahman, with Veda, with all the great gods, Patanjali (Yoga-Sutra, I, 27) regarded it as a expression of Isvara. It is useless to recall the * Edited and translated by L. Finot, Manuscrtts Sanscrit * Sadhana (As'atique Journal, July-September 1934, p. 54-58, 69-71). t> About mulabaudha: Hathayogapradipika, III, 61-63; Gheranda-sam-hita. III, 14-17; Sivasamhita, TV, 64-66, on Mahabandha, Sivasamhita, IV, 37-42; you. Y-Pradipika, III, 19-21; Gheranda, III, 18-20; on mudra see the third chapter of the Gheranda-Samhita; on one of the most impor-tant Sakticalana-mudra, HY-Pradipika, III, 114 -118. List of mudra and description of the most important Sivasamhita, IV, 22; also Alain Dani lou, Yoga, P. 40 and ff. theories on Vak (the Word), the creative value of the ritual formulas (Aitareya Br X, 3, 1, XIII, 11, 7, etc.).. Simply note that certain tantric mantra are already in the Brahmana (eg.: Khat, photos, etc..; Apastamba, XII, 11, 10, etc.).. But it is mainly Tantric, Buddhist or sivaita, which elevated the mantra and the dignity dharani car of salvation (mantrayana) .* It is important to distinguish various aspects of this universal fashion of the sacred formula, fashion on one hand led to the most ele-vate theories concerning the "sounds mystical," and on the other, the mo-Flax lamaicas prayers. Above all, we must take into account the inevitable "popular success" of a similar method, the facili-'dad apparent to achieve salvation, or at least make merit, repeating the mantra and dharani. Not dwell on this phenomenon of vulgarization and spiritual decadence of a technique, is well known in the history of religions, and ultimately, it is their "people's victory" which can reveal the secret mantrayana. The practical value and importance of philosophical mantra orders are based on two facts: first, the yogi function of phonemes used as "carriers" for the concentration, then the actual contribution Tantric: the elaboration of a system and


gnostico revaluing depth liturgy archaic traditions concerning the "mystical sound. The dharani, literally "that which holds or locks, and served in Vedic times as" support "and" defense "of the concentration (Dharana), hence the name raksa Kavac and" protection "" co-race " , which also are given. For the uninitiated, the dharani are talismanes *: protect against demons, disease and male-efits. But for ascetics, yogis, the contemplative, the dharani become instruments of concentration, either through pranayama rhythmic, and mentally repeat during the phases of respiration. It is sometimes possible to guess the meaning of certain words mutilated (WABA, Vimala, hime, does it matter, kale, etc.., Expressing notions of purity, snow, etc..; Cchinde, which suggests the act of tearing, cutting, etc. .), but in most cases is extrafios phonemes and inintiligibles: Hrim, Hram, hrum, phat. etcetera. As probably the dharani were used and per 8 Text and critical bibliography: Note VI, 5. during guided meditations by the invention cion fonetica necessarily limited to a certain number of syllables, es-taba offset by the deep resonance within such "so-mystical nests. Moreover, whatever the historical origin of dharani, were certainly the value of a secret language of initiation. Indeed, these sounds only revealed his message during meditation. To the layman, the dharani were ininteligi-able: its "meaning not belong to the rational language, used for the communication of experiences lay. A dharani, a man-anger revealed its meaning only when they were delivered according to the rules and the like, ie discovery, "awake." This process will be better understood when we take the metaphysical involutions in mantrayana-CRADA. Phonemes discovered during the meditation expressing states of consciousness probably estruclura "cosmic" hard to express through a secular terminology. Experiences of this kind were known in Vedic times, although the few documents that have been transmitted to us rather be content with alu-making, mainly in the form of images and symbols. Thus we have a spiritual technique clearly archaic certain "ecstasy Cosmi-ing" of the shamans are expressed font'ticas inventions which sometimes unintelligible to the creation of a "secret language" (our Shamanism, pag. 99 et seq.) . It is therefore supportive of the discovery experience of language in a way, and that by ecstatic vuclia a primary situation, provo-can the outbreak of daily consciousness. The entire effort is used in tantric yogi "awakening this primordial awareness and rediscover the preceding pler.itud to language and consciousness of time. The trend towards a" rediscovery of language, "for the purpose of comprehensively to revalue worldly experience, is revealed in Tantrism, especially by the use of "lexical secrets" (see page. 248). The dharani, as the mantra, you learn from "the mouth of the teacher" (gurucaktratah) is not because of phonemes belonging to profane language or that one can learn from books: one must "receive". But once received from the lips of the teacher, the mantra has unlimited powers. A tantric text of the first order, as Sadhanamala not hesitate to say the following: ^ What's that can not be done by the mantra, if implemented according to the rules? (ed. Bhattacharya, p. 575). You can even get the condition of Buddha (idem, p. 270). The mantra lokanatha, for example, can absolve the sins pray May (ibid., p. 31, and eka-jata mantra is so powerful that the moment he pronounces it, the initiate is free from all danger and reaches the sacredness of the Buddha (idem, p. 262). All siddhis ks, of any kind that are-from success in love to the obtaining of salvaci6n-obtsnidas by taies


f6rmuhs are mystical. Even the supreme science can be obtained directly, without education, the proper pronunciation of certain mantra. But the technique is difficult, the pronunciation is preceded by a purification of thought, the practitioner must focus on each of the letters that make up the mantra, avoid fatigue, etc. . (ibid., p. 10). The efficiency of the mantra is unlimited due to the fact that they are (or at least can become, through a recitation correction ta) "objects" they represent. Each god, for example, and each possess a degree of holiness bijamantra a "mystical sound" that is its "seed" their "support" that is his very being. By repeating, according to the rules, this bijamantra, the practitioner appropriates its ontological essence, compares himself, in a con-crete and immediate to God, the state of holiness, and so on. It happens sometimes that a whole metaphysics that focused on a mantra. The 8,000 verses of the Mahayana Astasahasrika-treated volurninoso prajnaparamita were summarized in a few lines, which constitute the Prafna-paramHa-hrdayasutra; QStQ pequefio text was reduced to the few lines of the Prajna-paramtta-dharani, which in turn was concentrated in a Prajna-Paramumantra; finalmerite, this mantra was reduced to its "seed" the bi \ a-mar \ work pram? In such a way that could dominate the whole metaphysical prajnaparamita the syllable-ing murmur pram . However, there is a question of a "summary" of the prajnapara-mita, but direct and global assimilation of the "universal truth of emptiness" (Sunyata) in the form of a Goddess. For the entire cosmos with all its gods, its pianos and its modes of being, manifests itself in a certain number of mantra: the universe is sound, just as it is chromatic, formal, substantial, and so on. A mantra is a "symbol" in the archaic sense of the term: it is at the same time 7 B. Bhattacharya, An Introduction to esoteric Buddhism, p. 56. "reality" and symbolized the "sign" symbolizing. There is a mail order "hidden among the letters and syllables" mystical "(the matrka," mothers "and the daughter, the" seeds ") and the subtle organs of the human body, on the one hand, and the other between those organs and dormant or divine forces. manifested in the Cosmos. By working down on a "symbol", one "wakes up" all the forces it has, at all levels of being. Between mantrayana and iconography, for example There is a perfect match, then each level and each grade of holiness are an image, a color and a special letter. Meditating on the color or sound "mystical" which is depicted as one enters a certain mode of being, absorbed or incorporated into a state self yogi, a god, and so on. The "carriers" are standardized, we can start from any of them, using any "vehicle" (Imagerie, man-Trayana, etc.). to assimilate ontological modality or divine manifestations to be acquired. Among these multiple levels, there is continuity, but continuity mystical, that is impossible but that in certain "centers." Cosmos, as revealed in the Tantric conception, is a vast web of magical forces and these forces can be aroused or organized in the human po leather using techniques of mystical physiology When Vasubandhu, in his treatise Bodhisattvabhumi8 said that the true meaning of the mantra is its lack of signification and meditating on this non-signification, leads to understand the ontological unreality of the Universe, translated in terms of its own philosophy deep experience whose value did not see or did not care for if it is true that the repetition of the mantra overrides the "reality" of the profane world, this is only a first step of spirit, essential to achieve a "reality "deeper. All indefinite repetition leads to the destruction of language; in certain mystical traditions, this destruction seems to be the necessary


condition for further experiments. Excursus: the dhikr It had long noted the similarities between the tec-nica tantric yogi and dhikr Muslim, incessant repetition dH 8 Ed Wogihara, P. 272 et seq. reprinted in S. B. Dasgupta, An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism, p. 66. name of God. In a recent study, L. Gaxdet Largam-te explained the different varieties of dhikr, while also considering its relations with the yogay nembutsu eljapa-zen (see Note VI, 6). It is important to emphasize the mystical physiology assumed by the practice of dhikr: there is reference to "centers" and subtle organ, at some vision inside the human body, cro-demonstrations and acoustic nuances acompafian the various stages of experience, and so on. The discipline of breathing and pronunciation ritual play a vital role and the process of concentration has features similar to the method yogi. The problem of contacts historic areas and reciprocal influences between India and Islam is not resolved yet. Although the constant mention of God's name is entered in the Qur'an, and dhikr while enjoying great prestige among the Sufis, it is likely that the regulation of body positions and breathing techniques, re-regulation that mainly veld from the twelfth century, is due to Indian influence, at least in part, it is known that these were exercised clearly des-for the twelfth century (recipes in relation to the physics of ecstasy, etc.). "The texts that follow are not intended to provide an exposition of theology and technique of dhikr, but simply to highlight some similarities with the morphology of tantric yoga. According to Ibn Iyad "begins the recitation from the left side (breast) which is like the niche that holds the lamp of the heart, the focus of spiritual clarity. Continue doing the recitation of the lower chest, the right side and climbing to the top of this. It goes back to the start position (trans. L. Gardet, p. 654). According to Muhammad alSanusi, "to take positions consist (...) curl up on the floor, with her legs crossed, arms around the legs, head down between his knees and eyes closed. He raises his head saying la ilaha during the period between the arrival of the head at the level of the heart and its position on the right shoulder. We must take care of the spirit himself away from everything that is alien to God. When the mouth is at the heart level, strongly articulated ilia (...) invocation and Allah is pronounced against the heart in a more energy-ca. .. "(Trans. Gardet, 654-655). Chosen formula is repeated as many times as possible in order to" reach enumeraci6n end all, once assured of continuity of prayer "(Gardet, 656 ). There is agreement between respiration rate and the pace of verbal repetition. A twelfth-century text (referring to the oldest known collective dhikr) prescribed: the respiration is "emitted above the right breast (to empty the heart) , then the word is exhaled from the navel (against Demor>, or sexual), then ilaha is pronounced on the right shoulder, and ilia in the navel, and finally Allah is pronounced strongly in the empty heart "(Massignon, quoted by Gardet, p. 658). A modern author, Shaykh Muhammad Amin al-Kurdi (d. 1914), in his treatise al-Quloob Tanwir gives us even more precise details, concerning the relation between the respiration, the "centers" of the subtle body and the mystical syllable during the dhikr (texts translated in Jean Gouillard, the Philocalie Petite Prière du Coeur, Paris, 1953, p. 317 et seq. The passage is inserted on pages 332-333): "The dhaka stick your tongue to the palate of the throat, after vacuuming, will retain his breathing. Tonces begin inpronunciation of the word imagine it placed below the navel, from there take that word


into the middle of the subtle centers, where the center called "the more hid-dido "and extended until it reaches the point corresponding to the subtle center of the" soul logic "or" reasonable, "the latter center is located symbolically in the first area of the brain called" the boss. "Subsequently, the operations shall dhaka the articulation of the word ilaha imaginary starting with co-phonetic element called Hamzah (shown as "apostrophe in the transcription) from the brain and making it down to the shoulder of Law, to make it slide to the center point for subtle called "spirit." Finally, dhaka shall proceed to the pronunciation of Ula-lhah, bringing out the imagination of ilia hamzah shoulder (right), extending to the "heart" where dhaka hit with the final word Allah (represeotada in the transcription without precedent due to the elision that results from the union of the elements of f6rmula), the retained strength of the respiration so hit the "black spot in the heart" to get out the effect and heat to the rest of your body to burn all this heat tainted body parts, while the pure parts of this will be illuminated by the light of the name Allah. The preceding piece refers to "dhikr of the tongue, oral liturgy internalized. There are two pianos and above, the "dhikr of the heart" and "dhikrintimo (sirr). It is mainly in the piano of the dhikr of the heart that manifests the fen6menos visual (brightness, color, see Gardet, p. 671), the "dhikr of the tongue" phenomena causes concomitant hearing (Gardet, p. 667; see ota III 6 on the mystical sounds). In the "dhikr intimate" abo-duality is valid. "Not for fusion, it is true, as in Indian climate, as the concept of divine transcendence is still standing, but felt a line like" disappearance "of the item in its own being" (Gardet, p. 675). The state is attained fana is whether "annihilation". Concomitant light phenomena are accentuated. This time, the "fires of dhikr not fade, nor their lights disappear (...) asceudent.es Contimias seeing lights, and other downstream, the fires around you are cla-ros, burning, casting flames" (Ibn 'Ata' Allah, quoted by Gardet, p. 677). Remember the aural experience of yoga, Tantric, the shamanism (below, p. 317.). MANDALA A particular rite of the liturgy is the construction of tantric mandala. This word literally means "circle", the Tibetan traductions' translate both the "center" as "what surrounds them." In fact, a rather complex pattern which includes an outer ring and one or more concentric circles enclosing a square divided into four triangles: in the middle of each of the triangles, as in the center of the mandala, there are other circles that contain the faces of the deities or emblems. This scheme is susceptible to infinite iconographic variants mandala some bearing the appearance of a labyrinth, others, a shovel-ness, with its walls, its towers, its gardens, the drawings of flowers alternating with the crystal structure, and sometimes we recognize the diamond and lotus flower. The simplest of the mandala is the yantra, uiilizado by Hinduism (literally "an object used to hold", "instrument", "machine") is a diagram "that is drawn or recorded on metal, wood, stone, paper or simply drawn on the floor or on a wall is drawn "(Louis Renou, Linde classique, p. 568). Its structure can be regarded as the linear paradigm of the mandala. Indeed, the yantra is composed of a series of triangles sriyantra-nine in the 4 with normal position and 5-invested into the middle of several concentric circles and enclosed in a square with four "doors". The inverted triangles in position symbolize the yoni, that is, the Sakti, the normal position of designating the male principle, Shiva, the central point (bindu) expressed the undifferentiated Brahman. In other words, the yantra has linear symbolism, cosmic manifestations from the primordial unity.


The mandala takes the same symbolism and develops on-Veles multiple but not comparable. As the yantra, the mandala is both an image and a theophany of the Universe: the cosmic creation is indeed a manifestation of divinity, but also serves as the mandala of "receptacle" for the gods. In Vedic India the gods descended upon the altar, which proves the continuity between the tantric worship and traditional worship. At first everything altar or sacred place was considered a privileged place, magically separate from the rest of the territory: in the space qualitatively different, the sacred is manifested by a break which allowed the communication level between the three cosmic zones: heaven , land, underground region. However, this concept was widely disseminated, and step beyond the borders of India and even from Asia is a valorization of the sacred space as the Center of the World, and therefore place of communication between the Giel and Hell, the who founded the symbolism of the royal cities, temples, common in cities and by extension, of any human habitation. Tantrism uses this archaic symbolism, including the new contexts. In studying the symbolism of the mandala, which is interpreted by such texts, and to describe the ritual of the start-cion, is how we will realize from revaluations imposed by Tantrism. (For the texts and critical literature, see Note VI, 7). The outer circle of the mandala is a "barrage" which on one hand, prevents access to non-initiates, but on the other hand symbolizes the metaphysical knowledge that he burns up to ignorance. Next comes a "diamond belt" and the diamond is the symbol of supreme consciousness, the bcddhi,. Enlightenment. Immediately inside the "diamond belt" this ins-ice attached a circle around which are represented eight cement-tries, they symbolize the eight aspects of consciousness disintegrated, the iconographic motive is registered cemeteries especially in the mandala dcdicados a terrifying deities. Follow a girdle of leaves, which signifies spiritual rebirth. In the center of this last circle is the mandala itself, also called "palace" (Vimana), ie where are placed the images of the gods. The real symbolism plays a major role in construction and in the ritual of the mandala. In India, as elsewhere, the sovereignty is in relation with the sacred. Buddha is the cakravartin par excellence, "cosm6crata. The ceremony takes place inside the mandala and the soon to talk, is, in effect, a Abhisek, ie a real consecration ritual, a baptism with water, 9 images of the Buddha, placed in different tiara mandala circles are real and, before entering the mandala, the disciple of the teacher is taking over the royal insignia. The symbolism is clear from this is easy to understand: the pupil is treated as sovereign because it rises above the play of cosmic forces (Tucci, Mandala, p. 51) is autonomous, perfectly free. Spiritual freedom was always expressed by the Sovereignty, it not only in India. On the outside of the construction is open four cardinal gates, defended by terrifying images, called 'the guardians of the doors. "Their actuation is twofold: first, the" guarsized "awareness defend against disintegrating forces of the unconscious and on the other hand, have offensive mission: to dominate the fluid and mysterious world of the subconscious, consciousness must take the fight to the enemy's own ground, and therefore adopt the violent and terrible aspect that suits the com-bativas forces (Tucci, cited, p. 65). Moreover, even the gods who are encuentrau inside the mandala are sometimes terrifying, are the divinities who found the man after his death in bardo state. The "gatekeepers" and highlights the terrible deities iniciatieo of penetration in a mandala. All initiation step presupposes a way of being to another, but that ontological


regime change is preceded by a series about large of "evidence" that the candidate must perform successfully. initiatic-type test is the "struggle with the monster" (in the literal sense of the word in the "One of the most important tantric texts relating to the initiation into a mandala, the text of Nadapada (Naropa), is called just-Satik Sekodde ie" Comments on the Treaty of Baptism ". initiatives at the "monsters" clings " Mejana subconscious forces outputs to "empty" universal: it is overcoming the fear aroused. Now, we know that the grandeur and terrible aspect of the "monsters" are nothing more than a creation of the "fear iniciatieo. This aspect of the initiation cieitas reveals similarities in structure between the mandala and labyrinth. Ura amount of mandala on the other hand, has a purely labyrinthine pattern. Among the ritual functions of the labyrinth, we are interested mainly two: first, sim-alia metabolize the most, and whoever the penetrate, make an ad descensus infer ( "death" followed by "resurrection"), repre-senting also a "defense" both espirilual (against the dull spirits and demons, forces of chaos) and content (against enemies) In appointing the city a "Center of the World," as the temple or palace, the maze walls and defended by both the invaders and against the evil forces against the "ghosts of the desert, trying to drag shapes from amorphous state where leave. Approached from this angle, the function of the mandala-like labyrinth-would double, at least: first, the insertion of a mandala drawn on the ground amounts to an initiation, the other the mandala "defends" the disciple -what against all destructive force and at the same time helps you to concentrate, find their own "center. The latter function will appear more clearly when we speak of tantric sadhana. The liturgy includes a certain number of rites. We choose carefully the land on which the mandala will be drawn: it must be plain without stones or herbs; this approved, in effect, the transcendent level, indicating spatial and temporal symbolism of the mandala is a question to bring the piano to an ideal disciple, "transc6smico. We know that the "flat" is the image of Paradise or any other piano transcendent orographic changes, however, mean the creation, the appearance of Forms and Time. We can see then, in the mandala to a picture of paradise. Several attested there are paradisiacal symbolism. There is, for starters, similarity between the Pantheon built into the mandala and Paraisos had envisioned as Buddhists (Sukha-vati, Abhirati, Tusita, Trayastrimsa, etc..), The supreme God is in the center, sitting in his pavilion real, amid a park-swimming ENGAL lakes, flowers and birds, and surrounded by other deities (Tucci, Buddhist Notes, p. 196). But the Buddhist Paradise cs no more than a variant of Paradise among the other Indian, whose image is the oldest of Uttarakuru, the North Country, considered the abode of the blessed (Aitareya-Brahmana, VIII, 23; Tucci , p. 197). According to Buddhist texts, Uttarakuru, Land of gold, it shines day and night and has four qualities: the terrain is flat, completely calm reigns there, is pure and their trees without thorns. The rice grows without having sown, as happened on earth, in the Age of Oro.10 The symbolism of the mandala paradise also arises from another element: the expulsion of demons. It purifies the land of demons by invoking the Goddess of the Earth, the same that was invoked by the Buddha during each night of Bodhgaya. In other words. repeat


the exemplary gesture of the Buddha and the land is transformed into earth magicdiamond mind ", being the diamond, as discussed above, symbol of immortality, of absolute reality. All This implies the Abolition of Time and History, and the return in illo tempore, the instant copy of the Rumination of the Buddha And we know that the abolition of time is a paradise syndrome. These preparations completed, the mandala is drawn using two strings: the first, white, traces the external boundaries of the mandala, the second is made with threads of five different colors. Also can draw the diagram using colored rice powder. Triangles are placed in vases filled with valuable substances or scented, broad ribbons, flowers, branches, etc.. for the "fall" of the gods (avahana) .. It precedes the initiation on a holiday, and a place next to the sea or a river. The night before the cere-mony, the disciple goes to sleep in the position of "Buddha entering Nirvana * '(is the" posture of the lion ", one lying on the right side by putting his head on his hand) to the mafiana following account to his suefio guru, the initiation takes place only if the guru is considered fortunate. The ceremony itself begins with a series of puri-fications and consecrations, on which the Sekoddesatika da nu-mere details. The guru cleanses the organs of the pupil using About Uttarakuru, see the bibliography compiled by Tucci, Buddhist Notes, p. 197. The classic description of the Golden Age according to the Buddhists, is located in Mahavastu, I, p. 338 and ff. On the other Hindu and Buddhist Paradises and its relation with Yoga, see below. mantra (U on the front, I, A, R, A, N, about sex) and also purifies ritual objects, particularly containers, put the "bowl triumph" (vijayakalasa) in the center of the mandala and honors with perfumes and incense. The disciple, dressed in bianco is topped with a guru guirnaTda flowers. Then, the pupil draws a pequefio mandnla, adorned with flowers and gold around the feet of his master, in serial veneration, and is offered on-board with a maiden belonging mind as possible to their own fa-mily. The gr / ra poured into the language of the pupil five drops of ambrosia substantia f ie five sacred) repeating the mantra place appropriate and incense also embodies the mantra to others. Then causes the "obsession of the mad god" (krodavesa), the initiation rite transmitted by Sekoddesatika. Vajrapani, the glue-curling god, takes possession of the pupil when it repeats some mantra and inhaled deeply. She begins to sing and dance imitating the traditional gestures of angry deities. Through this rite, subconscious forces invade the disciple, who, addressing them, "that" ma "all fear and all shyness. It then invokes the disciple through the mudra mainly to the five deities apa-related expenses, the Sakti of the five Tathagatha, and regain my composure. If possession continues for more than they should, the guru feels his forehead with a flower consecrated with mantra OM AH HUM. Then blindfold the eyes of the disciple and puts a flower in her hand, this strip into the mandala, and the sector where the flower falls reveals which of the gods he will be particularly favorable for the initiation. The penetration in the mandala is like throughout the March to the Center ". (We know that the ambulation ritual circle around a stupa or temple, pradaksina, just as the ascent to? S successive terraces of the great religious monuments also indicate the "march toward the Center"). As the mandala is a magician ^ mundi, the center point for the infinitesimal crossed perpendicularly by the axis mundi: the closer to him, the disciple approaches the "Center of the World". Moreover, once inside the mandala, the disciple is


in a sacred space, outside time, the gods have "descended" to the vessels and badges. A series of meditations, for it is already prepared, help the pupil to find the gods in his own heart, then attend, in the form of vision, the emergence of the divinities who rush to his heart, filling the space cosmic and are reabsorbed back into the. In other words, "makes" the eternal process of creation and periodic destruction of worlds, which cover allows you to penetrate the cosmic rhythms of Great Time and understand their emptiness. Bankruptcy then the piano from samsara and ends on a transcendent piano: the "gvan rr.isterio" Mahayana and Tantric Buddhism, the "total disorder (paravrtti) and the transmutation of samsara at all, which is also obtained through other techniques. 11 Design on canvas, the mandala serves as a "support" for meditation: the yogi uses it as a "defense" against mental distractions and temptations. The mandala "concentrates" the meditator becomes invulnerable to external stimuli, we see here the analogy with the maze that preserves the "evil spirits" or "ad-versary." mentally Entering the mandala, the yogi comes to his own "Center" and this spiritual exercise can be understood in two ways: 1 ) to get downtown, the yogi recovers and dominates the cosmic process, as the mandala is the picture of the world, 2 °) but because it is a meditation, not a ritual, the yogi can, from that " Support "iconographic, finding the mandala in his own body. There never forget that the Tantric universe consist of an endless series of analogies, homologation-tion and symmetry: is possible, from any level, co-nications mystical with the other, reducing unit and finally a master. Before studying the insertion of the mandala in the body of the yogi, say a word about the pictures registradcif SIMILAR indotibetano outside the domain. In various civilizations (the I Americas, Oceania, etc.). Has seen a number of figures based on circles, triangles and mazes culto.-relation with this is evident in the case of the "magic circle" initiations and mazes. Mandalic character also present the design & rituals of certain North and South American tribes, which represent different stages of the Creation of the Universe. No paddles here he began his study. Just remember that these mandala is Professor plays as a mysterious process inte § ration of the subconscious, obtained through the turns possession of their sim-olos (Mandala, p. 23). However, as the "subconscious" is not simply the cosmic consciousness, "consciousness-dep6sito" (. Alayavijanana) their integration will determine the psychology of Jung for what he calls the integration of the collective unconscious. drawn mainly when it comes to a cure. Which brings us to another kind of mandala discovered by C. J. Jung in the paint-ings executed by some of his patients. According to the author's hypothesis on the collective consciousness, the mandala represent deep structures of the psyche. Consequently, desempeian a role in the central process of the subconscious, a process that Jung called the process of individualization. Jung gave its hypothesis after observing the following fact: in suefios and visions of several of his patients, mandalas appeared when the individualization process was being carried to term. The image is a mandala-pontanea corresponded to a spiritual victory in the sense that part of the collective unconscious-that in-mensa area of the psyche that threatened the integrity of the individual-is assimilated and integrated by consciousness The spontaneous discovery of the mandala by subconscien-te is a serious problem: one wonders if the "subconscious" not imitate the meeting of the processes by which the


"conscience" (or in some cases trans-consciousness ") 12 seeks wholeness and gain freedom. For this discovery, unconscious, a new scheme iniciatieo not isolated: we know that all the great mystical symbolism found in spontaneously suefios, in hallucinations and even the ecstasy duck-Logic, indeed, there have been experiences and symbols of ascension, of the March to the Center, "descent into hell, death and resurrecci6n, test initiation, and even the sim-bolismos complex alchemy. In a way, one can speak of an "apelike imitation" taking to the expression in its truest sense, imitation of behavior and gestures, but without the integral experience of the content involved. The mandala can be found inside the body-selves, and then the liturgy is "internalized," ie, becomes a series of meditations' on the various "centers" and subsidi-tiles.

We put 12 words in quotation marks to indicate that these are only taken in a psychological sense. PRAISE THE BODY. THE Hathayoga The human body takes in Tantrism, which never reached significance in the spiritual history of India. Certainly, the health and strength, interest in the Cosmos hbmologable physiology and implicitly sanctified, are Vedic values, if not pre-Vedic. But the extreme consequences trantrismo takes the concepts that holiness is only effective in a "divine body". The pessimism and asceticism and postupanishadicos Upanishads are abolished. The body is no longer a "source of pain," but the instrument track safer and that man has to "con-cyst death." And since we can obtain the liberation in this life itself, the body must be preserved as long as possible, and in perfect condition, precisely to facilitate meditation (Gheranda Satnhita, I, 8). As we will see a continuation, Indian alchemy proposed such a goal. Hevajra In Tantra, the Buddha (Bhagavan) proclaims that without a perfectly healthy body can not know the bliss. This is an adage repeated insistently in tantric literature and SADHA-jiya. Saraha tells it your way, full of pictures: "Here (in the body) are the Ganges and Jumna, Prayag and Benares: here the moon and sun, the sacred sites, and Pitha Upapitha. I have not known even a place at a time of pilgrimage and bliss, comparable to my body. " The Buddha himself is hiding in the body, also says Saraha. (Text reproduced by Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, p. 103 et seq.) We can distinguish at least two orientations, different and converging at once, this emphatic appreciation of the human body and its possibilities: l ^) the emphasis on the total experience of life considered as part of the sadhana, this is the general position of all Tantric schools, 2) to dominate the will of the body to transform it into a "divine body", this is mainly the position of Hathayoga. A domination of that class should start with no pretensions, based on detailed knowledge of the organs and functions. Because, "^ as able to achieve perfection yogis who do not know your body and (if) a house with one column and nine gates, chaired by the five tutelary deities?" (Goraksa Sataka, 14). But it is the perfection that is sought, and this, as we shall soon see, there is no atletico higrenico order. ÂŁ 1-ga Hathayo not and must not be confunJido with gymnastics. The appearance of Hathayoga is attached to the name of an ascetic, Gorakhnath, founder of an order, that of Kanphata Yogi. He lived in the twelfth century, perhaps earlier. Everything we know


about this desfigu-rado Gorakhnath a rich mythology and folklore sectarian magic (see below, p. 288), but fairly strong evidence suggesting that here was in close relation with the Vajrayana. Also as we shall see, hathayoguis treaties refer to sexual practices advocated by the Buddhist Tantrism. Gorakhnath passes author of a treatise, now defunct, Hathayoga, and a text which was preserved, the Goraksasataka. A review of the latter, the Goraksa paddhati explains the word hatha (literally, "violence, violent effort"), ha - sun, tha = moon, the union of Sun and Moon Yoga serious (according to other texts, ha-thau - surya candrau - pranapanau). See you soon. That this interpretation corresponds perfectly to the tantric doctrine. The call Kanphata Hathayoga to their own discipline, but that. Word soon move to designate all the recipes and traditional disciplines by which it came to dominate the body perfectly. Anyway, hathayoguis treaties depend on cuelquier form of literature Gorakhnathayoguis (or pre-stretched as such). It has a fairly large number of texts (Briggs Gorakhnalh and the Kanphata Yogis, p. 251), but outside the Goraksasataka only three texts of interest to our investigation: 1) Hathayogapradipika (for Svatmarama Svamin, probably of the fifteenth century - uses and reproduces many verses of Goraksasataka) 2Q) Gheranda satnhita (certain Gheranda, Bengal vais-nava; broadly with Lahya-Pradipika) 3V) Siva samhita (longer than previous-contains 517 verses, and more elaborate philosophically ) Tantric yoga is strongly malz by Vedanta. Of the three texts, the H Y-Pradipika seems to be the oldest based, according to the tradition, the Hathayoga, now lost treatise dia.ls Buddhist influences are easily recognizable. Hathayoga 13 Fitz-Edward Hall, A Contribution Towards an Index to the Bibliography of The Indian Philosophical Systems (Calcutta, 1S59), p. 15. Tions about the editions and translations of texts hathayoguis, see Neta VI, 8. Pradipika vocabulary used to Madhyamika (eg the term Sunya) and the first verse of the strong holds Siva samhita Buddhist coloration (ekamjnanam nityamadhyantasunyam ...). Vedanta is mixed with yoga, but takes up little justificacidn philosophical lugar14 in these shorter writings, devoted almost entirely to recipes techniques. The states of consciousness for the different exercises are mentioned only very occasionally and in rudimentary form. The authors are absorbed mainly by the physics and physiology of meditation. There thirty-two asana Gheranda described in samhita, and fifteen in the H Y-Pradipika; Siva samhita mentions 84 asana, but only addresses four. They focus on magic and hygienic value, through certain asana is tece Robust health and "conquer death" are obtained through other siddhi.16Los sayings: "destroys old age and death," "conquer death" ( mrtyumjayati) illustrate the true meaning and the final orientation of all these techniques. The gra Gheranda enshrined samhita five stanzas to pratyahara, while devoting the 96 stanzas and a hundred to pranayama mudra. We will see at once that certain physiological mentioned details regarding the discipline of breaths are interesting, however. The Hathayoga attaches great importance to the "purification" preliminary, of which distinguishes six classes: dhauti, basti, neti, nauli, trataka, Kapalabhati (HY-Pr. II, 22). The most used are the first two. The dhauti literally "cleaning" is divided into several classes and subclasses: "internal cleansing", cleaning of teeth-ing, rectum, and so on. (Gheranda samhita, I, 13-44). The most effective is the dhauti karma (HY-Pr., II, 24): swallowed a long piece of cloth that is left some time in the stomach (see also Theos


Bernard, Hatha Yoga, p. 15 ff.) . The basti includes cleaning the large intestine and rectum (H Y-Pr., II, 26-28; Gheranda samhita, I, 45-49), which takes place from the anus, with a syringe (Bernard, p. 17 and sig.). The J * I have here some samples of the "theory" underpinning: suffering is universal, there is up in Heaven (Siva samhita, I, 29). The man must give up the fruits of their actions (ibid. I, 30), les vices and virtues (I, 32), and so on. The universe originated in chaiianya (I, 49) and Maya (I, 64), as Isvara wanted to create the World, born of his desire aoidya, Mother of the Universe false (I, 69), etc. 16 For example, Padmasana destroys all disease (Gheranda samhita, II, 8), and Vajrasana Muktasana give "wonderful powers. neti is the cleansing of the nostrils by intro-ducing thread cn nares (HY-Pr., II, 29-30: Gh. Sam., 1, 5051). Through energetic and complex movements of the stomach and intestines is practiced nauli (H. Y-Pr., II, 33, 34) exercise called the Samhita Gheranda lauliki yoga (read the experiences of Bernard, p. 21 et seq.). The trataka is fixing his gaze on a small object to get tears to my eyes (H. Y-Pr., II, 31-32, Gh. Sam., I, 53-54). The Kapala Bhati includes three varieties of "purification" of the nostrils (vama-Kramer, vyutkrama and sitkrama, Gh. Sam., I, 56-60): inhale water through your nose and spits at the mouth, etc. . The texts are constantly reminded that such "purification" of great value to the health of the yogi, who are preventive for diseases of the stomach, liver, etc.. (Gh. Sam., I, 15-16, etc.). Which seems beyond doubt. It also details the regimen foodstuff (HY-Pr., I, 58, 59, 62, Gh. Sam., V, 17, etc.). A social behavior (avoid travel, bathrooms i; itinales, the friendship of bad men and women; id. I, 62, t etc..). As expected, the "practice" (abhaysa) desempefi. instrumental (Siva Samhita, IV), nothing can be achieved without "practical", which is moreover a leitmotif Tantric. Also if it is "carried tua" the Hathayoga, no sin or crime that can not be bo-closed (killing a Brahmin or a fetus, violate the bed of his spiritual master, and so on., Crimes abolished by yonimudra, Gh . Samh., Ill, 43, 44). Praising the magical efficacy of an act carried out to perfection is as old as India. Pranayama destroys sins and gives the 84 siddhi, (Siva Sam., Ill, 51-52; Gher. Sam., V, 1-2), but this exercise is especially for purifying nodi (Siv. Sam., Ill. , 26; H Y-Pr., II, 4-9, 11, 20, 44). Each new stage of discipline is acompafiada respiratory physiological phenomena. Generally the duration of suefio, and urine excretion decreased (Siva Sam., III, 40), in the first stage of yogic pranayama the body begins to perspire co-(H Y-Pr., II, 12-13; Siva Sam, III, 40), the second stage, the yogi begins to tremble , the third "is set to jump like a frog" and the fourth is raised in the air (Siva Sam., Ill., 41; Gher. Sam., V, 4557). According to the personal experiences of Theos Bernard (op. cit, p. 32), all these indications, with exception of the last, actually senses correspond to states in the practice of pranayama hathayogui. In fact, only minor symptoms are recorded in texts as may serve to verify objectively the success of a practice. Instead, they are much more important "powers" real ob-taken by the yogis, and especially his amazing ability to control the neurovegetative system and the influence they may exer-sion on their own heart rates and breathing. No enlrare we are now to discuss this important issue. Just remember that, according to doctors Ch Laubry and Therese Brosse, the hathayo-guis smooth fibers extending to the normal control of striated muscle fibers. This would explain both the use of syringes and li-Liquid exit through the urethra or rectum not co-envision the detention of the seminal (j to the


"regression of semen!"), In exercise of exceptional importance of Tantrism " left hand. Some of these "powers" perhaps encontra.an other physiological explication. In the special case of us "out of syringes and liquid through the urethra, Dr. John Filliozat believes he can explain the phenomenon by blowing air into the bladder. It is also based on a passage in the Hathayogapiadipika (III, 86): "Carefully, using a good tube, insufflation must be done gently, into the cavity of the lightning (Vajra-urethra), a breath of wind". The sans-ice attached commentary provides some details of the operation: "must be manufactured a lead pipe, smooth, a long equal to fourteen times the width of a finger, and insert it into the urethra. The first day will enter the width of a finger. The second day, two wide (...) â&#x2013; progressively to Asi, increasing. When the inserted tube portion reaches twelve finger widths, the channel is clean. It does make a rod then the size of fourteen analoga finger widths, with a curve of two finger widths and hole at the top, and introduces hasĹ&#x201A;a reach twelve finger widths. It should be placed on the outside curve of two finger widths above orifice. It then takes a joint similar to the goldsmith's torch, which allows light the fire and one end is inserted into the hole in the bend of the tube and inserted into the urethra and the blowing should be performed. In this way, the clean channel is correct. Then you must practice water absorption by the urethra. " J * J. Filliozat, Les limites des pouvoirs humains dans Vlnde (Etudes Car-mdlitaines: Limits I'humain, Paris, 1953, p. 23-38). See also Note VI, 8. to translate this important text, Dr. Jean Filliozat adds: "However, filling the air bladder does not appear to be essential for all practicing yogis bladder aspiration. We found ourselves one-dola practice without preliminary injection air. If such an injection had been conducted outside our presence, should have made more half-hour eon ago, because the yogi run, du-ing this period, and before bladder aspiration, various exercises. It also imposed other more detailed observations that have been done so far "(idem, p. 33). There seems, therefore, several methods to obtain the same results. We have the right to assume, then, that specialized in certain yogis fisiokSgicas techniques - but the majority continued the ancient tradition of the "mystical physiology. Indeed, although the Hindus have developed a complex system of medicine cientifV nothing obliges us to believe that the theories of the physiology mistica S 'J have developed dc depending on the objective, utilitarian medicine or at least in relation to her. The "subtle physiology" was formed based on experiences probably asccticas, ecstatic and contemplative as expressed in the same symbolic language of ritual and traditional cosmology. This does not mean that such experiences were not real. were, but not in the sense that a physical phenomenon is real. Hathayoguis Tantric texts and draw our attention for its "experimental nature, but it is in experiments conducted at dif-ferent levels of everyday life, profane. The "veins", "nerves", the "centers" which will be discussed below, no doubt correspond to copsychosomatic and experiences are related to the inner life of man, but it seems "that the" veins "and Similar expressions designate no anatomical organs and functions strictly physiological. He has tried several times because of anatomic locations of these "veins" and "centers". Walter, for example, believes that no means "veins" in the Hathayoga, identifies pingala round with carotid (Loeve et dextra) and Brahmarandhra suture frontalis (Walker Svatmarana's Hathayoga-Pradipika, p. IV, VI and IX ). Moreover, the identification of "centers (cakra) in the plexus is common, serious Muladhara cakra sacral plexus; Svadhisthana, prostatic plexus; Manipur, the epigastric plexus; anahata, pharyngeal plexus; afna cakra, plexus cavernosum (see Note


VI, 8). But just read the texts carefully to realize that these are experiences that go beyond the physiological, that all these "centers" represent "states yogis", ie inaccessibleable without a spiritual asceticism: the mortification and disciplines psychophysiological merimente not enough to "wake up" the cakra or penetrate: the essential, indispensable meditation is the "realization" spiritual. Thus, it is prudent to consider the "physio-logy mysticism" as the result and the formation of-concept experiments conducted since ancient times by ascetics and self-guis; now, do not forget that these last did their experiences in a "subtle body", ie using sensational tions, tensions, trans-conscious states inaccessible to the profane. and they controlled a vast area that infinitely more? ona psychic "normal" penetrated deep into the subconscious-conscious and knew "wake up" the archaic layers of primordial awareness, fossilized in other human beings. The body gradually built by hathayoguis, the so-metric and alchemists somehow corresponded to the body of a "man-god" and know that this concept has long prehistory, Indo-Aryan and pre-Aryan. The tantric teandria is but a new variant of the Vedic macrantropia. The basis of these formulas was naturally the transformation of the human body in microcosm, theory and practice archaic registered throughout the world and in Aryan India were established from the Vedic times. The respiration, as we have seen was identified with the cosmic winds (Atharva Veda, XI, 4, 15) and points Cardinale (Chandogija Up Ill, 13, 1-5). The air, "spins" the Universe (Brhad. Up Ill, 7, 2) and respiration "weaves" the man (Ath. Veda, X, 2, 13)-and the symbolism of the tissue arrived in India to the great -goddess conception of the "thread of life" and the fate of certain goddesses spinning (our book, Images et symboles, p. 149 et seq.). When the Vedic sacrifice is "internalized" the body becomes a microcosm (Vaikhanasasmartasutra, II, 18). The backbone-br? L is identified with the mountain Meru, ie the cosmic axis. For this reason is that, according to Buddhist symbolism, the Buddha could not turn his head only, but should turn the entire body "after the manner of the elephants": her spine was fixed, inmo-vile, as the Axis of Universe. According to tradition, the Merudanda is formed by a single bone, which demonstrates their non-anatomical, deterrniriado. Such details that Sumeru tantric text is in the same body, the cave of Montana is treated as the supreme truth (Dohakosa, N? 14). It "makes" the anthro-ing through meditation yogi: "Imagine the central part (is-pina dorsal) of your body like Mount Meru, as if the four core members were the four continents, four children, the sub-continent, the head, like the deva worlds, the two eyes as the sun and moon, etc. ". (Evans-Wentz, The Yoga tibetine, trans, francaise, p. 327). The tantric sadhana cosmo-physiology uses this archaic. But all these pictures and all these symbols implied a mystical experimentation, the teandria, the sanctification of man through spiritual and ascetic discipline. Sensory activities were amplified in proportion hallucinatory there after Innu merables identifications organs and physiological functions cosmic regions, the stars, gods, etc.. The Hathayoga and Tantra transubstantiated body macro-dimensions tr6picas creating it and assimilated the various "Mystical Body" (sound, architectural, iconographic, etc.).. For example, a Tantric treatise Javanese Sang Hyang kamahayanikan on which Stutterheim and P. Attracted the attention Mus (Mus, Borobudur, I, p. 66 et seq.) Iden-tify each somatic element of the human body with a letter of the alphabet and a piece of architectural monument, stupapra Quesada (which in turn is assimilated to the Buddha and the Cosmos). Several "subtle bodies" are superimposed here: the body of sound, body po Architectural cosmological and mystical-


physiological (as the homo-logy refers to organs not profane, but the cakra, the centers) . This homologation multiple "realized" but a continuation of the yogic experience, the "physical body" is "dilated" is "cosmiza" is "transubstantiation". The "veins" and "centers" of the texts that speak relate primarily to statements made only by an extraordinary amplification of the "sensation of the body. THE NADI: Ida, Pingala, SUSUMNA The body, physical body and "subtle" at once "is formed by a number of nadi (literally channels, vessels, veins and arteries but also" nerves ") and cakra (literally, circles, dis Although usually translated as Podria say, simplifying somewhat, that the vital energy in the form of "puffs" flowing through the nadi and that this divine cosmic energy in latent form in the cakra. There is a considerable number of nadi: "large, and small nadi, deployed on a sheet of Asvattha, you can not count" (Trisikhibrahmanopanisad, 76). We can draw some figures, however: 300,000 (Shiva Samhita, II, 14), Goraksasataka, 13), 200.000 (Goraksa Paddhati, 12), 80,000 (Trisikhibrahmanopanisad, 67), but mostly 72,000 (H. Y-Prad. IV, 8, etc.).. Seventy-two of these nadi have a particular Inters. Not named them all. The Siva Samhita speaks of 14, most of the texts come to appoint ten: Ida, Pingala (or pingla) susumna, Gandhari, hastijivha.pusa, tjasasvini, alambusa, ku-hus and samkhini (Goraksasataka, 27, 28: some names ro change the other lists, see for example Trisikhibrahm 70-75). These nadi flowing respectively in left and right nostrils, the brahtnarandhra, left eye, right eye, right ear, left ear, mouth, anus and generative organ (Goraksasat, 29-31, but there are variants : no one could some heels, according to other texts). The most important of all these nadi, which desempefian the lead role in all the techniques yogis, are the first three: Ida, Pingala and susumna. A continuation remember certain names and the very complex homologation system developed around pingala round. Let us remember now some of the synonyms of susumna: Brahmanadi (HY D II, 46), mahapatha (the "Great way"), smasana (the cemetery), saktimarga (the Way of the sakti, HY D Ill, 4 ) sambl.avi (-Durga), madhyamarga (the "Middle Way"). Its symbolism is a continuation clarification. The description of the nadi is very short, typically: cliches, stereotyped formulas abound, and we will see that the "secret language" makes it even more difficult its understanding. Here is one of the fundamental texts concerning the structure of the susumna mistica "in a location do not ^ Mount Meru (the spine) are located to the left and right, the two channels (nadi), the Moon and Sun (round Pingala). The glass (called) susumna this in the middle, consists of three constituent 17 17 Three sheaths, from outside inward, are self-susumna (matter) and has the form of moon, sun and fire; composed wholly dhustra flowers, extends from the center of kanda18 to the head, and inside, what is called vajra, is lengthened, brilliant, from the region of the penis to the head. Den-ter of (ua, ra) is the citrini, illuminated by the syllable OM; is comparable to the thread of the spider, only yoga yogis can reach it. When (kundalini) has blocked all lotuses placed at the center of the Meru (the citrini) shines intensively under the influence of these (lotus) arranged in clusters (around): its own form is pure intellect. Inside (from citrini) is the channel of Brahman, which begins with the opening of the mouth of Hara (Siva-) 19 and ends at (mismo20 site of) primordial god.


"Smiling like a garland of lightning, bright as a fiber (lotus) in the hearts of the ascetics, entirely useful, inspiring pure knowledge, happiness made integral, having essentially pure intellect - the door lights up Brahman21 your mouth (- the mouth of Siva) is the place that gives access to the stream of nectar, 22 is the essential point site. It is, say, the mouth of the channel misma23 called susumna (Satcdkranirupana, 1-3, trans. L . Renou). As we see, it is indeed a "subtle body" and a "mystical philosophy. However, there is nothing abstract about what we just read, it is not expression of concepts, but from pictures that express transmundanales experiences. The texts repeated insistence that among noriniciados, the nadi have become "impure" which are "blocked" and that we must "purify" the "through asana, pranayama and mudra (HY D, I, 58). The coming and the Pingala are the two "breaths" and also all the subtle energy body are never simply "glasses" or mind that, CAIR or vajrini and citrini. (This note and the six that are per-tt-rl necen text translator, Louis Renou). 18 organs situated "tntre the anus and penis," ks point of origin of nadi. 19 It is the top of the linga called Svayanbhulinga that sits in the "circle" lower body, the Muladhara cakra. 20 It is said in the parabindu "high point" located in the "circle the perioral, the Sahasrara. -l sefiala The place of kundalini access to Siva. - The nectar produced by the conjunction (sexual) and the supreme Siva Sakti. 23 The starting point of the susumna kanda. "channels" physiological organs. According to the Sammohana Tantra (quoted by Satcakranirupana) round is the Sakti and Pingala is the Purusa. Other texts tell us that lalana (- way) and Rasario (=- Pingala) respectively transputer as semen and ovum (Sadhanamala, Hecajra, Tantra and Tantra Herukta cited by Dasgupta, Introduction to Tantric Buddhism, p. 119). But semen is of the essence of Siva and the Moon, and blood (usually assimilated to the "cracks of women") is the essence of the Shakti and the Sun (Goraksasid-dhantasamgraha, cited by Dasgupta, P. 172, No 4). In the commentary Dohakosa of Kanhu-pada, states that the moon is born of the male seed and the Sun's ovum (ibid. p. 172, No. 5). Moreover, the most common names for pingala round, in both hin-dues Tantra and Buddhist, are "sun" and "Moon." The Sammohana Tantra says the nadi on the left is the "Moon" because of his gentle nature, and that the right is h.nadi "Sun" because of his strong nature. The Hathayogapradipikalos compare daily and night, and we will soon see the importance of this temporal symbolism. But do not forget that round pingala pram and carry apana: now, the first is Rahu (the Asura who devours the Moon) and the apana is "the fire of Time (Kalagni; comment manuscript in Dohakota of Kanhu-pada, reproduced by Dasgupta, P. 173, No. 1). Here tenemostma the Haves of its symbolism through the main "breaths" and "major" subtle channels "can be broken-Time. In Buddhist Tantra, susumna corresponds to avadhuti, and this "nerve" is considered the path of Nirvana. The Sadhanamala says (p. 448): "Lalana (= left) is of the same kind of Prajna (Gnosis) and R채s채nen (- Pingala) is of the nature of the Upaya (Middle): the left in the middle as avadhuti mahasukha the house of (the Great Bliss). The comments of the Doha-Kosa avadhuti explain the term as "that destroys all sins through his fiery nature" (Dasgupta, p. 174).


However, the texts insist continually on this theme: jconservad the middle path, e] are right and the left was "Bosco! "jCortad two wings called Sol y Luna!" (Caryapada of Gundari, 4) "We must destroy and Rasan lalana two sides" (DohaJjsa of Kanhupada, 3) "When the Moon and Sun are well mixed with each other, the, merit and non-merit immediately disappear" (Sarah). Obtained the Great Bliss (mahasukha) "kept in the path of the medium and dominate (the roads dc) right and left" (Cart, "8. Kambalapada). "The right and left are ambushes" (Carya 32, Sarahapada: all these texts are reproduced, along with a large quantity of other texts, by PC Baggchi, Studies on the Tantras, p. 61 et seq.). Recall for the moment, two aspects of this symbolism: 1) the most important thing lies in the two main breathing, prana and apana, similar to the Sun and the Moon: it is thus a "cos-optimization" of the human body, 2 ?) but the whole effort of svdha-ka is in order to unify the "Luna" and "Sol" and to do so, to ma the middle path. Polivalentc soon see the complexity of the symbolism of the Sun-Moon union. Prinieramenix finish-n analysis of the subtle body, with the description of the cakra. The cakras According to the Hindu tradition, there are seven importantcs cakra, which relate to the six plexuses and suture frontalis.2 * I9) tnuladhara (mula ~ root) is located at the base of the spine between the anal opening and genital organs (coccygeus sacral plexus). Has the form of a red lotus of four petals, which are engraved in gold letters v, s, c, s. In the middle of the lotus is a yellow square, the emblem of the Earth element (prthivl) in the middle has an inverted triangle, symbol of the yoni called Kamarupa; in the heart of the triangle is placed on svayambhulinga (the linga that exists by itself ), head shining like a jewel. Eight times up (like a snake) around it, as bright as lightning, sleeping Kundalini, who with his mouth (or your head) encloses the hole in the linga. Thus, blocking the brahmadvara Kundalini (the door of Brahma ', see page. 223) and the access to this susutnna.Muladhara cakra in relation to the cohesive force of matter, with the inertia, the birth of the sound, smell, the respiration apana, the gods Indra, Brahma, Dakini, Shakti, etc.. 24 For a more complete description, see-e 'treated more authority ^, ^ (the conc-Ja rniente cakra doctrine, Satcckra Nirupana (ed.. And trans. Avalcn Arthur, The Serpent Power, London-Madras, 1 <> 19>, V '* r t.imbien Note VI. 9. 2?) Svadhistliana cakra, also called jalamandala (because its pull-tattva is water) and medhradhara (medhra = penis) is located at the base of the male generative organ (plexus sacred). Lotus with six petals orange, which has carved the letters b, bh, m, r, I. In the midst of the lotus, is a white crescent in mystic relation with Varuna. In the midst of the moon, a bija mantra, in whose center is Visnu, his side is the goddess Sakini (according Sivasamhita, V, 99, Rakini). Svadhisthana cakra is in relation to the Water element, color bianco, the respiration prana, sense of smell, hand, etc. 39) manipura (mani = jewel, pure - city) or nabhisthana (na-bhi = navel), located in the lumbar region up to the belly button (epigastric plexus). Blue lotus with ten petals and the letters d, dh, n, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph. In the midst of the lotus, a red triangle, and the triangle Maharudra god, seated on a bull at his side to Lakini Sakti, blue. This cakra is in


relation with the element Fire, the Sun, the rajas (menstrual flow), the respiration Samana, the sense of sight, and so on. 4P) anahata (anahahata sabdo is the sound made car without touching two objects, a "mystical sound") region of the heart, seat of prana and Jivatman. Red. Golden lotus with twelve petals (letters k, kh, g, gh, etc.).. In between, two triangles placed in position "seal of Solomon", color smoke, in whose center there is another triangle, gold, which conceals a shining linga. Above the two triangles is Isvara, coupled with the Kakini Sakti (red). Anahata cakra is in relation with the Air element, the sense of touch, the phallus, the driving force, the circulatory system, etc.. 5P VISUDDHA cakra (the cakra of purity): region of the chest (laryngeal and pharyngeal plexus, at the junction of the spinal cord and medulla oblongata) seat udana respiration and bindu, 16-petal lotus red ash (letters a, i, u, etc.).. Inside the lotus, a blue space, symbol of the element akasa (ether, space) in the middle is a circle surrounding bianco an elephant. On the element rests Fante bija-mantra h (Hang) holding Sadasiva, half silver and half gold, as God is represented under its aspeeto androgynous (aidhanarisvara). Sitting on a bull, carries in its nu-merous hands a number of objects and emblems that belong (vajra, trident, bell, etc.).. Half his body is the Sada Guri, with ten arms and five faces (three eyes each). The color in relation to the target, the Sound, skin, etcetera. 6?) Ajna (-command, control) cakra, located between the eyebrows (cavernous plexus). Lotus bianco two petals, with the letters h and ks. Seat of the cognitive faculties: Buddhi, ahamkara, manas and indrya (= sense) in its subtle form. The lotus is a triangle recorded bianco, inverted (symbol of the yoni) in the middle of the triangle, a linga bianco also called ITAR (the "other") .. This is the seat of paramasa. The bija-mantra OM. The tutelary goddess is Hakini: it has six faces and six arms, and is sitting on a lotus bianco. 7 째) Sahasrara cakra: at the top of the head, represented as a lotus of thousand petals, turned (sahasra-thousand). It is also called brahmasthana, Brahmarandhra, nirvanacakra, etcetera. The petals are all possible pronunciations of Sanskrit alphabet, which has 50 points (50 X 20). In the midst of the lotus is the full moon enclosing a triangle. That's where the union is experienced end (unmani) of Siva and Sakti, target of tantric sadhana: kudalini arrives there after having gone through six cakra-sado lower. It should be noted that the sahasrara no longer belongs to the level of the body that appoints and transcendent-president level, and this explains the generally speak of the doctrine of the "six cakra. Cakra there are other, less important, between the mu-Ladha and is the yonisthana Svadhisthana: place of reunion of Shiva and Shakti, also called place of bliss (co-rn the Muladhara) Kamarupa. It is the source of desire and carnal level, an anticipation of the Shiva-Shakti union that ended in the Sahasrara. Ajnacakrase are very close sisters and soma cakra cakra, related to the functions and certain experiences intelligences yogis. About ajnacakra are also the karana-rupa, the seat of the seven "forms" causal ", of which it is said that central and produced are the body" subtle "and body" physical ". Finally, other texts speak of a certain number of adhara (= support, recep-tacular) located between the cakra or identified with them. (See Note VI, 9.) The only four known Buddhist Tantra cakra located respectively in the umbilical region, cardiac, laryngeal plexus and brain: the latter, the most important, is called usnisa-kamala


(lotus of the head) and corresponds to the Hindu sahasrara . In the three lower cakra are located three kaya (body): Nirmana-cakra in the umbilical kaya, kaya dharma-cakra at the heart, kaya 8ambhoga-cakra in the chest. But with regard to the number and location of these anomalies can be checked cakra and contradictions (see Dasgupta, An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism, p. 163 et seq.). As in the Hindu tradition, are associated cakra mudra and goddesses Locaria, Mamaki, Panda and Tara (Sri-, Samputa, cited by Dasgupta, p. 165). Hevajra-Tantra offers a long list of "quaternity" in relation to the four cakras: four tattva, four anga, four "moments" four noble truths (Arya-sattva, etc.). (idem, ps. 166-167). Seen in projection, the cakra is a mandala whose center is marked by the Brahmarandhra. It is also in this "center" where was the breakdown of the level, where the act for transcendence Paradoxically, the overrun of samsara and the "sa-lida out of Time". The symbolism of the mandala is also establishing the tem-ples and the entire Indian sacred building: seen in projection, a temple is a mandala. We can therefore say that any ritual is equivalent to walking an approximation to the Center, and that entry into a temple initiatic repeated insertion into a mandala, or the passage of kundalini through the cakra. Moreover, the body is trans-formed, while, in microcosm (with Mount Meru per center) and Pantheon; each body part and every organ "subtle" has its tutelary deity, his mantra, his mystical lyrics etc.. Not only does the pupil is identified with the Cosmos, but comes to re-discover your body genesis and destruction of universes. As we shall see, the sadhana includes two stages: 1) the "cosmization" the human being and 2) the "importance" of the cosmos, ie its "destruction" through the unification of opposites ( "Sun" - "Luna ", etc.).. The classic serial of transcendence is constituted by the final act of the ascent of the kundalini: its union with Siva, at the height of the braincase, the sahasrara â&#x20AC;˘ 6

25 Do not forget that many schools do not use tantric kundalini symbolism to express the a: 6 No of opposites. See below. We evoked and certain aspects of Kundalini, is described in the form of a serpent, a goddess, and an "energy" at a time. The Hathayogapradipika, III, 9, presents us in these terms: "Kutilangi (which has the body twisting), Kundalini, Bhujangi (female serpent) Sakti, Isvari, Kundali, Arundhati, all these terms are important. As open a door with a Have, the Yogi opens the door to liberation (mukti) freeing the kundalini through Hathayoga (Gorahsasataka, 51). When the Goddess is awakened dormant gratia grant to the guru, all are rapidly traversed cakra (Sivasamhita, IV, 12-14; HY D, Ill, 1). Identified to Sabdabrahman, OM, Kundalini accumulates the attributes of all gods and all goddesses (Sarada-tilaka Tantra, I, 14, 55, XXV, 6). In the form of a snake (ibid., 54) lives in the middle of the body (dehamadyaya) of all creatures (I, 14). In the form of Parasakti, kundalini manifests itself in the trunk (adhara, I, 53), in the form of Paradevata dwells in the midst of the knot that is at the center of adhara. from which come the nadi (XXVI, 34). Kundalini moves inside the susumna strength through inner sense (manas) released by the prana, is "carried through the susumna like thread through the needle" (Goraksasataka, 49). Is awakened through asana and kumbhaka "OLPRAN then absorbed into the void" (SUNY, HY D, IV, 10).


The awakening of the kundalini causes an extremely in-tense heat and its passage through the cakra is manifested by the fact that the bottom of the body becomes inert and cold as a corpse, while the kundalini is crossed by the ar-tooth (Avalon, The Serpent Power, p. 242). The Buddhist Tantras are even more evident the igneous character of the kundalini. For Buddhists, the Sakti (also called Candali, Dombi, Yogini, Naira-mani, etc.). Dozes in Nirmana-kaya (regi6n cord): it arouses boddhicitta producing in this region and this awakening translates to the sensation of a "big fire". Hevajratantra states that "the Candali burns in the belly" and when everything is burned, the "Luna" (located in the front) drops of nectar drops. A song of Gunjaripada presents the phenomenon in veiled language: "The lotus and lightning are in the middle, and their union is in-Candali The fire comes home to take the Moon and water. There is no longer heavy fire, no smoke, and penetrates the Ciol by] the summit of Mount Meru "(text reproduced by S. Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, p. 116 ff).. Return to review the mean-two This vocabulary simbdlico. At the moment, recall a fact from now: according to the Buddhist faith are secret forces at rest in the umbilical region, through yogic practices is lit, the fire reaches the two upper cakra (dhar -ma and sambhoga), penetrates, comes to plant-kamala (corresponds to sahasrara of Hindus) and, after burning everything in its path, returns to nirmanakaija (Sri samputika, reproduce lished by Dasgupta, work above, ps. 118-119). Other texts punctuality zan that this heat is obtained through "transmutation" of energy sexual.26 The relation between the kundalini (or Candali) and fire, the production of "internal heat" by the ascent of kundalini through the cakra, are facts that deserve to be put on evidence cia desde ya. Recall that, according to certain myths, the Goddess Shakti was created by the fiery energy of all the gods (view more arri-ba, p. 293). Moreover, we know that the production of "internal heat" is an ancient magical technique that flourished in the chamaorganism (see p. 315). Note that Tantrism also adopt this universal magical tradition, but the spiritual content of his experience more important, the "Fire" on the ascent of the kundalini-is located in a very different level of magic or shamanism. We will have occasion, in connection with the production of "internal heat", to examine the symbiosis Tantrism-chama-organism registered in certain practices Himalayas. It is impossible to proceed with the awakening of kundalini without the spiritual preparation that is part of all disciplines from which we have spoken. The very act of awakening and the passage through the cakra is set in motion by a technique whose essential element is to stop the respiration (kumbhaka) thanks to a special body position (asana, mudra). One of the most me-all used to stop respiration was proposed by the khecarimudra: the cavum obstruction at the tip of the tongue - "Kasi Lama Dawa Samdup and W. Y. Evans-Wentz, Le Yoga tib & ain secretes et les doctrines (trad. fr. Paris, 1938) p. 316, 322. brought to pledge, to garganca.27 The abundant salivary secretion that occurs in this form is regarded as the celestial ambrosia (amrta) and the very flesh of the tongue, like the beef we eat (/ / Y Pr , Ill, 47-49). This symbolic interpretation of a "physiological situation" is no less interesting question of expressing the fact that the yogi and part of the "transcendence" bankruptcy more severe the prohibition of the Hindu (eat beef,, ie not already conditioned, not already in the world, taste, therefore, the celestial ambrosia. This is only a concept of khecarimudra, we'll see the cavum obstruction by the tongue and the detention of the respiration that takes place accompanied with sexual practices.


Before talking about it, it is necessary to clarify that the awakening of kundalini, caused in this way is just the beginning of the year: the yogi is dedicated to maintaining the kundalini in the "channel" means (su-Sumner), and also to make it go up through the cakra to the top of the head. However, in the opinion of the authors tantric very, very rarely this effort is crowned with success. Here is an enigmatic text of Tarakhanda (he is equally at Tantrasara, Avalon, Principles of Tantra, II, p. CVIII): "If you drink, if you drink again, but even if you drink until he fell to the ground, and if one gets up and begins to drink, you go out forever from the sky of the re-birth. " This is an experiment carried out during the detention of the total respiration. Let's see what the commentary said: "During the first stage of sadhana satcakra (= the penetration of the cakra), the disciple can not hold his breath long enough as to be able to practice concentration and meditation on each of the cakra. Consequently, it fails to retain the kundalini in susumna more than what is allowed by the kumbhaka (detention of respiration). should therefore be dropped by land-that is, ei mnladhara cakra, which represents the element Earth after having drunk the celestial ambrosia (which can be interpreted in vari-ous ways, especially as abundant saliva prqvocada by obstruction of the cavum). The pupil must repeat this exercise many times, and by constant practice, destroys the causes of the cycle of re-births. " 27 To carry out successfully, the frenulum of the tongue must be cut beforehand. View the personal experience of Theos Bernard, P. 27 and ff. To speed the ascent of the kundalini, certain schools have combined Tantric body positions with sexual practices. The idea was that he had hidden to get the "immobility" of breathing, thinking and semen at the same time. The Go-rate-samhita (61-71) states that during the khecari-mudra, the bindu (~ semen) "falls" while one is kissed by a woman. And "while the bindu remains in the body, there is the fear of Death. Even if the semen is ejaculated, the yonimudra stops. The Hatha-yogapradipika, III, 82, intends to obtain the same results, vojroli-mudra. You have to have milk and a "docile woman. The yogi "needs to pump his medhra (the bindu ejaculated during maithuna)", and this act of absorption must also be made by women. "Having pumped the bindu ejaculated. The yogi can conserve it, through the loss of bindu Death comes with its retention, the Life." All these texts insist on the interdependence between respiration, psychomental experience and semen virile. "As much as the air (respiration) moves, moves bindu, becomes stationary when breathing stops moving. As a consequence, the yogi should control their respiration and obtain immobility" (Goragsa-sam, 90 ). While prana is in the body, life (jiva) will not, death is the departure of Respiration (Goraksa-sam, 91). We see that the bindu is dependent on respiration, and that somehow this approved on: for both heading and the other one is death. In the same way, this type-gado bindu to citta28 and thus leads to the homologation of the three levels which are exercised, whether the "movement" and "immobility" prana, bindu, citta. As the kundalini is awakened by a sharp-whether detention of respiration, and the seminal emission (followed, if made, by the regression of semen) - it is important you know the structure and the ramifications of approval these three planes. More so when the texts do not always determine that the reference plane in question.

28 In the Goraksa-Samhita 90, the manuscript says cittam Benares in Bindura War (cf.


Briggs, op. Cit. 302) as well as the HY-Pr. II. 2; "When respiration moves, the moves also espirifii; where breaths stops spirit becomes motionless. See also IV. 21. THE "intentional language" Often the tantric texts are rextactados cn "k nguaje intentional '(sandhya-Bhasa), secret language, confusing, two-way, in which a state of consciousness is expressed with a term erotic and mythological or cosmolopico this vocabulary charged with sexual meanings hathayoguis. Saddharmapundarika In expressions are repeatedly Sandha-bhasita, sar.dha bhasya, Sandha-vacan. Burnouf translated as the "enigma-tic language," Kern for "mystery" and Max Muller by "word hidden ". In 1916, Shastri Harapresad proposed:" twilight language, "language of" light and darkness "(alo-a-Dhari). Vidushekar But Shastri is the first in his study Sandhabhasa (Indian Historical Quarterly, IV, 1928, ps. 287-296) demonstrated that this is an abbreviated form of the word sandhaya and can be translated as "intention", "having as its aim the" "intends," "to referendum, and so on. (op. above, p. 289). There was no question of "twilight language," "It is likely that copyists, not knowing the true meaning of sandhaya or abbreviated form Sandha, the have c;; mbiado by sandhya (twilight = ), expression that was familiar to them "(ibid., p. 296). The Hevajratantraconsidera to sandhabhasa as the" great teaching "(mahasamaya) of yogis, the" great language "(mahabhasam) and proclaims it" full of sense of the doctrines "(samaya-sanketavistaram). Its value seems well estab-lished as" hidden secret "(see also Note VI, 10 with bibliography and explication). The puzzles and riddles rituals were used since the time vt'dica (Rig Veda, I, 164; I, 152, 3; VIII, GO, 14, X, 55, 5, etc.., Atharva Veda, VII, I, IX , 8, 10), on his way revealed the secrets of the universe. But in Tantrism we find an entire system of numbers, very elaborate, and it can not account for the inco-nications ds-tantric yogi experiences, to refer to such experiences had been used long symbolized the, mantra, mystical lyrics. The sandhya-Bhasa pursues another finali-ty: want to hide the doctrine to non-initiates, the yogi project mainly to the "paradox", which is essential for spiritual entrenamieruo. The semantics of the word versatility eventually replaced with the wrong ccmiin system of referenda, inherent in any ordinary language: the destruction of language contributes, she also, to "break" the profane universe and replace CVS ing them by a universe of convertibles levels and integrable. The symbol-ism, generally, do a "porous" universal, "opening" of beings and things that go alia meanings of the material. But in Tantrism, the language of 'intellectual' cn becomes a spiritual exercise, is part of sadhana. The disciple must experimented continuously the mysterious process of approval and that this convergence at the base of the cosmic manifestation, for it is now a microcosm and must wake up to te-ner aware of them, all these forces that, on multiple levels will create and periodically reabsorbed the Universe. The disciple is invited to understand boddhicitta as "Thought for the des-awakening" and male seed to hide not only to non-initiates the Great Secret: the yogi must penetrate through the language itself (ie through the creation of a new and paradoxical language which replaces the abolished profanity) to that level where the seed can be transformed into thought, and vice versa. It is clear from the comments, the sense seems to be the following: the two are the two "veins", round Pingala, the liquid being "ordeiia" is the boddhicitta (which can be taken in several senses), and " Bucket "(pita-pitha) is the Manipura (the cakra of the umbilical region). The "tree" (Rukh-vrksa) means the body, and the "fruit of the tamarind" semen virile boddhicitta the way, the "crocodile" that "eats" is the detention of the respiration


yogi (kumbhaka). The "house" is the seat of bliss, the "pending" signifies the beginning of blackening and the "thief" symbolizes the Sahajanand (the bliss of Sahaja, which will discuss in a moment), "Midnight" is the state of complete absorption in the bliss. The "father" (susur) is the respiration, the "day" means the active state (pravrtti) thinking and "night" its resting state (nivritti) etc.20 We find a world of analogies, homologies and do-able ways. All erotic phenomena can be expressed in this "intentional language", an exercise hathayogui or stage of the meditation, like any symbol, any "state of holiness" 2 "Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, p. 480 ff. It is notable that the use of this enigmatic style has no known interruptions in mcderna Indian Ktcratura, of Caryapada to miestras days. can have an erotic sense. It reaches an outcome such that a text. Antrico can be read with different keys: liturgical, yogi, tantric, and so on. Pundits insist mainly on these two last: reading a book with the "key yogi means to decipher the vari-ous stages of meditation to which the text refers. The Tantric meaning is almost always erotic, but it's hard to decide whether it is specific acts or sexual symbolism. To be more accurate, re-consultation painful distinguish between the "concrete" and "symbolic" taking aim sadhana precisely the trans-substanciaci6n any particular experience, the transformation of the physiology in liturgy. Several words cliches of Mahayana Buddhism are enriched in cl Tantrism, a sense erotic: padma (lotus) is interpreted as bhaga (parent); vajra (thunderbolt) means linga (penis). It may therefore say that Buddha (Vajrasattva) lies in the mysterious bhaga Bhagavati.30 N. Shahidullah reconstruct some series of equivalence, according to the Doha-Kosa, P. C. Baggchi study the symbolism of certain technical vocabularies of Carya, but the interpretation of the ciphertexts, the "intentional language" and even allegorical is far from over. Some examples, mainly from the Doha tornado-kosa: vajra (thunderbolt) .- linga - Sunya (emptiness), ravi, surya (sun) - slices of women (menses) Pingala - right nostril - Upaya (Middle) sasin, Candra (moon) - Sukra (semen virile) - round - nostril left - Prajna. lalana (female) - round - abhava (not be) - candra-apana - nothing - prakriti (Nature) Tamas (one of the three guna) - Ganga (Ganges) - svara (voice) - Nirvana, etc.., Rasario (language)-Pingala - Prana - cracks (one of the guna) - purusha - kali - vyanjana (consonants) - Yamuna (Yamuna river) - bhava (be), etc.., avadhuti - the woman ascetic - sucumna - prajna - nairatma, etc. Thought-boddhicitta Awakening - sukra (senun virile) taruni - maiden - Mahamudra, grhini - wife - Mahamudra - divyamudra, jnanamudra, sama so L. de la Vallee-Poussin, Boudhisme. Etudes et materiaux, P. 134. For the equivalence vajra = tn linga vradip'ka HY, see the Index of Walter edition, vajrakandara. rasa - equal pleasure - sex - detention of respiration - immobility of thought - detention of semen. Here is a text of Kanha: 81 "Women and language are vilizadas inmo-side of the Sun and the Moon." The first meaning is hathayogui: detention of the two times of respiration (prana and apana) in the first leg and the Pingala, followed by immobilization of the


activity of these two subtle veins. But there is a second meaning: Women's knowledge (prajna) and the language effort, through action (upaya) are both trying to stop the Gnosis as the energy wasted in the realization, and this "immobilization" can only be gained through Yoga (detenci6n of respiration). The "detention of respiration" in this context be understood as they accompanied the arrest of seminal emission. Kanha expressed in his cryptic style: "I thought Inmovil encompasses the Enlightenment (trans. Shahidullah, is also reflected by the Awakening Thought) despite the dust that adorns it. You see a lotus seed, pure nature, in his own body. " The Sanskrit commentary explains, if the maithuna (pulling) the sukra (s semen) is emitted, also thought remains motionless (Shahidullah). Indeed, the "dust" (rajas) is the "slices of the women-res" (both menses and genital secretions) during the maithuna, the yogi cause the release of its compafiera, while his Cukra immobilized, with the double effect of which on one hand and stops her thinking that the other becomes capable of absorbing "the seed of the lotus" (= the cracks). Accordingly, we find the three "retention" or "immobility ties" that speak hathayoguis texts (see p. 240): deten-tion of breath, semen and thought. The deep significant pieces of this "freeze" is not easy to discover. Before ad-dress their study, Ml stop at the ritual function of sexuality in ancient India and yogis-tintricas techniques. * i Shahidullah mistakenly introduced him as a "nihilistic": see Les Chants et Kanha mystiques Doha-Kosa, P. 14: "Kanha and Saraha are n hilistas. As for other philosophers madhyarnikas, there is nothing bhava or nirvana, or bhava (being) or abhava (nonbeing). The truth is innate (sahaja) is that emptiness. " Kanha rejects the "mind of the duality of the pairs of opposites, the condioionamientos, and seeks the non-con-conditioning (sahaja). THE EROTICA MISTICA The meithuna is known since the Vedic times, but I play to Tantrism turned into instruments of salvation. Distinguishing We in India pre-tantric, two values possible ritual sexual union, the other two, on the other hand, the archaic structure of incontestable antigiiedad: 1) the marital union as sacred, 2 째) orgiastic sexual union, which aims either universal fruitfulness (rain, crops, rebafios, women, etc..), or the creation of a magic defense. "Do not dwell on the marital act transformed into something sacred: jyo am the sky, you are the Earth! "says the husband and wife (Brhad. Up, VI, 4, 20). The union is a ceremony which includes a lot of foot-limiriares purification, symbolic approvals and prayers, all of which takes place in a Vedic ritual. The woman is previously transfigure bay, has become the sacred place where the slaughter occurs: "The lap is the altar, the hair is the lawn, the skin is the winery of the holy spirit, fire is the middle of the vulva 82 Both were obtained by sacrificing vajapeya, who obtained both sa-biendolo well below practice game ... " (ibid., VI, 4, 3). Note-ing a very important fact: since the BrharanyakaUpanishadsQ imposes the belief that the fruit of the "works"-the result of a Vedic sacrifice, can be obtained by a marital union ritual consumption. The identification of the sacrificial fire with the female sexual organ is confirmed by the magic spell that is exerted on the woman's lover: "You've sucked in my fire", etc.. (ibid., VI, 4, 12). A ritual detail of the union when it is desired that the woman conceives, he betrays some confused ideas related to the reabsorption of semen: After exhaled, the inhaled saying my force,


my sperm, I take your sperm, and she is deprived of sperm "(ibid., VI, 4, 10). The technique of aspiration hathayogui semen could therefore be, at least in the form of" magic spell ", since the time of the Upanishads It less, the text just read seminal aspiration relates to a respiratory gesture I <m a magic formula 32 Senart notes that the text seems altered. However, there may be translated differently. Moreover it is a very old belief, according to which the fire originated in the vagina, Eliade, Le chamanitme, pagi the 327, n. 2. The conception is made on behalf of the gods: "Let Visnu prepare the uterus that forms Tvastar mold, that Derrida Prajapati me that Dhat deposited the germ in you. Posa germ, oh Sinivali, poses the germ, and God of thick bun! Have you deposited the germ in two Asvins, the two gods with garlands of lotus "(Brh. C7P., VI, 4, 21). Just understand this to realize that sexuality was no longer a "psycho-fisk situation> 16gica" but that was valued as ritual, and then we have opened sexuality tantric path to innovation. If the piano is santi sexual-fied and approved at the levels ritual and mythological symbolism is exercised equally in reverse: the ritual is expressed in terms sexual us. "If during retenei6n, the priest separates the first two quarters of verse and seal tightly to the other two, is that women between the thighs and the press man during the docking, the priest represents in this way the couplings to, so that the sacrifice has numerous posterity (Ait. Brahmana, X, 3, 2-4). The HECB whispered recitation by a hotar emissions of seed, the adhvaryu, when he directs called hotar sacramental, gets on all fours and lost, the face, is that the quasi-drupedos will turn to broadcast the seed (ibid., X, 6, 1-6). Then adhvaryu rises and faces the hotar; is bipeds that are placed face to face to deliver the seed "(S. Levi, La doctrine du sacrifice, p. 107). We have seen in previous pages (p. 110) that during the mahavrata a pumscali is coupled with a ritual or a brahmacarin Magadha in the interior of the place reserved for sacrifice (see also Apastambiya Srauta-Sutra, XXI, 17-18 ); Katha-ka. XXXIV, 5; TaittiriyaSamhita, VII, 5, 9, etc.).. This is probably a rite of defense and prosperity at a time, as in the great sacrifice of the horse, asvamedha, where women's officiating, the mahisi, was to outline the link with the slaughtered animal, at the end the ceremony, the four wives were aban-donated to the four priests mayores.88 can decipher the ceremonial union between brahmacarin (literally "n.ozo chaste") and pumscali (literally "prg'stituta") desire make the coin 33 See Ins paragraphs in P. F. Dumont, L'AQvamedha (Paris, 1929), p. 2fi0 ff. For the sexual elements of fertility in agricultural ceremonies, altinditcher Machte Mever Trilogie und Feste der Vegetation, I-HI, Zurich, 1937. the reintegration of polarities, for in-against the same theme in the mythologies and symbolism-graphic icon many ancient civilizations. At least, both in asmavedha as sexual rites mahavrata still retains its cosmological value (the asmavedha is a repetition of the cosmo-Goni). Only when the deep signification of "coupling of opposites" is starting to become confused, renunciation of sexual rite: tad na karya utsannam etad Puranam says Srauta Sankhayana Sutra, XVII, 6, 2, "this is an old custom, not tirs be repeatable. Louis de la Vallee-Poussin saw in this formal order "the protests of ceremonies daksinacaras against left hand" (t-tudeset Materiaux, p. 136). It is unlikely, since the sexual symbolism was by no means an innovation of the va-Macara. But above quoted texts of the Brahmins and the Upanishads, we may add a passage of the Upa-nishad Chandogya-(II, 13, 1-2) in which the sexual union was transposed and already-Loriz as a liturgical chant


( soman), especially vama-Devy (melody that accompanies the soma prensadura halfday): "The flame is the Hinker (muffled exclamation with which begins on liturgical chant), the proposition makes the is the prastava (prelude saman), the spreads to women, is the Udgitha (main part of the saman), extending on women, is the prati-hara (part of the saman, for the third verse of one quarter -la) is completed, is nidhana (conclusion of the saman, corresponding to the last line of a quatrain). This is (saman) vama-Devy made in sexual union (Mithun). He who thus knows the vamadevya takes place in the Mithun, that is coupled, of Mithun played in Mithun, and so on. Do not refuse any such is the practical application. But we can not understand how such a text might belong to the ideology "left hand" is the transmutation of the sexual union in liturgical song (with all the religious consequences that brings) what matters first. As mentioned, this process trasmutaci6n psychophysiological activity in a sacrament, is characteristic of all archaic spiritualism. The "decadence" begins with the disappearance of the symbolic meaning of carnal activities, that's why you end up abandoning the "old ways". But the symbolism of the conjunction of opposites still fills an important role in thinking We have another proof that "sexual union" is con-sidered as a "conjunction of opposites" in the fact that certain texts replace the expression for the term maithuna samhita, "union" that term is used to designate the grouping binary of the syllables, verses, melodies, etc.., but also to expresai union with the gods and Brahman (AitareyaAran. Ill., 1.6; SankhayanaAran. VII, 14, etc..) .34 As we shall see, the conjunction of opposites is constant metaphysics all tantric rituals and meditations. Buddhist texts also mention the maithuna (mcthu-na Pali: dhamma methuno, Kathavathu, XXIII, 1-2) and Buddha mentions certain ascetics who view sensuality as a means to get the Nirvana (Dhiga, I, 36 ). "We must remember, writes L. de la Vallee-Poussin (Nirvana, p. 18, note) that several sec-tions allow religious sexual contact with women" not guarded "(single, pledges, etc..) ( ...). The epi-asnerizo sodium (or seller of birds) that while it was Arittha monk pretended that love is not an obstacle to the holy life, that of the religious Magandika offered his daughter to the Buddha, are episodes remember. (Cullen, VI, 32, etc.).. do not possess the elements ne-essary to decipher the deeper signification of these cus-toms. We must take into account that in parallel to a mystical erotica, India has known, since prehistoric times, innumerable rites involving sexuality in the most diverse cultural contexts. Some of these rites, recorded at the magic "popular"ran is discussed in the following pages. But it is very likely that it is not the technique Tantric the maithuna. The maithuna All nude woman is the incarnation of the SE shall therefore, look with equal admiration and similar detachment with which we are dedicated to thinking about the unfathomable secret of Nature, and his unlimited capacity for creation. The ritual nudity yogitri mystic has intrinsic value, if at the naked woman, not des For filos6fico basis of the principles coniuncion cough opues-Cooimraswamy see Ananda, Spiritual Authority and Temporal Power in Indian Theory of Government (New Haven, 1942). as H. H. Wilson, Sketch of the Religionus Sects of the Hindus (2d ed., Lon-don, 1861), p. 156.


covering one in depths of his being the same emotion that is experienced before the revelation of the cosmic mystery, no ritual, just a profane act, with the usual consequences (reinforcing the karmic chain, etc.).. The second stage is the transformation of Women-prakrti in incarnation of Sakti: the companion of ritual becomes a goddess, as the yogi must incarnate God. Tantric iconography of divine couples (entibetano yab-yam, father-mother) of the infinite "forms" of Buddha embraced by his Sakti, is the model type maithuna. One will see the immobility of God: all activity comes from the Shakti. (In the context yogi, the static purusa provides creative activity of prakriti). Now, as we have seen, for Hathayoga in Tantrism, immobility made jointly in the three pianos in the "movement"-thought, respiration, seminal emission, is the supreme goal of sadhana. Also here is a question of imitating the divine model: the Buddha, or Shiva, pure spirit, still and calm amid the cosmic game. First, the maithuna serves to give the respiration rate and to facilitate concentration: is it a substitute for Pranayama and Dharana, or rather its "support". The yogini is a girl who has received instruction from the guru and whose body is consecrated (adhisthita) by Nyasa. The sexual union is transformed into a ritual through which the human couple is transformed into divine couple. "Pre-stands for the performance of the rite (maithuna) through meditation and ceremonies that make it possible and fruitful, he (the Yogi) considers yogini, her companion and lover, under the name of any Bhagavat, and the substitute and the essence of Tara, the only source of joy and rest. The nature lover synthesized entire female, she is the mother, sister, wife, daughter, in her voice, love que.pide, the officiating recognizes the voice of Bhagavati begging for the Vajradhara, the Vajra sattva. This is for tantric schools, Saiva and Buddhist, the path of salvation, the Bodhi "(La Vallee-Poussin, Etudes et MaUriaux, p. 135 ). Moreover, the woman elected to the maithuna women is not always common in orgies. The Pancakrama presents a traditional ritual, "The Mudra, wife of Yogi, selected in accordance with fixed rules, offered, and consecrated by the guru, should be young, beautiful and talented: with it, the disciple practiced the ceremony, scrupulous observance of the siksa, because while there is no salvation possible without love (strivyatire-kena) carnal union is not sufficient to achieve salvation. The practice of Paramitas purpose of kriya, not be separated from Aque-11a: it is necessary that the sadhaka love the mudra according to the rites: kamayet strigam nativist "(La Vallee-Poussin, cited, 141). Pranayama, the Dharana, are but the means by which, during the maithuna, one arrives at the "immobility" and the suppression of thought, "supreme happiness" (paramamahasukha) of the Do-hakosa: the Samaras ( Shahidullah translates as "self pleasure" is rather of a "unity of emotion" and more accurately. paradoxical experience, inexpressible, the discovery of the Unit). "Fisiol6gkamente", Samaras is obtained during the maithuna when sukra and the cracks are still (Shahidullah, p. 15). But, as stated Shahidullah, "in the mystical language of maithuna explain Dohakosa permitted, union lotus (padma) and beam (ca / 'ra) as the realization of the state of the va-city (vajra = Sunya) in the nerve plexus of the brain (pad-ma). You can also understand the expression "young woman" as "emptiness." In Cary (Buddha Ghana), nairatma, non-ego state, or Sunya ', " emptiness ", is described as a young woman of low caste or cortesana.3 * by Pancakrama studied by L. de la 3S The role of low caste girls and courtesans play in tantric orgies (cakra, the wheel


tantric) is well known. The more depraved and libertine is the wife, but is suitable for the rite. Dombi (the washed-dera, in the secret language means however nairatma) is a favorite of all authors tantric (eg, the Cary of Kanha, in the work cited for 5h;> hi-Dullah, p. 111 ). "joh, Dombi, has sullied tcdo!... Some will call it ugly, but wise men hold you against your chest. .. Oh. Dombi. / IADI no more dissolute as you!" (Shahidullah, cited, p. 120, note). In the legends of the 84 mahasiddha (magicians) translated from Tibetan by Griinwedel (Die Ge-sehichten der Zauberer 84, Baessler Archiv, 1916, ps. 137-228) are often the "theme" of the low caste girl full of wisdom, possessing magical powers, who marries a king (Ps. 147-148), who knows how to prepare gold, etc.. (ps. 221-222). This exaltation of low caste mtijeres derived from several ra-zones. First, make the reaction "popular" against the orthodox systems, which is also a native elements counterattack against the ideology of caste and hierarchies introduced by hindii-Aryan society. But this is only one aspect of the problem, and negligible importance. The most im-portant lies in the symbolism of the "washer" and "court" and must take into account that, according to the tantric teachings of the identification of opposites, "the most noble and worthy" is just hidden Valtee-Poussin, the tnaithuna can be understood both as a * ct concrete and internalized as a ritual consisting of mudra (= yogini) is decirpor gestures, body positions and images displayed profoundly. Tara the religious, maithuna is an essential act of initiation (Sampradaya). At an order from deso-bedecen guru to the laws of chastity that henceforth must meet. This, in my opinion, the doctrine of Pancakrama (HI, 40) (...) â&#x20AC;˘ The practice not truly maithuna, if praetico once in his life, in the time of initiation, obtained under Yoga the supreme Samapatti (...) The maithuna not actu-ally practiced (samvratya = lokavyavaharatah) are replaced by interior-type exercises, for acts in which the mudra (yogini) is an intellectual form, a symbolic gesticulation, shape, or operation of physiology extrafia. "(De la Vallee-Poussin, Etudes et MatSriaux, p. 142-143). The texts repeatedly stress on the idea that maithuna is primarily the integration of the Principles, "the true sexual union is the union of Paracakti (kundalini) with Atman, the others represent only carnal relations with women" (KuZdrna - Tantra is, V, 111-112). KdUoUasa Tantra (Ch. X-XI), describes the ritual, but details that must be performed only with a wife initiated (parastri). A commentator adds that the ceremonial flame-do pancatattva (the five makara, ie the five words that show with the letter m: Matsya, fish; Mamy, meat, Madya, intoxicating bev-da, mudra and maithuna) is observed only in a literal sense by the low caste (Sudra). The same text asserts, moreover, that ritual is intended for Kaliyuga (Chapter V) or which is adapted to this stage c6smico-hist6rica that the Spirit is hidden and "CAFD" in a carnal condici6n. But the author knows very well that is interpreted pancatattva lite-rally, mainly in the magical atmosphere and in regions between "the lowest ID and vulgar". The alchemists occidenfales otherwise not come when they claimed that the raw material, identical to philosophorum lapis was everywhere and in its lowest form, vii figure. The authors of the Dombi helluva saw the representative of the "emptiness", ie the unskilled Grund and inexpressible, because s61o the laundress was devoid of every attribute or qualification social, religious, etc. Regarding the role of the Women in Tantris-mo as a spiritual guide, see W. Koppers, indiichen Probleme der Religions-getchichte (Anthrbpos, vols. 25-26, 1940-1941), p.


798. less orthodox, and quotes Nigamatantra sara: "In Gaura and other regions can be obtained by pasubham siddhi" (bread-catattva practiced in material form). We have seen that the tantric fall into two classes: the sa-mayin, who believe in equality of Siva and Sakti, and strive to awaken the kundalini through spiritual exercises, and Kaul, who venerate the Kaulini (= kundalini) and delivered to specific rituals. This distinction is accurate, no doubt, but not always easy to determine to what extent a ritual should be understood literally: we have seen (p. 239) in which respect it in-interpret the "drunkenness" that continues "to fell to the ground. " Now, more than once primitive and brutal language-do is used as a trap for non-initiates * A text concludes, the Saktisangama Tantra, devoted almost entirely to satcakrabheda (the "penetration of the six cakra") employs a very concrete87 vocabulary to describe spiritual exercises (see vol. H, p. 126-131 on the five makara: segun B. Bhattacharyya is not in any way "fish, meat, maithuna, etc.." but technical terms relating to the meditations). Not stress too much about the ambiguity of the erotic vocabulary in tantric literature. The ascent of Candali through the body of the yogi is often compared to dance the "washerwoman" (Dombi). With "Dombi on his neck," the yogi "spends the night in the midst of great bliss" (see the texts reproduced by Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, p. 120 et seq.). This does not preclude the maithuna ritual is practiced equally as concrete. By the very fact that it is no longer a profane act, but a rite, which the officials are no longer human beings but "detached" as gods, sexual union is not participating and karmic level. Tantric texts often repeat this maxim: "the same acts that make some men burn in hell for millions of afios, the yogi gets his salvation eter-na" (sattva karmanayena cat kalpakoticatanyapi, tena Ghore pacyante Naraka vimucyate yogi; Jnanasiddhi of Indrabhuti, p. 32, slo-ka, 15). See also other texts in Note VI, 11. That is, as * 7 To the extent that the text editor, Dr. Benoytosch Bhattacharyya had the precaution of replacing the signs XXX sexual terms, the S <we-tiiangama Tantra: vol. I. Kdikhanda (Gaekwad Oriental Series, vol. 61, Baro-da, 1932), vol, Tarakkhanda (GOS, vol. 91, Baroda, 1941). know, the very foundation of Yoga described by Krishna in Bahagavad-Gita: "He who is not led astray by his selfishness, whose intelligence is not disturbed, but kill all creatures, not kill, and does not charge with no strings ( XVIII, 17). And ranyaka Brhad-Up (V, 14, 8) and said: "He who knows thus, any pe-tion that appears to commit, and devours everything is pure, clean, no old age, immortal." The Buddha himself, if we are to cycle tantric mythology, gave the example maithuna practicing veneer Mara had succeeded, and, if using this technique had become omniscient duefio-te and magical forces (E. Senart, The Legende du Boud-dha, p. 303308). The practice "Chinese style" (cinacara) are rec-ommended in many Buddhist Tantras. Mahacina-kramacara, also called Cinacara-saratantra counts as the sage Vasishtha, the son of Brahma, Vishnu to interrogate, under the aspect of Buddha, on the rites of the goddess Tara. Tenetra in the great country of China and sees the Buddha surrounded by a miliary lovers in erotic ecstasy. The surprise of the wise is great, and are shocked. "jhe here practices contrary to the Vedas!" A voice cries out in space to correct his mistake: "If quie-res, the voice says, to gain favor with Tara, so it is with these practices in the Chinese style that you adore me." The wise man approaches the Buddha


and his mouth gathers this lection unexpected: "Women are gods, women are life, women are Adom. Be ever among women, in your mind" .* 8 According to a legend of tontrismo Chinese, a woman of Yen-chou was given to all men, after his death it was discovered that she was the "Bodhi-sattva with chained Bones" (ie the bones of the skeleton is, as strings were attached). 89 All this comes as maithuna the limits of itself and is part of the great movement of devotion to the "Divine Woman" that dominates the whole of India, after centuries vn vm. We have seen the dominance of Sakti in the systems of salvation * R S. Levi, Le Nepal, Ettide h'stcrique (Tun h'mdou royaume (Paris, 1905), vol. I, ps. 346-47. V> r S. Levi also on the Bulletin Mahacina ÂŁ cole Francaise Extreme Orient, 1905. Woodroffe, Shakti and Shakta, p. 179. 39 Chou Yi-Liang Tantrismin China (cf HarvardJournal Asiatic Studies, VT1I, ps. 241335), ps. 327-328. But this e! Cgio of carnal love can exp! H i-oars for emphasis (especially in the media Taoist) to the horn sexual tech-niques way to prolong life. Note VI, 12. and the importance of women in disciplines cpirituales. With krisnaita Vishnuism in form, love (prema) is called a des-empefiar a major role. It is primarily an adult love Tero of parakiya ratified, "the other woman" in the famous "Courts of Love" Bengal was organized fights between the owners of visnui-tas parakiya and keepers of conjugal love, svakiya, and the latter were defeated forever. The issue was that love of Radha with Krishna UNFA: love secret, illegitimate, "antisocial" and sim-breaking metabolized imposed by any authentic religious experience. (It will be noted that the symbolism of the mystic Christian marriage, which makes Christ the Bridegroom, not sufficiently emphasized in the eyes of a Hindu, the abandonment of all social and moral values, which involves the mystical love). Radha is conceived as infinite Love which is the essence of Krishna (see the texts cited by Dasgupta, Obscure religious cult, p. 142 et seq.). The woman in the nature of Radha and Krishna the man, so it is that "truth" concerning the loves of Krishna and Radha knowledge can only be given in the body itself, and this knowledge to the level of "corporei-dad" has a universal metaphysical validity. Ratna-sara proclaims that performs the "truth of the body" (bhanda) is taken capable of reaching the "truth of the Universe" (Brahmanda; op Dasgupta, P. 165). But, as in other schools t & Centrally and mystical when talking about man and woman, no one thinks of the "common man''(samanyamanus), the" man of passions "(Rager manus), but esenciaj man, "archetypal", "unborn" schoolmaster "or manus)," unqualified "(sahajamanus)," eternal "(nityerma-nus), so it is not a" common woman "(samanyarati) that you can discover the essence of Radha, but with the "extraordinary woman" (biceaarati: text in Dasgupta, p. 162). The "encounter" between Women and Men takes place in Vrindaban, the mythical place of the loves of Krishna and Radha, his union is a "* Set" (Ma), ie that is free from cosmic gravity, is pure spontaneity. Moreover, all mythologies and the techniques of the conjunction of opposites are standardized: Siva -Shakti Buddha-Shakti, Krishna-Ra-dha are translatable into any union (round Pingala, kundalini and Siva, prajnay upaya, "respiraci6n" and "thought", etc.).. Any conjunction of opposites to make a break level and leads to dis-covery of the "spontaneity" primordial. Many times, a mythological scheme is both "internalized" and "red" used Zander tartaric theory of cakra. visnuita In the poem Brahma-samhita, the Sahasrara-cakra is likened to Gokula, the abode of


Krishna. visnuita And a poet of the nineteenth century-Kamala Kanta, in his poem "Sadhaka-ranjana, Radha compares with kundalini) describes his journey to the rendezvous of Krishna as the the ascent of kundalini sahas-J are to go with Shiva (in Dasgupta vertexto cit, p. 150 et seq.). More of a mystical, Buddhist or still employed visnuita-do the yogi-tdntrico maithuna while "Love Devotion" de-empefiaba the lead role. The profound mysticism known as sahajiya, which is the prolongation of Tantrism, both Buddhist and Hindu, still preserves the primacy of the erotic techniques. (See Note VI, 13). But just as in Tantrism and Hathayoga, sexual union becomes a means of obtaining "supreme bliss-ma" (mahasukha) and should never end a seminal emission. The maithuna appears as the culmination of a learning-tic ASCE long and difficult. The neophyte must control his senses to perfection, and to that end, must come in stages to the "pious women" (Nayika) and transformed in God through a graphical icon-internalized drama. To that end, should serve during the first four months as a servant to sleep in his own habitation, then to his feet. Over the next four months, sir, seeing continued as before, and slept in the same bed, the left side. For four months, will sleep on the right side, then dormi-ran the two embraced, and so on. All these prolegomena tienei by ob-jective "autonomy" of delight "Think of it as the only human experience that can make bliss and nirvana-realm of the senses, namely the detention of the semen. In Nayika-Sadhana-Tika (Comments on spiritual discipline in the company of women) the ceremony is described in every detail. It consists of eight parts, beginning with sadhana, mystic concentration achieved through liturgical formulas cas; follows Smarana (the memory, the penetration of consciousness "), aiopai0 (atribucidn other qualities to the object"), in which ceremoniously offers flowers to the Nayika (which begins to be transformed * o Arop desempcfii an important role in the sahajiya: points to the first movement towards transcendence; see either 1 umano aspectc no longer under its physical, biological and psychological, but in an ontological perspective, texts Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, p . 158 et seq. mars on God), morning ( "remember the beauty of women during his absence") what is already an internalization of the ritual. In the five-ta stage, dhyana (meditaci6n mystic ") the woman sits on the left side-left of the officiating and is embraced" so that the spirit will inspire "41 In the bid (the" cult "itself ) is venerated as the place is sitting the Nayika, and offerings are made to bathe precedes women as it is washed to the statue of a goddess. During this time, the practitioner mentally repeated formulas. The concentration reaches its maximum when the Nayika up in his arms and places it on the bed, while repeating the formula: tiling kling Kandarpa svdhd. The union is between two "gods". The game takes place in an erotic transfisiologico piano, it never ends. During the maithuna, the yogi and his Nayika incorporate a "divine status" in the sense that not only experience bliss, but can see directly the ultimate reality. THE "CONJUNCTION OF OPPOSITES" We must never forget that maithuna must end with a seminal emission: boddhicitam notsrejt, semen should not be issued, repeat textos.42 Otherwise, the yogi falls under the law of Time and Death, like any vulgar libertine (Dohi-kosa of Kanha, stanza 14; HY


Prcdipika, III, 88, etc.).. In these practices, the "pleasure" plays the role of a "vehicle" because it seeks the maximum stress suppresses the normal conscience state and leads to Nirvana, Samaras, paradoxical experience 41 "Women must not be touched by bodily pleasure, but for the perfeo-ing of the spirit", he points Anandabhairava (quoted in Bose, Post Caitanya Sahaja Cults, ps. 77-78). 42 For example, Gunavratanirdesa, quoted in Subhasitasamgraha (edition Bendall, Musecn, p. 44): bhag na cotsrjet lingam pratisthapya bcddhicittam. Tambifn the tecntcas known taolsmo similar, stronger. (H. Maspero, Lei pro-give in to "Le principe vital nourrir" taoiste ancienne dans la religion, Journal Aslatlque, ju! Io-September 1937, p. 383). But the purpose of these procedures was not to obtain a state nirvatico, paradoxical, but save the "vital principle" and prclongar youth and life. Sometimes these rites Taoist Erotic proporcicnes reached the collective orgy of real (Maspero, ibid., P. 402: probably vestiges of ancient festivals that took place at comcn-zar the new station). But the spiritual horizon maithuna specific is very different from the or ^ i'as archaic, whose sole purpose was to ensure universal fruitfulness. See Note VI, 12. Unit. Lo 'iemos seen: Samarasa is obtained by "freezing" of the respiration, of thought and semen. The Doha-Kosa Kanha always repeat this: the respiration "does not go down, not up" by failing to make neither the one nor the other, remains immobile "(v. 13). "He who has fixed the king of his spirit through the joy (Samarasa identity) in the state of the innate (sahaja) becomes instantly magician, does not fear old age and death" (v. 19). "If you put a strong lock on the gate of breath, if that makes a terrible darkness of spirit lamp, if the jina joy to play up the sky supreme alia, Kanha says, nirvana is achieved while benefits of existence (v. 22, trans. Shahidullah). It is in the "identity of joy" in the inexpressible experience of Unity (Samarasa) that reaches the state of sahaja, non-con-ditions, of pure spontaneity. All these expressions are, moreover, hardly translatable. Each tries to express the paradoxical state of absolute non-duality (advaya) mahasukkha leading to the "Great bliss. As the Brahman of the Upanishads and Vedanta, and Nirvana of Mahana, the state of sahaja is indefinable not be known dialectically, it is known only through the experience (see the texts of the Doha and the many reproduced by S. Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, p. 91 et seq.). "The whole world says NevajraTantra, is the essence of sahaja, sahaja it is the quintessence (svarupa) mud: the quintessence is nirvana for anyone who has a mind (citta) pure." They "made" the state of sahaja transcending dualities and for this reason is that the concepts of advaya (non-duality) and yuganaddha (principle of union) have an important place in tantric metaphysics. The Pancakrama discusses at length the concept of yuganaddha: the state of unity achieved by the elimination of both polar and contradictory notions: the samsara (cosmic process) and nivrtti (detention absolutely every process) is reached beyond these two notions to understand the nature of the end of the world ien6menos (samklesa) is identical to the nature of the absolute (vyavadana) sQ performed as the synthesis between the notion of formal existence and non-formal, and so on. (handwritten text reproduced by S. Dasgupta, op cit, p. 32, number 1). Reco-nocemos in this dialectic of opposites, the favorite topic of Madhyamika and in general the Mahayana philosophers. But the tantric sadhana is interested in, wants to "make" the paradox former prisoner of all the formulas and Imageries concerning the union of opposites, want to reach experimentally the state of non-duality. Buddhist texts had become popular mainly two pairs of opposites ": Prajna Wisdom and upaya, the means of attaining, Sunya, void,


and karuna, compassion. "Unified" or "transcend" amount to reach the paradoxical situation of a Bodhisattva: in their wisdom, that no longer sees people (because, as metaphysics the "person" does not exist, there is only one set of five skanda) and yet, in his compassion, the Bodhisattva strives to save people. Tantrism multiplies the "pairs of opposites" Sun and Moon, Siva and Sakti, idaypingala, etc.. and as we saw, is "unified" by gia physiological techniques and subtle rather than meditation. It is important to emphasize this fact: whatever the level where it is realized the conjunction of opposites represents overrun the world of phenomena, the Abolition of the whole experience of duality. The images used suggest a return to a primordial state of non-diferenciaci6n: the unification of the sun and the moon reflects the "destruction of the Cosmos" and therefore the return to the original unit. In Hathayoga, it comes to getting the "immobilizationcation of the respiration and semen to speak of" regression of semen "is a paradoxical act, impossible to operate in an environment physiologically" normal "proper Cosmos of a "normal" in other words, the "regression of semen" translates into the physiological piano, "transcendence" of the phenomenal world, access to freedom. This is but an application of what we call "walking against the stream" (ujanasadhana), or the process "re-gressive" (ulta) of the Natha Siddha, implying a total "investment" of all psycho physiological, it is in the background, the mystery-tions already registered poravrtti Mahayana texts, and, in Tantrism also designates the "regression of semen" (see Note VI, 1). The implies that the crushing of the Cosmos and thus the "out-of-time" access to "immortality." In Goraksavijaya, Durga (= Sakti Prafcrti) addresses "Siva in these terms:" <^ C6mo is pos-sible, Senor, that you're immortal, and that I am mortal? jRevelame the truth, sir, that I may become immortal "(texts in On this occasion, when Shiva is the doctrine reveals hathayoga. But immortality can be obtained only dete-NienD la manifestation, therefore the disinte-gration process: you have to go "upstream" (ujanasadhana) and find the primordial Unity, immobile, which existed before the breakup. That's what the hathayoguis by joining the "Sun" with the "Luna". This paradoxical act is performed on several levels simultaneously: by the union of Sakti (= kundalini) with Siva in the Sahasrara we obtain the inversion of the cosmic process, regression to the state of Wholeness indistinct primitive "physiologically", the conjunction Sun-Moon is translated by the "union" of prana and apana, ie a "totalization" of respiration, in a word, for his detention, and finally sexual union, for the interpretation of the Vajroli-mudra (see more above, p. 245) makes the "regression of semen" (see Dasgupta texts, 274). As we have seen, the union of the "Sun" and "Moon" takes place through the unification of the phases of respiration and vital energies round circulating pingala: the unification takes place at the susumna. Now, says the Hathayoga-Pradipika (IV, 16-17), "the susumna devours the Time. The texts insist on the "conquest of Death and immortality that results for the yogi to" conquer the Time. Stop breathing, stop thinking, to immobilize sperm-these are mere formulas to express the same paradox of the Abolition of Time. It was noted that any effort to transcendence of the cosmos is preceded by a long process of cosmization body and psycho-mental life, as it is from a "perfect Cqsmos, the yogi transcends cosmic conditions But" cosmization "held first by pranayama, modifies


and temporal experience of yogui.48 The Kalacakra-tantra connects the aspirations and the expiration with the day and night, then, with the fortnights, months, the afios, to achieve progressively the higher cosmic ci-clos. That is, by his own breathing rhythmtory, the yogi repeated and somewhat revives the Great cosmic time, the creations and destructions of the Universes periodic (the "cosmic Days and Nights"). Respiraci6n When stopped, the "unified ÂŤÂť View Symbdismes our study of Tempt et indiens deTEtemitS (Images et symboles, Paris, 1952, ps. 73-119), p. 112 and rig. caria "in susumna, the yogi transcends the world of phenomena, results in the unconditioned state and non-temporal where" there is neither day nor nocje "where" there is no old age and disease, and simple formulas approximations to mean "out-of-Time. Trescender" day and night "means transcen-der to opponents. It is, in the language of the Natha-siddha, the reab-sorption of the cosmos through the investment of all processes of manifestation. It is the coincidence of Time and Eternity, the bhavay of Nirvana, in the piano purely "human" is the Reintegration of the primordial androgyne, the conjunction, in our own being, the male and female: in short, to regain the fullness that comes before all Creation. In sum, it is this nostalgia for the fullness and primordial bliss that animates and informs all leading to the coincidence techniques in the self oppositorum. It is known that the same nostalgia and symbolism and techniques are amazing variety registered in many places in the ancient world (see our Traite d'Histoire des Religions, p. 357 et seq.) We also know that aberrant mu-chas ceremonies find their foundation and theoretical justification in the desire to regain a status of "paradise" of primordial man. Most of the excesses, cruelties and aberrations-tions known as "tantric orgies" depend also on the same traditional metaphysics that he refused to define the ultimate reality that another way of consciousness oppositorum. Some of these excesses, certain forms of "popular" in solidarity with the theories and methods will be discussed in tantric another chapter. We still have to stress one aspect of tantric sadhana that usually goes unnoticed: it is the particular significance of the cosmic rearbsorcion After having described the process of Creation, by Siva (I, 69-77), the Siva-Samhita describes the process in reverse, which involved the yogi: This looks like the earth element becomes "subtle" and dissolves in water, and as the water dissolves in the fire, the fire in the Air, Air in the ether, etc.. until everything is reabsorbed in the Great Brahman. However, the yogi is undertaking this spiritual exercise to anticipate the process of absorption takes place at death. In other words, the yogi and assists, through his sadhana, the reabsorption of these cosmic elements in their respective parent process set in move-ment at the time of death and continues in the die early existence after death. The Bard Thodol, da, in this regard some valuable information. Addressed under this angle, the tantric sadhana focuses on the experience of the dead-te initiation, as expected, since all spiritual discipline involves archaic, under way or another, the initiation, namely the experience of death and the resurrection rituals. In this respect the Tantric is a "dead man walking" because anticipation has lived with his own death is also "twice born" in the initiatory meaning of the expression, since this was not "born again" only in theoretical level, but through personal experience. It is possible


that a number of references to "immortality" of the yogi, which abound in the texts mainly hathayoguis, they are concerned with the experiences of these "living dead". CAPITOLO VII YOGA AND ALCHEMY LEGENDS of yogis ER Tantric Vajrayana tended to seek a "diamond body" incorruptible, outside of becoming. The Hathayoga fortifying the body to prepare for the "transmutation" final and to make it suitable for "immortality". As we have seen, tantric processes were done in a subtle body, approved at the same time the Cosmos and the Pantheon, body and somehow divine. Important detail: the disciplesit was to contemplate the dissolution and the creation of the Universe and, finally, experience in itself "death" (= disoluci6n) and the "resurrection" (= re-creation) of his subtle body so as Cosmos (p. 262). This process of dissolution and re-creation hacc remember to solve et coagula of Western alchemy. As the alchemist, the yogi makes changes in the "substantia" and this, in India, is the work of Prakrti or Shakti (or the Maya, the archetype of the Magician). Tantric Yoga for fatally showed prolongation alchemical one: firstly, to master the secrets of the Sakti, the Yogi manages to imitate his "transformation" and the transmutation of common metals into gold early falls between traditional siddhi: the other hand, the "diamond body" of the Vajrayana, the siddha-deha of hathayoguis, has some resemblance to the "body of glory" of the Western alchemists, the transmutation is made from the meat, it produces a "divine body " '(divya-deha), a" body of Gnosis (jnana-deha), a worthy receptacle for the one who is liberated in life "(jivanmukta). The solidarity between Yoga and alchemy was also perceived in India, both as the first foreign travelers by the people that quickly draw up a whole yogi-alchemical folklore, integrating the themes of the elixir of immortality and the transmutation of metals into the mythology of the YogiMagician. Exa-mined before alchemical texts as such, presents some in teres remembering some observations of travelers and certain le-going on the famous alchemists: as quite often, the "myth" is more eloquent than the historical reality and allows us to better penetrate the deeper meaning of a historical fact that the recorded documents. Marco Polo, speaking of chugchi (yogis) who "live 150 or 200 years," writes: "They used very rarely drink, prepare pupils for a potion made from a mixture of sulfur and mercury, and drink it twice month. It gives them, they say, very long life, and is a potion that usually take from childhood "(Yule, Travels of Marco Polo, edition of H. Cordier, 1903, vol. II, p. 365 ff. ). Marco Polo seems to have given greater importance to the yogis, alchemists. Francois Bernier, however, who had ob-served and studied to various sects of ascetics natives, have been de-syndicated several pages that formed until the early nineteenth century, the main source of information about the yogis and fakirs (Voyages Francois Bernier, Docteur en Medicine, Faculty of Montpellier, Amsterdam, edited by David Paul Marret, II, pp. 121-131). I keep noticing his alchemical knowledge: "There


are other quite different from those that are strange characters, are almost perpetually traveling back and forth, are people who laughs at everything, do not bother about anything, people who kept secrets, and that, believing what the people say, know how to make gold and prepare mercury so admirably that one or two grains every morning tornadoes heal and fortify the body such as the stomach, which digests very well and it feels sick of eating. (Ibid., pag. 130). The tradition that the Indians knew the ascetics secrelo longevity through drugs is also in the works of Muslim historians "I've read in a book that certain heads of Turkestan sent ambassadors with letters to the kings of India with the following mission: they had been in-formed, these chiefs, who in India could get drugs to the ownership of prolonging human life and through which the king of India reached very old (...) and heads of that they be a little of the drug, co-mo so the indications concerning the method by which the rishis to retain their health for a long time "1 According to the Emir Khusru, longevity was obtained also in India, thanks to pranayama. "... With her art, the Brahmins can get longevity by reducing the number of breaths per day. A yogi who lived respiration could restrict its more than 330 years." (Nuh Sipihr, ou Les neufcieux spheres, by Emir Khusru, translated 'by Elliot, The History of India, vol. Ill, London, 1871, pp. 563-564). The same author also found the following with regard to yogis: "You can predict upcoming events to be shown by the respiration leaving the pot holes> them, according to this more or less open the right nostril and left another body may also inflate with its own respiration Many of these men in the mountains of Kashmir's borders (...) They can fly through the air like chickens, incredible as it seems. They may even become invisible at will, putting itself in antimony eyes. Only those who have witnessed these miracles can believe in "(op. cit. 564). We recognize that most of the yogic siddhi, and first term, the. Power to "blow up". Let us note in passing that this siddhi has finally integrated into the alchemical literature (Note VII, 1). The literature abounds with allusions to alchemical yogis tar-mist "When I was a teenager, he wrote the famous Jain ascetic Hemacandra to Devacandra, a piece of copper durno previously pregnant with the sap of a bush and placed near the (...) you later, according to your instructions, went gold. Tell us the name of that bush and its characters, and other necessary details about them ".2 But it is mainly around the famous Nagar 1 Translating. By Elliot, The History of India as told by its own Historians (vol. II, London, 1869, p. 174). The legend of a plant in India by which one can obtain eternal life, is known in Persia since the time of King Chosroes (531-578); Reinaud, Memoire sur Vlnde (Paris, 1849), p. 130. We also find referenda on the elixir of immortality in the Jataka, but this drink is probably referring to the legend of ambrosia more than alchemy. 2 Prabandhacintamani, trans. C. H. Tawney, Calcutta, 1901. p. 147, idem, p. 173: a priest gets an elixir that transmuted into gold everything he touched. The author is the Jain monk Merutunga (fourteenth century), who wrote also a legend that crystallize juna alchemists. Indeed, this per-speaking legendary character who Somadeva (eleventh century) in his Katha-saritsagara and Merutunga in Prabandhacintamani not the same as the illustrious Dr. Madhyamika, as everyone knows, a whole tantric gia mythological, alchemical and magical was added to the biography of the famous philosopher, but it is important to emphasize how Tantrism and magic alchemy appear saturated in the exemplary image of Nagarjuna (the only one that was imposed and was preserved by collective memory). We read in the Kathasaritsa-gara to Nagarjuna, Chirayus minister,


reached to prepare the elixir, but Indra ordered not to inform anyone about its use (tr. Tawney, edition Penzer, Ocean of Stories, III, p. 257; sig.). Somadeva, as a good Brahmin, wanted to demonstrate the prestige of Indra even with respect to a wizard as powerful as Nagarjuna. In Prabandhacintamani, Nagarjuna is the author of an elixir by which flies through the air (tr. Tawney, ps. 195-196). According to other legends, such as famine was raging in the region, making gold and the exchange of cereals imported from distant countries (see Note VII, 2). We shall return to discuss Nagarjuna. But remember now that belief in the po-der yogi to transmute base metals is still standing in India. Russell and William Crooke, yogis knew that attempted to transform copper into gold, they said to possess that power through one of his teachers on the time of Sultan Altitmish (or Altamsh). Oman also speaks of a sadhu alquimista.8 We'll see how the alchemical sortile-leges crystallize mainly around the 84 tantric siddha, and that in certain regions, alchemy is confused with Tantric yoga and magic. commentary on the alchemical treatise Rasadhtjaya A. B. Keith, A History of Sanskrit Literature, p. 512. Regarding the "golden man" see Prabandliacin-Tamani, P. 8; Hertel, Indische. Marchen (Jena, 1921), p. 235. The legend of the Philosopher pierlra in India is also in the Air 'i Akbari, by Abdul Fadhl Allami (1551-1602), trans. Blochmann and Jarrett (Calcutta, 1873), vol. II, p. 197. 3 E. V. Bai Bahadur Russell and Hiralal, The Tribes and Castes of the Center Provinces of India (London, 1916), vol. II, p. 398; \ V. Crooke, Tribes and Castes of the S \ W. Provinces (Calcutta, 1898), vol. III, p. 61; J. C. Oman, The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India (London, 1903), p. 59 et seq. Tantrism HAWAYOGAY Alchemy his description of India, emphasis is on the relation between alchemy, rejuvenation and lon-gevidad. "They have a science similar to alchemy and all their own. They call rasayana, derived from slate," gold. "It is an art consisting of certain drugs based manipulations and certain medicinal compounds in their most removed from the plan -tas. Its principles restored the health of the terminally ill and return the youth to the elders, the men immediately returned to the puberty age, white hair turn black, one rediscovers the acuteness of the senses, agility youth and even sexual vigor, and the earthly life of men is protracted until very old age, why not? ^ Have not been mentioned on the authority of Patanjali, one of the methods that lead to liberation is the rasayana? (Ed. C. Sachau, Alberuni's India, vol. I, ps. 188-189). Indeed, Vyasa and Vacaspati Misra, commenting on a sutra of Patanjali (Y.-Y. IV, 1) where talking about simple (ausadhi) between the means of achieving the "perfections", ausadhi interpreted as an elixir of life, obtained by rasayana. Some Orientalists (AB Keith, Liiders) and the majority of historians of science (J, Ruska, Stapleton, Rainha, Muller, E. von Lipmann) argued that alchemy was introduced in India by the Arabs: invoked on all the importance alchemical mercury and aparicidn Late in the texts. However, mercury is registered in the Bower Manuscript (rv century of the Christian era Hoemle, The Bower Manuscript, Calcutta, 1893-1912, p. 107) and perhaps also in the Arthasastra (third century before Je - sucristo), always in relation to alchemy, 4 Moreover, a certain number of Buddhist texts speak of alchemy long before the influence of Arab culture. Avatamsaka Sutra, which may consider yourself belonging to afios 150-350 of our era (was tra -


* According reinheid Miiller and von Lippmann (Enstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemei, II, p. 179), the word rasa, in the Bower Manuscript would have no relation to mercury, but the problem is not even tolucionado. Concerning the mer-Fliri and alchemy in Arthasastra. R. V. Patvardhan, Proceedings of 1 Oriental Congress, Poona, 1919, vol. I, p. CLVj Winternitz, Some Problems of Indian Literature (Calcutta, 1925), p. 101. duced into Chinese in the 695-699 afio for Siksananda), said: "There is a juice called Hatake. A Hang this solution can transform Hang Mar thousand bronze into pure gold. Mahaprajnaparamitopadesa (trans. Kumarajiya at 402-405) is still more precise: Tor using drugs and charms can turn bronze into gold. Through a skilful use of drugs, Marse can turn silver into gold, silver and gold. Using spiritual force a man can change stone into gold or clay. "These are not the only texts (see Note VII, 3), but just to quote a passage from Mahaprajnaparamitasastra, the important treatise of Nagarjuna translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva (344-413 of the Christian era, therefore it met three centuries before the in-crease of Arabic alchemy begins with Jabir ibn Hayyan, to 760 after Jesus Christ). Among the "Metamorphosis" (mrma-na), Nagarjuna quotes a long list of siddhi (reducing the size of an atom, enlarge to fill the space, etc..; through stone walls, walking through the air with his hand touching the sun and the moon) and finally, the transformation "of the stone into gold and gold in stone." then adds: There are four classes of Nirmana (metamorphosis): 짜 *) in the world of desire (kamadhatu) the substantia (dravya) can be transformed, thanks to the hier - bas (osadhi), valuables and magic tricks, 2?) do-ing beings of supernatural science (abhijna) can transform the substantia by the force of his magical power (rddhibala) 3P) the Deva, Naga, Asura, etc. ., by force of retribution (vipakabala) of its stock (above), can transform substances; 49) beings returned to a world of material existence (rupa-dhatu) can transform the substances through the power of concentration ( samadhibala, trans. E. Lamotte, Le traite de la Grande Vertude Sagesse, I, ps. 382-383). From which we lle-gar to the conclusion that the transmutation of metals could be both or mineral alchemy plant and magic, and by force of samadhi, ie in Yoga. We shall see that this same tradition is registered by other texts. Notice now that nothing proves the existence of a dependence on Indian alchemy on Arab culture. On the contrary, we find the alchemical ideology and practices in the ascetical, or alii where later, when the invasion d "In India by Muslims, Islamic influence hardly vera. The alchemy is in relation with Yoga and Tantrism, pan-Hindu traditions and archaic. We found the Tantric alchemical cos mainly in regions where Islam penetrated low-mind in Nepal and the Tamil region (where the alchemists called sitter, ie siddha). It is mainly in literature and tantric traditions that are more accurate references to alchemy and the highest number of names sidhhd alchemists. Subhasitasamgraha (ed. Bendall, p. 40, stanza beginning: rasaghrstam yatha ...) gives an important role to mercury; Sadhanamala (I, p. 350; the Introduction ps. 85-86) mentions the rasarasayana called the FIFTH Siddhi. A Siddha Carpati text speaks of tar-economic processes (the fragment in Devamanusyastotra Tucci, indicae Animadver-sions, p. 137). The Sivasamhita (III, 54) says that the yogi is able to make gold with any metal, rubbing it with his own excrement and urine data in analog Yogatattva-Upa-nishad (74) where alchemy is however considered (30 ) as an obstacle in the path of perfection yogi. The Treaty gratn tantric, translated from Tibetan by A. Griinwedel under the name 84 Die Geschichte der Zauberer (BaesslerArchiv, V. Leipzig, 1916, ps. 137-220) gives


information on alchemy-ing practices of Siddha: Karnari get the elixir in the urine (ps. 165167) and can transmute copper into silver and silver into gold (ps. 205-206); Capari known whereby the dye is gold (p. 202); Gurn vyali testing the preparation of silver and gold with dro-gas (ps. 221-222), and so on. Referring to another master tantric, Vagisvarakirti, Taranatha wrote that "brought forth by the magic elixir of life, in quantity and distributed among people, so that one hundred and fifty years old and still more were again young people "(quoted in Conze, Buddhism, p. 177). All these legends and references to Tantrism, alchemy symbiosis put beyond doubt a function of soteriol6gica alchemical operations. This is not pre-chemistry, science embryonic ria-but a spiritual technique that, while acting on "matter" sought above all the "perfection of the spirit", the liberation and autonomy. If we ignore the pro-lifer6 folklore about the alchemists (as about all the "wise men") can understand the symmetry between the metal alchemist working on "common" to transmute into "gold", and the yogi work on yourself, strive to "extract" of psycho-mental life, confused and enslaved, the free spirit and self-autonomous, which shares the same essence as the gold. Because in India, as elsewhere, "gold is immortality" (amrtam ayur hiranyam; Maitrayani-samhita, II, 2, 2; Satapatha Br, III, 8, 2, 27; Aitareya Br VII, 4, 6, etc.).. Gold is the only metal.perfecto, solar, and hence its symbolism is attached to the symbolism of the Spirit, freedom and spiritual autonomy. It is thought pro-absorbing prolong life indefinitely gold. But, according to the alchemical Rasaratnasavmccaya Treaty before absorbing it was necessary to purify and "fix" through the use of mercury (text quoted by PC Ray, A History of Hindu Chemistry, vol. I, p. 105). De-a chapter of the Sarva-Samgraha darsana-of-Madhava6 with sacred to darsana rasesvara-literally the "science of mercury," clearly shows that it is not an empirical science, a pre-chemistry. Because liberation depends on the "stability of the human body" and that's why mercury, which strengthens and extends the life, is also a means of liberation. A text quoted by the Sarva-darsana-Samgraha states that "the release is the knowledge, knowledge of the study and the study is only possible for one who has a healthy body. The ascetic ideal is to get the "liberation in life, be a Jivan-Mukta. The rasa (mercury) 0 cs the quintessence of Siva, also called stop, because it leads to the other side of the world. It is also the seed of Hara (Shiva) and abhra (mica) is the ovum of the goddess (Gauri): the substance resulting from its union man can become immortal. This "glorious body" was obtained by a large number of nest-mukta jiva, including the text cites Carvati, Kapila, vyali, Kapali, Kandalayana. Madhava soteriological emphasis on the role of alchemy. "The system mercurial (rasayana) should not be regarded as a mere eulogy of metal once it is half-preserved body, to achieve liberation, the supreme goal." And Rasasidd-hanta alchemical treatise quoted by Madhava, says: "the liberation of the vital soul (jiva) 5 Edition Ananduslirama Series (2 * reimprc-sion), ps. 48-53; trans. Covvel! and Cough (ed. IV, London /. ps. 137-144. 6 The mercury was ÂŁ coas.derado pia-uli Tanira as a general principle tor, and given alir.un.is iijdk.iuoiu. alii snn-s hicer one mercuriul or Shiva phallus, P. C. Ray, Selected Works, vol. i, introduction, p. 79. system is exposed in the mercurial, joh, thinker! "A text and another Madhava Rasarnava no appointment (anyatrapi) argue that the merit is gained seeing the mercury is similar to what is gained by seeing and worshiping the phallic emblem of Benares or any other


place sanio. As in the other treaties and tantric hathayoguis the Rasarnava begins with a dialogue between Bhairava (Shiva) and Goddess: she asks him the secret of jivan-mulctiy Siva replied that is often poorly known even among the gods. The liberation after death has no value (verses 4-5). According to this treaty, it can prolong the life of the body if it wins control of respiration (well, literally. The wind of life) and implement mercury. However, this recalls the Natha Siddha yoga, which seeks to dominate the "vital winds" and regulate the secretion of Soma, this technique is called somarasa (Dasgupta, Obscure Cults, 292). There is another class of ascetics, the Siddha of Suddha marga (the "pure path"), which are two species of "incorruptible bodies": the "liberated in life" (JivanMukta) and para-mukta The first is constituted by a kind of transmutation of the Maya, is immortal and superior to any process of disintegration, but ends up being absorbed into the "body of pure light" or "Divine Body", the divyadeha or jhana this second body, being entirely spiritual maya) no longer belongs to the subject. In Tantric ienguaje, these two bodies are incorruptible and baindava called sakta respectively. According to some texts, the Natha Siddha distinguish, they also on the siddlui-divya-deha deha (see Dasgupta, Obscure cults, 293). In summary, one can say that the processes of rasayana vehicle to serve as psychic and spiritual operations tuales.7 The "elixir" obtained by the alchemy is for the "immortality" pursued by the tantric yoga, the same way that the pupil works directly on your body and your life t This tradition of alchemy tell supporters today in India. C. S. Nsrayanaswami Aiy?. V, Ancient Indian Chemistry and Alchemy of Chemico-philo-sophkal Siddhanta-system of the Indian Mystics (Madras, The First National Oriental Congress, 1925). to transmute flesh "divine body" and release the Spirit, the alchemist acts on the matter to become "gold" is to accelerate their maturation process, to "refine touch him. There is thus a hidden solidarity between" matter "and the psycho-physical body of man, which is anything but surprising if we consider the homology Man-Cosmos, so im-portant to Tantrism. From the moment that, through the process of" internalization "called Results spiritual rites and physiological operations logically he ought to get similar results "internalizing" operations performed on the "matter" to be in a certain spiritual condition, communications between different levels-cosmic becomes possible. The tar -mista assumed and prolonged the archaic tradition recorded by nu-mere myths and behaviors "primitives" - which saw "Ma-teria" not only as something living, but mainly as a depositive sacred forces: the same as for the magician "Primitive" and that the tantric to the alchemist was the problem of "awakening" to those forces and to master them. The cosmos was opaque, inert, "objective": to look revealed begun living, guided by the "sympathy." Minerals, metals, precious stones were not "objects" of an economic valueended, but the cosmic forces embodied and for with-next, participated in sacred. Chinese alchemy In China we find an analogous situation. Alchemy is using the traditional cosmological principles, the mi related cough elixir of immortality and the Saints Inmor such, the techniques that seek the prolongation of life, the bea -


racy and spiritual spontaneity (see reviews and bibliography on Note VII, 4). The gold and jade, therefore participating in the yang cosmological principle, preserve the body of corruption. "If you put gold and jade in the new openings in the cadaver is preserve of putrefaction "writes the alchemist Ko Hung. And the treaty Tao Hung-Ching (v century) we find the details if lowing: "If when you open a tomb inside the cadaver lifelike yet, know that the body inside a large quantity of gold and jade. According to the rules of the Han dynasty, the princes and nobles were buried with their clothes decorated with pearls and jade boxes to preserve the body of de-composici6n.8 For the same reason alchemical gold containers are specified under: life-prolonging to infinity. The magician Li Chao-Kiun tells the Emperor Wu Ti of the Han Dynasty: "Sacrificad using the oven (tsao), and you can make things appear (supernatural), cinnabar powder processing may be do in yellow gold and when the yellow gold has been produced, you can make the eating utensils and drinking and you will have then extended longevity. When your longevity has been pro-long, you can see the blessed (hsien) of the island P'on which is in the midst of the seas. When you have seen, and once you have made the sacrifices and then not The most celebrated Chinese alchemist, Pao P'u (pseudo Ko-Hung nimo, 254-334; Note VII, 5), said: "If this gold tar mico you doing dishes and tableware, and if you eat and drink on this plate, vivi reis long time "(trans. Notes p. The gold to be effective, must be "prepared". Gold "manufacturing market" is superior to gold natural.10 The Chinese believed that the sub-stances found in the bosom of the earth were unclean and they need Taban be "prepared" as food to be assimilated -tonnes (Waley, p. 18). 8 B. Laufer, Jade, A Study in Chinese Archeology and Religion (Field Museum, Chicago, 1912), p. 299. See also J. J. M. de Groot, The Religious System of the Chinese (Leiden, 1892), I, 269;). Przyluski, L 'Or, are origine et ses pouvoirs magiques (Bull. Ecole Fr Extr. Orient. XIV 1914, p. 1-17), p. 8. 9 reproduces Translation by Edouard Chavannes, Les Memoires histo-m & riques de Sema-Chien, t. Ill, 2nd part (Paris, 1899), p. 465. The text was also translated by Waley, op cit, p. 2, Johnson, Chinese Alchemy, ps. 76-77 and Dubs, Beginnings of Alchemy, ps. 6768. 10 The gold produced by the sublimation and transmutation process tar mica possessed a higher vitality, by which salvation could be obtained cion and immortality. It was found, through the alchemy of gold transcendental quality to allow the human body spiritualization (Laufer, Isis 1929, p. 331). If even the herb may prolong life, ^ Why do not you introduce evidence in your mouth the Elixir? Gold, because of its nature, does no harm, why, among all objects, but that of jjrecio. When the artist (the alchemist) it includes in its diet the duration of his life shall never end ... When the golden dust enters the five bowels, as the mist dissipates the clouds heavy with rain, wind


... The white hair turn black, fallen teeth grow again. The tired old man is again a young man full of desires; The old woman is overwhelmed again a maiden. The shape-shifting and escape the dangers of life, is the name title "True Man" 11 The first historical mention of! To alchemy, on the other hand, is related to the fabrication of gold: in 144 BC, an imperial edict threatens public performance to all those who are caught in the act of making gold (text re -produced by Dubs, p. 63). According to W. H. Barnes, the first references to alchemy could date from the fourth century or in. Dubs believes (p. 77) that the founder of Chinese alchemy would Tsou Yen-porary of Mencius (fourth century). That this opinion whether or not its substance, we should distinguish the historical beginnings and development of a pre-chemistry, alchemy 16gica Soteria-like technique: the latter accepted (and I keep doing it until the eighteenth century of our era ) methods and the mythologies, mainly Taoist, pursuing a very different objective to "make gold". Gold had imperial character: he was in the "Center" of the Earth and had relations with chue mystical (sulfide), yellow mercury and the afterlife (the "Yellow sources"). Here's how Tung Ch'i an 11 TS, chap. XXVII, trans. Waley, Notes, p. 11, trans. Ch'iang Lu Wu, ps. 240-241. Ts'an Tung Ch'i, the text's popular alquiirrico-Yang Wei Po (a pseudonym to "style" of Lao-Ts6, 120-150 AD) means "union of the compound correlation. About this treaty, see An ancient Chinese treatise, ps. 212-216, Johnson, A Study of Chinese Alchemy, p. 133. present it in a text of 122 BC, in are also recorded where the belief in a hasty metamorphosis in metals (translated by r'ragmento Dubs, ps. 71-73). It is possible that this text comes from the school of Tsou Yen, if not the Master himself (ibid., p. 74). In China, the belief in the natural metamorphosis of metals is quite old, and also is found in Annam, in India and Malaysia. The inhabitants of Tonkin said: "The bronze is the mother of black gold." Gold is naturally generated by the bronze. But for this transmutation takes place, it is necessary that the bronze nezca permanent underground for quite a long time. "Thus, the anami-tas are convinced that the gold found in mines alii is formed slowly over the course of centuries, and that if hu-bier revised the floor in its origins, would have uncovered bronze where today is gold "(J. Przyluski, Ei Gold, p. 3). The al-quimista does nothing but accelerate the growth of metals such as its western counterpart, the Chinese alchemist contributes to the work of nature, precipitating the rhythm of Time. "But we've not forgotten that the transmutation of metals into gold also presents its" spiritual "side: as the imperial gold metal," per-fect "," liberated "from impurities, im pursuing alchemical operation make explicit the "perfection" of nature, that is, ultimately, his absolution and freedom. The gestation of the metal within the Earth due to these temporal rhythms that "tied" to the carnal man in his condition and "dethroned" hasten the gestation of metals by the alchemical work is equivalent to ab-solver of the law Time: Similarly, the yogi and tantric released by proper techniques, your temporary condition, and conquering the "immortality". Recall the Vedic proverb: gold is immortality. This explains the alchemical operations are always ^ ien relations with the liberation beyond Time. In China there is a pa-rentesco evident in the "preparation of gold," the obtaining of the "drug of immortality" and "evocation" of the Immortals: Tai Luan


presented to the Emperor Wu and assures him that he can *- make these three miracles, but only enough to "materialize" the Immortals (Sse-ma-Tsien, Memoirs, trans. Chavannes, III, p. 479). Another famous character, Liu Hsiang (79-8 BC) aims to "make gold", but also fails (texts in Dubs, p. 74). Some centuries later, Pao Pu'tzu (Ko Hung) comes to explaining the fail-ure of Liu Hsiang dici ÂŁ ndon that did not possess the "true medi-cina" (the "stone filosofaT), who was not spiritually prepared do (as the alchemist must fast Hundred Days, purified with perfumes, etc.).. You can not make the transmutation into a palace, adding Pao Pu'tzu; have to live in solitude, away from the pro-orphans. The books are inadequate, as found in books which serves only for beginners, the rest is secret and only allows trans-orally, etc.18 The search of the elixir is linked to the search of the islands and mysterious anas lej, home to the "Immortals": finding the "immortal" means exceeding the human condition and part of a beatific existence outside of time. It is possible that many expeditions undertaken to find the "Islands supernaturally-tions" have geographical discoveries had resulted - <IACA-so the search for "Parafso" or "Islands of the Blest" was not in the West Point starting from the great geographical discoveries beyond the ocean? Nor should we forget that, on the basis of such enterprises, there was always a myth, the primitive image of a heavenly land, subtracted the time, where people lived "perfect" and "immortal" (in other cultural media to find them svetadvipa-on which see Note VII, 1 -, Isle of the Blest, Avalon, etc.).. Searching of these islands Immortals anas lej worry the first emperors of the Tsin dynasty (219 to Crista: Sse-ma-Chien, Memoires, II, 143, 152, III, 437) and Emperor Wu of the dynasty Han (110 BC in Christ: idem, III, 499; Dubs, p. 66). The nostalgia for a mythical land where the "drug of immortality remains even in the Middle Ages: the" supernatural islands located in the middle of the East Sea "are substituted for distant countries, but also gang-villoso: India, West Asia. The Emperor T'ai Tsung (seventh cen-tury) had in his court a brahman called Narayanaswamin. 12 See the summary by Dubs, ps. 79-80, and the texts translated by T. L. Davis and K. F. Chen, The Inner Chapters of Pao-p'u-ttu (Isis, 74, 1940-42, ps. 287-325), also on the preliminary ascetic and spiritual alchemy the operations, Tung Ts'an fragments Poyang Wei-Chi, translated by T. L. Mon-Ch'iang Davis and Wu, Chinese Alchemy (The Scientific Monthly, 1930), ps. 230, 231. 234. Wang Hsuan who ts / and do come from India in 648 (Wa-ley, p. 23). The alchemist was skilled in the art of prolonging life. In 664-65, the Buddhist monk Hsuan-chao-Tsung Kao received the order to come to Kashmir with a magician called Lo-kaditya hindu, who was reputed to possess the elixir of vida.13 Genghis Khan in 1222 ordered the alchemist Taoist Ch'ang-ch'un traveling to Sa-marcanda. Asked if Genghis Khan possessed the elixir of life 14 ch'un Chang replied frankly: "I have means to protect life (talismans against evil influences), but not the elixir of immortality." At some point, the authors distinguish alchemy alchemy esoteric exoteric. Peng Hsiao, who lived in the late ninth century and the first half of the tenth century, commenting on the treaty Ts'an Tung Ch 'i made a net separation between exotic-rich alchemy that addresses the specific substantia and That alchemy-teric, which only uses the "soul" of these substantia (Waley, op cit, p. 15). This distinction had already been made long before by Hui-ssu (515-577 AD). Alchemy "esoteric" rich "is made clear in the Treaty on the Dragon and Tiger in Your Tung-p'o, written in 1110 AD. Metals "pure" transcendental, are identified in different parts of the body, alchemical processes, rather


than being made in the laboratory, were developed in the body and consciousness of the experi-feeders. Your P'o Tung says: "The dragon is Mercury.'s Semen and blood. Rifion Exits and is retained in the liver (...). The tiger is lead.'s Respiration and body strength. Quits the spirit and is retained in the lungs (...) • When the spirit moves, the respiration and the force acting at the same time as the. When the kidneys are swollen, semen and blood flow to the pair of those "18 Just as in India 'alchemy is linked to tantric yoga, in China has remained supportive of the Taoist techniques. That's why Ed Chavannes 13, Memoire star eminent * les religieux qui chercher alUrent the lot dans le pays d'Occident (Paris, 1894), p. 21. 14 Arthur Waley. The travels of an Alchemist. The journey of the Taoist Ch'ang-ch'un from China to the Hindukush at the summons of Chingiz Khan (London, 1921), p. 131. 15 Quoted by Waley, Notes on Chinese Alchemy, p. 15; cf. also Lu ' Ch'iang Wu and T. L. Davis, An ancient Chinese treatise on alchemy, P. 255. that the discipline of the rhythm of respiration-so important in Taoist circles (p. 61) - is part of the discipline of the tar-mista. Pu'tzu Pao writes: "When you start learning the true use of respiration, the practitioner must inhale air through the nose (nostrils) and mentally count the beats of the co-razon. When you have counted 120 beats, should exhale through the mouth respiration In this method the aim is that the ears do not perceive the sound of the inhalation or the exhalation of (...) • Through a practice graduate, you must increase the length of the suspension (...) the respiration to reach a thousand beats of hearts. The old man coming to get it then becomes a young man ... " (trans. Johnson, A Study of Chinese Alchemy, ps. 47-48). Alchemy, spiritual techniques Not going to elaborate here the study of "origins" of Chinese alchemy: whether they are related to the search of "gold", the "drug of immortality" or (in the opinion of Waley, ps. 18-19) of artificial cinnabar, character. symbolic and sacred of these substances is obvious. (The color red represents the vital principle, the san ^ gre; cinnabar prolong life, hence its presence in sepul-tures since prehistoric times). Also must take into account the symbolism and sacred character of metallurgy, secret technique whereby it is "matured" minerals and "purified" ban "metals, alchemy action which was responsible for prolonging, as this also fixes "perfecting" of metals. (On the "secrets of metallurgy and its relations with alchemy, see Note VII, 5.) It is possible that after a given time has developed a chemical parallel to alchemical operations, and perhaps also has ended up becoming an empirical science, based solely on enforcement and experience. It's possible. But we must beware of confusing the two types of experimentation: pre-alchemy and chemistry. Nothing proves that the alchemists were interested in chemical phenomena. F. Sherwood Taylor writes about the alchemists Alexandria-us: Those who used the sulfide could not help but notice the strange phenomena that occur after its merger and consecutive heating of the liquid. However, although the sulfur is mentioned hundreds of times, never alluded to any of its characters out of its action on metals. This contrasts so with the spirit of classical Greek science, we must conclude that the tar-mist were not interested in natural phenomena that did not serve their purposes (...) ■ In alchemy not found no co-ginning of Science (• • ■) • The Alchemist does not use scientific procedures ever "19 The ideal of alchemy survived even in Europe until the eighteenth cen-tury it was the


belief that man can cooperate in the work of Nature: "What Nature made at the beginning, we can also do it ourselves, improving the procedure used-do for her. What she can do still using the centuries, we can make him end up in an instant, help-dola and placing it in appropriate circumstances. As we make bread, we also do The relationship between Yoga and Alchemy is understandable if one considers the soteriological character of these two techniques: Both of those experiencing the "soul" by using the leather human po as a laboratory pursuing the "purification", the "perfection", the final transmutation. This solidarity between the two experimental method in alchemy and be also it finds elsewhere. We know the close relationship that existed between the symbolism of / ascetic purification of the soul and the symbolism of the alchemical search among the most anti-Sufi four commands the sense of "haves and experimenters of the procedure tion of the secret and mysterious transmutation ", meaning that it is very old) as Jabir ibn-Hayyan, and Dhou'l Noun Sa'ih'Alawi Misri. In the words "literary affinity is imposed on between these two legendary dramas human experimentation, the science and the mystic, between the alchemist in search of an elixir, a water of Youth, an agent of transmutation uni 16 F. Sherwood Taylor, A Survey of Greek Alchemy (The Journal of Helle nic Studies, 1930, vol. 50, ps. 109-139), p. 110. 17 Jean Reynaud, Etudes Encyclopedique t. IV, p. 487, quoted by A. Dau bree, La generation des mineraux METALLIQUES aux mineurs dans la pratique des du Strongly Age, d'apres le Bergbiichlein (Journaldes Savants, 1890, ps. 379-392, 441-452), p. 383. versal, and the ascetic in search of a Spirit, sanctified minister caci6n "18 In India, the trend of yoga to assimilate all coneretas techniques could not set aside a experimentation as accurate as that of alchemy. At certain times, the osmosis between these two spiritual science is perfect: both oppose the procedure purely theoretical, purely metaphysical knowledge: the two work on "living matter" to transmute it, ie to change its regime ontological : both seek the release of the laws of time, ie the "deconditioning" of existence, the conquest of freedom and beatitude, in a word, the "immortality".


is L. Massignon, Al HaUaj, MartuTmystique of Vlslam (Paris, 1922), vol. II, p. 931. Referring to alchemy in its relations with ismaeliana gnosis, see Henri Corbin, Le livre du Clorieux of Jabir ibn Hayyan. Alchimie et Archetypes (Evan Jahrbuch, XVIII, Zurich, 1950, ps. 47-114). CHAPTER VIII INDIAN YOGA AND ABORIGINAL THE ROADS TO FREEDOM We were able to distinguish, in this great spiritual synthesis is Tantrism, elements of different origin and scope: first, the legacy of Vedic religion and Brahmanism, the innovations of the Bhagavad-Gita and the current sectarian, and partly , the contri-tion of medieval Buddhism, alchemy and indigenous spiritual. We acknowledged the central role played by the techniques yogis in the tantric-synthesis: thanks to them, experience levels so heterogeneous iconography such as the sexuality and alchemy have been approved and built, eventually forming pianos equivalent of the same spiritual journey. As in the previous synthesis (the epic, the Bhagavad-Gita, etc.) are specifically yogic disciplines just-do-minion of the respiration and respiration-methods that have offered their basedown to the new valuations. This process of integration has continued, with increasing pace, even after the triumph of Tantrism, the decline of Vajrayana Buddhism and the invasion of Islam. We do not intend here to trace its history, complicated times each, as it refers to almost all sectors of the religious and cultural life of India. (Remember only that but different forms of Yoga-of devotion, mystical, erotic or "magic" - Exer-rum paramount influence on the birth of vernacular literature, and in a general way, the formation of the spirit of India modern.) We intend to demonstrate through a series of examples chosen in the most different from each other (folklore, popular devotion, sects, superstitions, etc..) mul valuations tiple and contradictory yoga at any level of culture. This brief informs planes will be taken to more and more eccentric and archaic cos, to eventually encompass much of the early history of India. The probing will be instructive: we see that the "yogi" and Saintnaijasi can take countless forms, from the magician and fakir healers and producers of "miracles" to the most noble ascetics and mystics high, not to mention the magicians vamacari extremists and cannibals. If the yogis have been able to ever be confused with all these types of magico-religious behavior, is that all the techniques involved in Indian spiritual sense of Yoga. In the popular atmosphere, yogis and magicians were always considered fearsome, endowed with powers sobrenaturales.1 Despite the reservation of Patanjali and other forms of yoga on the siddhi, it was almost inevitable assimilation of the yogi to magician. Because, for


the spirits unnoticed, it was easy confusion between absolute freedom and liberation, between jiven mukta and wizard-in-death "that could make all experiences without enduring karmic effects. Further reports will read some examples of such confusion with regard to Gorakhnath and Nathasiddha. The faith-nomen is understandable if we remember that freedom is manifested in countless ways, often antisocial, a free man no longer feels bound by laws or prejudice, is placed beyond all forms and social ethics. The "excesses" and "aberrations" that echo the legends of the vamacari, the cruelties and crimes committed by and Kapalika. Aghori all represent the evidence for the sensitivity Hindu, total freedom won on with -human condition and outside society. Do not forget, for the pen-cessing hindu human condition "normal" is equivalent to slavery, ignorance and suffering, freedom, knowledge, the beati-tude are inaccessible meanwhile that "normalcy" is not destroyed, and metaphysically founded on the same premise all excess and all aberration, whom they also are effective ways to abolish the human condition. Let's say then that in India, the extreme-Mixed have always been a minority, that large currents spiritually not ever encouraged such protests that nihilo 'Maurice Bloomfield, On false Hindu ascetics and nunes in fiction (Journal Amer. Orient. Soc, 44, 1924, ps. 202-242), especially ps. 213-218. Instead of disputing in that the liber destinations, the followers of the "terrible schools" almost always lived outside of asceticism and Indian mysticism. But all literal interpretations of the significance of the human condition were justified by ideologies respectable as both Mahayana hindulsticas. Moreover, such excesses committed in the name of a doctrine of salvation, his way almost inevitable syncretism with spiritual rituals plucked at lower levels and with input from subordinate groups; Tantrism eventually become part of the popular ma-gia large and small, Yoga supports erotic apparition in the full light of the orgiastic cult secrets and license-infectives maniacs who, without the prestige of tantric maithuna hathayoguis and techniques, would have continued his obscure existence on the margins of society and religious life of the community. Like all mystical gnosis and all that spread and triumph, Tantric Yoga is not enough to avert the degradation, social strata penetrating ever more extensive and eccentric. Since you can not always play an integral Yoga, one is content to imitate certain aspects exte-res, is interpreted literally certain technical details. Is the risk of any spiritual message that is assimilated and "lived" by crowds without preliminary initiation. In the Indian perspective, this phenomenon of degradation for the rapid movement of the late fall cycle: during the kali-yuga the truth is buried in the darkness of ignorance. That's why you have new teachers and continually readjust to the doctrine of "timeless Biles possibilities of a fallen humanity. P "ro we shall see, Gorakhnath propositive and the 84 Siddha, the message, constantly renewed, of these new teachers, suffers from the crowd, the erosion-bers (for the appearance of the masses is the characteristic note of kali-yuga) and eventually degrade and be forgotten, more accurately, a certain level "popular" means spiritual teacher ends up Alcan-zar the archetypal image of the Great Magician, the "liberated in life, all po-seedor the siddhi. Aghori, Kapalika An important point seems to us in this spiritual process: the de-gradation of an ideology by misunderstanding of the symbolism that serves as a vehicle. Here is an example: we


know because the paper des-empefiado the cemetery (smasana) and meditation, in sentnda position on the corpses, in many Indian ascetic schools. The symbolism is frequently highlighted in the texts: the cemetery is full of psycho-mental life nourished by the consciousness of self, the corpses symbolize the vari-ous sensory activities and materials. Seated at the center of his profane experience, the yogi burns the activities that feed the same way that corpses are burned in the cemetery. Meditating on a smasana, one end more quickly even the burning of selfish experiences at the same time, one free of fear, they evoke the terrible demons and subjected. Now there is a class of ascetics sivaitas the Aghori or Agho-rapanthi sometimes been interpreted as material that symbolism of "cemetery" and "corpses". The name of these ascetics has been translated as "not-terrific" (a-Ghor); aghorapanthi which would follow the path (or worship) of Shiva in this form. La relation with Tantrism is evident. These Aghori eat food put into human skulls, cemeteries and attend the late nineteenth century even practiced cannibalism: Crooke cites the case of an Aghori of Ujjain in 1887 had devoured a corpse on a burial mound (see Note VIII 1). They feed on all kinds of filth and any kind of meat, except the horse. They justify these practices by saying that all tastes and natural inclinations of man must be destroyed, that there is neither good nor bad, neither pleasant nor unpleasant, and so on. As human excreta equally barren soil fertilized assimilation of all kinds of dirt fertilizes the body and the mind becomes capable of any meditation (Barrow, OnAghoris, p. 222). For them there is no difference of caste or religion, the parents are simply accidents (ibid., 223). These ascetics are divided into two branches: Shuddh (cigars) and malin (dirty). As to worship, some confess Sitala worship Devi, Devi Parnagiri others, 2 others to Kali. Any Saiva, of any caste can become agho-ra. According to Barrow, to the Jains are admitted, which is not true for visnuitas (ibid., 210). Do not worship the pictures. Outside of God, 2 God venerated in Pali, near Ajmer, and regarded as the tutelary goddess of the ascetics, Barrow, cited, p. 210. respect to celibacy is required. They vagrant life and the disciple (chela) can become guru recent 12 afios after the death of his spiritual master. The bodies were buried not widespread, but sitting with her legs crossed. (See below Note VIII, 4.) Aghori These are but the successors of a much more ancient ascetic order and known, the Kapalika or "carriers of cra-neos. The Maitrayani Upanishad (VII, 8) mentions as a Kapalin, one inscription from the first half of the seventh century to the god named Kapalesvara and ascetics (Bhandarkar, Vaisnavism, Saivism, p. 118; Brahmasutra, II, 2, 37) . The Kapalika worshiped Siva under his appear-ance of Mahakala (Great Destroyer) and Kapalabhrt (the bearer of the skull). Are very similar to the tantric vamacari, but carried to the extreme of cruelty and orgiastic ritual. From the sixth century allusions multiply: Dasakumaracarita in the sixth century, Hsiu-Tsang, qui in found on his trip to India (630645), Bhavabhuti (vra century), who presents in his play Malati - Ma-DHAV, a kapalita called Aghoraghanta, ready to sacrifice the virgin Malati in honor of the goddess Camunda. We found a similar episode in Prabodh Chandrodaya, represented in 1065: the author is a sannyasi named Krsnamisra which seems to have known enough to kapalita. Consider what one of them says: "My necklace and my adom are made with human bones. I live among the ce-Nizas of the dead and put the food into a skull (. â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘) â&#x20AC;˘ We drink liquor in the skulls of the Brahmans ; our sacred fires are fed with the brains and


lungs of men mixed with the meat, and the God apatiguamos Terrible (Maha Bhairava) with more human victimization of fresh blood covered the wounds arising from their throats (...). The strength of our religion is such that I command of Hari-Hara and gods biggest and most anti-four commands, stop the movement of planets in the sky, plunge the Earth with coati and cities in the Waters and then drink in the blink of an eye (...). That which resembles the gods, which is used as comb the lunar disk and full of pleasure, close to women so beautiful as Parvati, that knows the bliss su-prema ... " A kapalini accompanied, Prabodh Chandrodaya at Kapalika: dressed as the mature breast kapalini dances with the under the direction of BhaivaTa. No doubt as to the licentious rites of Kapalika "possible, without sacrificing the pleasures of the organs of sense, get the eight great siddhi. Ramanuja, who distinguishes two kinds of Kapalika a mista extreme, the other moderate stresses its relation to sexual techniques (Sribhasya, II, 2, 3538). Kapala ago to say: "Whoever knows the true nature of the six mudra, mudra and includes more elevated, that, meditating on himself while imagining sitting in bhagasana position (ie, finding himself sitting on the pudendum muliebre) reached Nirvana. Both European travelers that travel in India, as the Dabis-tan, confuse and Aghori Kapalika with yogis in general. The description of Dabistan is the most expressive possible: "Certain members of this sect (yogis) blend their excrecio-tions and after filtering through a cloth, the drink, saying it renders man capable of great businesses; extrafias claim to know things. They call that does that and also atila akho-ri "3 Later, the author of the Dabistan Kapalika probably confused with any sect vamacari. So says of ^ inga and bhaga: "This cult exists in many places and among Hindus nume-ous; large number of them practice agama, it is permitted to drink wine and if, instead of the usual glass is used a human skull (which they call kapala), the drink is taken over agra-Dabl yet. This allowed, say, kill any animal and even a man they call this bullet (bravery). At night go to places called smasanam (cemetery), where the bodies were burned, there are drunk, eat meat of burned corpses and mate in front of others, with women they called sakti-puja ". The information provided by the author are quite accurate. Affirms that these incest tantric prefer the regular union knows that lull (prostitutes) are appreciated and they are called deva kanya, there are two kinds of cults, bhadram (pure) and Vacama (impure), but that the latter is preferred. Also known that in the sexual act the woman personifies the goddess. The author saw a Kapalika meditating on a corpse was found in Gujarat and with a certain Mahadeo, who spent every night sen 3 The Dabistan or School of Manners (traslatedfrom the original Persian with notes and ilustrations, by D. Shea and A. Frazer, Paris, 1843), vol. II, ps. 129-160. Recall that Mobed Dabistam was compiled by Shah in the seventeenth century. graph on a cadaver. Infertile women spent the night with the guru. It is likely that something Mobed Shah has mixed their reports and also confused sexual rites of the orgy Kapalika (the Tasamandali) of Vallabhacarya (concemiente to es-cough, see Note VIII, 2). However, the trend of orgiastic Kapalika is incontestable indications exist to co-teaching orgies taking place in different seasons, and involving all members of the sect. According Kaumudimahotsava Natak, the festivities were done in spring (vasantasava) and otofio (kaumudimahotsava) and showed a marked orgiastic character (PR Shastri, The Lokayatikas and the Kapalika, p. 135). However, in these ceremonies took part not only all Kapalika. but also the "materialists" and "cynical" the Loka-Yat覺k, namely those who fight off the entire Vedic tradition and all the values of Hinduism. The


festivities "of station" and the orgies that took place then were specific notes archaic cult of vegetation, pre-Indo-European. It is interesting to see that certain traditions designate the Kapalika as the initiators of these orgies "stations", which also attended the lokayatika: is included in the same system at the festivals of the vegetation, a tantric orgies and eccentric behavior of the "materialists" of the cannibals and carrying skulls. This detail shows us the meaning of tantric yoga futures contacts with Aboriginal spiritual values. Heine-Geldner relate human sacrifice and the hunt for skulls widely recorded in Assam and Burma, with an ideology that remains even matriarchal in Tibet and the Himalayan regions. In India itself, some of these archaic cultural elements played a role later in the phenomenal momentum of tantric caktismo (whose focus was precisely in the Assam = Kamarupa). Such are the ethnological evidence but there are still a problem hist6ricoreligious aspect, namely the spiritual revalorization habits that in-clude prehistoric human sacrifices and worship of the skulls, and this is the aspect that most concerns us here. Here's how we imagine the process: l9) an archaic ideology, coupled with some lunar symbolism, meant, among other things, human sacrifice and the hunt for the skulls, people who shared this ideology were, in historical times in the bordering areas of Hinduism, 29) in the high Hindu spiritualism piano, cemetery, dead bodies, skeletons have been revalued and integrated into a symbolism asc & ico-mystic: medi-tar sitting on a corpse, carry a skull , etc., are now pursuing spiritual exercises a kind of "values" completely different, for example, the headhunters, 3 째) when the two ideologies have come in contact, whether in the border areas (Assam, Himalaya) and in the inner regions of India where the elements of archaic culture had been preserved better, we witness phenomena of pseudc-morph and devaluation. We then understand that this or that way tantric yoga takes a certain level licentious culture saturated with matriarchal elements, is also understood that a kapa-lin Yogi forgets the signification of "cadaver" and "skeleton" and becomes headhunter, thus becoming cannibalistic behavior (unless the "philosophy" of cannibalism, as Volhart demonstrate, is not as aberrant as it appears in the eyes of a modern man). These degradations and reciprocity-ing devaluations are mainly explained by "symbolic confusion", by forgetting, or insufficient understanding of the symbolism. Occasion will we find the same phenomenon in other cultural contexts and with respect to other symbols, mythologies and techniques that became part of Yoga. GORAKHNATH and 84 SIDDHA A considerable number of yogis are adept at Gorakhnath and are called yogi Gorakhnathi or Kanphata, this last expression is re-fiere the fact that at the time of initiation, they pierce their ears to introduce outstanding enonnes (kan = ear, Phata = = cleft). We have seen in previous pages that the Hatha yoga Gorakhnath claimed as a founder, the alleged author of the first treaty of its system, now defunct treaty. Still, relations between Gorakhnath, the Hathayoga Kanphata and-so is beyond dispute: the Kanphata they call themselves "Yogi", simply, and literature includes a number of texts hatha-yogis, including the most celebrated texts are Hathayoga-PRADI-pika Gherandasamhita, Sivasamhita, Goraksa-Satake, and so on. But the ascetic order exceeds the limits of ideology and hathayoguis disciplines. Indeed, this is a very im-portant movement seems to have enjoyed great popularity after the twelfth century AD, and which converged large number of traditions and religious practices, magical and alchemical, sivaitas in its majority, but


also Buddhists . The move triggered by the historical characters that were turned into myth with the names of Gorakhnath, Matsya-dranath and other illustrious siddha, appears to represent a new movement of Indian spiritualism bottom of that sink deep into the layers aborigines of India. Currently, the Gorakhnath have all the symptoms of a decaying sect, and the origin of this process probably dates back several centuries. But the mythology and folklore crystallized around teach-ers allow us to calculate the enormous popular resonance that you saw these teachers-between the collapse of Buddhism in Eastern India and the dawn of modern times. These mythologies and folklore these, but rather "recent" from the point of view strictly cronol6gico, actually represent ccntenidos-tremely archaic is the rise of spiritualism that TIME-inch long remained ignored and therefore not registered by cultural means "official", ie more or less depending on us directly from a legal tradition, whether Brahmanical, Buddhist, Jain or "sectarian". In folk legends and vernacular literatures created around Gorakhnath, the Siddha and the Natha, express the true spiritual longings of the women chedumbres superficially "Hinduized. Now it is remarkable that such folkloric and literary creations have been raised just for saints and teachers tantric and alchemists, and mainly, the "inventor" of Hathayoga course, ie by siddha, they understood the liberation and conquest of immortality. We will see the overwhelming importance of "reason of immortality" in folklore and literature of Gorakhnathi and Natha, which leads us to believe that this ground-that extends and supplements the Jivan-Mukta "liberated in life" -- expresses the longing of every soul Indian. No one knows almost nothing about the historical personality of Gorakhnath. It soon became defonnado by myth, and almost deify-ing: thus witnessed by the countless myths and legends recorded a little everywhere in the western and northern India, Nepal to Rajputana, Punjab to Bengal, Sind the Decan . Probably, his life was spent between ninth and twelfth centuries. Tuo Gorakhnath carried a new synthesis between certain traditions sivaitas (Pasupata), Tantrism and doctrines (so imperfectly known) of the siddha, ie yogis "perfect". In some ways, the fall in Gorakhnathi site Pasupata sivaitas sects, Lakulisa, Kalamukha and Kapalika (Briggs, Gorakhnath and the Kanphata Yogis, p. 218). But equally tantric rites practiced off-hand * and Gorakhnath besides, whom they can identify with Siva, worship the nine Nathan and the 84 Siddha. It is in this "environment" of the Siddha and the Natha that should bring the message of Gorakhnath (as in regard to his personality historical, nothing exact has been preserved). We will not address here the problem is so poorly known yet, the 84 Siddha (see Note VIII, 3). Just remember that all yogis who achieved "perfection" could receive behalf of siddha, but the fact that this term is related to "wonderful power (siddhi) indicates that this was, first, a" magical perfection. The Hathayoga-Pradipika, I, 5-9 in-cludes a list of maha-siddha, starting with Adi-Natha (Siva's mystical name and listing to Matsyendranatha, Goraksa, Kapala, Carpathia, and so on. Other lists are more or less complete come to our arms, but it is rare that the lists of names of the siddha coincide completely. agravose Confusion from the resemblance of the traditions of Siddha and Buddhists siddhacarya Saha-jiya. Certain names, first and foremost Matsyendranatha, Goraknath, Nagarjuna, Kapala, Carpati, etc. often appear .-. siddha note that the most important are, if we set aside to Matsyendranatha and Gorakhnath, Nagarjuna and alchemists (Capari, Carpati, etc.)..


The number 84 does not correspond to any historical reality, is a mystical number, registered in all Indian traditions, both hin-dues as Buddhists ajivika, Jain (see examples in Dasgupta, Obscure Cults, p. 234). Probably expresses fullness, completeness. The 84 Siddha thus represent the "totality of a * D. Wright, History of Nepal (Cambridge, 1877), p. 140; W. Crooke, The Tribes and Castes af North Western Provinces and Otulh, III (Calcutta, 1896), p. 158 (quoting Buchinam) Briggs, cited, p. 172. revelation. "As for the 9 natha, their numbers also symbolizes the integrity of a doctrine. Goraksa-siddhanta-Samgraha tantric cites two texts clearly illustrate this symbolism: the So-nitya-dasa-tantra says the nine natha spread Tantrism c6smicas at different times, and Tantra-maharnava natha eight points reside in the eight directions, and non-veno in the center (quoted in Dasgupta, p. 237). In other words, the doctrine disseminated by these nine teachers covers the "full" space-time. The natha-and first Matsyendranatha, Gorakhnath, Carpati, Kapala-are also lists of the 84 Siddha. We can thus see that sahajiya Tantrism, both Hindu and Buddhist, alchemy (Nagarjuna, Carpati), the Hathayoga (Goraknah) and Kapalika are united: its representatives are in-stances both lists Nathan as nine in the 84 Siddha. We may have the key to its symbolism in one time (probably in the seventh and eleventh centuries) was a new "re-disclosure" by teachers who, like his predecessors-res, they showed the slightest originality (^ were not identified with Siva or Vajrasattva? ) but again performed timeless doctrines according to the needs of his time. One of the key points of this new "revelation" was the termination of the synthesis between the elements of Tantric Vajrayana and sivaita, magic, alchemy 6 and Hathayoga In a way, the "revelation" prolonged tantric synthesis. But some of the Natha Siddha and insisted more than his predecessors on the value of magic and yoga as means to gain invaluable freedom and immortality. It is primarily this aspect of his message that impressed the popular imagination, even now find their echoes in folklore and vernacular literature, and for this very reason that these latter seem valuable to our investigaci6n. With regard to the proper order of yogis Kanphata been seen (p. 288), part of the tradition of militant sivaismo. The Kanphata serve as Pujari (officiating) in the temples of Bhairom, Sakti and Siva (Briggs, cited, p. 139). Many of them go on pilgrimage to the temple of Hinglaj Vamac, t 5 GoraksasamhUa, work attributed to Gorakhnath, is among the alchemical treatise, P. C. Ray, A History of Hindu Chemistry, vol. II, p. JtCVI. in Baluchistan, and carry as a souvenir necklace white pebbles-cas (Sarquhar, Outline p. 348). Moreover, the first Europeans who referred to Kanphata (eg Buchanam) Enconlock them with vacamari similarity. His relations with the Aghori are quite narrow, after his first initiation, called kanphata Augh, and sometimes it happens that a aughan-comes Aghori (Briggs, p. 71). Certain Aghori serve in the temple of Kamakhya (= Durga) in Essam. This temple enjoyed great fame for human sacrifice that were in force until the nineteenth century (English fueronprohibidos by the Govemment in 1832). In 1585, one hundred and forty victims were beheaded in a single sacrifice. "速 If we consider that the Assam (= Kamarupa) was the country both? Ico par excellence, that very important exalted Durga Tantra-Kamakhya and described the bloody and licentious worship ( for example Yoni Tantra, Tantra and Mahanirvana Kalika Purana) that Aghori were notorious for his cruelty and orgies, understand that the name came to designate yogi on


one occasion to the most extremist among the tantric. A detail of human sacrifice practiced in Assam is interesting for the problem at hand: the volunteers were called Bhogi, and from that mo-ment proclaimed their intention of being sacrificed, became almost sacred character, and everything was their disposal: in particular could have all the women they wanted. They were slaughtered in the annual festival of the Goddess, and Kalika Purana comes to devote an entire chapter to the details of the decapitation, with the proviso that ritual should not be bloody efectuadopor the first three castes (Griggs, p. 167 ff .). According to this text, impersonating the victim's own Siva This brings us to the mem-ory another blood sacrifice practiced in India: the Khonds Meriah, who was strangled, cut into pieces that were buried in the fields of fertility purposes ( see our Traite dHistoiredes Religions, p. 295 et seq.). The Meriah also embodied the divinity. However, it is significant to find, in a tantric context that simultaneously meets the kanpbata Aghori and Yogi, the same blood sacrifice that was practiced elsewhere to agricultural fertility. It is another example of con-cordancia between saktismo and archaic ideology of fertility in coexisting sexual and violent death. 'E. Wait, A History of Assam (2nd ed, Calcutta, 1926), p. 58. In terms of Gorakhnathi theology, we can de-duce that is very elementary: Siva is the supreme God and salvation is union with the divine through Yoga (Tessitori, Encycl. Rel Ethics., XII, p. 833). It is for this reason that the Gorakh-nathi proclaim their mastery of the art of respiration (Briggs, p. 125 et seq.). But mostly they are known and respected for their magical prestige; parades as healers and magicians, are reputed to give orders to the rain, show snakes (Briggs, ps. 127 and 142). They attributed the dominance of the wild beasts live in the jungle surrounded by ti-stoneware that sometimes serve as their mounts (ibid., 136), archaic, shamanic reason, because the tiger is the "master of the initiation": in Central Asia in Indonesia, elsewhere too, the tiger or other wild animals come and carry the neophyte on their backs, the jungle (the symbol of the most alia: Eliade, Le shamanism, p. 80 et seq., 310, etc. .). The Gorakhnathi can marry (Tessitori, p. 835; Briggs, p. 46), in the province of Bombay, almost all are married, and one of the important books of the sect, Gorak-bodh, probably written in the fourteenth century, admits marriage. At death, not burned, but en-Terre in meditation posture. It is assumed that remain in samadhi, and thence comes the name given to their graves sarnadh (Briggs, p. 41). Above the tomb is placed on symbols of tinga and yoni. (ibid. p. 154). The custom of burying the ascetics and yogis is quite old in India, is a way of proclaiming that identifies sanniyasi Siva, whose sign (Tinga) sanctified the tomb and may eventually transform into sanctuaries river. (On the custom of burying the yogis, see Note VIII, 4). Note in passing the adaptation of samadhi at the level of popular spiritualism: the tomb becomes a sacred place because it holds not a corpse, but the body of a "liberated" in a permanent state of meditation. In relation to the same phenomenon of self-adaptation of the popular mind, note that the siddhi, yogic powers par excellence, become, for the peasants, in "ghosts" or "devils" who are reputed to have received their magic directly Gorakhnath . In some parts of Punjab is the SiddhiNerano even under different names, and under a standing-stones (Briggs, p. 137 et seq.). Former local hierophanies-values are curled by the prestige of Gorakhnath and become part of this new magic-rehgiosa synthesis that is performed on all chil-Veles aboriginal culture of India.


Matsyendranatha AND THE MYTH OF THE "TRANSMISSION DOCTRINAL" other major Hindu movements, the self guis say that their sect existed before the Creation and the Gods Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, fiieron the first disciples of Gorakhnath (Briggs, p. 228). Is this a way to express the timeless character of the doctrine Ethem, but most of the traditions and detail that Adinath preceded Gorakhnath Matsyendranatha and that Matsyendra was his guru. It is difficult to clarify the historical reality that will eventually be hidden in these traditions. The very names indicate degrees rather spiritual personalities flesh. Adi-nath is an incarnation of Siva, and his name is also applied to Buddha Vajrasattva, in certain Buddhist Tantra, Adi-Bhuta-nath nath and are epithets applied to Vajrasattva (Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, p. 224). This means that the founders of the sect has been the same God. Through Yoga, identifies Gorakhnath Siva and worship iconografiay see it as an incarnation of Siva (Briggs, p. 181, and Note VIII, 3). As Matsyendranatha, it became the patron deity of Na-pal, where he was identified with Avalokitesvara.7 The historic personali-ties and specific events will soon be trans-formed and found the mythical dimensions of the exemplary figures and both divine. From there we may conclude that Matsyendranatha and Gorakhnath ar> Ortabe a new revelaci6n, which they claimed to have received directly from Siva The myth of "transmisi6n doctrine" was well known and tempos past had often been used: it was the initiatory dialogue between God and his "Wife", sor 7 Sylvain Levi, Le Nepal, I, p. 347 et seq. According to Tucci, Matsyendranatha would be a mystical name given to all siddha who has reached a certain degree of spiritual perfection: maisy, "peseado" played by school Kashmir as its own to designate the "meanings" (mdriya), Tucci, AM-madversiones indicae, ps. 133-134. P. C. Baggchi rejects this hypothesis: the name of Matsyendranatha would indicate the profession of "fisher" and some other minor Katdajnananirnaya test "of the school of Matsyendranatha, P. 6 and sig. But lack even explain all the symbolism of "peseado" and "fisherman", present in cultivated countless contexts, and always in connection with a "rtvelaci6n, more exactly with the passage of a doctrine of o'vido or" blind -ing "the state to fully materialize. pinned by a semi-divine, occult, which becomes in the Messenger. For Matsyendranatha, the story is this: a day, Siva to his wife Parvati teaching the doctrine of Yoga, along the sea during the lection, Parvati he remained dor-mi da, but Lokesvara (-Avalokitesvara) had occasion to hear everything, because they had hidden in the water, taking the shape of a fish, hence comes the name of Matsyendranatha, which after use (Wright, History of Nepal, p. 140 et seq.). The oldest allusion to Matsyendranatha written, is in the Katdajnananimaya, for whose use a Baggchi edition manuscript of the eleventh century, the tra-ma has some variances from the version nepaulita: Shiva (Bhairava) reveals to his wife that a fish has swallowed the Sastra (the Doctrine) that the disciple Karttikeya throw into the sea (Kaulaj-nananimaya, verse 22). Another legend says that Siva, hearing the pleas of a woman who begged him to send him a son, gave him to eat a substantia But the woman did not eat and throw on a pile of manure. Matsyendranatha, which took the form of a fish, listen to teach the doctrine Siva Parvati, new step-mind for this place 12 afios later and asked the woman who we-strate the child. On hearing what happened, he sent a


woman to look through the manure: she found a boy of 12 afios, which received the name of Gorakhnath (S. Levi, Le Nepal, I, 351-352). Indeed, one might see in this name, a derivation of either the ghor-term "mud", "mud", "garbage" because of Ghor, "" intense "," scary "referring primarily to ascetic austerities. Gorakhnath name can also mean "Senor of the flocks, and, if so, suggest one of the appellations of Shiva. The myth points out clearly the sequence of "transmission" doctrinal Siva Matsyendranatha, Gorakhnath. The legends that ro-dean relations between the two lastrelaci6n from master to disciple, are equally instructive. Matsyendranatha us that, having gone to Ceylon, he loved the Queen and settled in his palace. Gorakhnath pursued him, what encontrd in the palace and "llam6 to reality" (the reason for the "call to reality" discussed below). Matsyendranah queen leaves and takes with her two children, and Nimnath Parasnath. According to another legend nepaulita, Matsyendranatha succumbed to temptation in the circumstances that follow: leaving his body in the care of a disciple, his spirit enters the corpse of a king who had just died at that time, and it came back to life . (This is the well-known yogi miracle "step into the body of another" saints sometimes use this medium to know the pleasure undefiled Sankara would have practiced). After some time Cbraksa be presented to the king and reminded him of his true identity (Briggs, p. 235). Legends Matsyendranatha cycle, two children and Gorakhnath, are highly desirable since they highlight the one hand, the archaic character of the initiation of the two children and, furthermore, reveals some hidden relationships between Siddha and Jainism. They say a day Gorakhnath are angry with the two wenches and kill them; entrafias lav Š their style "washerwoman" and hung their skins on a tree - but came back to life before, the order of Matsyendranatha (Briggs, p . 72; Dasgupta, p. 244). This is clearly initiatic death and resurrection, but certain details (entrafias washing, sagging skin) are clearly Shamanic, are found in the Siberian shamans initiations, Central Asians, Australians (our Chamanisme, p. 48 ff., 55, etc.).. We may conclude that the sect had Gorakhnathi assimilated, together with the aboriginal elements already mentioned, of which continue to give examples, also some scenarios chamalucas of incontestable antigiiedad initiations). This law in-da could indicate that he possessed an occult science Corakhnath your teacher know, and that asked him to proceed with their two children. Anyway, the real initiation was conferred by the same Matsyendranatha, it is only after this initiation that Nim-nath and Parasnath Jain founded two sects still exist even today (Briggs, p. 72). According to the folklore of Kanphata-yogis, the two sons were the founders of Jainism. This anachronism probably conceals some vague relationship between the Jaina ascetics and the secret doctrine and Gorakhnath Matsyendranatha, other indications of this: in a Jain temple next to Paidhoni (Pae Dhuni) is a. idol of Gorajinath do adorn with gems (Briggs, p. 72, note I) and Nimnathi and Parasnathi, although Gorakhnath adherents say, they act like the Jaina (Uevan a piece of cloth over their mouths to avoid killing tamafio animals from invisible). Shamanism and BCSQUEDA MAGIC OF IMMORTALITY The folklore crystallized around not only Gorakhnath the formidable impression produced by their magical powers on the popular imagination, but also Shamanic traits, confirming the archaism of the myths and symbols that staggered the log appear siddha. We know the story of the drought of Nepal8 get us through different versions: Gorakhnath, not being received with honors during a visit in


the clouds-hill (or that the Naga dominated) in jin bundle, sat up and stayed for twelve afios lost in thought. Beg King Avalokitesvara (-Matsyendranatha), inhabitant of the coati Kamarupa Kapotal near to sai-rod into the country and the saint came to Nepal to see closer to his guru, Gorakhnath rose from his seat and fled the clouds the rain began to fall. After this please Matsyendranatha-Avaloki-tesvara became the tutelary deity of Nepal. We note in passing that this legend clearly a historical fact: "Matsyendranatha" brought Kamarupa (= Assam) Tantrism, or more accurately the new "revelation" of the Siddha and the Natha and di-melted in Nepal. Some variants let us know something more: Gorakhnath would have locked the clouds because he wanted to have a conversation with Matsyendranatha, this was plunged into me on the mountain-Kapotal accreditation purposes, but knew that Gorakhnath apia-secondary and would come to Nepal to save the region of the great drought. This is perhaps an indication that Gorakhnath wanted to force his Master to reveal some secrets that do not yet know. The domain of the rain is a universally di-cast spell between shamans and wizards. Other legends are even more clearly the nature of mythology chamaluco of the siddha. Gorakhanath let your body a day sleeping on his mat (ie it was more in shamanic trance samadhi) and de-creased to the underworld of the God of Serpents. With the purpose of obtaining the necessary magical incense to save the life of a woman, Vachal (Briggs, p. 188), and occurs typically fall into Hell shamanistic. (Not missing any detail: the tran 8 S. Levi. Le Nepal. I, p. 352 et seq., H. O. Oldfield, Sketches from Nepal (London, 1880), II, p. 325 et seq., Briggs, P. 195 et seq. ce ecstatic, travel underground and mainly the goal: to save a human being). As shamans, ma Gorakhnath be processed on fly, a frog and even iron (Briggs, p. 187). The Dabis-tan (vol. II, p. 140) relates the combat with a samnyasi during which becomes Gorakhnath toad, which reminds us of the fighting between shamans hiding in animal forms. Gorakhnath transforms water from a well in gold and then glass (Briggs, p. 186). He extends his hand covering hundreds of kilometers, to disturb the meditation of a yogi and prevent it from destroying the region of Sindh (ibid., p. 193). Brings back to life to many people. Creates men using horse dung, the burning seven times, reduces them to ash and gives them new life (ibid., p. 190). In the poem bengal! Gopi-cartder Pamcali, when Goinitio rakhanath Princess Mayanamati, a banyan tree grew from a seed, in a few hours (the "miracle" Spotfacing mango-trick). During this same initiation, nourish Gorakhnath reaches twenty-five thousand yogis and disciples with a single grain of rice (Dasgupta, p. 245). His disciples were endowed with the same magical powers: the Natha fly through the air, and Hadi-siddha Mayanamati make my utter single-lagre with some mantra-siddha Hadi earrings made with the Sun and Moon * the same Indra Laks-fan and I was responsible for preparing its food, to extend their hands, touch the sky, their feet sink into the underworld, the hairs of his body seem to trees, etc.. (Note the symbolism of all these feats macrantr6pico, symbolism that indicates the cosmic structure of experience, pag. 97). On one occasion, Hadi-Siddha recites a mantra on a broom; immediately fall from the sky innumerable-pilation brooms that are made to sweep the market. A rag into river at 12 knots and the river dries instantly. Sitting in the royal park in an attitude of meditation, go down to the few co-cos: Hadi-siddha drink milk and eat the flesh of these fruits and coconuts will then take their place in the trees. Change the heads of queens and Padun Aduna, cut in two and a man comes to life at the time, and so on. The vernacular


literature are abundant such magical feats (Dasgupta, Obs * Do not forget the symbolic meaning of this expression, see above, p. 243. cure religious cults, P. 247 et seq., Who cites Gopi <andrer Can, Gopi-carxdrer Sannyas, etc.).. A lot of these miracles belong to the ma-logical tradition universal, but some have a distinctly shamanic structure, and we will return them. Par date, its mythological plotbray about immortality with "cyst Gorakhnath and Siddha Nath and others. Here is how the poem presents the famous Bengali Goraksavijaya bouts of "captivity" of Matsyendranatha: to learn that his master is a prisoner of women in the country of Kadali, Gorakhnath descends to the kingdom of Yama. Seeing him, Yama descends from the trono, he bows and asks why it brings into the realm of the dead. Gorakhnath replied brutally, reminding that he has no right to meddle in the affairs of Siddha, and threatens to ruin his kingdom, in fact, barely whispering the mantra humko, the city began to tremble on its foundations; lle-not panico, Yama is believed in the duty of presenting the Teacher's book destinations; Gorakhnath examines it carefully, find the sheet on the fate of his gum, amends and erase his name from the list of the dead (Dasgupta, ps. 254-55). We can observe the shamanic character of this descent into hell for the purpose of saving the soul of a loved one, in other oral literatures (Central Asia, Polynesia, North America) are similar adventures, but the story told by Goraksa-Vijay valuable for another reason: the symbolism reveals the mnerte yogi and immortality. Upon receiving news that her guru has been taken prisoner by the women of Kadali, Gorakhnath Matsyendranatha understands that condemnation will do to death, so it descends into Hell, precaution is to check the fate of his master and only after-Berl has modified leaves the kingdom of Yama. Is then presented to Matsyendranatha in Kadali, taking the form of a dancer and begins to dance while she sings enigmatic songs. Progressive-mind, Matsyendranatha remembers his true identity: it includes the "carnal way" leads to death, that his "neglect" was basically forgotten his true nature and inrnortaL and "charms of mirages ae fana. Corakhanath urge him to rejoin the path of yoga and to become "perfect" her body by Kaya-sadhana (Dasgupta, id., P. 256). Now, we know that this "perfection" obtained through the alchemy and Hatha yoga involves the abso-mourning dorninio body and spirit, domain inaccessible to a "prisoner of the women." The conquest of immortality is one of the favorite themes of literature developed around Gorakhnath and his disciples. It is interesting that opens Goraksa-Vijay on the question that goes to Siva Durga: "<iC6mo possible, Senor, that you're immortal and that I am mortal?" Reveal the truth, Senor, that I too can become immortal . Now it was Durga who had just led the "forgetting" that almost ques-tion Matsyendranatha immortality, she had thrown on the spell of "forgetting", as explained later Gorakhnath his master, this curse symbolizes Etemad curse of ignorance, launched by the "Nature" (-Durga) on humans (Goraksa-vijaya, cited by Dasgupta, p. 256). All epic sky was formed around the queen Mayanamati, disciple of Gorakhnath, Manikcandra her husband and son Gopi-candra, which the queen wants to start to render it immortal. The struggle against death is the central epic nucleus. Mayana know, thanks to its mystical gifts that her husband is sentenced to die, and proposes teaching the


mahajnana (the secrets of Yoga) that allows you to override the decree of Yama, but the king refuses to do so. When the messengers of Yama come to the palace to take the soul of her husband, Mayana murmurs about. mantra, magically transforms into the goddess Kali and hi ere his sword and defeats the message-ros. Some of their leaders, Goda-yama, is presented to Siva for advice. Taking advantage of the absence of the Mayan, who came down to the river to get water, Goda-yama "pulls" the King's life and flies away, disguised as a bee. But Mayanamati, for whom nothing goes unnoticed thanks to her gift of clarividencja yogi, we per-continues to Hell. Goda-yama reaches and hits him with an iron staff. After several episodes, Goda-yama Mayana he escapes and chases him continuously changing shape: Go-da-yama is hidden in a pile of straw, it becomes a snake, in rat6n, her cat, a dove, it takes the form of an eagle, until he succeeded in recovering the soul of her husband. Beside the "motives" folk, are widespread (the magic persecution ") these legends explode. Shamanic clearly issues: the descent into hell, the rapture of the soul to the devil of death and its recovery by the shaman, etc.. Also other epic poems of the same sky insist on the initiation of Mayanamati. Seeing her, if only she was a child, Gorakhnath was thrilled to think that a j oven so beautiful and chaste could die, like other human beings, and Yoga initio, that the immortal around. After the initiation ceremonies, Gorakhnath proclaimed: "Tor written contract, Death has undertaken not to extend his mantle Mayari" Gorakh-nath stated that she could not die either because of fire or water, or pierced by a gun, etc.. In fact, when later, the sati practice Mayanamati for her husband dead and ascended to the fire, the fire could not reach it. On another occasion, his own son, Gopi-candra, at the request of their wives, subjected to terrible tortures, without result. Note that all these tests have initiatory character, mainly of shamanic initiation: Mayanamati is thrown into the fire, but even her dress is touched by the smoke thrown into the river, enclosed in a bag, but the goddess Ganga receives its arms like a child; Mayana crosses a bridge made with hair and walks on the edge of a na-vaja for seven days and seven nights of cooking in a pot containing boiling oil; Mayana crosses all the rivers in a boat made with husk of wheat, etc.. (GopiCandre Pamcali, candra-gtta Govinda, Gopi-Candre-Gan, summarized by Dasgupta, P. 259). She herself declares her son: "Through the mystical knowledge, one becomes immortal, and the river of life retraces road to immortality (as opposed to its natural course toward death and decay) exactly like the waves of reflux. Through the grace of Gorakhnath I am deathless, I can stay in the empty 14 yuga yuga in water 13, into the fire 12 years. When the universe was tottering and finally disintegrates, when there was only water when the Sun and Moon are made forever and whole Creation is destroyed, I will continue to float, not ten-dre death "(candra-Gita Govinda, cited by Dasgupta, p. 260) Only the greatest gods-a Brahma, a Narayana-te-nest had so far with the courage to proclaim that his emphasis tructible indes durability through cosmic cycles. We calcu-late the thirst of immortality which flows from these epics and to understand the extraordinary echo obtained at all levels of Indian society. Another disciple of Gorakhnath, Hadi-siddha-which we have already cited some achievements of fakirs (p. 298) - is also known as the conqueror of Death. Finding Yama or one of its servers, hitting eight hours straight. Hadi-siddha is precisely the one chosen by Mayana as guru for your child. She knows that once the young Gopi-candra, she no longer has her son, and he laments that nobody in the world and call her "ma-dre," but the desire to turn his offspring is immortal stronger than maternal love, and tries to convince


him to leave their husbands and seek initiation sas. When Gopi-Hadi candra-siddha partly into the jungle (and this isolation in the jungle is the initiatory cause par excellence) is not enough to walk with quick step of his master and is usually a bit behind. The messengers of Yama advantage of the opportunity to "draw its life" (item shamanic) and then back into hell. Returning to bus-carlo, Hadi-siddha found the lifeless body of the young king, full of fury, orders all the tigers in the jungle to make guar-day around the body down to the Underworld and wets to Yama and all its servers to retrieve the soul of Gopi-candra (Gopi-Candre Gan, cited by Dasgupta, ps. 260-261). All these exciting adventures in search of the immortalized-ity, these dramatic descent into hell in order to com-beat with Death and restore souls stolen by the messengers of hell, these victories over the mortal condition and de-cadence man, infiamaron the imagination of poets and in-Dulzes nostalgia for the crowds, there as elsewhere, these initiations are the big themes "themes" so cherished by the literary public of little education. Mythology and folklore-guis I have come to nourish all Indian vernacular literature. Its huge success proves once more the sense that the conscience valuing the Indian Yoga was the instrument) for excellence to sell to the death, for "miraculous powers" to enjoy absolute freedom from this life itself and . Despite the inevitable intrusion of magic spells, which always exercised a sort of fascination over the popular soul-image copy of Conqueror of Death, as it was presented in folklore and literature, corresponds almost exactly to the image of the "liberated in life" (Jivan-Mukta), the supreme goal of all start-ing yogis. Without doubt, folklore and literature Gorakhnath crystallized around siddha and the other, they could only give a place pequefio the ideology and techniques made possible by the con-conquest of immortality. However, those few references, mainly in the poem are Goraska-vijaya tas make explicit enough and understood that the method has been that of Tantrism, the Hathayoga and alchemy. The treaty pequefio recalls that Yoga-ut/aj/anos Classes are two bodies, one "raw" (apakva) and the other "mature" (pakva) and that this second body is obtained through the practice of Yoga ( thus is called yoga-deha, the "yoga body") (see the text reproduced by Dasgupta, p. 253, note 1). Thus we find the alchemical theme par excellence, the metal "raw" (imperfections cough) and "mature" (perfect, "free"). Immortality and the state of Siva are just one, that explains that Matsyendranatha, siddha Gorakhnath and were "identified" with Siva. As we have seen, you get a status of "divine" in the body itself by the union of two polar principles, Shiva and Shakti. The School for Nathan and the siddha yogi technique employed a well co-tantric-nized: ultra-Wuhan-sadhana sadhana or the process of "regression" or "running against the wind", ie the total investment human behavior, from "respiratory behavior (reem-term by pranayama) to" sexual behavior "(anu-side by the technique of" regression of semen "). In other words, find here the basic discipline of yoga tantric, alchemical items but are heavily accented hathayoguis. The highest ideal of the school is freedom, perfect health (Ajara) and immortality (love) that is easily understood if one considers that Gorakhnath was considered the "inventor of Hathayoga. Obviously, to-dos such technical details, although registered in literary texts, pass background: they were the results of which apYoga Zion "public" obsessed with the mythic images of absolute freedom and immortality. No side better than those folklore and vernacular literature to understand the true func-tion of Yoga in the spiritual economy of the whole of India.


Yoga and Shamanism

We noticed several opportunities in the mythologies and folklore of the Siddha Shamanic traits. "We must now stop them in a more systematic links between the cha-maliismo and Yoga. Let's clear to begin with Late Buddhism, as Lamaist, had significant influence on Japan's navy and cha-Siberian ancestor-worship, in other words, symbolism, ideology and techniques currently registered between the cha-manes Manchu, tonguses, Buryat, etc.., were modified by Buddhist elements, ultimately by Indian magic. Moreover, it is a general phenomenon: the Indian civilization, and par-ticularly magico-religious spiritualism Indian difundiose in all directions. It was possible to identify strong Indian influences in Southeast Asia and Oceania Moreover, similar influences, especially aberrant magic, tantric, spread on population aborigines of India, for example, Baig and the Santal . From this it can conclude that tantric synthesis, using a great number of elements of aboriginal spirituality, pre-Aryan, spread very far, but-alia the borders of India, reaching, through Tibet and Mongolia, to the northern part of Asia, and the Indies, to the South Seas. But this is a relatively recent cultural phenomenon, whose. principle coincides with the development of Tantrism (Viy seventh centuries of the Christian era). If we think that tantric synthesis, especially in its entirety "popular" (magic ritual, mantra-yana, etc..) Had used a considerable number of Aboriginal materials, we reached a con-clusi6n: India is one that has deeply Asianise carried so far his message is not the India of the Vedas or the Brahmins. In other words, Asia and Oceania were fertilized by civilization of India had already absorbed and assimilated much of their own indigenous spiritual. . That said, the problem of the relation between shamanism and yoga is not resolved yet: because if the Indian influence through the interpretation of the various modified Lamaism and shamanism southern Japan's navy (Malays, etc..), Not because I think the fendmeno shamanism itself. There are indeed many cha-ancestor-worship that were not the elements rqzados magic-rehgiosos Indians (the two Americas, Africa, Australia). To narrow the problem data even remember that not to be confused with shamanism, strictly speaking, the mass of ideologies and practices "magical" which have nothing in shamanic For example, the "magic" farm, ie the rites and customs related didad fertilizing land and abundant crops. In India, such rituals and beliefs are very old and well known, we have had occasion to check their link with this or that form of Yoga, and we will address that problem, but insist that all these complex magico-religious have nothing "shamanic". Among the specific elements of shamanism and remem-ber must first: 1 ') which includes an initiation displacement, symbolic death and resurrection of the candidate), and involves, among other things, the descent into Hell and the ascent Heaven, 29) the ability to undertake the ecstatic journey shaman as the healer and "psycho-bomb" (dedicated to the search of the soul of the sick, stolen by demons, the capture and restores the body guard to hell the soul of the dead, etc.). 39) the "mastery of fire" (the shaman plays hot iron without suffering any daii, walk on hot coals, etc.). 49) the ability of the shaman to take forms animals (fly like the birds, etc.). and become invisible. This shamanic complex is very old: it is, effective-ly, in part or in full, among Australians, including the archaic peoples of both Americas, in the polar regions, and so


on. The essential element of shamanism is specific and the ecstasy: the cha-man is a specialist of the sacred able to leave his body and take "in spirit" (in trance) cosmic journey. The "po-session" by spirits, although recorded in large number of shamans, there seems to have been a primary and essential element, but rather shows a phenomenon of degeneration, since the ultimate goal of the shaman is to abandon his body and ascend to Heaven and down into Hell, not left to "own" by his auxiliary spirits, by demons, or souls of dead, the shaman's ideal is to master these spirits, not being dominated by ellos.10 io "possession" by a technique gandharva and even spiritualist community Putting aside the recent influences (tantric elements, lamaists) exerted by India on the Asian and Siberian shamanism, our problem is reduced to two distinct issues: 1) first, determine which elements Indo-Europeans and pre-Aryan in India can be regarded as belonging to shamanism in the strict sense, 2 °) then, put aside those elements that presented certain similarities with the techniques of Yoga. In another book we have made the study of shamanic complex in India (see Le Chamanisme, p. 362 et seq.) And not dealt with here, the more we have had occasion to highlight certain particularities that concern him, in chapters previous (record-ing the "magical heat" obtained by the lids, rituals and myths of ascent, the magic flight, the descent into Hell (p. Ill), etc.. We could also discuss other items Shamanic registered in India Vedic such as the reintegration of the sick soul of the religious or the magician (Le Chamanisme, p. 372 et seq.). Therefore confine the investigation to the symbolism and shamanic practices they may encounter opposition in any of the techniques yogis or siddhis of fakirs. Only after having established this comparative bundle can dedicate to the problem of structural links between shamanism and yoga. As the most popular of the "miracles fakirs" is the "myLagro rope" (rope-trick) and that has long been regarded as the prototype of yogic powers, starting with our report. When, after the enlightenment, the Buddha visited his hometown, Kapi-lavastu, for the first time showed signs of having some "wonderful powers. To convince his people of their spiritual forces and prepare for conversion, the air rises, cuts short his body, dropping off his head and limbs, to vol-then see them together before the wondering eyes of the spec -ers. This miracle is also evoked by Asvagosa (Buddhaca-rila, XIX, 12-13), but so deeply belongs to the tradition of Indian magic that has become the prodigy-type fakirs. This famous rope-trick of the fakirs creates the illusion of a rope cacion with a medium, are registered and in Brhadaranyaha-Vpanhhad III 7, 1, but that has nothing "shamanic". that rises high into the sky and on which the teacher makes up a young disciple until it disappears before our eyes. . The fakir then throws his knife into the air, and members of the "disciples fall to the ground one after another. This has a long history in India, but found him We also in regions as diverse as China, Java, Mexico ancient and medieval Europe. The Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuca the ob-served in China in the fourteenth century, Merton saw him in Batavia in the seventeenth century and Sahagun recorded it in Mexico in terms almost id6nticos (Le Chamanisme, p. 379 et seq.). Consider the testimony of Ibn Battuta: "... Then take a wooden ball that had several acute-gers by which spent long straps. The air shot and the ball rises to the point that we did not see more (. ..) â&#x20AC;˘ When staying in your hand only one end of the strap, the minstrel ordered one of his apprentices to be hung from it and go up in the air, what he did until he saw him more. The minstrel


as called three times without re-CIBIR answer, then took a knife, as if glue-curly, it took the rope and disappeared too. Then a hand shot into the floor of the girls do, then one foot, the other hand, the other foot The body and head went down, panting, his clothes were blood-Chad man (...) â&#x20AC;˘ As the Amir ordered him something, our hom-bre take the ends of a teenager, joined, and behold, that the child is rises and stands erect. muchi This surprises me nth, and suffered a palpitation of the heart similar to the one I had when I witnessed something similar in the king's palace in India. .. "11 With regard to Europe, a number of texts, to me "we are from the thirteenth century, they refer to exactly the same miracles, performed by magicians and sorcerers, who also owned the power to fly and become invisible, as shamans and yoguis.13 11 Travel of Ibn Batoutah, Arabic text, accompanied by a traduction of C. Dr. B. Defremeryy R. Sanguinetti, t. IV (Paris, SocUti Asiatique, 1822), ps. 291-292. For biographies on miracles fakirs, see Note VIII, 5. 12 Examples collected by A. Jacoby, Zum Zerttiickdtmg and Wieder belebungswunder der Indischen Fakir (Archivjilr ReligionswUaenschaft, vol. 17 1914, ps. 455-475), p. 466 ff. You can not even decide formally whether the rope trick of European magicians is due to the influence of Oriental magic or techniques derived from ancient local chamalucas. The fact that, firstly, the rope-trick is registered in Mexico, and the dismemberment other initia tico of the magician is also found in Australia, Indonesia and South America, In this "miracle" we can distinguish two different Shamanic elements: l9) the dismemberment (iniciatieo rite) and 2) the ascent to heaven. For the moment let's consider the first item. "We know that during their" suefios initiations, the shaman futures asis-ten at their own dismemberment executed for "ghosts" or "devils" who play the role of teachers in the initiation: they cut the head and also pequefios the body into pieces, they are lim-pian bones, etc., and finally the "demons" the bones together and covered with meat Jos new. (See the materials in our Le Chamanisme, p. 47 et seq., With accompanying commentary from all those symbol-ism.) We are here with ecstatic experience initiatic structure: a symbolic death is followed by the renovation of the organs and the resurrection of the candidate. It is useful to recall that vi-sions and similar experiences are also among the Australians, Eskimos, American and African tribes (our Le Chamanisme, p. 55 et seq.). We are thus in the presence of an extremely archaic initiatic technique. Now if the "miracle of the chord" shines spectacular elements of this scheme iniciatieo shamanic, Indo-Tibetan rituals are even close to him, from the point of view of the structure. Behold, according to the summary that gives Bleich-steiner, a Himalayan and Tibetan tantric ritual, the tcho (gtchod), which is to provide our own flesh to be devoured by demons. "To the sound of the drum made from human skulls, and the trumpet carved from a femur, dedicates one to dance and spirits are invited to the festivities. The power of meditation gives rise to a goddess with a naked sword, she jumps to the head of offering the sacrifice, the decapitated and quartered, then the demons and wild beasts rush on the spoils throbbing, eat the meat and drink the blood. The remarks refer to certain Jatakas, described how Buddha, during his previous lives, he came to his own demons and hungry animals anthro-phage "18 inclines us to believe that in Europe, could be a magical tĂŠnica survival of local pre-Indo-


European. i 'R. Blechsteiner, L'Eglise Jattne (trad, fr., Paris, 1937), ps. 194-195. About gtohod, see also Alexandra David-Neel, et magiciens Mystiques Tibet (Paris, 1929), p. 126 et seq. SIMILAR found elsewhere: for ple in Australia or in certain North American tribes. In the case of Tcho, we are in the presence of a mystical revalorization initiation chamaluca scheme. His side "sinister" is rather apparent: it is an experience of death and resurrection that, like all such experiences are "terrifying". Indo-Tibetan Tantrism even more radically spiritualized irriciatico scheme of "conduction to death" by demons. Here is some tantric meditations aimed dismissal * jar the body of his flesh, and the contemplation of the skeleton itself. The Yogi is asked to imagine their body as a corpse, and his own intelli-gence in as an angry goddess, holding a skull and a knife. "Think she cut the head of the corpse, and cutting the body into pieces and throws them into the skull as an offering to the gods .. Another exercise is viewed as" one-skeleton is white, bright and huge, where out flames as high-ties that fill the void of the universe. "Finally, the third meditation yogi proposes seen as tra ^ nsformado in dakini angry, ripping the skin of his body. The continual text" Stretch that skin to cover the universe (...) • And it piles on your bones and your flesh. Then, when evil spirits are in full your joy, imagine making the dakini irritated skin and wound (...) and crashed hard, reduc-dola, like all its contents, a pulpy mass of flesh and bones, which will be devoured by hordes of wild animals, produce acids mentalrnente ".* 4 Surely this is a genre of meditations which can be dedicated in certain Indian yogis cemeteries (see p. 284). Now this is a spiritual exercise specific arctic shamanism. The Eskimo shamans, whom Rasmussen questioned on the ability to watch himself as a skeleton, were inaccurate, because it is a big secret. Let us see what Rasmussen says: "Although no shaman can explain the how and why, can, however, by the power that gets your pen-cessing of the supernatural, depriving his body of flesh and blood, so that nothing is left but the bones (• • ■). Con l * Kasi Lama Dawa Samdup and W. Y. Evans-Wentz, Tibetan Yoga and secret lot doctrine * (trad. fr. Paris, 1938), ps. 315, 322 and ff. temple as well, naked and completely liberated from the flesh and blood perishable and ephemeral, embodied the same (using) the sacred language of the shamans, to his great task, through the body part that is designed to withstand longer the action of sun, wind and time "18 The reduction to a skeleton and the ability to see himself co-mo a skeleton rising above the mean the profane human condition, namely, the initiation or release. We know that the ritual costume of Siberian shamans often tries to imitate a skeleton (our Le Chamanisme, p. 151 et seq.). However, the same symbolism is widely reported in Tibet and the Himalayan regions. According to legend, Padmasambhava was dancing on the roof of his house, a mystical dance, dressed solely the "seven bone ornaments. We know also the paper by de-empefiado human skulls and femurs in tantric ceremonies and Iamaistas. The dance called the skeleton has first-rate importance in the dramatic setting called tcham, proposed, inter alia, to familiarize viewers with the terrible images that arise in the bardo state, ie in the intermediate state between death and a new reincarnation. Des-from that point of view the skeleton dance should be considered as an


initiation, it reveals certain experiences posthumous (our Le Chamanisme, p. 383 et seq.). ASCENSION TO HEAVEN. MYSTIC FLIGHT On the second element "shamanic" that identify you as a rope-trick, to say the "ascent to heaven" is a more complex problem. Indeed, the rite of ascension on the path of post slaughter (yupa) exists in Vedic India, and outside any shamanic complex: it is a ritual which is performed by the "split level". However, drawing our attention to certain similarities in structure between the Indian ritual and shamanic ascent of the tree, we know that this symbolizes the cosmic tree, however, the sacrificial post (yupa) is also treated as Cosmic Tree (Rig Veda, III, 8, 3; SotapathaBr., Ill, 6, 4, 13, 7, 1, Knud Rasmussen, Intellectual Culture of the Iglulik Eskimos (Copen-hagen, 1929), p. 114. 14, the tree has seven, nine or scanned from LONES, symbolizing each in a Heaven, and his ascension is equal to the ascent of the tree or the cosmic pillar, however, the Indian sacrificial rises, also the, the sky through the sacrificial Post yupa assimilated (TaittiriyaSamhita, VI, 6 , 4, 2, etc.).. The same symbolism appears in the birth of Buddha newborn, gives seven steps and touch the top of the world (Matfimanikayalll, 123), as the Altaic shaman at seven or nine notches on the birch ritual end to get to Heaven (see our Le Chamanisme, ps. 235-362). Afiadir superfluous as the old cosmological scheme of the heavenly ascent and Vedic shamanic presented here is enriched with the contribution of ancient Indian metaphysical theorizing. The Seven Steps of Buddha are not intended as "the world of the gods" and "immortality" but the overshoot of the human condition. The conception of the seven heavens, which alludes to Majjia-manikaya goes back to Brahmanism, and we probably face an influence of the Babylonian cosmology, which also influenced, though indirectly, on the cosmological conceptions and Altaic Siberian. But Buddhism also known cosmological scheme of nine heavens, deeply "internalizedzados" on the other hand, for the first eight heavens correspond to the different stages of meditation, symbolizes heaven and the last Nirvana. In each of these heavens is projected a god of the Pantheon. Buddhist, while representing a specified level of meditation yogui.1 * Now we know that among the seven or nine Altai heavens are inhabited by different shapes or semi-divine divine the shaman is over his ascension and with which departe: in the ninth heaven, is before the Supreme Being, Bai Ulgan. Obviously, in Buddhism it is no longer symbolic of ascension to heaven, but the stages of meditation, while the "steps" towards final liberation. The Brahmanic sacrificer ascends to heaven through the ritual of climbing a ladder; the Buddha transcends the Cosmos licamente symbolized through the seven heavens through meditation the Yogi makes a boo-far 'of a purely spiritual ascension. All en 18 W. Ruben, Schamanismus im alten Indien (Acta Orientalia, 17, 1939 ps. 164-205), p. 169 Eliade, Le Chamanisme, P. 365. temple as well, naked and completely liberated from the flesh and blood perishable and ephemeral, embodied the same (using) the sacred language of the shamans, to his great task, through the body part that is designed to withstand longer the action of sun, wind and time "16 The reduction to a skeleton and the ability to see himself co-mo a skeleton rising above


the mean the profane human condition, namely, the initiation or release. We know that the costumes and rituals of Siberian shamans often tries to imitate a skeleton (our Le Chamanisme, p. 151 et seq.). However, the same symbolism is widely reported in Tibet and the Himalayan regions. According to legend, Padmasambhava was dancing on the roof of his house, a mystical dance, dressed solely the "seven bone ornaments. We know also the paper by de-empefiado human skulls and femurs in tantric ceremonies and Lama. The dance called the skeleton has first-rate importance in the dramatic setting called tcham, proposed, inter alia, to familiarize viewers with the terrible images that arise in the bardo state, ie in the intermediate state between death and a new reincarnation. From this point of view the skeleton dance should be considered a iniciaci6n It reveals certain experiences posthumous (our Le Chamanisme, p. 383 et seq.). ASCENSION TO HEAVEN. MYSTIC FLIGHT On the second element "shamanic" that identify you as a rope-trick, to say the "ascent to heaven" is a more complex problem. Indeed, the rite of ascension on the path of post slaughter (yupa) exists in Vedic India, and outside any shamanic complex, it is a rite which is performed by the "split level". However, our attention certain similarities between estnjctura anzas of Indian ritual and shamanic ascent of the tree, we know that this symbolizes the cosmic tree, however, the sacrificial post (yupa) is also treated as Cosmic Tree (Rig Veda, III , 8, 3; Satapatha Br, Ill., 6, 4, 13, 7, 1, 15 Knud Rasmussen, Intellectual Culture of the Iglulik Eskimo * (Copen gue, 1929), p. 114. 14, the tree chamaluco presents seven, nine or sixteen esca LONES, symbolizing each in a Heaven, and his ascension is equal to the ascent of the tree or the cosmic pillar, however, the Indian sacrificial rises, also the, the sky through the sacrificial Post yupa assimilated (TaittiriyaSamhita, VI, 6 , 4, 2, etc.).. The same symbolism appears in the birth of Buddha newborn, gives seven steps and touch the top of the world (Majjimanikaya ÂŁ [l, 123), as the Altaic shaman at seven or nine notches on the birch ritual end to get to Heaven (see our Le Chamanisme, ps. 235-362). Afiadir superfluous as the old cosmological scheme of the heavenly ascent and Vedic shamanic presented here is enriched with the contribution of ancient Indian metaphysical theorizing. The Seven Steps of Buddha are not intended as "the world of the gods" and "immortality" but the overshoot of the human condition. The conception of the seven heavens, which alludes to Majjia-manikaya goes back to Brahmanism, and we are probably facing a influence of Babylonian cosmology, which also influenced, though indirectly, on the cosmological conceptions and Siberian Altaic. But Buddhism also known cosmological scheme of nine heavens, deeply "internalizedzados" on the other hand, for the first eight heavens correspond to the different stages of meditation, symbolizes heaven and the last Nirvana. In each of these heavens is projected a god of the Pantheon. Buddhism, which represents both a degree of meditation yogui.1 * Now we know that among the seven or nine Altai heavens are inhabited by dif-ferent shapes or semi-divine divine the shaman is over his ascension and with which departe: in the ninth heaven, is before the Supreme Being, Bai Ulgan. Obviously, in Buddhism it is no longer symbolic of ascension to heaven, but the stages of meditation, and time niismo "steps" towards final liberation.


The Brahmanic sacrificer ascends to heaven through the ritual of climbing a ladder; the Buddha transcends the Cosmos licamente symbolized through the seven heavens through meditation the Yogi makes a boo-far 'of a purely spiritual ascension. All en 19 W. Ruben, Schamanismus im alten Indien (Acta Orientalia, 17, 1939 ps. 164-205), p. 169, Eliade, Le Chamanisme, P. 365. cough acts share the same structure, each of them on the piano as his own, indicates a particular way to transcend the mundane world and reach the world of the gods, or the Self, or whatever means the only major difference shamanic experience of ascension to heaven lies in the intensity of the latter, as we have stated already, the experience involves shamanic ecstasy and trance. But remember the Municipality of the Rig Veda, that "in the em-briaguez of ecstasy, riding on the chariot of the winds", etc.. (See p. 108), in other words, Vedic India also met "ecstatic "whose experiment was comparable to shamanic ecstasy. Only, it must be said of course, the difference between the technique that leads to ecstasy" shamanic "and the method of meditation yogi is too big for that they can be linked in any way that be. we will review these differences at the end of our comparative survey work. The symbolism of ascension to Heaven is part of the universally known symbolism of the "magical flight", which, though recorded in all shamans and magic in all "primitive" goes beyond the realm of shamanism, in the strict sense of the word. We will not present here the sets and reviews we presented elsewhere (Le Chamanisme, ps. 365, 415). But the idea that the saints, yogis and magicians can fly is found throughout India. Indeed, soar through the air, flying like a bird, cross great distances with lightning speed, disappear, here are some magical powers that Buddhism and Hinduism give arhats and wizards. Lake miraculous Anavatapta could only be achieved by those po-Seiano the supernatural power of blowing up the Buddha and Buddhist saints Anavatapta reached in the blink of an eye, just as in Hindu legend, the risi rushed through the air toward the divine and mysterious country called North Svetadvipa. It is, of course, of "pure land", a mystical space that has features of both the nature of a "paradise" and an "inner space", accessible only to initiates. Anavar-Tapto Lake, like other Svetadvipa or Buddhist paradises are other way of being to which it reaches through to Yoga, contemplation or asceticism. But what matters is to emphasize the identity of expression of such experiences simboarcaico superhuman with the ascension and flight, so widespread in chama body. The Buddhist texts speak of four kinds of magical powers of tra'-laci6n (gamana), being the first flight in the manner of appointment Patanjali pajaros.17 among siddhi, the power can be obtained by flying yogis the air (Laghima) 18Es provided by the "power yoga" that in the Mahabharata, the sage Narada threw himself into the air and reached the summit of Mount Meru (the "Center of the World): from above alia, saw the confines Ocean of Milk, a Svetapvipa (Mahabharata, XII, 335, 2). For "with a body similar (yogi) yogi wanders where it wills" (ibid., XII, 317, 6). But another tradition recorded by the Mahabharata states and the difference between realmystical ascent of which we can not say it's always "con-crete" - and the "magical flight", which is nothing more than an illusion: 'Also we We can fly to the heavens and express low vari-ous ways, but through the Illusion "(Mayaya, Mahabharata, V, 160, 55). We realize the sense in which the Yoga and other meditative techniques developed Indian


ecstatic experiences and the sor-tilegios magic that belonged to a spiritual heritage immemorial. Anyway, the secret of the magic flight is also owner-ship of Indian alchemy. And that miracle is so common to the Buddhist arhat, who arahant has spawned a verb, the verb rahatve Sinhalese, "go, go instantly from one place to another" 19 Dakini, fairies, magicians played an important role in certain tantric schools in Mongolian language are called the "walking on air" and in Tibetan "which go to Heaven" 20 The magic flight and ascension into heaven by a ladder or rope are also frequent topics in Tibet, where subjects are not necessarily drawn from India, but even when they are Visuddhimagga 17, p. 396. About gamana, see Sigurd Lindquist, Siddhi undAbhinna (Uppsala, 1935), p. 58 et seq. 18 Yoga-Sutra, III, 45; Gheranda samhita, III, 78. About traditions if lar in the Epic, E. W. Hopkins, Yoga-technique in The Great Epic, ps. 337, 361. i 'A. M. Hocart, Flying through the air (Indian Antiquary, 1923, ps. 80-82), pag. 80. 20 J. van Durme, Notes sur le Lamaism (Melanges chinois et bouddhistes, I, 1932, ps. 263-319), p. 374, n. 2. traditions recorded in the Bon-po or resulting therefrom. Moreover, the same reasons or issues prominently in magical beliefs and folklore of the Lolo, Moso and the Chinese, and are also scattered here and there in the primitive world. The ascension to Heaven and the magic flight are extremely saturated with complex symbolism, referring to the soul and preferably human intelligence. The "flight" sometimes translates intelligence, understanding of secret things or metaphysical truths. "Intelligence (Manas) is the swiftest of birds," says the Rig Veda (VI, 9, 5). And Pancavimsa Brahmana (XIV, 1, 13) elaborates: "The covering has wings." We know that many people conceive the soul as a bird. The "magic flight" takes the value of a ~ SaIida out of body ", ie, which translates plastic the ecstasy, the liberation of the soul. But while the majority of human beings are transformed into birds only at the time of his death when they leave his body and fly through the air, the Brahmins, the sorcerers, the ecstatic of all kinds rea-sion set in this world and how often they want the "out-of-body." The myth of the soul-bird contains the seeds whole metaphysics of autonomy and spiritual freedom of man. Recall finally a "miracle" well-known folk, mango-trick: the yogi buries a mango seed and the tree grows quickly, before the astonished gaze of the audience. Biidica according to a tradition recorded in the Dhammapada commentary (Dhammapada-Atthakatha, III, 199), the Buddha would have done the same miracle in the garden of King Pasenadi: Ganda, royal gardener, offering the Buddha a mango fruit, and Lit asked to bury the seed: then washes his hands over the hole where it was deposited, and after a while a tree grows fifty cubits high, covered with flowers and fruits at once. Also there have been exploits in the media is like before shamanic Americans: among the people, for example, chama-tions are known to germinate and grow to a grain of wheat in the eyes of the beholder (Le Chamanisme, p. 285 , footnote 2). THE "MAGIC HEAT". The "inner light" Let us turn to another group of techniques the "domain of fire "and the" magical heat. "Shamans and witches are universal fame of" masters of fire "swallow hot coals, play hie-rro red, Firewalkers. During the sessions, Siberian shamans


are" warm " to such an extent that can be inferred without hurting oped spoons, with swords crossed, swallowing coals, etc.. However, a number of yogis, fakirs boast of prowess seme-j before. The analogy between yogis and shamans is even more evident in the case of "hot magic". initiatic One of the spe-cific evidence of shamanism consists precisely in the capacity to withstand extreme cold. This is so among the Manchu practiced in winter in nine holes ice-shaman candidate dipped into one of the holes and swim out to the second, and so on until the ninth hole (Eliade, Le Chamanisme, p. 114). Among the Eskimo shamans of the peninsula of Labrador there is a test initiatic similar: a candidate) â&#x2013; he stayed for five days and nights in the cold sea, and having pro-proved that neither had been wet, immediately gained the title of angakkok (ibid., p. 68, n. 2). However, some evidence consists precisely in indotibetanas initiatic calculate the degree of preparation of a disciple according to their ability to dry, with the naked body and gave me-snow, a quantity of rags soaked in overnight investments nal. This "psychic heat" in Tibetan is called gtum-mo (pronunciaci6n: tumor). "The rags are put in ice water to freeze and there are hardened them out. Each of the disciples is wound around each body and must thaw and dry on your scalp. When the cloth is dry, wet it again and the candidate must roll it again. The operation continues until dawn. Anyone who has clothes drying is much proclama-mately won the contest .., "21 The gtum-mo is an exercise tantric yogi-well known in the Indian ascetic tradition. We have already alluded to the extremely intense heat caused by the awakening of the kundalini (see 237). The texts detailing the "psychic heat" is obtained either by Alexandra David-Neel, magiciens Mystiques et du Thibet, p. 228 et seq. retention of respiration and by the transmutation of energy sexual22 and this experience will always acompafiada by fen6menos-lights (important detail, which we shall return). The ttcnica of "internal heat production" is not an innovation of Tantrism. The Majjhimanikaya (1, 244, etc..) Speaks of "heat" which is given by the retention of respiration, and other Buddhist texts (the Dhammapada, 387, for example) claim that the Buddha is "on fire". The Buddha is "on fire" because they practiced tapas, asceticism, and we have seen (p. Ill) that covers this occurred since the Vedic period in India, but the ideology and practice of "sweating magical" and the creation of the procedure are known since autotermia Indo-European era, but still belong to an archaic cultural stage, being recorded in both cosmologies "primitive" as in a number of shamans. Everything leads us to believe that the experience of "inner heat" was known to mystics and magicians of ancient times. Large number of tribes "primitive" imagined as "scorching" magico-religious power and express it in terms that mean "hot," "Burn," "very hot", etc.. That's why magicians and bru-jos primitive colored drink water and eat salty or strong-tasting plants: in this way want to increase their "heat" inside. At. modem India, the Mohammedans believe that a man in communication with God takes "burning". The miracles performed is called "boiling." For extensi6n, any persons or actions that involve any magic-religious power of this or that spe-cies, are considered "hot" (Eliade, Le Chamanisme, p. 412 et seq.). As expected, sacred power experienced as extreme heat, is not obtained only through shamanic techniques or mystical. We have already mentioned (p. 112) certain terms of the Indo-European vocabulary of combat (fury, / erg, etc..) Expressing exactly this "extreme heat" and that "anger" which characterize the incorporation of a sacred power As the shaman, the young hero is "overheated" during his initiatory combat. This "anger"


and this "heat" have nothing "profane" from "natural" is the syndrome of the appropriation of something sacred. The "mastery of fire" 22 Lama K. D. Samdup and W. Y. Evans-Wentz, Le Yoga Hbetam, ps. 168, 201, 205, etc. and "internal heat" are always associated with access to a state of ecstasy, or, in other cutturales levels, with access to an unconditioned state of perfect spiritual freedom. The "mastery of fire", insensitivity to heat, and therefore, the "hot magic" that makes bearable the trio extreme eomo both the temperature of the grill, is a mystical and magical virtue that acompafiada other hazafias no less remarkable (ascension, magic flight, etc.). clearly indicates that the shaman has surpassed the human condi-tion is already involved in the condition of the "ghosts". Clearly, the early experience of power-religious magico so, resulted in the "anger" of the information warriors or "ca-lor" of magicians, shamans or yogis, has been transformed, differentiated, moderated by the later work of integration and "sublimation". Kratu the Indian word, which began by designating the "fiery warrior energy, mainly from Indra", then "the victorious power, strength and heroic ardor, the bravery, the pleasure of combat" and by extension, the "power" and "ma-jester" in general, come to designate "the strength of man pia-doso, making it able to follow the requirements of the RTA and to achieve the" 28 It is clear however that the "anger" and "heat" caused by violent and excessive development of power are feared by most mortals: this kind of power are mainly interested in state "gross", magicians and warriors who seek religion in balance confidence and defend themselves against the "heat" and "Fire" magic. The term santi, which in Sanskrit refers to tranquility, peace of Aima, the absence of passion, the relief of suffering, is derived from the root Satin, who originally had the sense to shut down the "fire", the anger, the fever, "heat" caused by the powerful Indian demoniacas.2 * Man of lpos Tiei 23 Kasten Rønnow, Ved. kratu, eine Untersuchung wortgeschichtliche (Le Monde Oriental, vol. 26, 1932, p. 1-90), C. DumÊzil, La naissance d'Archanges (Paris, 1945), p. 145 et seq. In the Gatha, "the meaning of khratu corresponds especially the latter moral sense, specifically religious, the Vedic kratu: khratu is the pious religious effort, what could the bra * Vura Uamarse pious man in this fight against the evil that is the life of the believer "(DumÊzil , cited, p. 145). 24 D. J. Hoens, Santi. A Contribution to Ancient Indian religious terminology 'C'avenhage, 1951), esp. p. 177. v ^ dicos perceived the danger of magic, defended himself against the temptation to overpower, 25 as well as, later, the yogi must veneer temptation of "miraculous powers" (siddhi). We have already observed that the "internal heat" is accompanied, in exercises tantric yogi-in luminous phenomena (see p. 125; LeYoga tibetain, p. 204 et seq.). Also registered are bright mystical ex-perience since the Upanishads, where the "inner light" (antarjyotih) defines the essence of the atman (Brhad. 3, 28), in certain Buddhist meditation experiences, the mystical light of different colors indicate the success of the operation (see p. 192). Not dwell on the immense space occupied by the inner light mysticism and theology in the Christian and Islamic, nor we intend to undertake here a study of comparative mysticism, our-after surveys were


limited to shamanic domain. Add single-mind that the luminous epiphanies overflow, in India, the experience yogi, as an example of the Montana ecstatic ascension of Siva by Arjuna, which ends in a supernatural light (Mahabharata, VII, 80). But the inside "is the key experience Eskimo of the cha-ancestor-worship. Until we can say that their obtention tantamount to a test initiation. Indeed, the nominee has this" ilution "-qaumaneq-after long hours of meditation, in com - plete isolation. According to the shamans interviewed by Rasmussen, qaumaneq consists "in a mysterious light which the shaman re-pentyne feel in your body, inside the head in the center of the brain, an inexplicable beacon, a bright fire , which enables him to see in the dark, both as a figurative sense-sion, as this is capable, even with their eyes closed, see through darkness and perceive things and future events, hidden from other beings human can know both the future as well as the secrets of others. infonnaciones again according to Rasmussen, when the first candidate experience "enlightenment" (the qaumaneq) is "as if the house is to rise from blow, the look very far forward, through the moun This attitude can guess the ambivalent about the sa degree, on the one hand you feel attracted by the magic-religious power, and in addition one feels rejected. On the meaning of this ambivalence, see our historla Treaty of religions, ps. 26, 393. dows, exactly as if the earth was a great plain, and his eyes go to the ends of the earth. Nothing is hidden since before the "(K. Rasmussen, Intellectual Culture of the Iglulik Eskimos, ps. 112 and 113). Similarities and differences , <, What conclusions can be drawn from a deeper examination of these comparative reports? To begin, remove the elements that are not linked to the ideology and techniques yogis. Let aside the series of analogies encountered cosmo-logical system of symbolism lift, both on the shamanism and India (the yupa, the Seven Steps of Buddha, etc.). Iscough are parallels of structure not imposing a relationship between shamanism and yoga. Retain our attention only two aspects of the ascent of symbolism: the "miracle of the chord" and the "flight" magical or ecstatic. In this regard we should note two things: 1) the rope-trick, although it is among the "miracles" ti-picamente fakirs, not part of any technique yogi, can be placed on the list of siddhi, namely, between the Innu merables "amazing powers" of the magical Indian tradition, 2?) regarding the "flight" static, it connotations since the Vedic era (p. 108), but this does not spell properly I am part of dicho yoga ; on the philosophical level, the power to move at will "fly" symbolized the spirit of autonomy, in magical terms, the "flight" was part of the Siddhi and undiffer-ably could be obtained through yoga, the alchemy or brujeria.26 Moreover, as we have said, the "magic flight" does not belong only to the realm of shamanism, although it constitutes one of its specific elements: the "flight" is part of the older tradition of magic. Among the Siddhi also placed the mango-trick, this my-hgro purely shamanic structure in India was rare for-tuna: on the one hand, becoming the kind of miracle, fakirs, on the other side was used by philosophers ( Sankara, among others) as a very amazing picture to explain the process of cosmic illusion. Other siddhi yogis are also recorded in the


26 In the non-Aryan India, the "flight" is the specific attribute of witches and bru-jas: W. Koppers, Probhme des indisrhen Reftgionsgescmchte, ps. 768 (Santal), 783 (Orissa), etc.. chamalucas magical traditions and, for example, the "penetration into the body of another" or the reanimation of corpses. Morphologically, this siddhi falls between "magic powers" rather than between Shamanic spells. By contrast, there is no siddhi specifies the Tradition is part of the universal magic, since it presupposes a long process and spiritual power of knowledge is the previ-ous stocks. This "power" has been among the shamans N. America-Americans: they remember their past lives and give some pretenses to have attended the beginning of the world (Alec Hultkrantz, Conceptions of the Soul among North American Indians, Stockholm, 1953, p. 412 ff.). We are faced here with a fairly complex problem that goes alia of our "purpose: that of belief, universally distributed, in pre-existence of the human soul: certain privileged individuals-the mystics, shamans, etc .- come to transform this 'belief in personal experience. The comparison with India is imposed: alii too, only I-j "uis 6on Awakened and unable to recall their respective preexisting conditions, the rest of us accept the doctrine of the trans-migration as part of the traditional ideology. But neither the cla-psycho Yoga or Buddhism, provide critical knowledge of former existences, in other words, the possession of this siddhi not solve by itself the liberation of rjroblema We proba - ably in front of a mythology and a mystical technique aborigines, linked with a belief in the preexistence of the soul, mythology and techniques that both yoga and Buddhism, assimilated and pres-ised since ancient times. So how are you are striking analogies between the "de-quartered" initiatory of shamans and certain yogic-tantric meditations that involve either the dismemberment of the selfgui by "demons, and finally to the contemplation of the skeleton itself, and the magicoreligious intervention of the skulls and the ever-veres. This kind of spiritual exercises are not recorded in the classical yoga tradition, were incorporated in the fashion of Tantrism, but were probably much more ancient known both in India ( the Kapalika, the Aghori, etc.). and in the Himalayan regions and Tibet (where the Bon-po even retained a structure distinctly shamanistic). This is therefore the revalp rizaci6n in yogic terms, an aboriginal shamanic techniques, similar processes are recorded along the great tantric synthesis. In the mystic piano technique, strictly speaking, the most surprising ahalogia between shamanism and yoga is produced by the "internal heat". And so we set out a universally diffused technique is not always owned by ascetics and magicians, the "inner heat" was also caused by certain initiations warriors. We note, moreover, that this technique is linked to the "mastery of fire," a feat fakirs to be considered as the most archaic and more spread throughout the universe, the magical tradition. We conclude that from the beginning, yoga knew the production of "internal heat" for the retention of the respiration. Because the lids and is registered in the Vedic era and, moreover, was now breathing discipline practiced by Vratya, the mysterious "ecstatic". It is difficult to determine the "origin" of pranayama, this suggests that the ritmizacion of respiration was the result of some "mystical experiments" in pursuit of increased heat interior.27 27 The E) r. J. Filliozat believed to link the origins of yoga "at a scientific doctrine" of prana in the essential function of life. "Understandably, seeing in the respiratory rate ei common engine of psychic and life, the Indians have been treated by acting on ÂŁ 1, to


obtain spiritual and physical effects while (...). The mere existence of the theory does not account for details of the procedures. But enough with that have given us the idea of using them. The experimentaci6n handled the resftf ... The results obtained during the tests and their impact on the mental state have dete -nest the election and guided the development of practical means. At least, this is the theory that explains the tests that were tested (J. Filliozat, Les originesd "une technique mdienne mystique, phique Philosophical Revue, 1946 , ps. 208-220, 217-218). The hypothesis is seductive, but hesitate to link the origins of a mystical technique of experimentation to test a theory bEstimates ^ fica. The opposite process seems more plausible, the "experimentation mistica "would have preceded the scientific theory of respiration. As we remember Dr. Filliozat (p. 217), the stages of respiration were already in Vedic India asirniladas the cosmic winds.'s probably an experience structure "cosmic" we must seek the origins of pranayana, but such experiences were of a mystic, not the result of tec-tion scientists. rjolivalencia yoga, its success in India growing increasingly "Asianise, indicates that Once in that sense we should seek their "origins". Note however that the alternative does not exist between a source and a grassroots scientist, but between the first and a preAryan spiritual tradition, represented by ethnic superior in terms of culture, the As for ritual intoxication cafiamo, opium and other narco-cal, was a custom widely recorded in the shamanic world, as well as among some yogis. We know that the same Pa-tanjali account for the "simple" (ausadhi), together with the samadhi, among the means to obtain the siddhi (YS, IV, 1). The "simple" can designate both the ecstasy narcotics that cause both "weeds" that was obtained from the elixir of life (see p. 264). In any case, the cafiamo and drugs of the same type pro-Vocano the ecstasy and samadhi no yogi, this means "mystical" per-belong by right to the phenomenology of ecstasy (which cone-cemos a sample, the muni behavior Rigvedic p. 108) and were reluctantly accepted in the field of classical Yoga. But this allusion to make Patanjali extati the magical virtues of the simple-tion, is significant and of great consequence: prue-ba the pressure of the "ecstatic," his willingness to supplant with me-all the disciplines of Yoga clasico. Indeed, a certain number of cakta and members of other movements and or-giasticos ecstatic, used and still use opium and hachish (Arbman, Ru-ara, p. 300 et seq.; Lindquist, Die Methodendes Yoga, 194; etc.).. Most of these "ecstatic" is more or less directly from Siva, in other words, they belong to an Aboriginal cultural stratum. In the field of shamanism in the strict sense, the intoxication by drugs (cafiamo, mushrooms, snuff, etc.). Seems an original phenomenon: firstly, myths and folkshamanic cyan evident decline of the current shamans unable to obtain the "ecstasy" in the style of the "Great Shaman of antafio" moreover, has been observed that in areas where the cha Nanismo undergoes a process of disintegration and where the "trance" is simulated, it toxic and abusing drugs. But in the same area of chama-organism, there must be a difference between this phenomenon, probably recent, of intoxication in order to "force" the trance, and ritual consumption of substances "burning" that tended to increase the " internal heat. India should thus know several aboriginal ancient tradition concerning the means to obtain the "magical heat", the "ecstasy" or "divine possession" and all these magical-ecstatic traditions have been treated, more than once, Indo-European Vedic times. The problem of continuous Mohenjo-Daro no solution (see later, p. 336).


mixed with yogic disciplines or even supplant, the proof is in the fact that a considerable number of "yogis" and "fakirs" while participating in a school determined and yogi practicing certain exercises (pranayama, etc. .) prolorr-gando both a tradition more than ecstatic and orgiastic. If we now try to draw some general conclusions from the comparative examination sketched above, we must begin by distinguishing three positions Spiritual l9) the specific Sxtasis shamanism, 2 °) la liberation through samadhi, Yoga own classic, 3 °) lajivanmukti, which coincides almost with the "immortality in the body", a particular form of Yoga and Tantric alchemical, and of interest mainly to the imagination "popular" with the nostalgia that satisfies. Next, we just discussed would be useless INSIS-ing on the differences in structure between shamanic ecstasy and enstasy yogi. In its capacity as spiritual technique constituted (not talking about his "origins" possible), yoga-can in no case be confused with shamanism or form part of the techniques of ecstasy: the aim of Yoga is the perfect classic car -nomy, the enstasy, while shamanism is particularized by its desperate effort to reach the "condiqion of mind" for the "flight of ecstasy." However, there is a certain point in which they find do Yoga and Shamanism: it's "out-of-time" and the Abolition of ecstasy of the shaman History recom-bra freedom and bliss of the times in primary which, according to myth, the man could ascend to Heaven and materiklmente converse with the gods .* 8 For their part, the Yoga reaches the unconditioned state of samadhi or sahaja, jivanmukta perfect spontaneity, the liberated in life. " From one point of view it may be said that the jivanmukta has abolished time and history: its spontaneity somewhat resembles the paradi-Siaca existence of primitive man evoked by myths. That is, the yogi, as the shaman tries to abolish the historic time to rediscover one situation and non-conditioned (and therefore paradoxical, impossible to imagine). But while the shaman is able to achieve this spontaneity only through his ecstasy (when you can "fly" ) and only for such period as long they ^ xta 28 See our book, let him Chamanisme et techniques archaïque Text-sse, passim; and e tudio La nostalgie du paradis dan »lew traditions primitives (Diogcne, n. 3, 1953, ps. 3145). sis, the true yogi, who has obtained the samadhi and has be-come a jivanmulkta enjoys continuously from that situation is not conditioned, ie it has managed to abolish the Time and History in final form. This difference in structure between the shaman and the yogi is ac-characteristics of classical Yoga. But we have seen that from very early, at the side of this form of yoga crystallized others-do use other paths (eg, the bhakti) and persecution of other purposes (the obtaining of a "divine body", for example). It is thanks to this proliferation of new forms and in this process yogis coalescence with other mystical techniques that we find before us a third "position spirit, which affirms the possibility of indefinitely prolonging life in a" body incorruptible "forged by Hathayoga and alchemy at the same time. Neither the classical yoga, or generally any other form teacher's thinking Indian pursued the "immortality" from a protracted life to infinity and the liberation, freedom, India preferred to them accordingly. However, as we have seen (p. 302), at some point, Yoga came to embody the conscience hindu, not only the ideal instrument of liberation, but also the "secret''to conquer Death. This need is only one explication: a sector of India, the largest perhaps. Yoga is not only confuse day with the path of holiness and liberation, but


also with magic and especially with the magical means of veneer to Death. In other words, the mythology of fivanmukta gratified not only the thirst for freedom, but also a longing for immortality. In sum, we see a continuous process of osmosis and coalescence, which eventually radically change fundamental aspects of classical yoga: though the latter is neither magic, or shamanism, a quantity of magical sorulegios are acceptable and two between siddhi chamalucas some techniques are the possibility of approved exercises to yogis. All this allows us in-Treves 'pressure' exerted by the substrate immemorial) magico-religious proceed with the formation of Yoga, strictly speaking, pressure that from one point, managed to rise to the su-Perficio , and integrating them to Yoga, to extreme elements of spiritualism mately old aboriginal. It may also be the case that Yoga has received and retained the support of civilization has long disappeared, such as Mohenjo-Daro. Effective-mind, as we shall see, popular Hinduism has many as-pects which we find in the regions and civilizations tohist6ricas pro-India. Before Let us all stop talking about them on the process of coalescence of certain yogas "popular" with aboriginal spiritualism. This test is highly instructive, we sample raw, so to speak, the multiple erosion, degradation and changes that took place outside the offi-cial Hinduism, preparing and anticipating the subsequent synthesis. Coalescence and Degradation: YOGA AND POPULAR RELIGION The survival of Buddhism, many centuries after the Muslim invasion of the offensive Brahmins reconversion, confirms his victory in the popular sectors. In some provinces, mainly in Orissa and Bengal, the Buddhist religion and dogma continued to find supporters even after the triumph of Brahminism (see Note VIII, 6). But it was a pu-pular religion that preserved little of the original Buddhist message. The survival of this "crypto-Buddhist" (NN Vasu calls it) is significant, however: just because it became a religion and ritual in a mystical devotion (bhakti), ie, because it satisfied the need of worship and devotion specific to the aboriginal peoples, this Buddhism "decadent" could stand up to the joint offensive of Islam and Brahmanism. In the dog-matic piano, Buddhism had come to a synthesis between Vajrayana and Brahmanism (j. ej., The cult of Dharma in West Bengal). Yoga is not desempefia almost no role. But the tantric excesses that were done under color of Buddhism can be guessed easily thanks to the name given to Buddhist religious places: "dwelling place of the prostitute" (KR Subramanian, Buddhists Remains in Andhra, p. 30). The cult of Dharma sobrevivi6 to our days, for his "hin-duizaci6n" continued even at the beginning of the century. In a temple Dharma Haraprasad Shastri, a priest saw that divided the gifts into two parts, I wonder why 'and the latter responded: "Dharma and Siva is the time, AHILA division. The mantra used was as follows: "Health is Siva Dharma-raja. Some afios later, H. P. Shastri visited the temple again and found that the priest had placed a symbolic representation of the female generative organ (guari-patta) under the statue of Dharma, as for "Hinduized" completely (Dasgupta, Obscure Cults, p. 321, footnote 2). This it was still risky. More than once it had an opportunity to reintegrate archaic religious behavior, had long since finished within brama-cal society. Here is an example from the Middle Ages there are reports of a ceremony otofial, Sabarotsava named in honor of Durga, cere-mony that remains even in


Bengal. Those who partake of it Durna pregnant your body with mud and covered with leaves and flowers, as the Sahara, autectono people of southern India, aus-traloide home, to give name to this ceremony. Two verses of the Kalika Purana 61, 2122) show that the rituals included songs Sabarotsava lewd, erotic pantomime and probably orgies. Moreover, another seventeenth-century Bengal Purana, the Brhaddharma Purana (III, 6, 81-83) describes this occasion that only farm-party rule ben the names of the generative organs ahead of those who were initiated in the worship of Sakti, but adds that the Sakti is pleased to hear obscene words (DC Sirkar, The SaktaPHhas, ps. 105-106). This episode is very instructive: we see that as a Hindu festival of vegetation, which also is aboriginal origin and structure, but has been "Hinduized" long ago-takes and values in their effort to assimilate things sacred Eccen -metric at any price, the religious behavior of an archaic village. The Sabarotsava is a typical example of the processes of integration of aboriginal religions worship the Great Goddess of fertility and vegetation, DurgaShakti. As we have seen, Durga-Shakti plays a role preponderantly in Tantrism and all forms of Saktismo. It is with futural insist on the fact that assimilation and the coalescence of aboriginal cults were made mainly in the lowest estates of religion and magic in so-called popular estates. This is where we find, for example, complex and saktico incorpdrados yogi to the mythologies and rituals of the vegetation. Some tales, moreover, are called yogini to reveal the source of his magical power, gained through Yoga. Let's see how the tantric texts presented. "The Kula yogini live forever in all trees kula. No one should sleep under the trees kula, or harm them" (Caktanandatarangini, quoted by R. Chan-da, Indo-Aryans, p. 35). Are both nymphs and witches as the Great Goddess Durga, who are servants in great number, but who are also sometimes maniiestaciones of the Goddess, ks yogini, dakini and the lama are charming and terrifying at the same time. Certain texts acenuian beauty. According Abhidanottara Tantra, 2 "the yogini-which are divided into three classes: Kula ja, Brahmi, Ru-dra-fairies are as white as the lotus-eyed, pink-ren prefers the white robes and perfumed and consecrated the worship of Sugata. The dakini bearing a bright red skin that exudes the aroma of the lotus, and his expression. is sweet, have red eyes like ufias, and usually decorate their homes with pictures that represent lotus flowers. In around Mt Girnar30 three species are known yogini: Pul-(flower), Lai (red) and Kecur-(hair). They are invoked in case of epidemics, particularly when cholera ravaged the region. Fairies, devils, witches, all these partners or local manifestations of Durga tions represent both me-nores deities of vegetation or utilization (bring death or wealth), in-meat at the same time the forces of magic shamanic and Yoga. In Udyana, the yogini-women were imagined as tigers, feeding on human flesh and were able to transform into birds-be when crossing a rio.31 debian Tibetan paintings presented to the dakini under its scary appearance, bearing the frontal eye , naked with a green shawl, or wearing "a red loincloth, and on the back, a corpse whose arms come to intertwine as upa scarf around the neck of divinity ..." (M. Li-Nossi, Les peintures de la collection TIBETAINES Loo, p. 55). Any one who is the origin of these terrible demigods were assimi-lated to Tantrism it early: they are found, for exam 29 Text analyzed by Rajendralala Mitra, The Sanskrit Buddhist Literature in Nepal (Calcutta, 1882), p. 2 and sig. so G. Opert, On the Bharatavarsa or original inhabitants of India (Westminster, 1893), p.


571, note. 81 A. Griinwedel, Der Wegnach Sambhala (Abhandlungen d. konig. Bayer Akademie. Wissenschaften, Phi!. U. hist. Klasse, XXIX, 3 Abb. Miinchen, 1915), p. 28 (17 a). It is worth insisting on the structure of this shamanistic mythology of witches. ple, represented in the cakra, alongside other deities. Some are of Tibetan origin: the lama kept up its Tibetan name (lhamo, "devil"). These facts illustrate the coalescence of popular cults and Himalayan Buddhist Tantrism (see also Note HIV, 7). According to the Rasaratnacara alchemical treatise, attributed to Nagarjuna, this would have acquired the secrets of alchemy at the end of a twelve afios asceticism spent in adoration of the goddess Yaksini, which protects the Ficus religiosa (PC. Ray, A History of Hindu Chemistry, II, p. 7). The Yaksay the Yaksini constitute the large class of local divi-nities to which Hindus eventually assimilate all religious forms minors aborigines mostly. Yaksa The term first appears in the Jaiminiya-Brahmana (III, 203, 272), where it means "being beautiful", but the common sense of "spirit", "genius" with the newly imposed Grhya-Sutra ( Coomaraswamy, yaks, I, p. 5). In the Epic, yaks are well known already, and last of the Mahabharata passage states that men of temperament "sattvic" worship the gods (deva), those of femperamento "rajasic" worship and raksasa yaks, and those temperament "tamas", the preta (ghost) and bhttta (the spirits of the dead, ghosts generally ma-ligne). First effort of assimilation and classification tempted by Hinduism struggling with this considerable mass of jinn and demons of Aboriginal religion. Relatively few yaksa have a name, but Coomaraswamy believes (op. cit, ps. 9-10) as very likely that the goddess Sitala, Olabibi (goddess of cholera), the Seven Mothers (in partial union with Kubera, king of yaks), the 64 dakini yogini and certain forms of Devi, most of it-the gods of India and to the Great Durga, were Yaksa at first, that is, add on our part, they were regarded as such in the environments Brahmins. Anyway, yaks and Yaksini represent the form-type of aboriginal religious devotion: for this is that both Hinduism and Buddhism-two were forced to assimilate. (Hariti, Mother-of-hell, you originally chickenpox goddess, became the Buddhism in Yaksini of great importance.) For worship of yaks, can raise altars everywhere. The essential element is what the table or altar stone (veyaddimar.co) placed under the sacred tree (Coomaraswa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; p. The extreme cultural denotes a type ai old mind assimilated catiya worship. This term sometimes designated naba hierofanico only the tree, not the altar, on other occasions was a construction caitya next to a tree. The cult of the caitya has happened to Tibet, where he acquired a very pronounced fuingly, many of these caitya have been elevated to keep the ashes of lamas (Tucci, Mc'odRien and Ts'aTs'a, P. 24). "The cult of the structure was ydksa devotional, ie part of the mainstream popular bhakti. Because, as Coomaraswamy has observed (op. cit, p. 27 et seq.). Visnu and Siva were not the only ones who crystallized the popular bhakti Alre DEDOR of their respective religions, as other religious movements sos, including Buddhism, did the same. Buddhism I adopt the iconographic motive of "Women and the Tree" pre-Aryan origin, whose roots lie deep in the cults of the vegeta cion. In addition, yaks have been considered as the protectors


of the stupa and representatives in the same attitudes of devotion to the Buddha than men. This cult of yaks and-the yaksini was also assimilated by Jainism: lbs was found, in fact, represented as guardians of the temples, actually mind. All this proves the strength of the aboriginal religion: any elaborate religious way above the popular strata-budis mo, Jainism, shares must eventually take into account the worship (puja) and the mystical devotion (bhakti) which constituted the very structure of the religious experience of the pre-Aryan India. Another example will put still more evidence of the solidarity between the Great Goddess (Durga), fertility cults and popular yoga. We refer to the pitha or places of pilgrimage in honor of the Great Goddess (whatever his name Sakti Devi, Durga, Kali, etc.).. The Tantra, the Purana, talk of four pitha, among which, as expected, contained Kamarupa. By representing each pitha the real presence of the Great Goddess, quaternary symbolism expresses the victory of the Sakti cult in the whole of India (for the pitha are distributed in the four cardinal points). But soon multiplied the number of pitha and start-^ observed in some variants are known lists seven, eight, forty and fifty, and even one hundred and eight pitha (related to percent) cho names Goddess). A myth of origin Vedic and Brahma & nico, but only in the Mahabharata gives details in the sense that interests us (Mahabharata, XII, 282-283) explains the multiplicity of pitha: Sati, Shiva's wife, dies or commits suicide for being ill-treated by his father, Prajapati. The Tantra and Purana myth developed rum: Siva dance wandering through the world, leading the men-ber the corpse of his wife. To put a stop to their madness, the gods decide to split into pieces the corpse: there are two variants of this operation: the first (Devibhagavata, VII, chap. 30; Kalika Purana, ch. 18, etc.).. Brahma, Vishnu and Sani penetrate the cadaver by Yoga and divide it into small pieces, the places where these fall become so many pitha. In the second alternative, Vishnu and Shiva chases part of Sati's body with its flex-chas (DC Sirkar, The Sakta pitha, p. 5 ff.). The myth of the dismemberment of the Goddess, although latecomers to the Indian texts is extremely archaic, under vari-ous forms, is found in Southeast Asia, Oceania in the two Americas, and always in relation with the myth of self -inmolaci6n of Divinity in order to create plants comestibles.32 The symbolism of dismemberment is in the midst of different contexts, in the lunar mythology and shamanism. In the case of pitha we are facing a fertility Aboriginal myth that is part of Tantrism: Do not forget that the sites were peregrination pitha usual cos the Tantric and sakta. However, and this seems important, pitha, considered as members of the Great Goddess, were simultaneously aniconic altars, sacred sites converted by the fact that ascetics and yogis had meditated there and had obtained some siddhi: in other words, pitha were similar, in a matter of holiness, the samadha, where he had buried the yogis. Consequently, both pitha could be the place where festers-lock any member of the Goddess (mainly the yoni) as the place where any ascetic had obtained his "perfection yogi" (siddhapitha). Sarvanandatarangini mentions Mehara (in the dis-trict Tippera) as a pitha-Stahl, because with-cysts there Sarvananda their tantric siddhi (CD Sirkar, p. 3, n. 1). We have here a shining example of the multiple coalescences and summary "2 AW Macdonald, A propos de Prajapati (Journal Asiatique, 1952, ps. 323-338), Mircea Eliade. Mereet La Terre-hierofiamies them Cosmiques (Era-us-Jahrbuch, XXII, 1953, ps.


57-95). caused and encouraged by the Tantric yogi: an archaic myth is an integral part of both yoga and the popular devotion of the Great Goddess of fertility: the place consecrated by the conquest of the liberation yogi tornose sacred because it was said later that it contained a member of the Great Goddess, Durga, in her role as wife of Sakti and Siva, the Goddess becomes the yogis and ascetics, being, for the rest of the population, as the Great Goddess of vegetation and fertility. HERITAGE Dravidian, MUNDA, Proto-World Not dwell here on the cultural and linguistic influences rjercidas by Dravidian peoples of the Indo-Aryans. (Show-ing some indications HIV in Note 8.) Let us note only that the essence of Hinduism, devotional worship, puja, is a Dravidian contribution. Fl term bid would also be of Dravidian origin (Gundert and Kittel linking him with a root Dravida, ta-mule language pusu in caii puru, "spreads, anoint, tenir). On the mystical devotion, bhakti, is probably native structure, either Dravidian, and pre-Dravidian, in any form, the bhakti has played an important role in Hinduism, cleansed of the excesses of the magic and scholastic ritualistic. The bhakti was intended either to God, the Great Goddess or any of the countless gramavedata that represented. The gramave-data of particular interest to us, for their worship in-cludes extremely archaic elements. All Ja religious life of Southern India is concentrated around these local deities, manifestations of the Great Goddess. But it is precisely this type of worship which prevailed in popular Hinduism: India oncontr6 in gramavedata veneration of his own religious vocation. Among the names of the Great Goddess, manifested through those "village deities," noted Ellamma, Mariyamma, Pidari, Ambika (Dravida atnma a root, "mother"). Your icons are a ve-ces simple stone figures of the female generative organ (yoni) But the Great Goddess Dravidian features no-giasticos bloody, or Kali-Durga. There are still traces of a primitive and androgynous Great God (Kadaval), but their role in worship is of little importance. Among the names of the Great God let us note the Yogi Dravidian, probably introduced as a result of coalescence with Siva. The places of worship of gramavedata mainly found near some trees. Integrated among many other elements of archaic culture, of which we now turn continuation, this detail could denote an ancient stratum, pre-agricultural, the religion of the vegetation. Indeed, note in the Australo-Asian peoples of the South Sea custom of calling to the countries and races with names taken from the plant world. However, Jean Przyluski demonstrated that the Sanskrit term Udumbara that while Ficus glomerata designates a region of Punjab and its inhabitants, attests to the existence of Australo-Asian populations in northern Punjab. This proves that pre-Dravidian peoples who speak languages Munda, had a marked influence on culture and religion of the Indo-Aryans. Return to this point. For now, note the survival, in the cult of gramade-Vata, other elements of the archaic religion, pre-Dravidian. For one of the favorite pictures of gramadevata is the vessel, and oc-rre that embodies the vessel Diosa.33 The annual festival of the Goddess, a decorated vessel is carried in procession around the village (Oppert, Original Inhabitants , p. 461 ff.; Whitehead, Village Gods, p. 38, etc.).. In sacrificial ceremonial occasion, the whole population gathers outside the village and a vessel (karagam), representing the Goddess angry, is carried solemnly to the center of town, where he stayed three days, once after that time, the vessel is taken outside the village and broken into pieces (Oppert, p 463).


However, the symbolism and the cultural function of the vessel-rum was absorbed by Hinduism. And certain post-Vedic ceremonies included the "Dance of the vessel, taking part in the DONCE-llas, and whose meaning is obvious fertility magic (Cooma-raswamy, yaks, II, p. 46). But in this instance, the sexual symbolism of the pot is more important than the symbolism aquatic, marine, which is even more archaic. One paragraph of Srilalitasahasrana-mastotram, cited by Oppert (p. 418), says the supreme Goddess can be worshiped in any form, even with a vessel. According to a tradition preserved in the South, the sage Agastya 33 Whitehead, The Village Gods on South India, ps. 37 and ff., 55, 64, 98, etcetera. The goddess is called in Tamula vessel Kumbattal in Sanskrit and Kumbhamata Canara Garigadevara (Oppert, Original Inhabitants, p. 274 et seq.). born with Vasista in a jar of water from the union of Mithra and Varuna with Urvasi.34 apsara Agastya is also called pitab-dhi, "Ocean drinker. Another legend says that Brahma craft a sacrifice to explain the Sanskrit and Tamil, and that is through the magical force unleashed by the sacrifice that Agastya was born in a vase, the wise man subsequently married the daughter of the Ocean (Oppert, ps. 67-68, note 61). Witnessing here the wellknown phenomenon in language interpretation Brahmins and religious myths foreign ing Indo-European sphere. But it happens that the aquatic symbolism resists all-pretation reinterpret mythological and scholastic and eventually imposed even in the sacred texts. The Devyupanishad says that when he asked the gods to the Great Goddess (Devi) who she was and where he lived, ourselves become this response: "The place of my birth is in the water, within the Sea: the one who knows obtains the abode of Devi "(breast and yonir apsvnatah samudra devipadamapno evam veda sa-ti). The Goddess is the source and origin of the gods of the universe. "It is I who, at first, thought the father of this world" (aham asya suve pitaram Mudhar; text Oppert, ps. 425-426). In other words, the sacred force embodied by the Goddess resides in the Waters: Ocean is conceived by the great repository of everything sacred, from which the gods, saints and heroes take their powers and prestige. This religious conception characterizes the maritime civilizations of the Southeast. Jean Przyluski has analyzed a number of myths and legends presented Australo-Asian without this special exception: the hero should his condition prestigious King or Holy Being born to an aquatic animal. In Annam, the mythical first king was named after long quan, "Dragon King". In Indonesia, the kings of San-fo-tsin long Ts'i were called "spirit, esperaria of Naga". The kings of Chota-Nagpur also descended from a naga called them Pundarika: this, it was said, had foul breath. However, this detail is reminiscent of the "princess of smell pqscado" which, in myths and legends Indonesian-sias, joined a brahman and founded a dinastfa. The "fishy princess" was a nagi, a female water spirit: Simba doing duty as the primordial sacred concentrated in the ocean as 84 From there his name sambhava Kumbha (born in Kumbha ta ma, the Goddess vase) Kumbhayoni and Ghatodbhava (Oppert, p. 24, note 25). the first Aboriginal cultural forms. His union with the representatives of a spiritual principle contrary meant the foundation of a new civilization, the beginning of a new history. Palaung According to legend, the master of the prince Thusandi nagi Thuriya, children or the Sun; of their union were born three children: one became Empe-tor of China, one on King of the Palaung and third in King of Fagan. According Sedjarat Malayou, King Suran bass in a glass box at the bottom of the ocean, and graciously


hosted by its inhabitants, where the hij to the king's marriage had three children and first became king of Palembang ( Jean Przyluski, La Princesse to Vodeur de poisson, passim). Can not stress enough about the symbolism of the "union of opposites": the nagi (the formless, the virtual, the dark) and the Sun, etcetera. A more thorough study of this symbolism us too far afield from our subject (Traite d'Histoire des Religions, ps. 184 and 357). Simply remember the great importance of the Nagas and snakes in the mythologies and cults aborigines forming part of Hinduism: nagi such as aquatics, Naga symbolizes the dark, the pre-formal, the original sacred force, focusing this time not and at the bottom of the ocean, but in the bosom of the earth. The naga snakes in India represent the genius of place, the sacred Aboriginal (see Note VH1, 9). However, the Nagas are always linked with magic, yoga, science secre-after, and folklore that is developing around us Nagarjuna sample that remained standing as the belief that snakes retain-ing and transmitted through mysterious initiations, a "hidden doctrine," timeless. The elements of symbolism and maritime culture and recorded among the Dravidian peoples worldwide are due to immigra-tion micro-Polynesian, which began in prehistoric times, continue to nuando historical times. James Hornell aunt put on evidence a powerful influence on people Polynesian pre-Dravidian-ing on the southern coast of India H. C. Dasgupta observed staggering Ambrose analogies between certain games of India and Sumatra. Munda-speaking peoples (or Kolari) belonging to the group Linguistic Australo-Asian, made significant contributions to Indian culture. Already in the Rig-Veda has been demonstrated the existence of a myth-tia Australo-Asian: Indra throws with his bow an arrow through a mountain and kills the boar that, on the other side of the coati, save the treasure: a plate of rice. The terms of arc (drumbhuti) dQ arrow (Bund), d plate of rice (odand), name of the boar d (Emusd), were originally munda (FBJ Kuiper, according to the author, forty per cent of the vocabulary of Indian dia-lects North yen have been tornadoes in the world, either directly or through the Sanskrit and Prakrit). The names of betel (tambula), betel nut (guvaka), coconut (narikela) of banana (kadala) and other even more, are Australo-Asian. The numeration vigesimal own Bengal and certain parts of northern India, is Australo-Asian origin. Rice cultivation on slopes, hills and fields also represents a contribution Australo-Asian. The term linga, so important in Hinduism, related to 'the term langula (Sanskrit for "plow"), derives from a root AustraloAsiatic, lak, which designates the same time the male generative organ and the shovel. (See Note VIII, 10.) We have reviewed these concepts to show how far the roots of Hinduism lie deep in time. Symbols, rituals, elements of civilization, terminologies Australo-Asian and preDravidian dravidicana vigorously nurtured in-riquecieron and modified both Indian society and its culture and spirituality. India is the land which provides the most important contribution to the final synthesis of Hinduism. India is revealed, especially in the religious sphere, as preserved-ra par excellence is not lost almost none of its assets inthreatening. Better understand this fact when examining the relation between protohist6ricas civilizations of the Indus and the Hindu-tion. Harappa, MOH ENJO-DARO The excavations started, thirty afios in Punjab by Sir John Marshall and his colleagues, continued by E. Mackay, Vatts and Wheeler, revealed a civilization whose heyday may sei situated between the years 2500-2000 before the Christian era (see Note VIII, 11).


They are mainly the two city-fortresses, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa on the Indus on a tributary of Indus, Ravi, which revealed the essence of this proto-hist6rica civilization. What initially attracts attention is its uniformity and-comiento are: no change, no innovation have been observed fords in the millennium of history of civilization harappiana. The two castle towns were probably the capital of the "Empire". The cultural coherence and continuity can not be explained only assuming a regime based on a kind of religious authority. The variety of anthropological types already shows a quite advanced ethnic synthesis: proto-Australoid elements appear to represent the greatest and most "primitive", the aborigines, the type "Mediterranean" is probably of western origin and may be regarded as the bearer of agricultural civilization (indeed, is 1 finds in the Western world always associated with agriculture; Piggott, Prehistoric India, p. 145), and finally, two anthropological types were identified: the Mongoloid and alpino.38 The piano in the city of Mohenjo-Daro shows the importance of a Great Pool (Great Bath), which brings to mind the "pool" of Hindu temples today. Pictographic writing, found in a lot of stamps has not been deciphered: has, so far, to certain hypotheses capricious art, like all culture is conservative and harappiana and "Indian" style one senses newer artists (Piggott, p. 187). But our primary concern is the religion: according to Sir John Marshall, is so specific that hardly differs Indian Hinduism (op. cit, vol. 1, p. VII). We find here the cult of the Great Goddess, as well as that of a god who could be considered a prototype of Shiva, along with zoolatria (ibid. p. 67), the faksmo (p. 58) the cult of trees ( op-cha plan XII, fig. 18) and water (ibid. p. 75), ie all the elements to become members later in the great synthesis, Hindu. The cult of Mother Goddess is widely used there, they found numerous figurines, some of them quasi-goddesses represent almost desnudas.3 * The latter rate is similar to Kali-Durga, the model was probably. No Aryan people rose to a supreme female deity to the place that had in the Mohenjo-Daro civilization which now owns Kali in Hinduism. But the most important for our study is the dis ss See descripci6n in Sir John Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro, vol. 11 ps. 599,648, idem, vol. 1, p. 42, the premature attempt to link these four types et de-tails with the munda lingiiisticas famines and dravtda. ** One of the names of the Great Goddess of Hinduism is Aparna, "which this leaves without his robe, "ie," this naked. " ery in Mohenjo-Daro, an iconographic type that can be considered the first plastic representation of a yogi. The same Great God, in whom we identified the prototype of Siva, alii is specifically represented in the position yogi (pi. XII, fig. 17). Sir John Marshall describes it in these terms (vol. 1, p. 52): "God, who has three faces, seated in a Indian throne in the attitude characteristic of yoga, sitting on its cross legs, heel against heel and toes down (...). On his chest is a pectoral triangular or maybe a series of necklaces (...) The phallus is short (urdhvamedhra) but what looks like a phallus could be, in fact, only the extreme the belt. A couple of Cueman crowned his head. On both sides


of God are four animals, an elephant and a tiger in your right, a rhinoceros and a buffalo on your left. Behind the Throne There are two deer ... One of the last to rule on this question, Stuart Piggott, writes back: "There is no doubt that you Nemos here the prototype of the great god Shiva in its capacity as Lord wild animals and Prince of the yogis. Perhaps it was pictured with four faces and looks, with four animals in the four directions of the earth. This would bring to mind the elephant Symbolically, the lion, the horse and the bull of the columns of the Maurya third century BC, the throne in Deer the god is another significant relationship with religion and Sarnath later, then placed in a similar way, the companions are forced to representations of the Buddha's sermon at the Deer Park "(PrehistoricIndia, p. 202). The stamps, also found other deities attitude represented in the asana. Finally, a statue (Vol. III, pl. XCVIII), which most likely is that of a yogi. Sir John Marshall describes it as follows: "It represents apparently a man in the posture of a yogi, and is therefore that eyelids are almost closed and the gaze is directed has ing the tip of the nose (...) This is probably the statue a priest or rather of one and not is adorned with horns that would be expected if it were the representation of divinity itself. The fact that you have religious or quasi-religious character is suggested by the characteristic pattern in the form of clover, their clothes, ground reserved for objects of a religious character, in Sumer "(vol. 1, p. 44, 54). 37 These facts can not fail to be considered and its scope is enormous. Between the Indus and civilizaci6n protobist6rica Modemo Hinduism no solution of continuity: the Great Goddess and the God genes ( "Siva"), the cult of the vegetation (the Pipal tree, so typical of Hinduism) and the phallic, the man -saint in the attitude of practicing asana perhaps ekagrata are both in one or another civilization, first piano. "The link between religion and Hinduism Contemporary harappiana of great interest, obviously, that provide some explanations to these multiple facets that can not be derived from the Aryan traditions brought to India with the collapse of the Harappan civilization or after this. The old beliefs hardly mue-ren: it is possible that the ancient Indian historical society is more in debt to Harappa that Sanskrit-speaking invaders "(Piggott, cited, p. 203). Moreover, many cultural elements typical of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are today in India, so, for example, two-wheeled cart is the same as currently used in Sindh, the boats are similarities before the that now ply the Indus, the technique of the pottery appears to be identical to that observed today may vars in the villages of Sindh, and the same is true of the architecture, the nasal adom, how to apply kohl, ivory comb, and so on. (Gordon Childe, New Light on the Most Ancient East, London 1935, p. 210, 222, etc.).. The use of the turban, unknown in the Vedic texts, then recorded in the Brahmana was popular in Harappa (Piggott, p. 269). You can disagree in the above-the details, but it is almost impossible to doubt the Indian character of the civilization of Mohenjo-Daro, whatever its ori-genes, on the other side. It is possible that the authors of this civilization have become certain religious forms of the aboriginal population (Mackay, op.cit, p. 99). We


have seen the importance of elements to proto-Australoid, which probably constituted the lower strata of society. This element endures today in the tribes autoc 37 Ernest Mackay, The Civilization of Vindus (trad, French, Paris, 1936). p. 68, is more circumspect: "But it might not be so because a very similar kind of eyes was observed in ancient clay figures from Kish and Our". tonas of South India (Gordon Childe, p. 208). Without doubt, I go into the synthesis harappiana as later came into the hin-duistas synthesis. Around 2000 BC J. C, the Indus civilization was on the defensive: shortly afterwards, was part of Harappa fires mediated by invaders from the Northwest. These "barbarians" were not even Indo-Europeans, but their invasion was no doubt linked to the general movement of the West, who were involved in the Indo-Europeans (Piggott, p. 255). Some centuries later, they halted, roughly, to everything he subsisted civilizaci6n even the Indus. Until recently, although it was believed that by invading India, the Indo-Aryan aboriginal tribes had found only that culturally, they were still in a state etnografico: it was the Dasyus whose. "strong" Indra, the Rig Veda, attacked and des-trui were but modest trenches, it was said But Whee .. jr has been shown to hold hymn of the Rig Veda (I, 53) that exalts occasion Indra conquer the "strong" of Dasyus refers to the solid defense of the citadel at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro (Piggott, p. 263). Hence we conclude that the Indo-Aryans during their descent into central India * found not only aboriginal tribes, but also the latest so-brevivientes of the Indus civilization, who handed the draft of gratia. In the cultural piano, the harappianos were clearly passed higher in the Indo-Europeans: the urban and industrial civilization had no point of comparison with the "barbarism" of the Indo-Europeans. But they felt no vocation harappianos combat (until we can assume that theocracy was a kind of commercial and industrial), to be poorly prepared for this attack of a young and aggressive, were defeated and destroyed. However, the destruction of the Indus culture could not be definitive. The collapse of urban civilization equals being not outright extinction of the culture, but simply to their regression toward rural ways, larval, j, "popular". (This is a phenomenon widely observed in Europe during and after the great barbarian invasions). But soon, the "Aryanization" of Punjab attracted to the movement of the great synthesis that would one day become in Hinduism. The considerable number of elements "harappianos" registered in Hinduism can be explained by a single-mind contact, established in the early days, including conquerors and the representatives of the culture of Indus. These representatives were not necessarily the founders of the Indus civilization and its direct descendants: the tax could be, by irradiation, certain cultural forms harappia-pines, which were preserved in remote regions, first observed by the tides of arianizaci6n. This fact would explain the follow-ing, apparently strange: the cult of the Great Goddess and of Siva, the phallic and dendrolatria, asceticism and yoga, and so on., First appeared in India as religious expression of a high civilization urban, the Indus, while, however, most of these religious elements are characteristic of? cultures "poPulaar" in medieval India and modem. The truth is that existed since the time harappiana, a synthesis between the spirituality of Aborigines Australoid and the "masters", the founders of urban civilization. But we think not only that non-thesis was retained but it was too scientific and almost exclusive contribution of the "masters" (relative


contribution to their theocratic conception, mainly) could not be explained otherwise assumed considerable importance Brahmins after the Vedic period. Most likely, all these concepts harappianas religio-sas-Nonda contrast with those of the Indo-Europeans were retained, with the inevitable regressions in layers "popular" at the margins of society and civilization of new teachers Aryan language: de alii emerged in successive floods during the subsequent synthesis leading to the formaei6n of Hinduism. CONCLUSIONS

At the end of this work, imposing several general observations. It attempts to summarize all of the above for us, or to address the summary of each chapter. The important thing is to get some facts first piano, starting with this: Yoga is a specific dimension of the spirit in-gave such an extent that wherever they have reached the Indian culture and religion, are also more or less pure Yoga (see Note IX, 1). In India, Yoga has been integrated and valorized by all religious movements, both Hindus as "heretical." The Yoga diferenjtes or non-Christians in India cretistas modem is another proof that Indian religious experience as a necessity requires the yogic methods of "meditation" and "concentration". For Yoga has ter-mined, as we have seen, to absorb and integrate all kinds of spiritual and mystical techniques, from the most elementary to the most complex. The generic name of yogisdesignates both saints and mystics and the magi, the orgiastic and vul-gares fakirs and witches. Each of these types of magico-religious behavior also correspond to a particular form of Yoga. To get to 'be what it is, for many centuries, a body that is pan-Indian spiritual techniques, it was necessary to respond fully to the Yoga the deeper needs of the Indian soul. We have already responded in that way to this need, pointing to a reaction against the metaphysical theorizing and excesses of ritualism fossilized, represented the same tendency toward the concrete, to personal experience, which is located in the popular devotion expressed in the bid and the bhakti. There is always a form of Yoga when it comes to experi-ence to reach the sacred or perfect mastery over himself, which is the first step towards world domination magic. It is a rather significant that the noblest mystical experiences, as well as the most daring magical wishes are carried through the technique zan yogi, or, more precisely, that Yoga can fit either one or the other path. Several hypotheses could account for this. The first invoke the two spiritual traditions which, after multiple stresses, and at the end of a long ta-area synthesis, ultimately formed the Hindu: the religious tradition of the Indo-European Aryan language and tradition of the aborigines (quite complex, as we saw and including elements Dravidian, Munda, protomunda and harappianos). The Indo-European structure provided a patriarchal society, an economy ministry and the worship of the gods of heaven and the atmosphere, in a word, the "religion of the Father." The pre-Aryan aborigines knew and agriculture and urban planning (the Indus civilization), and in general terms involving the "religion of the Mother. Hinduism, as it is presented from the twilight of the Middle Ages, represents the synthesis of these two traditions, but with marked predominance of aboriginal factors: the contribution of Indo Asianise end up being radically. The Hindu religious means victory of the soil.


Although the magical conception of the world is more profound in the Indo-tre, hesitate to impute to the magi-ca trend witnessed in the complex Yoga and giving Aborigines the exclusive rite me-mystical trend seems to us safer allocation nar the considerable contribution the importance of Indo-mo ritualis and theorizing that gave rise, and reserve for Aborigines the trend towards the concrete in religious experience, the need-ing a mystical devotion to the gods about per-sonal and local (istadevata, gramadevata). To the extent that re-presents a reaction against the ritualism and the theorizing is-colasticas, Yoga part of Aboriginal tradition and opposes the Indo-European religious heritage. We had the opportunity to dis-covers the resistance of orthodox means, that is tributary to the Indo-European tradition, to various forms of Yoga. Recall that the absence of complex yoga in other Indo-European groups confirms that this technique is a creation of the Asian soil, Indian land as if we have reason to link the origin of the ascetic yogi protohistoric Indus religion, po let us conclude that it is such an archaic form of mystical experience, disappeared elsewhere. Indeed, repe-scams, Yoga can not be included among the countless varieties of primitive mysticism commonly designated by the name of shamanism, "Yoga is not a technique of ecstasy: the contrary, strives to make the absolute concentration to reach the enstasy. In the universal history of mysticism, the Classical Yoga has its proper place, hard to locate, on the other. It depicts a "living fossil", a modality of archaic spirituality In no other place survived. (Recall that the concept of "living fossils" was used to advantage in several branches of biology, such as potholing. The troglobious that today inhabit the caveman belong to a long-extinct animals. "Ver-dader are living fossils, writes Professor Racovitza, and are often very old stages of the history of life, tertiary and even secondary. "Caves fauna preserved so archaic, very important if one is to understand the point of zoomor-graphic primitive groups not are fosMzables. It is in this sense we can speak of certain archaic forms of spirituality that remained until now as "living fossils" are the more interesting for the history of the human mind when leave no trace "documentaries" are not, we would say "fossilized"). The archaism Yoga is another confirmation of its structure in initiation. We have called attention to the symbolism Yogi death and rebirth, death to the profane human condition, re-birth into a transcendent mode (p. 23). The yogi seeks to "invest" totally normal behavior: it imposes itself frozen immobility of the body (asana), rhythm espatiado and detention of respiration (pranayama), setting psychomental flow (ekagrata), immobility of think-ing, the "detention" and even "repression" of semen. At all levels of human experience, does the opposite of what life demands. But the symbolism of the "opposite" indicates the condition while post-mortem condition and the divine right to know on earth, it is left in the hereafter, a broken vase in this world equals a glass intact in the underworld and the gods, and so on. The "inversion" of the situation to normal behavior, the yogi out of life. But do not stop in the middle of the road:'s death and followed by a re-birth im'ciatico. The yogi makes a "new body" as well as the neophytes of the archaic socie-ties get a new body through the initiation. At first glance, the rejection of life imposed by the Yoga might seem terrifying, as it entails more than a symbolic funeral: experiences which are so many anticipations of death. The arduous and complicated process of detachment and of disposing the end of all contents belonging to levels of human experience psychophysiological ^ does not


bring to mind the death process? For India, in fact, death translates into a brutal separation of the Spirit that moves away from all psychophysiological ex-perience. And watching intently, the mystery of liberation, the regression of the elements (tattva) to the prakrti means also an anticipation of death. We have said above (p. 261): Certain exercises tantric yogi-are but a "visualizaci6n advance" of the decomposition and regression of the circuit elements of nature phenomenon normally triggered by the death. More than an otherworldly experience Thodol described in the Bardo, the Tibetan Book of Death, corresponds strangely to the meditation exercises-Tantric yogi. We know now that this death is a death early ini sciatica, ie, which is followed necessarily by a re-birth Towards this is another way of being that the Yogi sacrificed everything in the plane of worldly existence, pa-rece care. Sacrifice "of his life," but also of his "persona-ability". In perspecuva a profane existence, this sacrifice becomes incomprehensible. But we know the response of Indian philosophies: the existence of secular perspecuva is false. This is due to double raz6n: life stripped of the sacred is suffering and illusion and, moreover, no problem could be solved, end-to in the perspective of this life. Recall the response of the Samkhya-Yoga to issues related to the cause and the beginning of the pseudo-slavery of the Spirit in the circuit of matter and life are intractable problems in the current human condition: in other words, are "mysteries" for any intelligence that has not been released (say to all intelligence fall). If you want lle-gar to understand these "mysteries" is necessary to rise to another way of being and to get him, we must "die" in this life and "sacrifice" the personality emerging from the temporal and created by the history (personality is above all the memory of our own history). The ideal of yoga, the state of jivanmukta, is living in an "eternal present" out of Time. The "Released in life" no longer enjoys a personal conscience, or nourished nor its own history, but a witnessconsciousness, pure lucidity and spontaneity. Do not try to describe this paradoxical state: obtained through "death" on the human condition, we can not reduce it to our-work category. However, we point out a fact, rather historical interest: The Yoga resumes and continues the immemorial symbolism of the initiation, in other words, is integrated into a universal tradition of religious history of mankind: that is anti-pate death to ensure rebirth into a life santi-fied, ie, made real through the incorporation of the sacred. But at the traditional level, India has come a long way. The initiatory rebirth, for Yoga, leads to the attainment of immortality or absolute freedom. It is in the very structure of this paradoxical state, which is located alia, in the most profane existence, we must look for the explication of the coexistence of the "magic" and "mystical" in Yoga: everything depends on the meaning to be given the iberty. NOTES Note I, 1: Texts and bibliographies Samkhya The word Sankhya has been interpreted in different ways. Garbe (Die Samkhya Philosophie, cinema Darstellung des indischen Rationalismus, Leipzig, 1894, p. 131-134) derives from the terrrjino "Sankhya" ( "number", "quantity") and think it means "enumeration" " search, "" analysis "(Untersuchung, Prvfug, Unterscheidung, Erwagungen). Oldenberg (Die Lehre der Upanishads des Buddhismus und die Anfdnge, Gottingen, 1915, p. 351, n. 129) thinks rather in the sense of "act of examining,"


"estimate," "census conducted by enumeration of the elements constituent. Jacobi (Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1919, p. 28) believes that "Sankhya" means the determination of a concept for the enumeration of its contents before (Gott Gel. W, 1895, p. 209; Der Buddhismus aus dem Ursprungdes Sankhya -Yoga, NACF richten der Königl. Gessellsclxaftder Wissenschaftenzu Gottingen, 1896, p. 43-58, esp. p. 47-53) Jacobi had opined that this word refers to the investigation of the categories of existence. It is possible that all these meanings have been known "and accepted in ancient India. However, the meaning of "discrimination" and "Discera", seems more likely, since the main purpose of this philosophy is to separate the soul with prakriti (see also AB Keith, The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads , Cambridge, 1925, Haroard Oriental Series, vol. II, p. 535-551). The treaty is the oldest of Isvarakrsna Karika Samkhya (the best edition is that of SS Suryanarayana Sastri. The Samkhya Karika of Isvara Krsna, toith an Introduction, traslations, notes, University of Madras, 1930. There are also numerous translations; Colebrooke London , 1837, Davies, London, 1881; Garbe, Leipzig, 1891; Sinha, Allahabad, 1915; EA Welden, J Metri delle Samkhya-Karikas, Studi Italiani di Filologia Indo-lranica, vol. HIV, fasc. 3, Firenze, 1912 ). The date of this text is not yet established exactly m nte. From tcdos modes can not be later than v century, as the Buddhist monk Parama "Martha translated into Chinese the Samkhya Karika in the sixth century (Takakusu, Samkhya Karika lumiere etudiee to the version chinoise, Bulletin of Vecol Francaisede VExtreme Orient , vol. IV, 1904, p. 1-65, 978-1064). Radhakrishnan (Iridian PUosophy, vol. II, London, 1927, p. 254-55) believes that the Samkhya Karika was composed around 200 AD, while Belvalkar (Matharavrtti, p. 168, Annals of the Bhandarkar Institute, vol. V. p. 133-168, Poona, 1924) leans toward the idea that the date of the redaction should frjarse iop century AD. Whatever the exact roofing Karika Samkhya. Isvarakrisna truth is that not the first "author" Sankhya:! to Karika 60 reminds us that the sage Kapila, mystic founder of the system to inform their teaching Asuri. and that in turn transmitted it to this Pañcaśikha, which the layman to Isvarakrsna. Regarding Kapilu, see Garbe, Die Samkhya Phuosophte, P. 25-29; Jacobi, Gbtt. Gel Anzeiger. 1919, p. 26; Radhakrishan, cited, p. 254; V. V. Sovani, A Critical Study of the Sankhya System on the lines of SankhyaKarika, Sankhya-sutra and their commentaries (Allahabad University Studies, vol. VII, 1931, p 387-432), p. 391-392, G. Kaviraj introduction of Jayamangala (Calcutta, 1926), p. 2 (Kapila considered alchemical literature siddha). Some fragments have reached us Pañcaśikha: Samkhya-Sutra. I, 127, VI, 68, etc. About this author, see: Garbe, Pañcaśikha Fragmente (v. Festgruss and Rudolph Roth, p. 77-80), Keith, The Samkhya System, ed. II, Calcutta, 1924, p. 48; Jacobi, Sind nach dem die Pañcaśikha Samkhya-Lehrer von Purusa Atomgrosse?, Bulletin of the Oriental Studies of London, vol. VI, 1931, p. 385-388, Hopkins. The Great Epic of India, ed. II, New Haven, 1920, p. 142-152. The Chinese tradition (Takakusu, Bulletin of I'Ecole Francaise de VExtreme Orient, vol. IV, p. 25) attributes to the treaty Pañcaśikha Sastitantra that Isvarakrsna says he summarized. About Sastitantra, see F. O. Scahrader, Das Sastitantra (Zeitschriftder Morgenlandischen deutschen Gesellschaft. Vol. 68, p. 101-110); M. Hiriyanna, Sastri-tantra and Varsaganya (Journal of Oriental Research, vol. III, p. 107112), Keith, Samkhya Philosophy, p. 69-74.


They may have been several "schools" Samkhya, differing mainly by its more or less nuanced theism and his conception of the soul. Even among the comments LATE is still the tradition of a plu-Lalide "schools" Samkhya. Gunaratna (fourteenth century), the Saddarsanasamuccaya commentator mentions two schools of Samkhya: maulikya (original) and Uttara (late). The first argues that there is a prakrti (pradhana) (for every soul atman), while the second view, along with the classical Samkhya, there is only one pradhana for all individual souls (Dasgupta, op cit, p. 217; Kali Pada Bhattacharya, Some Problems of Sankhya Sankhya Philosophy and Literature, p. 515, Indian Historical Quarterly, vol. VIII, 1932, p. 509,520; CAF Rhys Davids, id. IX, 2, 1933, p. 585-587). Dasgupta thought he could find a pre-classical Samkhya doctrine in Caraka (op. cit, p. 213,216, but see J. Filliozat, La doctrine clasique of medecine indienne, Paris 1949, p. 166), O. Strauss (Eine alte Formel der Philosophie bei Samkhya-Yoga Vatsyayana, Festgabe Jacobi, 1926, p. 358-368). On the pre-classical Samkhya see now E. H. Johnston, Early Samkhya (London, 1937). The first comment is Javamangala karika Samkhya attributed to Sankara (ed. Haradatta SRMA, Calcutta Oriental Series, No. 19, Calcutta, 1926, date uncertain, anyway before Vacaspatimisra (Sanna, and the other commentaries Jayamangala on Samkhyasaptati, Indian Historical, 1929, p. 417). This book has no great philosophical interest. Samkhya-tattva-Kaumudi of Vacaspatimisra (ninth century) enjoyed great popu-larity and has been one of the Samkhya treated most used and discussed. Sanskrit Text and English Translation by Ganganath Jha, Bombay, 1896, German Translation by R. Garbe, Samkhya-Der Mondschein der Wahrheit, Vacaspatimisra's Samkhya-tattvakaumudi in Deutch Ubersetzung, nebst einer Einleitung uber Alter und das dir Herkunftder Samkhya Philosophie, Munich, 1892; A. Barth, Oeuvres, vol. II, Paris, 1914, p. 136-137). We know a gloss of Narayana (Samkhyacandrika) on the Samkhya-tattva-Kaumudi. Matharavrtti newly discovered (there is a rough edition by Pandit Vishnu Prasad Sarma, Benares, 1922, The Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series No. 296), led to a series of disputes concerning the priority on further comments from Isvara Krsna, Gaudapadabhasya. According to S. K. Belvalkar, who discovered the manuscript is only Matharavrtti comment sanscito which was translated into Chinese by Paramartha between 557-569, and so far oon-sidered as lost (Belvalkar, Matharavrtti and the date of Isvara Krsna, P. 172, Shandarkar Commemoration Volume, 1917, p. 171-184). The Matharavrtti confrontation with the French version of Paramartha comment made by Takakusu (Bull. Fr Ext Eq Orient, vol. IV, 978-1064) makes Belvalkar believe they are identical. Also considers himself a sage Gaudapadabhasya (vra century) as a summary of Matharavrtti (which according to the dates from the sixth century). Dhruva (Proceedings of the I Oriental Conference, Poona, p. 275) considers even more before the date of Matraravrtti: based on a passage from Anuyogadvara, quoted in Ta Matharavrtti, Belvalkar finds the date of the latter should be treated in frjada n to in centuries, if not the i. But his opinion has found no echo. The chronology proposed by Bevalkar for different riomentarios of Isvarakrsna, as well as the priority of Matharavrtti have been controversial, see Belvalkar, Matharavrtti (Annals of the Bhamdarkar Institute, Vol V, Poona, 1924, p. 133-168) , S. Suryanarayana Sastri, The Chinese Suvama-saptati and the Math-vrtti (Journal of Oriental Research, 1930, p. 34-40; id. Math and Paramartha, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1931. P.


623-639: puts clear differences between the two authors); Umesha Misra, Gaudapadabhasya and Matharavrtti (Allahabad University Studies, vol. VIII, 1931, p. 371,386: Belvalkar rejects the view according to which the Gaudapadabhasya not serious but a summary of the Matharavrtti but this latest situation in the tenth to the thirteenth, which is unlikely), A. B. Keith, The Math vrtti (Bull, of the School of Oriental Studies, London, vol. Ill., 1923-25, p. 551-554: Mather says, like Caudapada Parmarth and used a previous comment, now disappeared. Gaudapada, Isvarakrsna commentator can not be the same to write the Mandukyakarika; the opposition of the philosophies is too evident. Amar Nath Ray, The Mandukya Upanishadand the Karikas of Gaudapada (IndianHistorical Quarterly, XIV, 1938, p. 564569); B. N. Krishnamurti Sarma, New Light on the Gaudapada-Karikas (Review of Philosophy and Religion, vol. II, 1). Gaudapadabashya was edited and translated into English by H. H. Wilson (London, 1836: numerous editions). Pravacana Samkhya-sutra ", attributed by tradition to Kapila, the seconds do important classical treatises of this school. Its probable date is the fourteenth century, since neither Cunaratna or Madhava in his allusion to the Sarvadarsanasamgraha Lacen. Several comments: Aniruddha (fifteenth century) writes the Samkhya-sutravrtti (ed. R. Garbe, Calcutta, Biblioteca Indica, 1888; good English Translation of the same: Aniruddha's Commentary, Calcutta, Biblioteca Indica, 1892). Mahadeva (after 1600) composed a commentary (vrttisara) without much interest (the main fragments have been studied and translated by Garbe). Samkhya-pravacana-bhasya of Vijnanabhiksu (sixteenth century) is the most important commentary on the Sutra (R. Garbe edition, Harvard Oriental Series, 1895; traduction Ger-man by himself, Samkhya-pravacana-bhasya, Vijnanabhiksu'sCommentar zu den Samkhya-sutras, Leipzig, 1889, is included in Volume IX of Abhan-dlungen fur die Kunde des MorgSnlandes; partial English Translation by JR Ballantyne, The Aphorismus Sankhya of Kapila, London 1885; traduction integral by Nandalal Sinha, The Samkhya Philosophy, contains: 1 ') Samkhyapra-vachana-sutram, with vrtti of Aniruddha, and Vijnana bhasya Bhiksu and fragments of the sara of Mahadeva vrtti Vedantin; 2') Tattva Samasa; 39) Samkhya Karika; Panchasikha Sutram, Allahabad, Sacred Books of the Hindus, 1915). Udaya Vira Shastri, Antiquity of the Samkhya Sutras (Proceedings, Eastern Indian V-th Congress, Lahore, 1930, vol. II, p. 855-882). Tattva-Samasa, concise treatise that includes only 22 sloka was attributed to Kapila, but the text is quite tardlo (siglos xiv-xv). Max Muller (Six Systems of Indian Philosophy, London, 1899, p. 242) thought, incorrectly, that is the oldest text of the Samkhya literature. Concerning the Samkhya, see also: R. Garbe, Samkhya und Yoga (Strasbourg 1896, Grundriss der Indo-Arisch Philologie), P. Deussen, nachoedis Die Philosophie der Inderche (III ed., Leipzig, 1920), p. 408-506, O. Strauss, zut Geschichte des Samkhya (WeinerZeit. z. Kunde d. Morgenlendes, vol. 27); H. Oldenberg, Zur Geschichte der Samkhya Philosophie (Nachr. d. Kbnigl. Gesell. D. Wiss. Gotsophy zu, p. 535-551, Hopkins, The Great Epic, p. 97-157; Radha-krishnan, cited, p. 249-353; Haraprasad Shastri, Chronology of the Samkhya System (Journal of Bihar-Orissa Research Society, June 1923), Abhay Kumar Majumdar, The Samkhya Conception of Personality (Univ. Calcutta 1930), H. de Glassenapp, La Philosophie indienne ( trad, France, Paris, 1951), p. 157 ff. Regarding the link between the Samkhya and Buddhism, see below, Note I, 8.


Note I, 2: Patanjali and texts delYoga cldsico The identification of the two-author Patanjali Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali and the philologist, has been accepted by Leibich, Garbe and Dasgupta, and rejected by Woods (The YogaSystem of Patanjali, Harvard Oriental Series, 1914, p. 13 27), Jacobi (The Dates of the Philosophical Sutras of the Brahmans, Joun the American Oriental Society, vol. XXXI, 1901, p. 1-29, esp. 26-27; id. Ueber das urspriingliche Yogasystem, Preuschichten Akademie der SHzungsberichte der Wissenchaft, vol. XXVI, 1929, p. 581-624 esp. 583584, id. Ueber das Alter der Yoga-sastra, Iranistik und Zettschrtftfiir Indology, 111, 1931, p. 80-88) and A. B. Keith (Samkhya System, p. 65-66; Some Problems of Indian Philosophy, Indian Historical Quarterly, vol. VIII, 1932, p. 425-441, esp. P. 433). Dasgupta Woods denies the assertion, according to which the concept of substantia (dravya) 'differed from each other Patanjali. By contrast, Dasgupta find numer-ous similarities between Yoga and Mahabhasya-Strfra for example, in the two works is the doctrine! sphota, although it is little known, the two texts begin the same way (Yoga.-Su * ra: atha yoganusasanam and Mahabhasya: atha cabdanusasanam). Dasgupta (op. cit, p. 230) believes that the first three chapters of the Yoga-Sutra was composed by Patanjali the philologist and does date from the second century BC. With regard to the last chapter (the fourth), Dasgupta sees in this a late addition. On the one hand, terminc-lodge is different from the first three chapters, and otherwise repeating things that had already been said. A. B. Keith does not accept the interpretation of Dasgupta: The Yoga-Sutra would be the work of one author, that in any ma-nera, is the author of Mahabhasya. Jacobi (Ueber das Alter der Yoga-Sastra), comparing the vocabulary of the Yoga-Sutra of Mahabhasya, had come to the conclusion that no couxadian. Based on these results, and Keith Jacobi discovered in the Fourth Book of Yoga-Sutra, anti-Buddhist polemics evident traces of it would prove that the date of Patan jal i can be in any way prior to the fifth century Jacobi had established a long time that if an Indian philosophical text refers to Vijnanavada, is after the v century (The dates of the Philosophical Sutras, p. 2, 25). However, Yoga-Sutra IV. 16, seems to refer. Vijnanavada. Keith (Some Problems of Indian Philosophy, p. 433) and Hauer (Das Buch des Yogasutra IV. Erkldrung Ein Beitrag zu seiner und Zeitbestimmung, p. 132-33) points out that this is not a Vijnanavada indeterminate, but the doctrines of Asanga and Vasubandhu. In opposition to these criticisms, Jvala Prasad (The Date of the Yoga-Sutra, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1930, p. 365-375) tries to prove that the sutra IV, 16 do not belong to the text of Patanjali, returning a given row of the commentary of Vyasa (vii-vjn centuries) in which he was holding a controversy with the Vijnanavadin. Much earlier, Raja Bhoj surra had observed that this was an interpolation of Vyasa, which led him to not comment. You Prasad Dasgupta and note that, although the authors referred to the Yoga-Sutra are the Vijnanavadin, there raz6n to believe that this is Vasubhandu or Asanga. The text could also refer to a more idealistic old school, like those found in the early Upanishads. "For example, the philosophy of a text as old as Aitareya-Aranuaka contains everything you need to be considered Vijnanavada: in all things are presented as knowledge (prajnanam) taking existence only in and for knowledge (op. cit, p. 371). However, L. de la Vallee-Poussin had demonstrated repeatedly dependence of the Yoga-Sutra about scholastic Buddhism: Notes


bouddhiqves, 3 (Academy of Brussels, 1922) , id. Le Bouddhisme et le Yoga of Patanjali (bouddhiqves Memoires et chinois, V., Brussels, 1937, p. 223-242). See below, Note V, 1. The best known Sanskrit edition of the Yoga-Sutra was published by Anandashram Sanskrit Series (No. 47), with and comment (Yogabhasya) of Veda-Vyasa (seventheighth centuries) and gloss (Taatvavaisaradi) of Vacaspatimisra (ninth century) The Yoga-Sutra was translated into English by Woods (The Yoga System of Patanjali, Harvard Oriental Series, 1914) and Rama Prasada (Patanjalt sYoga Sutra, with the commentary of Vyasa and the gloss of Vachaspatimisra, Allahabad, 1910, Sacred Books of the Hindus, 3 'edition, 1924). Also J. W. Hauer, Elne Uebersetzung Merkspriiche des Patanjali und der dem Kommentar des Vyasa (Yoga, Vol. I, 1931, p. 43-45); G. Jha, The Yogadarshana (trans, of the Yoga-Sutra with commentary of Vyasa, 2nd edition, Madras, 1934). King Bhoja (early eleventh century) wrote the commentary on Martanda Raja Yoga-Sutra (English edition and version of Indica Library Rajendralala Mitra, Calcutta, 1883). Vijnanabhiksu hrzo the commentary of Vyasa Yoga-bhasya (Yogavarttika; edition "The Pandit", New Series, vol. V-VI) and wrote also a treatise on the doctrine pequefio Patanjali (Yoga-sara-Samgraha, editing and English version by Ganganath Jha, Bombay, 1894). The Yoga-Sutra were also subject of a commentary Miniprabha of Ramanan da Sarasvati (sixteenth century translated by Woods, Journal of American Oriental Society, 1914). On the other reviews, Aufretch, Catalogorum Catalogus, p. 480. Of these treaties, the more valuable the Vyasa and Vijnanabhiksu. Bhoja contri-ta also some interesting interpretations. On the doctrines and practices yoga, see S. N. Dasgupta, A. Af Patanjali Study (Calcutta University, 1920), Yoga as Philosophy and Religion (London, 1924); Yoga Philosophy in Relation to other Systems of Indian Thought (Calcutta, 1930), A History of Indian Philosophy (Vol. I, Cambridge, 1922 , p. 226), S. Radhakrisnan, Indian Philosophy (Vol. II, London, 1927), p. 336; Paul Oltramare, theosophiques L'histoire des idees dans Vlnde (Vol. I, P-290, 300); J. W. Hauer, Die Anfangeder Yoga-Praxis (Stuttgart, 1922); id. Der Yoga als Heilweg (Stuttgart, 1932); Richard Rosel, Die Grundlage der psychologischen Yoga practice (Stuttgart, 1928), S. Lindquist, Die Methoden des Yoga (Lund, 1932); Main Danielou, Yoga The Method of re-integration (London, 1949) Jacques Masui, Yoga, holistic science of Vhomme (texts and studies published under the direction of Jacques Masui, Paris , 1953), see also the bibliographies listed below, related to Tantrism, Buddhism and Hathayoga. Note /, 3; on materials The most precious about Lokayata and philosophical refutation of his views are in the first chapter of the Sarva-darsana samgrana and the Tattva-Samgraha of Santaraksita, sloka 1857-1864 (Gaekwad Oriental Series edition, vol. XXX-XXX1, Baroda, 1926, with the comment Kamala-sila). See also G. Tucci, Linee di una storia materialism Indian (Reata Academia Nazionale dei Lincei, Ser V, vol. XVII, fasc. VII, Rome, 1924): L. Suali, MatSriauxpour serve l'histoire du materialisme mdien (Museon, vol. IX, 1908, p. 277); F. Max Muller, The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy (London, 1903), p. 94-104; Dakshinaranjan Shastri, Charvakashashti (Calcutta, 1928), id. A Short History of Indian Materialism (Calcutta, 1930); R. A. Schermerhorn, When Did Indian Materialism get its distinctive tulle? (Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1930, vol. 50, p. 132-138). P.


J. Abs, Some early Buddhistic Tests tn Relation to the Philosophy of Materialism in India (Proceedings of the XVIII International Congress of Orientalists, Leiden, 1932, p. 157159), Walter Ruben, Materialismus im Leben des alten iridium (Acta Orientalia, XIII , 1934, p. 128-162). Note /, 4: The Ego and the experience psychomental By its very nature (svabhava), the spirit is eternal (nitya) pure (Suddha), enlightened (buddha) and free (Mukta), says the Samkhya-Sutra, I, 19. And "Vijnana Bhiksu, commenting on this passage, is to demonstrate that the" relation "between the mind and mental experience is illusory. Another text (Samkhya-Sutra, I, 58) explained that all the qualities attributed to mind (eg the faculty of understanding, will, etc.). are mere "verbal expressions them, "because not correspond to reality (tattva). One change is that we interpret the Samkhya Sutra, III, 56, in which the spirit is declared" all-powerful "(sarvavit sarvakanta). Aniruddha, commenting on Samkhya-Sutra, I, 97, explains that the intelligence (buddhi), individuality (ahamkara) and senses (indriyani) form an empirical soul "(jjuo) a" living soul ", able to act but we must not confuse jiva with purusha. This differentiation is also made by Sankara, who postulates the existence of a "supreme soul" and a soul empirica (Jivatman). Another text (Samkhya-Sutra, I, 160) says that the spirit is such that it could not be this state or enslaved, or that this release (vyavrttaubhayarupah; at least that is the sense given Bhiksu Vijnana). See also Narendra, in his commentary on Tattvasamasa 4; Samkhya-Sutra 1, 96, I, 106, III, 41, etc., Primarily Vyasa and Cows - pati Misra ad Yoga-Sutra I, 4, 5, III, 34, IV, 22. About the purusha in the pre-classical Samkhya, see E. H. Johnston, Early Samkhya (London, 1937), p. 52 et seq. Note I, 5: The three Guna With the guna referenda there is considerable number of texts in all the treatises and commentaries Samkhya and Yoga, we seek: Ishvara Krishna, Karika II, 16, with reviews of Math, Gaudapada and V. Misra, Yoga-Sutra, II, 15, II, 19 (the explanation of Vyasa and Misra Vacaspati are important), IV, 13, IV, 32; V. Misra, Tattva Vaisaradi, I, 16, etc. Emile Senart try to explain the appearance of the theory of guna in Indian thought by insights far older, postvedicas. (Rajas et la thdorie des trois guna, Journal Asiatique, 1915, II, Ip. 151), V. Henry (vddique Physique, Journal Asiatique, 1915, II, 385) reduces the first theorizations concerning the guifi, the follow-ing scheme: heat (mild) -* heat (intense) -> suffering, asceticism. In a more recent study (The et la theorie des gunas Chandogya Upanishad Asiatiques Etudes, vol. II, p. 285-292), E. Senart continuing to complete their investiga-tions on the prehistory of the guna. When analyzing a text Chandogya Up (VI, 2-4), summarizes the conception Senart Upanishads on the constitution of the world: "Three cosmic elements, combined in varying degrees to form the substantia of the sensible world, tiles, APAS, anna "(p. 286) ... Three pianos including Vedic phraseology dealt to the perceptible universe. The tiles which accounts purpureo brightness (rontta), the color apas bianco and (Sukla) the anna black (krishna), are undoubtedly the upper region of the sun, the region of clouds illuminated by a softer glow to the inland region devoid of self-luminosity, which produces vegetables "(p. 287). J.


Przyluski (La theorie des guna, Butt. Oriental School, London, VI, 1930-32, p. 25-35), finds analogies with the triad Iranian and Semitic influences believes he can find in the conception of the three guna. There is an excellent exposition and penetrating philosophical interpretation in Dasgupta, History of Indian Philosophy, p. 243; id., Yoga Philosophy, p. 70, III. Also R. Garbe, Samkhya Philosophie, p. 209-220; Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy, Vol. H, p. 263-65; Hopkins, Great Epic, p. 119, etc.. On the history of the theory of guna in pre-classical Hindu thought, see now E. H. Johnston, Early Samkhya (London, 1937), p. 25-41. Note I, 6: Logic and Theory of Knowledge Samkhya-Yoga As important and original as is the contribution of the cos-Samkhya epistemology are summary their logic and theory. While recognizing the need for establishing the validity canon of knowledge, the Samkhya and Yoga regarded as secondary to the theorizing on the syllogism (developed by the Nyaya) b on the "evidence on whether" the perception (preferred theory Mimamsa school ) and too often neglected penetrating epistemological analysis launched by Buddhist philosophers. On the Indian logic, see Saris Vidyabhusana Chandra, A History of Indian Logic (Calcutta University Press, 1921); A. B. Keith, Indian Logic and Atomism (Oxford, 1921), S. Su-Giura, Hindu Logic (Philadelphia, 1900); H. Ui Vaiseshika Philosophy (London, 1917); B. Faddegon, The VaisesikaSystem, described with the help of the oldest texts (Amsterdam, 1918); Th Stcherbatsky, Erkenntnistheorie Logic und nach der Lehre der spテ、teren Buddhist (Munich, 1924, ed. French, Paris, 1926), id. BuddhistLogic (Leningrad, 2 vol 1930-32, "Library Bhudica"); G. Tucci, Pre-Dignaga buddhist logic (Baroda, 1930). See also the bibliography-graphic notes on recent publications chinois et bouddhiques Memoires, I (Brussels, 1932), p. 415416. Vyasa (seventh century) and Vijnana Bhiksu (sixteenth century) attach some importance to the logical problem, but its importance can not be compared with the interest shown by the metaphysics and psychology. Vyasa (bhasya ad Y. S,. Ill, 52) outlines an analysis of time for him, as for all Buddhist logic, reality is only the moment, the "timing" the succession of mementos as well as the division arbitrary time in hours, days, fortnights, etc.., has no objective reality, but they are mental constructions. This interpretation of Vyasa was probably inspired by the Buddhist philosophers, especially Vasubhandu (Th. Stcherbatsky, The Central Conception of Buddhism, London, 1923, p. 43). As in all other Indian systems, are at the basis of logic Samkhya-Yoga: The definition of Pramana, the "proof", "mode of knowledge" in other words, the instruments that ensure the validity of knowledge . Isvara Krishna says: "the perception (drstam, pratyaksa), the interference (anumト]a) and the proper evidence (suitable vacanam) are the three tests" (Samkhya-Karika, 4). Perception is the "knowledge through the senses" (karika, 5). Vacaspati Misra, interpreting this passage, pun-conceptualize that perception is the result of mental process (buddhi) which predornina sattva, and that is linking the object gets the sense perceptive In other words, the perception is an activity of the object-oriented way, molding on these forms and submitting to the intellect (buddhi). We found identical definition in the Samkhya-Sutra "is pratyaksa the knowledge that results from vmculaci6n (objects) and which represents its shape (the object) "(II, 89). Vijnana Bhiksu (ad SS I, 89) determines it is a" knowledge, species de modification of the intellect, which is directed towards the object which is related. "But the purusa mfluido not for this" modification "of buddhi. See also). H. Woods, The


thSorie of systdme dans le connaissance du Yoga (Journal Asiatique, mai-juin 1918, p. 385-389). In short, it is clear that the Samkhya and Yoga mean by "perception" to a psycho-mental activity directed towards objects, such as such exist, and not being considered either as sensations or as a moment?, Or as ilnsiones. With these premises, it is easy to understand the reason why the Samkhya not worry too much about the perception lot of problems, and affirming the validity of the notion obtained by a direct intuition of external reality. The inference or reasoning (anumト]a) corresponds to the theory of the Nyaya school, and Samkhya conrribuy6 not in any way to its development. The Buddhist influence is not recorded. It is a theory of inference that the perception is also involved (Tattva Kaumudi, 34). Consider the definition of Isvara Krishna (Karika, VI): "The inference is based on the higher end and the lower end, and is three stances" - definition unintelligible. without comment. But if the formula is so brief, it is because it is a truth universally known and universally accepted. Only ma-terial Carvaka Anumana denied as evidence (pramana) argues that the term means (vyapti, "permanent concomitance") is itself a truth that needs to be justified by the inference, thus forming a vicious circle. The inference is of three kinds: 1) a priori (purvavat), when the effect is inferred from the cause (be inferred from the presence of rain clouds), 2 *) a posteriori (sesavat), when the cause is inferred from effect (6 follows that cay rain observing the growth of the river), 3 ') samanyato-Dristan, when going from the general inference to the general (V. Misra, Tattva Kaumudi, 35). Vijnana Bhiksu (ad Samkhya-Sutra, I, 135) gives an example of the latter type of inference: the existence of guna be inferred from the existence of Mahat. For Samkhya, inference or inference serves to prove the existence of the principles (tattva) and is involved in all the scaffolding is just cosmological-bozar. One of the characteristic features of. System, plurality of souls, is equally hr-tifies with the inference. The Samkhya part of a truth universally accepted in India: namely that there were men who were freed by knowledge, especially the wise (Kapila, Asura, etc.). And rsi. r-i debtor had been a universal and unique soul - the first human soul is freed from the illusion hi'bria phenomenal, would have given tfdis the liberation of souls and all would be in the universe, no existence, no suffering. Note I, 7: The Samkhya and critique of the existence of God The arguments by the authors Samkhya points against the existence of God are pretty mediocre (like the "tests" * breach of Patanjali and Vyasa to prove the existence of Isvara). There is evidence of the existence of God, says The Samkhya-Sutra I, 92. God can not exist, because it could be s6lo or freed or enslaved (ibid. I, 93). A spirit could not be enslaved God, as it would be dominated by karma; poi Moreover, neither a free spirit could be the Creator, for being completely detached from the subject, could not have percepekmes, or desire any activity and, in the end not possess any 'half a loaf hrfhiir on the subject (Ani-ruddha ad Samkhya - Sutra I, 93. This is directed against ek nrpuraento Nyaya. Indeed, Aniruddha (ad. SS, Ill., 57), writes: "If God is conceived as a spirit accepted by us, we have nothing to object to its existence: but there is no evidence of the existence of God as it considers Nyaya philosophy. Also in the Samkhya-Sutra we read (V, 10-11): "There is no evidence of the existence of an eternal Isvara, as the deduction of its


existence is impossible, for lack of a mean (vyapti)" . This "compromise" should take the place of conjunction between the Creation and the Creator. But Creation is explained by the prakriti and hence the intervention of a foreign agent is useless. Furthermore, the authors remind us Samkhya, the tradition same, to be based in the Vedic revelation, had the prakriti as the sole principle of Creation. We find these same arguments Vacaspati Misra (Comment of Karika 57). However, the Samkhya-Karika not in any side openly criticizes the existence of God. The atheism of Isvara Krishna is less clear than the Samkhya-Sutra as expressed Sasrri (p. XXIX of the Introduction to his edition of Samkhya-Karika), "Isvara Krishna was less busy denying God than trying to dispense with the ". Moreover, from the Samkhya Svetasvatara Vpanisadse developed a "theistic" which was popularized by the Bhagavad-Gita. See also R. Garbe, Samkhya-PhUosophie, P. 191-195, id. Samkhyaund yoga, P. 17; Dasgupta, Yoga Philosophy, p. 231-258, G. Tucti, Linee di una storia Indian materialism, P. 42 et seq. Note I, 8: The Samkhya and Buddhism There is considerable literature on the relationship between Samkhya, Yoga and Buddhism. We do not intend to record it here. (For older publications, see the Introduction to the Translation of Garbe-vrtti Aniruddha, p. I-II, this Introduction contains the gist of a study previously published in the Abhandlungen der mind kiinigl. Bayer. Akad. D. Wissenschaften ,!. CI. Bd XIX, p. 522). Moreover, the problem has two very different parts: the influence of Buddhism on the Samkhya and Yoga on Buddhism. If • the contribution of ideas to Samkhya philosophical education of the Buddha or of early Buddhism is rejected by certain Indiana, the majority of scholars, however, considered the influence of some spiritual yoga techniques (see below, Note V , 1). Oldenberg and Max Muller were the first to reject the tradition-gen-orally accepted until then, "which states that Buddhism is derived from the Samkhya. Garbe (in his studio above the Abhandlungen and Die Samkhya Philosophie, Leipzig, 1894, p. 3-5) tries to justify this tradition, giving eight points of contact between the Samkhya and Buddhism. From these commonalities, the most important ones that state that: Buddhism, as well as the Samkhya, are "philosophies lists", ie who abuse the ratings, lists and diagrams, both are pessimistic and opposed to the sacrifices already] asceticism, both say that the spirit should not be confused with psychomental experience, both regarded as the ultimate liberation of man objetiyo. Samkhya Garbe thinks that there can be borrowed from Buddhism all his ideas and schemes, it is almost impossible to imagine the creator of a philosophical system taking elements of a religion that leaves no solution to any major issues (efectivamerite, primitive Buddhism rejected discussion of the problems the end, not as necessary to the salvation of the soul). Jacobi (Der Buddhismus aus dem Ursprungdes Samkhya-Yoga, Nach. Königl. Ges. Wiss, zu Gottingen., 18%, 43-58) accepts the conclusions of Algarve and is reinforced by noting the intimate relation between nidana and "categories "the Samkhya. (p. 47-53) and making us remember that, according to testimony in Aśvaghoṣa-sa Buddhacarita, Buddha's first teacher, Arada (Pali: Alara)," was a supporter of Samkhya "p. 55). Jacobi also believes that the testimony of Asvaghosa represents a genuine historical tradition (p. 57]. Back on the subject in his study Verhdltnis Ueber das zu der Philosophie buddistischen Samkhya-Yoga und die Bedeutung des Nidana * (Zeit. Deut. Morg. Gesel


., vol. 52, 1900, p. 1-15) which specifies your opinion. "Buddhism is presented not as a cast, but as a personal interpretation of the Samkhya: this model has not been of Buddhism, but has been the basis on which it rises. With respect to Samkhya presented by> Asvaghosa (who lived not forget that several centuries before Isvara Krishna), see EH Johnston, The Buddhacarita (Paniab Eastern University Publications, No. 32, Calcutta, 1936). p. LVI, 166; id. Early Samkhya (London, 1937) p. 35, 54. H. Oldenberg, having denied his Buddha Samkhya influences on Buddhism, criticizes afrrmaciones Jacobi (BuddhistischeStudien, Zeit. Deut, Morg. GeseU, vol. 52, p. 693) and wondered whether the Buddha, even if values - Yoga ascetic practices curled, had also adopted Samkhya ideas. Oldenberg again consider this issue at greater length in his book Die Lehre des Buddhismus Upanitchenund die Anfangedes (Gottingen, 1915) p. 178-223, and Zua Samkhya Philosophie der Geschichte (Nach. Getting, 1917, p. 218237). As observed by L. de la Vallee-Poussin (Indo europdens, p. 311, note). Oldenberg became gradually convinced of the influence exercised on Samkhya-ness in Buddhism. This view is also shared by Pischel (Buddha, 2nd ed., P. 65). See also F. Lipsius, Die Samkhya Philosophie lauferindes to * Vor-Buddhismus (Heidelberg, p. 106-114), Tucci, U Buddhism (Foligno, 1926), p. 68 and ff. A. B. Keith (The Samkhya System, 2nd ed., P. 23-33; Buddhist Philosophy, p. 38-43) choose the path of the medium. "The only conclusion that we have the documents is that some of the ideas of Buddhism are very adjacent to the Samkhya" (The Samkhya System, p. 29). These ideas common to Samkhya and Buddhism, Keith has the conception of samskara, the conception of causality, the correspondence between the four truths of the Buddha and the four stages of the doctrine of liberation in the Samkhya-Yoga, the anal ment between the experience of liberation in Buddhist and the Samkhya, and so on. But Keith also found many differences between the * two systems. "One comes to the conclusion that the classical Samkhya is not the source of Buddhism, and the influence exercised on Buddhism by Samkhya-ereignty must come from a system closer to that of the Epic, unless prefixes-branches the hypothesis of an older form of the doctrine, which would have been the common source of Buddhism and Samkhya of the Epic "(The Samkhya System, p. 31). "The test of the influence is clearly indirect and Samkhya, in itself, 'is not complete" (Buddhist Philosophy, p. 142). See also F. Hultzsch, Samkhya und Yoga in Sisupalayadha (Festgabe R. Garbe, Erbngen, 1927, p. 78-83); Walter Liebenthal, Satkarya m afraid buddhistischen Darstellung der Gegner (Stuttgart, 1934), J. W. Hauer, Das und das Lankavatara Samkhya-Sutra (Stuttgart, 1927); Satischandra Vidyabhusana, Samkhya Philosophy To the Land of the Lama "(Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, iwrj, p. 571). Note I, 9: Criticism of Buddhism per the Samkhya The realism of Samkhya necessarily rejected the idealism and relativism-mo of medieval Buddhist schools. The texts are LATE Samkhya with idealists Buddhist polemics. Consider the most important. With regard to the reality of the outside world, writes Misra Vacaspati (Tattva vaisaradi, I, 3): "Certainly, as a function of nacre (svarupa) tbmpnel tniimo is either just or erroneous perception that describes it, is meaning that is perceived (rightly) the nacre or perceived (erroneously) a piece of silver. Meanwhile the author of the Samkhya-Sutra (I, 42) states perentoriamen-te "(the mundQ) is not a simple idea, (since we have) learning


di-straight from reality" (na oijnanamatram bahyapratiteh). Commenting on this pa-^ aje, Anirudh explains the objectivity of the world (jagat): M it were a simple idea (vijnana)as-sosbenen Buddhists would not have the experience (pratyaya) that "this is a crock "but that" I am a vessel "(Ahamghatah itipratyayas yat, ghatah na tu ayam iti). If the opponent *? P!? Ca! experience "this is a crock" but has the appearance of objective reality, is due to a "specific impression (vatanaoisesa) - Aniruddha replied that such" specific impressions "must have had other previous impressions that have been determined, at which case is accepted subject to a substrate behind the impression (since otherwise there would be a regres-sum ad infinitum) and the substrate can not be more than external reality. Moreover, if the same opponent contends that "the external object may exist-ing not because there is a whole (avayavm) ks different parties (avayana) parts and the whole forming a single thing (avayavavayavinorekatvat) because are perceived as one thing (ekatvapratiteh) "- are often answered" everything "moves at the same time that" the parties "(the tree during the tor-mint), but it often happens that they move only" parties "without" all "(the tree in a light breeze). However, some idealists (suyavada Buddhists, who postulated the ford as the final substrate of reality) offered a new objection: ' "it is impossible without knowledge objects (nirvisayasyajnanasya adarsanat), knowledge can not exist unless there objects ". To this, Vijnana Bhiksu answer (ad Samkhya-Sutra, I, 43): "the absence of the external world would only be a vacuum, not thinking (tarhi bahyabhave sunyameva prasajjeta, vijnanamapi )}'^< na tu r? Because the non-existence of the outside world also implies the non-existence of thought, and we can establish by induction (anutnanaxambhovat) that, similar to the intuition of external reality, the intuition of the idea is empty object (avastuvisaya). Vijnana Bhiksu, in his commentary on S. S., I, 45, also refutes differently to postulate the sunyavada that nothing like the existing Grund tion. Those who say that "the existence as such is perishable" express a simple opinion ignorant. For the "simple substances" can not be destroyed because there are no destructive causes. Could be destroyed only the "composite substances. And in addition we must note that no time intervenes as destructive agent of external objects. Say, for example, that "the pitcher no longer exists" is to be aware of changing conditions found in that object. But Vijnana Bhiksu subsection does not end without proposing a final objection: "If you admit that there is evidence of the existence of nothing, then, because of this same test, nothing is excluded, and if not admit, then, considering the absence of evidence, anything not prc-bada, if you say that nothing is said by itself, this would imply that nothing has intehgencia, and so on. Another argument against anything, Vijnana Bhiksu (ad SS, I, 47), eschatological nature: nothing can be the soul purpose because liberaci6n (moksha), after which the soul languishes, is a real thing. In summary, the arguments against the Buddhist Samkhya rebel: l9) against the doctrine of the "moments" (ksana) on behalf of recognition of previously perceived objects; 2 ') against idealism (vijnanavada) because of the perception of external objects; 3 *) against the blue (Sunya-vada) by reduction to absurdity. Samkhya realism has been criticized both by Sankara (Brahma-Sutra, II, 11, 1-10) and by the various Buddhist schools idealists (eg Vijnaptimatratasiddhiie Vasubandhu, translated from the Chinese and annotated by L. de la Vallee - Poussin, t I, Paris, 1928, p. 23-26).


Note II, 1: The concentration of obstdculos In the Yoga-Surra, I, 30, is a list of the nine obstacles to the merger. Vyasa explains them thus: 1 *) vyadhi (illness) is the disturbance of physiological balance; 2 *) Styan (languor) is the lack of disposition of the mind for work, 3 *) samsaya (indecision) is the notion that debuts between the two sides of a problem: "this may be one way or another", 4 ') pra-mada (neglect, insensitivity) is the lack of initiative that prevents the samadhi; 59) Alasya (laziness) is the inertia of body and spirit due to the "heaviness" (guralvat) 6?) avirati (sensuality) is the desire that arises when the objects of the senses take over the spirit; 7 *) bhranti darsana (false notion, worthless) ts knowledge false; 8 째) alabhadabhumikatva (inability to see reality because of the mobility that disturbs the grounds), 9 *) ana-vasthitattva (instability), which can not maintain continuity of thought, precisely because the spirit has not r.lcanzado the ekagrata. These obstacles are added pain (duhkha).'s Descsperaci6n (daurmanasya), eta (YS, I, 31). "To protect themselves, get used to the truth" (YS, I, 32). Similarly, cultivating universal amistv.d (Maitri), piety (fawuna), the sing-ment (mudita) ymostrandose indifferent to happiness, to the misery, virtue and vices - it purifies the mind (YS , I, 33). All this belongs to the domain com> 'in de! To Indian erica, and find examples in literature and popular both orthodox and sectarian. Note II, 2: About Asana The technical term, asana, it is not the most archaic. It is found in the earliest Upanishads (is first mentioned in Svetasvara Upanishad (I, 10). We'll meet again in the BhagavadGita, where it has the same meaning as in the Buddhacarita of Ksurika Vpanisady Asvaghosa (first century of. Christian era): Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads (Edinburgh, 1906), p. 387-388; EW Hopkins, Yoga-technique in the Great Epic (JournalAmerican Oriental Society, XII, p . 333-379), p. 348. Also many references to the asana in Sainti-Parva of the Mahabharata, chapter 237, 241, 317. But we can not doubt the antiquity of this practice while the Vedic texts sometimes refer to the yogi posture (JW Hauer, Die W ~ fange der Yoga-Praxis, p. 21-31) and numerous seals found at Mohenjo-Daro representing deities in asana position (see p. 342). Among the Upanishads yogis who had extensively the asana, let us note the Trisikhibrah-manaUpanishad, 34-52. The treaty Gheranda hathayogui Samhita gives the description of-32 asana, the Pradipika defines Hathayoga-15 and the Shiva Samhita, 84. For Hathayoga, posture Magic has a very pronounced value, eg padmasana cure any disease (Gherandasamhita, II, 8), muktasanay vafrasanaconceden the "miraculous powers" (ibid., II, 11-12), MRTA-stirring sound calms the spirit (II , 19), awakens the Kundalini Bhujangasana (II, 42-43, etc.). There are certain asana to "conquer death" mrtyum Jayati, duplicator features of the texts hathayoguis. Theos Bernard, Hatha Yoga (Columbia University Press, New York, 1944) and on p. 224 of this book. On the asana in the Pali canon, see The Yogavacara's Manual of Indian mysticism, as practice by Buddhists, edited by T. W. Rhys Davids (London, 1896) and translated by Woodward in the title of a Mustic Manual (London, 1916), p. 1, footnote 2. See also Arthur Avalon, The Serpent Power (ed. II, Madras, 1924), passim; R. Rossel, Die Grundlagen der psychologischen Yoga-Praxis (Stuttgart, 1928, p. 16-23.


Note II, 3: On the concentration yogi First attestation explicit in the Upanishads: Kathaka Up, VI, 11. The passages of the Mahabharata have been sefialados and discussed by Hopkins, Yoga-technique in the Great Epic, p. 351 and ff. About five dharana in Jainism R. Garbe, Samkhya und Yoga, P. 39. The main passages in the Yoga-Sutrt and their comments are reproduced and analyzed by Sigurd Lindquist, Du Methodendes Yogo (Lund, 1932), p. 104 et seq. - But we must bear in mind that this author reduces yogis meditation and concentration various forms of self-hypnosis. For a personal experience of the concentration yogi, see Theos Bernard, Hatha Yoga, and also ks relevant observations of Dr. Jean Filliozat, Sur la "concentration oculaire" dans le Yoga (study published in Yoga: Eine Internationale Zeitschrift, I, 1931, p . 93-102) and the observations of Oliver La-combe, Sur le Yoga iridium (Etudes Carmdlitaines, Oct. 1937, p. 170 et seq.). Note II, 4: Samadhi With regard to the meaning of the didactic samhadi in the Mahabharata, see the work of Hopkins, Yoga-technique in the Great Epic, p. 337 et seq. The significant passages in the Yoga-Sutra (mostly I, 41-46), with the commentaries of Vyasa, Misra and Bhoja Vacaspati are reproduced and analyzed two in S. Lindquist, Die Methoden des Yoga, P. 118, 144. The identity of the word samadhi = sapamatti, see especially Vyasa, ad Y. S., I, 4344 and Vacaspati Misra, ad I, 42-43. > On the parallelism of the four Buddhist dhyana and the four varieties of Samprajnata des samadhi, E. Senart, Bouddhisme et Yoga (RevueHistorique des Religions, 1900, p. 345364), p. 349; Louis de la Vallee-Poussin, Le Bouddhisme et le Yoga of Patanjali (Melanges chinois et bouddhiques, V, Brussels 1937, p. 223-242), p. 229-230. "^ We ask for qu6 part, Yoga and Buddhism, these concepts were developed first and these doctrines common? Seems (apparently it reaches the certainty) that it was the Yoga" (Oldenberg, quoted by De la Vallee-Poussin, p. 230 ). See also below, Note V, 1. Note II, 5: The Siddhi "powers mUagrosos" The classic yoga texts are gathered in S. Lindquist, Die Methoden des Yoga, P. 169-182, id., Siddhi und Abhinna, Erne Tiber die Studie des klassischen Yoga Vfunder (Uppsala, 1935), where the documents are analyzed Buddhist prmcipalmente the Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa. Good bibliography of the origins of ahhijna in Etienne Lamotte, Le Traite de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse de Nagarjuna (Mahaprajnaparamttasas' ra), t I (Louvain, 1944), p. 329, n. 1. On hathayogui siddhi in literature, see Siva-Samhita, III, 41. On the siddhi in Tantrism and folklore yogi, see below, p. 297. Also a siddha legends, P. 290. Note III, 1: Vratya and extdticos of time vteicos The problem of Vratya has been treated at great length by M. Win-temitz, Die Vratya (Zeitschriffur Buddhismus, 1924-1925, p. 48, 311), and especially J. W. Hauer, Der Vratya, XJnterschungen Tiber die. Nichtbrahma nische antindiens Religions, I (unicopublicado): Die Vratya al "che Kultgenossenschaftenarischer Herkunft nichtbrhamanis (Stuttgart, 1927). About kesin Rig Veda, X, 136, Hauer, Die der Arrange


Yogapraxis, P. 169 and ff., Id., Vratya p. 324 et seq. On the asceticism and the Sramana literature, see biblio-graphic indications faiths L. de la Vallee-Poussin, Indo-Europiens et Iraniens Indus. L'Inde vers jus-that 300 av. J. C. (new enlarged edition, Paris, 1936), p. 22q, 378. He found plenty of material on popular religion in the Vedic era in Arbman Ernest, Rudra. Clauben und Untersuchungen zum altindischen Kultus (Uppsala, 1922), esp. p. 64 et seq. On the "societies of men" initiatic structure and ecstatic, the omas of Stig Wikander, Der Arisch Mannerbiinde (Luns, 1938); id., Vayu. Teste und Untersuchungenzur Indoiranischenfyeligionsgechichte (Lund, 1941). About ios elements chamalucos, W. Ruben, Schdmanismus im alten Indien (Orienralia Acta, 17, 1939, p. 164-205) and M. Eliade, Le shamanism archa誰que et les techniques de Vext (Paris, 1951), p. 362-388. Note III, 2: The five breaths

E W.

W. B. 368.

C. C. C. C. J. Hist. C. Note III, 2: The five breaths The five "breaths" are "prana, apana, samarium, the udana and vyana. Arthur H. Ewing made a comprehensive summary of your information in the literature vesica: The Hindu Conception of the Functions of Breath (Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol XXII, 2nd part, 1901, p. 249-308). Here's the gist of their conclusions: the Prana is respiration that drives the top fairy breath, from the navel or heart, and that includes both the aspiration and the expiration, the apana is a word that has multiple meanings: the respiration the anus and scrotum, the large intestine, navel, "the vyana respiration is permeating all parts of the body, the udana com E rende both respiration belch as carrying the soul to the ca-eza in the state of samadhi or death, the Samana is the respiration locali-ised in the abdomen, which claims to ensure proper digestion. According to G. W. Brown Prana and Apana (Journal Amer. Orient. Soc XXXIX, 1919, p. 104-112), prana is the thoracic respiration, the apana the abdominal respiration. Jean


Filliozat, The Doctrine rndienne Clasique of Medecine (Paris, 1949), p. 142 et seq., Rejects in part the results of Ewing. Already in the Rig Veda the prana is the respiration of the upper body, the apana of the bottom, "the vyana that circulates through the body that is precisely the meets" (p. 148). Anyway, nothing authorizes us to translate prana and apana with "esprracion" and "aspiration" because the texts allude to the prana and apana "inside the matnz" and the role of prana in the development of the embryo (Ath. Veda, XI, 4, 14). "Now, of all conceivable organic breaths, the only ones who can not intervene in the embryo are the aspiration and expiration" (Filliozat, p. 147). We must always take into account the homology cosmic respiration = Wind, recorded since the times vetlicos (Rig Veda, X, 90, 13, of the respiration of Man national cosmic wind-Ath. Veda, XI, 4, 15: "The wind is called respiration, etc..; Filliozat, P. 52 et seq.). "Since the prana or the overall respiration of the Cosmic Man is the wind, and" an internal respiration, as it is within the Universe, body cosmic gi-ghent, where it circulates in the wind "(idem, p. 147) . The internal respiration is also known in Chinese tradition, see p. 68 of this book. For Indo-Iranian mythology Wind-cosmic breath, see Stig Wikander, Vayu (Uppsala, 1941), p. 84 adeknte and passim. Note 111, 3: THE TAPAS and Diks. See H. Oidenberg, Die Religion des Veda (2nd ed. 1917), p. 397 and ff.; A. Hillebrandt, VedischfMythologie (2d ed. Breslau, 1927-1928), I, p. 482; Hermann Guntert, Der Arisch Veltkdntgund Heiland (Halle, 1923), p. 347 J. W. Hanu, Die Anfang der Yogapraxis, P. 55 et seq.; A. B. Keith, The Religion and the Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads (Cambridge, Mass. 1925), I, p. 300 and ff.; S. Levi, La doctrine du sacrifice give "les Brahmanas (Paris, 1898), p. 103 et seq. Also M. Eliade, Le Chamanisme, P. 369 et seq. According to Barth "no evidence that the ceremony (the diksa) real-mind goes back to the era of Hymns (...) alii diksa are neither nor diksita or equivalent term ningiin or formal allusions to anything like it ", see also L. de la Vallee-Poussin, L'lndejusqu'en 300 avant J.-C., P. 368. However, the conception is archaic: it is not clear why there would have been among the Vedic Indians as the mythology and the technique of sweats, moreover universally known, are recorded among the Germans, Scythians, Iranians. Note III, 4: hmduizacion of religion autdctona. The assimilation of aboriginal gods is a process that continues even in our days. We will content ourselves to recall some remarks of Indian folklore, mainly from Sarat Chandra Mitra, as the literature in this regard is rnmensa. The "conversion" to Hinduism is quite superficial, however: although some elements remain transparent character "primitive" of new gods and new religions. Thus, for example, where aboriginal tribes were converted to accept the Hindu gods (almost always female deities) but not using the services of the brah-manes for worship: see S. C. Mitra, On the Conversion of Tribes fofo Castes in North Bihar (Journal of Anthropological Society of Bengal. XII, 6, p. 735743), on an Oraon tribe worshiping the Goddess Bhagavathi under an old tree; S. C. Mitra, On the CuUofthe JujubeTree (Man inlndia, V, 1925, p. 115-131) on the plant Itokumara demon, whose cult is celebrated by unmarried girls without intervention of the Brahmins. Ea are also cases that places of worship in ancient pre-Aryan Hindu temples were built, but whose priests were outcasts: what mattered was the sacredness of the place (wellknown phenomenon in the history of religions, our Treaty, p. 177 et seq. about the


continuity of sacred places). During the party de'l Mother Goddess (Animal or Attal), which lasts 16 days, an outcast is retained and nurtured in the temple, as prom-ed of the goddess. A pariah tied the tali around the neck of Egattala, tutelary goddess of Madras. In the province of Mysore, a sa-Holiya Cerdotado is considered the local goddess and the pariah of the village chief as mayor (G. Oppert, On the Bharatavarsa or original inhabitants of India, Westminster, 1893, p. 52). Also outcasts elsewhere celebrate the ritual of the goddess rather than the Brahmins (W. Crooke, An Introduction to the Popular Religion and Folklore of 'Northern India, London, 1894, p. 47). Outcasts belong to the pre-Aryan tribes, know the secrets of the Goddess and represents "the primordial duefios of sacredness. Although from the dogmatic point of view and legal aboriginal tribes by treating Brahmanic mythology, the caste system, etc.. Are part of Hinduism, almost never use the services of the Brahmins. As the old gods native ancient religious ceremonies per-lasting, but under different names and changing times of signification. The tribes venerate the holy sites-even a tree, a lake, a fountain, a cavern-haunted by his tutelary deities. To assimilate, Hinduism such tutelary deities identified with the multiple manifestations of Shiva or Kali (Durga) as to the ancient places of worship, the values curls through episodes from Hindu mythology. For example: Kalijai goddess, patron deity Chilca Lake (Orissa), the structure is also confirmed by native that is a sacrifice chickens ofjrecen, S. C. Mitra, The Cult of the Lake-Goddess of Orissa (Journal Anthrop. Soc Bombay, XII, 1921, p. 190-197). See also Nanimadhab Chaudhuri, Rudra-Siva Deity as an agricultural (Indian Historical Quarterly, XV, June 1939, p. 1939, p. 183-196: the worship of Siva in seniihinduizadas tribes, p. 185 et seq.) S . C. Mitra, Tre-Cultsin Notes on the District Patna in S. Bihar (Journal Bihar-Orissa Research Society, 1928, p. 278-279); id. On the worship of the Pipal Tree in N. Bihar (id. December 1920, p. 570-572). Pipal on the cult of literature there is immense: for references in the Epic and Purana, J. J. Meyer, Trilogie, Altindischer Machte und Feste der Vegetation (Zurich-Leipzig), II, p. 132-134, for the earlier period, Nanimadhab Chaudhuri, A prehistoric tree cultjjnd. Hist. Quarterly, 1943, XIX, p. 318-329). The goddess Durga-Kali, called upon to play a decisive role in Tantrism (see p. 199 onwards), was most likely an aboriginal deity of vegetation and agriculture. The symbiosis Tantrism-cult of vegetation is visible even today in Bengal: Chintaharan Chakravarti, The Cult of Baro Bhaiya of Eastern Bengal (Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, XXVI, 1930, n. 1, p. 379-388) on the cult of the "twelve brothers," Baro Bhaiya and his mother Vanadurga near a tree or Sheoran Ashvath, Tuesdays and Fridays, days friendly tantric liturgy, then car-neros are slaughtered, goats and buffaloes. It is clear from the ruling mantra-two on this occasion, Durga Vanadurga corresponds to the tantric iconography. The cosmic-plant structure of Durga, registered in the Purana, and tantric literature, popular mainly in the surrounding aboriginal tribes in hinduizaci6n process. The DeviMahatmya, chap. 92, 43-44 (= Markandeya Purana, 81-93) celebrates the great victory of the goddess over the demons of the drought Mahis, Sumbha and Nisumbha: "Then, oh, Gods, alimentare (literally hold ÂŁ) the entire universe with these plants that sustain life and grow in my body even during the rainy season. Then, on earth as a glorious sere Sakamhari ( "bearer of herbs" or "that nourishes the grass") and in the same period, the great asura destripare called Durgama "for liturgical context of this myth, S. C. Mitra, On


the Cult of the Tree Goddess in Eastern Bengal (Man in India II, 1922, p. 230 onwards), the myth, H. Zimmer, Mytsand Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization, p. 190 et seq. An important rite, navapatrika (nine leaves ") makes clear the character of Durga plant," JOM, O, leaf (Patrik), oh, nine sheets of Durga! Jeres appreciated by Mahadeva: accept all these gifts and prot & geme, O queen of heaven! IOM abiding adoration to Durga in nine sheets! " (Mitra, op.cit, p. 232-233). As the deity of trees, we met Durga especially in the districts of Mymensingh and Tippera in dcnde is known as Bana Durga. She lives in the tree Sheoran (Streblus asper), sometimes in the roots of the tree uduma ((. Ficusglomerata?). Bana Durga is worshiped before the ceremony of investiture of the sacred thread before the marriage ceremony, usually before any auspicious ritual. In Comilla district Tippera, it worships at the root of the tree kamini (Murraya exotica) with the formula: "(submission to the goddess (Durga who lives in the tree Sakota." Generally, you slaughtered pigs and 21 chickens, on the occasion of the Bid. This is a beautiful detail to determine its origin and its non-Aryans. SC Mitra compares the offerings dc duck egg stained vermilion, the offering of ducks in southern Bengal offers to a deity -aria, Dakshina Raya, which takes the fieura of a tiger. (On the Worship of Dakshina Raya as a Rain God, Journ. Anthr. Soc Bombay, XIII, n. 2, 1924). Some non-Aryan customs related ccn the worship of the goddess Kali are also popular in the Kali-fi sta Naucht, during which groups of masked dancers recc-rren the streets after the goddess worshiped at midnight, three days earlier near a banyan tree (see Dhirendra Nath Majumdar, Notes on Kali Naucht, Man in India, III, 1923, p. 202-205). We will have occasion to speak new-mind about the relationship between Durga and the popular cults of vegetation (see p. 327). Importantly, now the indefatigable power of absorption of Hinduism, even now turns to aboriginal tribes and sub-castes in caste, and their deities in manifestations of Siva and Durga. Note III, 5: The Upanishads. On Brahman, see Jarl Charpentier, Brahman. Eine sprachwissenscha-ftlich-Exegetischereligionsgeschichtlige Untersuchuns (Uppsala, 1932), G. Du-mezil, Flamen-Brahman (Paris, 1935); A. B. Keith, Nevatheories as to Brahman (Jha Commemoration Volume, Poona, 1937, p. 214 ff.); B. Heimann, Studien zur Eigenart indischen Denkens (Tubingen, 1930), p. 40 and ff., H. G. Narahari, pre-upanisadic Atman in Vedic Literature, (Adyar, 1944), p. 22 and ff., L. Renou, Sur la notion du brahman (Journal Asiatique, 237, 1949, p. 7-46), J. Gcnda, Notes on Brahman (Utrecht, 1950). Upanishad: For the editions, translations and critical studies published until 1931, see L. Renou, Bibliographic Vedique, 96-116. Signals: A. D. P.anade, A Constructive Survey of UpanishadicPhilosophy (Poona, 1926); H. Oidenberg, Die Lehre der Upanishads des Buddhismus und die Anfange (Gottingen, 1915), P. Deus. Die die Philosophic Upanishads (4th edition, Leipzig, 1920, trad, English, Edinburg, 1906), P. Oltramare, Lhistoire des idees theosophiques dans Vlnde, I (Paris, 1907), p. 63 ff.; Barua, Pre-Buddhistic Philosophy (Calcutta, 1920), S. N. Dasgupta, Indian Idealism (Cam-bridce, 1933). p. 20 and ff., Id. A History of Indian Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads, p. 534 and ff.; Maryla Falk, 11 psychological myth neltlndiaantica (R Arcademia Memorie della Nazionale dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze morali, storiche e filologiche, Series VI, vol. VIII, fasc. V. p. 289-738, Rome, 1939 ) esp. p. 346-397, 421-569, Walter Ktibcn. Die Fhitosophen der Upanishads (Bern.


1947). On the mystic on the ortzaciones tt suefio (Brhad. Up, IV, 3, 9) B. Heimann. Studi zur Eigcnart mdischen Dcnkens. p. 130 and ff. Katha Upanishad.trad. L. Renovi (Paris, 1943); Anancla K. Coornavaswamy, Notes on Katha Upanishad (New Indian Antiquary, I. 1938, p. 43-56, 83-108. 198-213). Svetasvatara Up, trans, and Aliette conirntan'o by Silburn (Paris, 1948) also see Bhandarkar, Vaisnatism, Saivism and minor religious systems (Es-trasburgo. 1913), p. 106-111: Richard Hauschild, Die Svetasvatara-Upanishad. Eine Kritische Ausgabe mit einer einer Vebersich Uebersetzung und ihre Lehrem Tiber (Leipzig, 1927, oxtr. Teitschrift der Deutschen Ge-Morgenldndischen schaft, 1927); I. W. Hauer, Die Svetasvatara-Upanishad. Tractatus monatheistischer einer ein Rudra-Siva-Geme'nde (Zeit. d. Deutsch. Morg. Gesell, 1930, p. 37 et seq.) id. Glaubensgeschichte der IndoGermanic, I (Stuttgart, 1937), p. 208; E. H. Johnston, Some Samkhya and Yopa Svetasvatara Conceptions of the Upanishads (J. Roy. Asiat. Society, 1930, p. 855-878). The Svetasvatara, VI, 13, clearly states the validity of philosophy soteriological Samkya the practical side of Yoga. Mandukya Upanishad, trans. Em. Lesimple (Paris, 1944); H. Zimmer, Philosophies of India, p. 372 and ff. Maltri Upanishad, trans, and comment, Anne-Marie Esnoul (Paris, 1952). Hopkins, The Great Epic, p. 33 ff.; Dasgupta, Yoga Philosophy (Calcutta, 1930), p. 65-66; Hauer, Der als Heilweg Goya, P. 26 ff.; E. A. Welden, The Samkhya Teachings in the Maitri Upanishad (Amer. Jour. Philology. Vol. XXXV, p. 32-52). Deussen trat6 schematically presenting yoga practice, as this was in the middle-of Maitrayani Upanishad Hamsa-Sieu each anga. The list of references is quite complete, and we are d'sp ^ rra to reproduce. P. Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads, p. 387-395. Yama and Niyama not listed among classical tea is first mentioned in Svetasvatara, II, 10, the three moments of pranatjama Ireraha, Puraka, kumbhaka) appear on the Khurika 5, etc..; Pratyahara. as we have seen this already mentioned in the Chadogya, VIII, 15, and Dharana in Martra-yani. VI, VI, 34; as to Dhyana and Samadhi are not in the Upanishads cla-musicians the same way as in the Yoga-Sutra. The current edition of the Upanishads is to Sastri Yogis Yoga Upanisadswith the commentary of Sri Upanishad-Brahma-Yoginpditado by Pandit Mahadeva Sastri (Adyar Library, 1920); trad, English Aiangar Srinivasa Yoga Upanishad (Adyar Library, 1938, 2 'edition, 1952). Note III, 6: "sounds mystical" The Brhadaranyaka Up, V, 9, had the "buzz you hear in one ear plugged, and when is about to escape (by death), we no longer hear that noise." The Vaikanassasmartasutra. V1 (ed. Caland, p. 68-69), points out that the dying man hears a "Tafi bell" that gradually decreases until death. This same serial is attributed, in the Pali canon, the voices of the gods, according Dhiga, I, 152. "the voice of the Devas and yaks is similar, she says, the ringing of a bell of gold." The bell sound is perceived in certain body postures and meditations tanlricas: for example, in anahatacakra (Mahanirvana Tantra, V. 146). The Nadabindu Upanishads (31 et seq.) Describes all sounds received by ei mystical yogi while meditating on sidhasana position during the practice of vaisnacimudra. Also, the


Dhyanabindu, whose capital starts with meditation concentration on the mystic syllable OM, he mentions various sounds extrafios; "The nothing is focused on the vinadanda (spine), the sound environment resembles that of sea shells, etc. . Upon reaching the cavity (corresponding to the item) akasa, resembles the cry of a peacock (102). See also the Hathayogapradipika. IV, 79 and Gheranda Samhita, V. 78. Currently in India there is a religious sect, that of Radhaswami, practicing meditation directed toward "mystical sound, which they call meditation shabd-yoga," yoga of sound. " The focus of this Radhaswami in Beas, near Kapurthala, where the sect has a very nice temple. During my visit to Beas in November 1930, my information I described this meditation ers explained that they must begin with a concentration "between the eyes" when you hear the ringing of bells, is the first serial of the meditation of shabd is valid. One of the stages of meditation is the sensation of ascent. Discourses on Bhada-SwamiFaith (Discourses made by Babugi Sahib and compiled by Mr, Myron II. Phelps of New York, undated, probably dating from 1914, no further interest because it contains almost no accurate data on the technique). Clearly, the mystical auditions were open to different valuations. Fo-Tu-Teng, Koutche Buddhist monk, who had visited Kashmir and other parts of India, reaching China in the year 310 and boasts numer-ous feats rhasncas: according to prophecy, especially the ringing of bells; A . F. Wright, Fo-t'u-teng, A Biography (Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, XI. 1948, p. 321-370), p. 337, 346, 362. The author had also Dabistan of meditation on the "absolute sound" (Arabic sartt muttk, Anahid in Hindi), commonly meditation 11a-mada azad awa or "free speech" (The Dabistan or School of Manners, vol. I, p. 81: the Dabistan, voluminous treatise on Indian religions, was compiled by Mobed Shah in the seventeenth century). According to this, the meditation on the mystical sounds was also known by Muhammad (revelation of the "Tafi bell" and Hafiz muttuck sant remembers the quatrain: Nobody knows where my beloved dwells; All we know is that the sound of the bell is approaching. The hearing Dabistan describes meditation as follows: "The faithful turn their ear and understanding to the brain while in the night, en) at home or in the desert, hear this voice, which he regards as his dhikr. .. " According to some authors Arab mysticism, dhikr updated sounds or voices that are heard "on the circumference of the head" noise "of the trumpet and cymbals", "rumors of water, wind, voices of burning fire, the mills, horse-steps, the whisper of the leaves on the trees when the wind blows on them ... " (Ibn 'Ata' Allah, quoted by L. Gardet. La mention du nom divin in mystique musulmane, Revue thomiste, 1952, p. 641-679, p. 667). Hearings on similar mystical, W. Y. Evans-Wentz, MUarepa (Oxford, 1928), p. 37, etc.. Discussion at Rosel, Die Grundlagen psychologischen, p. 67-68. Note III. 7: Lists of ascetics. Here is a list cited by Varaha Mihira, whose commentator, Utpala, says it was composed by maestro Kalakacarya Jain (See extracts Utpala in Indian Antiquary, 1912, p. 287): Sakya (the one with red dress); ajivika; bhiksu (or Sannyasi; oka car carrier of the skull); nirgrantha (the naked ascetic, Jaina) vanyasana (hermit). There are two other lists (Biihler, Nagarjuni hillcave Barabar and inscriptions of Asoka and Dasaratha, Journ. Bombay Asiatic Soc, vol. XX, p. 362; Jouma. Roy. Asiatic Soc, 1911, p. 960). The first


list: tavasia (tapasika, "Hermit"); Kavalier (Kapalika, "the bearer of the skull."); Rattavada (raktapata, "who wears red clothes"); cadardi (ekadandi "the ascetic with a cane" ajivika) jai (yati), face (Caraka); kha-vanai (ksapanaka). The list, according gives: Jalan (jvalana, Sagnik) hara (isvarabhakta, "worshiper of divinity"); Sugaya (sugata, "Buddhist"); Kesava (kesavabhakta, "worshiper of Kesava" Bhagavata), sui (srutimargarata, "the supporter of sruti", ie mimansaka) brahma (brahmabhakta, "worshiper of Brahma" empty-pras-tha; Naggar ( "naked"). All these lists do not forget to include the tantric sects (Kapalika, urddhasravaka). See also p. 373 ff. Note IV, 1: The Mahabharata. See: H. Oidenberg, Das Mahabharata (Seine Entstehung, sein Inhalt, seine Form, Gottingen, 1922); H. Jacobi, Mahabharata (Inhaltsausga.be, Index Konkordanz und Ausgaben der Kalcuttaer und Bombay, Bonn, 1903), Hopkins, The Creat Epic of India (New Haven, 1901, ed. II, 1920), Joseph Dahlmann, Das Mahabharata als Epos und Rechtsbuch (Berlin, 1895, see the discussion in Barth, Oeuvres, vol. IV, p. 347-403). Bibliography abundant in Winternitz, Geschichte d. indischen Literatur, I, p. 263 et seq., Ill, 623. Ethnological interpretation of the traditions preserved by the Mahabharata, in G. J. Held, The Mahabharata, an etnological Study (Amsterdam, 1935), and Charles Auster, LEpopee Hindou. Ethnographique Varrierefonds Etude et religieux (Paris, 1946). Stig Wikander study Vedic mythology exists in the legend of the Panel ava: La legende des mythique Pandava et la structure du Mahabharata (translated and annotated by G. DumĂŠzil, Jupiter, Mars. Qui-rinus, IV, Paris, 1948, p. 37-53, see also DumĂŠzil, same work, p. 55-85); Stig Wikander, Sur le fonds commun des Indo-Iranian epop of Perse et de pays (La Nouvelle Clio, n. 7, July 1950, p. 310-329). Note IV, 2: The Samkhya in Moksa-Dharma. The lines are one true 11039-11040 crux translatoris. Considered by Hopkins (GreatEpic, p. 104 et seq.) As proof of an atheist in the Moksa Samkhya-Dharma, were interpreted by F. Edgerton, in a sense diametrically opposite (The meaning of Samkhya and Yoga, in the American Journal of Philology, 1929, vol. 45, p. 1 et seq., Esp. 27-29). Hopkins translates anisvara katham Mucyo, by "/. How we can save ourselves without God?" and believes that this question is raised by the practitioners of Yoga. Edgerton anisvara translates to "supreme, without duefio" which, he said, precluded any allusion to the Samkhya's atheism. The interpretation of Edgerton confirmed Dahlman perspective on the original meaning of the pre-classical Samkhya (Die Samkhya Philosophie, p. 5 and up) but the traduction of anisvara has been rejected by Hopkins (works cited) and A. B. Keith, Religion and Philosophy of the Veda, vol. II, p. 543-44. See also Oldenberg, Zur Geschichte des Samkhya Philosophie, p. 231. As to the multiplicity of "souls"-note characteristic of the classical SamkhyaMoksadharma is mentioned in "according to the teachings Samkhya and Yoga, there are many souls in the world, do not accept (the teachings) the existence of only one soul "(Mahagharata, XII, 11714). But read carefully the ccmtexto, we understand that this is an empirical plurality of souls, encourage, cores of limited and specified psychic experiences, in short, souls "unenlightened," haunted by the ilusi6n be individuated and isolated. It's the old illusion that tackle the Upanishad: the illusion of being limited by


mental experiences. In Moksadharma, empirical souls are emanations of the Universal Soul, the only, the Brahman, and by illuminating the souls return to it. But Isvara Krishna, denying God (Isvara) in appearance of unique and creative soul, was to accept an infinite plurality of purusha, the soul completely isolated from each other, without any possibility of communication between them. The summary of the doctrine Samhya as outlined by the Tamil epic Manimekalai asserts that there is only one purusha. This conception of Manimekalai Samkhya is very similar to the Moksadharma (SS Suryanarayana Sastri, The Manimekalai Account of the Samkhya, Journal of Indian History, Vol. VIII, Decem-ber 1929). On this issue, see E. H. Johnston, Early Samkhya (London 1937), p. 9, 27, etc. Note W, 3: The Art of entering another's body. Maurice Bloomfield, On the art of entering another's body, a hindu fiction motif Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 56), 1914, p. 1-43). The art of entering a foreign body (parapurakayaprevesa) is preceded on the Yogasastra (VI, 1) Hemacandra, for the "Art of separating the soul from the body, called vedhaviddhi. See also Sigurd Lindquist, Die Me-thedan des Yoga, P. 13 ff. The religious and secular folklore abounds with examples of "entry into a foreign body, and especially in cadavers, T. Benfey, Das Pancutandra, I, p. 123 (the body of King Candragupta was occupied after his death. By yaks); Prabandhacintamani, trans. C. H. Tawney (Calcutta, J905), p. 170, 10 (the king enters the body of his own dead elephant) Tawney-Penzer, The Ocean of Story, Vol. I. p. 37, etc.., Jacques Bacot, La vie de Marpa le "tradticteur" (Paris, 1937), p. 70 (Marpa made "the translation of life" to the corpse of a pigeon; reanimose the bird, while the body of Lama was "like a corpse"). Interesting details were found with-cernientes to pravesa Parakaya technique, in Evans-Wentz, Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines (Oxford, 1935), p. 26 and ff. Tantrism familiar enough with this technique: Kaulajnananirnaya, IV, 2, VII, 31. Note TV, 4: Bhogavad - Gita. The literature on the Bhagavad-Gita is endless. Winternitz, Geschichte der indischen Literatur (2nd ed.), Vol. 1, p. 365, vol. III, p. 625 (for the bibliography of the controversy surrounding the theory of Algarve), a brief exposition on Carpenter, Theism m Medieval India (London, 1921), 249-267; philosophical interpretations in S. K. Belvalkar, Vedanta Philosophy (Vol. I, Poona, 1929, p. 84-134) and Dasgupta, A History of Indian Philosophy (Vol. II, Cambridge 1932, p. 437-552). Translation cited more often and to have been made from the Indian viewpoint is that of Telang, in The Sacred Books of the East, vol. HIV (Oxford, 2 "edition 1908). On the Translation of Hill (Oxford 1928) see the observations of Carpenter, in Indian Antiquary, 1929. Provided by Carpenter, Some remarks on the Gita, in Indian Antiquary, July 1930, p. 122. Edition and Translation of psychological practice Yoga of the Bhagavad-Gita see Der Yoga als Heuweg Hauer, P. 61. To add to the literature of Winternitz: Etienne Lamotte Notes sur la Bhagavad-Gita (* Brussels and Paris, 1929); F. Otto Schrader, The Kashmir Recensione of the Bhagavadgita (Stuttgart, 1930); R. Otto, Die Urgestalt der Bhagavad-Gita (ibid. 1935: Otto distinguishes eight ancient texts added to the core, the Ur-Gita), S. K. Belvalkar, The to-called Kashmir recension of the Bhagavad-Gita (New Indian Antiquary, II, 1939,


p. 211-251). The Anugita (Mahabharata XIV, 16-51) form a kind of appendix to the Bhagavad-Gita: the amalgamation of Samkhya-Yoga and Vedanta is carried even further. Note IV, S: The The notion of Yoga, as we find in the Bhagavad-Gita: the means to deliver the entire soul to Krishna - is principalmen-te in the literature of Pancaratra, or visnuita of this sect which is based on the cult Krishna. Thus, for example, Ahirbudhnya Samhita (Chapter 31-32, dedicated to Yoga), Yoga is called "oration of the heart" ihridaya-aradhana) or "sacrifice exlerno (bahyayajna.) The soul, as pureza'original , that is separate from matter, is still in contact with all things, is described with similar terms in the BrhadaranyakaUpanishad, IV, 3, 23 ff., and in Isa Up, 5. Yoga is defined as "a union of the human soul with the supreme soul (jivatmaparamatmanohsamyoga). Through the meditation Yoga is acquired, already in this life, the experience of union with God. reser-vada to those who are "liberated". The history of the sect Pancaratra or Bhavagata has remained fairly obscure, despite the work of Bhandarkar, Grierson, Schrader. Sen as it can be said that this sect cores naire theistic natives (or non-Aryan Aryans) - and not under the influence of Christianity, as Weber believed. 5> or "philosophy" based on e! Samkhya is very eclectic and mystical is fimdaiiv. "Iito ol Vism'i-Vasudeva worship. The Bhagavad-Gita has remained the Libyan saint of those sects, while its doctrines and its message were pur-CIID disseminate the Samhita. treaties that have been held primarily in southern India, and not only began to be studied or from the publication, Per O. Schrader, of the critical edition of Ahirbudnya Samhita (2 vols. Adyar, 1916). A samhita comprises four themes: fnana or philosophy, or mystical practice yoga, kriya or construction of temples and dedication of the images, and Cary or social activity and ritual. Each samhita gives prominence to one or other of these issues, neglecting or even ignoring the rest. The critical literature on the Bhagavata literature and history is immense. View archaeological documents, compiled and discussed by Ramprasad Chanda, Archeology and Vaishnava tradition (Calcutta, 1920). On the chronology and philosophy, O. Schrader, Introduction to the Pancharaira and the Ahirbuddhnya Samhita (Av-yar, 1916). Discussions and opinions in Grierson, The Narayaniya and the Bha-gavatas, Indian Antiquary. 190S, p. 253-54; A. Govindacarya Svamin, The Pan-charatra of Bhagavat-Shastra (Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1911); Bhandar-kar, Vaishnavism, Saivism and minor religious system, p. 38-41, 100; Hemchan-dra Ray Chaudhuri, Materials for the Study of Early History of the Vaishnava Sect (Calcutta, 1920; rich documentation and bibliography); S. K. De, Bhagavatism and Sun-Worship (Bull. Orien. School, London, 1931, vol. VI, p. 869-672). About the famous passage from the philosopher Patanjali, where he had the iccnografica representation of Krishna, see Sten Konow, Da 'Indische Drama (1920), p. 44, Sylvain Levi, Le Theater Indien, vol. I, p. 314; furthermore, the corresponding bibliography on this subject is huge (Vallee-Poussin \, L'Inde aux tfimpsdet Maur-yas, Parts, 1930, p. 187-188). Always on the Bhagavata, J. E. Carpenter, Theism in Medieval India, p. 220-221; Hopkins, The Great Epic of India, p. 144-145; Shripal Belvalkar Krishna, The Brahma Sutra of Badarayana (Poona, 1923, fasc. II, p. 129-132); D. L. De, Pancaratra and the Upanishads (Ind. Hist. Quart., IX, 1933, p. 645-662); L


Note V, I: The Yogo and Buddhism. He found the essence of the biography of the Buddha and the Buddhist doctrine and techniques * in: E. J. Thomas, The Life of Buddha as Legend and History (London, 1927), Etienne Lamotte, La legende du Bouddha (Rev. Hist Rel, 1947-1948, p. 37-71); J. Bagot, Le Bouddha (Paris, 1947); A. Foucher, La vie du Bouddha d'apres les textes et les monuments de vindo (Paris, 1949); andre1 Bareau, La date du Nirvana (Journal Asiatique, 1953, p. 27-62); G. Tucci, II Buddhism (Foligno, 1926); Ed Conze, Le Bouddhisme dans son essence et son developpement (Oxford, 1951, trad. Fr. Rerou Marie-Simone, Paris, 1952), Louis de la Vallee-Poussin, Nirvana ( Paris, 1925); id., La Morale bouddhique <Pamir, 1927), id. Dogme et philosophie du Bouddhisme (1931); A. B. Keith, Buddhist Philosophy in India and Ceylon (Oxford, 1923), Ananda K. *CoomaM WAMY, Hinduism and Buddhism (New York, 1943) etc.., Etc. View from 1930: Bibliographie bouddhique (Paris), under the direction of Marcelle Lalou. Also see Hofcogirin, Dictionnoire encyclopediqve du bouddhitme d'apres le 'sources chinoises et iaponaises, rĂŠdacteur chef Paul Demieville 3 fasc (Tokyo-Paris, ^ 1929-1937), On the Buddha "King of the doctors' and Buddhism," medicine new Hobogirin, HI, p. 230 ff. On the relationship between Yoga and Buddhism: E. Senart, Bouddhisme et Yoga (Rev. Hist. Relig, November 1900. p. 345,364), S. Lindquist, Die Methoden des Yogo (Lund, 1932), p. 73 et seq.; PJiys C. Davids, Religiose Uebung m religiose Indien und der Mensch: I "Jhana (oderDyhana) im Buddhismus, II * Ferwirkung (televdition) imfruhen Buddhismus, HI" Mensch und Kommunion (Eranos-Jahrbuch!, Zurich, 1934, p. 95-134), Louis de la Vallee-Poussin, Le Bouddhisme et le Yoga of Patanjali (Memoires chinois et bouddhiques, V. Brussels, 1937, p. 223 -- 242). About nirvana and yogi essence, there is an abundant literature: see especially L. de la Vallee, Nirvana, Th Stcherbatsky, The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana (Leningrad, 1927); A. B. Keith, The Doctrine of Buddha (Bull. Orientd Schoder, London, VI, 1931, p. 393-404); Th Stcherbatsky The Doctrine of Buddha (idem, 1932, p. 867-896), J. Przyluski and E. Lamotte, Bouddhisme et Upanishads (Bull, boredom Francaise Extreme-Orient, XXXII, 1932, p. 141-169): "Nirvana is derived from the root," blowing. "Designates a state in which the respiration ceases, this notion should be been taken to the Theory of suefio deep as it appears in the Upanishads "(idem, p. 154). Also Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, pdi Some words (Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, IV, 1938, p. 116-190), pag. 156-163. On the structure of the mystic asamskrata see Andre Barreau, L'Absolu in bouddhique philosophie. Evolution de la notion d'asamskrata (The'se pour le doctorat des lettres, Paris, 1951, Center de documentation universitaire, dactylographies). Note V, 2: The Samadhi Buddha and Jahn. For Buddhists, the samadhi was only a preliminary stage to higher stages that are certain to go before attaining nirvana. By samadhi can get the five species of supreme wisdom and even the condition of Arhat. "Being in perfect samadhi" is the fifth of the "eight great man's thoughts" says Chinese Ekotto (Przyluski, Le parinirvana du Bouddha et les funeraUles, Journal Asiatique, 1918, n. 3, Nov.-Dec, p. 438 ). Buddhaghosa (AttaSdini, 118), said that samadhi is identical to the cittass' ekag-eata, "concentrating the mind", "mental fixation flow at a single point. Tista concentrating the mind, called Samadhi, is characterized by the absence of distraction-tia, of wandering (of mind), its essence is the


concentration in a beam of mental states that appear at the same time that she, his preliminary condition is the calm before his appearance, his support is prudence (as it is said, "He who stays calm, knows and sees"). .. Its meaning is the mental stability "(cited Rhys Davids, The Yogavacara's Manual Introduction, p. XXVII). The word samadhi is not found, according to Rhys Davids, before the Pitaka, or the Pali or Sanskrit. The one Mahavyutpattida samadhi list of 118 (P. Oltramare, The theosophia Bouddhique, p. 357, footnote 2). Anguttara, I, 299 (Sutta 163), Samyutta IV, 363 and Vinaya, 3, 93, gives a list of three species of samadhi : sunnat (characterized by emptiness, appa-nihita (no lens) and animitta (no signs). Buddhagosa explains it this way: free from appetites, lusts, stupidity, no target because it has renounced the goal rebirth in heaven, without signs, it is devoid of the three signs, laksana (Rhys Davids, op cit, p. XXVII). But these explanations are external scholastics. The negative effect of these three higher (samyak samadhi-samadhi ) must be understood as refusing to toda.clasificaci6n and delimitation. See also Abhi-Dharmakara, VIII p. 183, L. de la Vallee-Poussin, Crying et Narada, p. 203 onwards (on the seven Harivarman samadhi) ; E. Lamotte, Le traite de la Grande Vertude Sagesse, I, p. 321 (Nagarjuna on the three samadhi), idem, II, p. 1028 (on the dhyana), 1035 (the dhyana and Samapatti) HobogiHn, III, p. 283 (the jhana), A. Coomaraswamy, Some Pali words, p. 138 (jhana, samadhi). Note V, 3: Dhyana Buddhist and non-pseudo-dhyana of the Buddhists. Potthapada says, "But long ago, sir, repeatedly, with different teachers, and satnana Brahmins got together and took their seats in the conference room, conversation was upon the faith trance (abhisatmanirodho," suspension of consciousness ") and the question was: "<LJE that way, senate, you get the suspension of consciousness?" (. ..). Another said: "There Samana and Brahmins of great power and influence. They are the ones that introduce the consciousness in man and faith removed from his body. When entered, the man becomes conscious become unconscious when removed. This is how others explain the cessation of consciousness "(Potthapada Sutta, Digha, 1.180). Gosa Buddha explains that the basis of this opinion is' the way we develop certain spells wizards (athabbanika athabbanam payojenti can be: Atharva priests, <^ Atharva do a spell? ")-what makes a man look dead, as if his head Juibiera been cut, and then, the sorcerer does return to its natural state. (Note by Rhys Davids, Dialogues, I, p. 246-247). About trances and ecstasy of the teachers of the Buddha, see Majjhi-manikaya, i, 164; see also A. B. Keith, Buddhist Philosophy, p. 124, 138, 139, 144, and L. de la ValleePoussin, Nirvana, P. 77, n. 2. On the other hand there was the pseudo-dhyana, and those of the monks who claimed to have achieved the state of Arhat and possess alamariyanasia-dassanam (special knowledge) ceased to be members of the community (the fourth rule Parajika refers to the pseudo - dhyana). See the case of the four pseudo-or dhyana dhyana 'Taico "probably simple hip-Notice-states in Przyluski, VEmpereur The Ligende of Asoka (Paris, 1923), p. 390,391. Upagupta Venerable shows a young man Mathura, which I thought I had donethe four stages of the condition of Arhat, he was wrong, because he had only done trances illusory. Noto V, 4: Paths and stages of meditation Canonical texts concerning Samapatti jhana and are remembered in E. Lamotte, Le.


TraHS de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse, II, p. 1023, n. 3. About Samapatti in the Abhidharma, L. de la Vallee-Poussin, Crying et Natada, P. 215 ff. (mainly AbhidharmaKosa, II, 212), idem, Morals bouddhique, P. 74 et seq. For the interpretation of Nagarjuna, E. Lamotte, Trai-tee, II, p. 1023-1095. Signifirativa There is a symmetry between the four stages of the career of a Buddhist saint (crotapanna, sakrdagamin, anagamin, arhat) and the four dhyana. Przyluski As noted, this tetrad belongs to the Indian spirit in general. The Upanishad triadismo of the first (three "states" of consciousness, "three worlds", three guna, three Vedas, etc..) Was replaced by the tetrad. The fourth''state "is turiya psychic or caturha, expressing the notion of absolute, infrnito of unlimited, and that has been adopted also by Buddhists (Przyuski Jean and Etienne Lamotte, Bouddhisme et Upanisad.Bull. Eco-le F. Extr .- Orient, t. XXXII, 1932, p. 141169, especially p. 160). Note V, 5: SIDDHI and ABHIJNA The origins of abhijna are indicated in E. Lamotte, Le Traite de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse, I, p. 329, n. 1. Among recent works remember: L. de la Vallee-Poussin, Le Bouddha et les Abhijna (Museon, 1931, p. 335342); Sigurd Lindquist Die Methoden des Yoga, P. 169-187, idem, Siddhi und Abhmna. Erne Studie W'underdes Tiber die klassischen Yoga (Uppsala, 1935), P. Demieville, Sur la existence antĂŠrieures des mSmoire (Bull. Ecole F. Extreme-Orient, 1927, p. 283-298). Some texts had six and seven High Science; Mahavyutpatti, 14. About the shamanistic character of certain siddhi, see our book Le shamanism, P. 365 et seq. and in this work, p. 305 onwards. On the popular elements, see Joseph Mason, La religion populaire dans le Pali Canon (Louvain, 1942). Note V, 6: Paribbajaka, Ajivika On religious ascetics and contemporary of the Buddha, T. W. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India (London, 1903), p. 141-148; Bimala Charan Law, A Short Account of the WanderingTeachers on the time of the Buddha (Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1918, vol. XIV, p. 399-406); idem Heretical Influence of the five teachers on Jainism and Buddhism (idem, 1919, p. 123-136), idem, Gautama Buddha and the Paribrajakas (idem, 1925, p. 123-136). B. C. Law believes that paribbajaka can be considered a precursor of a science policy, and note some overlap with the Arthasastra (Wandering Teachers, p. 402406). In fact, just about anti-priestly opinions, through which reveal the general trend of the time. The few elements that can be induced on the heterodox doctrines have been systematized by B. Barua, Pre-Buddhistic Philosophy (Calcutta, 1920) and B. C. Law, Influence of the five Heretical teachers. Also H. Jacobi, On Mahavira and His Predecessors (Indian Antiquary, vol. IX, p. 158); A. L. Basham, History and Doctrine "of Ajivikas (London, 1951), p. 11, 80, 94. About Ajivika and Makkhali Gosal, see A. F. R. Hoernle, Ajivikas, in Hastings, ERE, I, p. 259-268 (remarks of KB Pathak, Indian Antiquary, vol. 41, p. 88-90 and DR Bhandarkar, idem, p. 286-290), J. Charpentier, Ajivika, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1913, p. 669-874; B. Barua, AjMkas, Journal of the Department of Letters, Calcutta, vol. II, 1920, p. 1-80, idem, Pre-Buddhistic


Philosophy, p. 297-318; A. L. Basham, Histoy and Doctrines of the Ajivikas. A Vanished Indian Religion (London, 1951), an excellent monograph that also used Tamil sources. The biography of Gosal has Makkhali Ue-gado to us, with the inevitable distortions in the Bhagavati-Sutra of the Jains (XV, trans. Hoemle in the appendices to Vvagadasao Sutra, trans. Leu-mann, in the work of Rockhill, Life of Buddha, p. 251-254). Note VI, 1: On the tantric literature Not long ago even, it was considered that early debian tantric literature dating from the seventh century after Christ (eg, Winternitz, Geschichte der Indischen Literature, Leipzig, 1907, Vol I, p. 482, etc.). A manuscript of Tantra Kubjikamata in Gupta characters, but can not trace alia the seventh century (HP Shastri, A Catalog of Palm-leaf and Selected Paper Mss. Belonging to the Durbar Library, Nepal, Calcutta, 1905, vol I, p. 87 of the Introduction). Other treaties Tantric Sitiio, as is clear from the existing manuscripts, between eighth and ninth centuries. But his redaction is much older. Moreover, without carrying the name of Tantra, certain stories have a strictly con-tent Tantric (eg., The Mahameghasutra, sixth century, deals with dharani and manird, C. Bendall, The Meghasutra, text and translation, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1880, p. 286-311. Moreover, C. Tucci has shown that certain tantric schools had existed for centuries earlier, for example, the treaty was translated into Chinese Suvamaprabhasasutra during the first half-century alone v (Tucci, Animadversiones indicae, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. XXVI, 1930, I, p. 128 et seq.). The same is true of Mahamayurividyarajni, as translated by Kumarajiva to afio 405 of the Christian era. Tattvasiddhisastra of Harivarman In (ry century of the Christian-Christian) and Madhyantanugamasastra of Asanga, whose original is lost, leaving only Chinese Translation "is mentioned the name of a tantric school, and without mo na (Nyayasauma, Nayasamya, Nayasauma). Tucci, who studies the history of this school shows that its antigiiedad this beyond doubt (see also Chintaram Cakravarti, The Soma or Sauma of the Saiva sect. Indian Historical Quarterly, 1932 , p. 221-223; the Sauma are linked to Tantrism). Aryamanjussrimulatantra, which predates certainly v century AD, contains chapters devoted to the goddesses, the mudra, mantra and the mdndala (Tucci, p. 129: Przyluski, Bud. Ecole Fr Extreme-Orient, vol. 23, 1923, p. 306 ff).. In Mahayana-samparigraha-sastra (Nanji, number 1183, R. Kimura, Hina and a and Mahayana, p. 40) and Mhayanasutralamkarasastra of Asanga (ed. S. Levi, p. 83 onwards), we find passages on the repetition of the name of Buddha as a means of liberation, which clings-Mejana Tantric texts much later. Especially with regard to a passage from Mahayanasutralamkara (IX, 46) where it is maithunasya paravrttau, which discussed the antigiiedad of sexuaies practices in Buddhism: Sylvain Levi paravrittt translated as "Revolution" and was, according the, of couples mystic of Buddha and Bodhisattva. But Winternitz suggested paraoritti translate to "divert, deshactrse of" Notes on the Guhyasamaja Tantra and the Age of the Tantra (Indian Hist. Quart., IX, 1933, p. 1-10). P. C. Baggchi justly observes that 'intefpretaci6n of Winternitz is insufficient: paravritti literally means "return, bring (the functions of the spirit) to the opposite point; Baggchi, A Note on the word paravritti (Ind.Hist. Quarterly, IX, reprinted in the volume Studies in the Tantras, Calcutta University, 1939, p. 86-92). See also Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, Paravritti Transformation, Regeneration, Anagogy (Festschrift Winternitz, p. 232-236) and L. de la Vallee Poussin, bibliographie Notes bouddhique (Melangeschinois et bouddhiques, III, 1934-1935, Brussels, p. 400-401).


Some Orientalists tend to exaggerate the antigiiedad of Tantra. Thus, Braja Lai Mukerji, Tantra Shastra and Veda (in the volume of Sir John Woo-Draff, Shakti and Shakta, ed. III. P. 95-105) and C, Chakravarti, Antiquity of Tan-tricism (Iridian Historical Quarterly VI, 1930, p. 114-126) attempt to demonstrate perfect solidarity between Tantrism and Veda. B. Bhattacarya believes that tantric practices and doctrines have been introduced by the Buddha himself, An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism (London, 1932), p. 48; and introduction to the edition of Sadhana-mala, P. XVI-XVII. All these views are exaggerated: they are found in Tantra ancient elements of which some belong to the early history of religion in India, but its introduction in Buddhism and Hinduism began quite late, at least before the first centuries of the era Christian. B. Bhattacarya, the editor of Guhyasamaia tantra (Gaekwad'sOriental Series, vol 53, Baroda, 1931), proposes to consider this text (it attaches to Asanga) as belonging to the third century (p. XXXVII). According to Winternitz (Notes on the Guhyasamaia tantra) no precise indication this agreement allows us to attribute the great philosopher Asanga. However, many Buddhist Tantra do: S. B. Dasgupta, An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism (University of Calcutta, 1950), p. 46, note 4. The importance of this Guhyasamaia attested by his numerous co-commentator: Marcelle Lalou, Repertoire du Tanjur, P. 13; for the comments of Tson-kha-pa, E. Obermiller, pale Tson-kha-pandit (Melangeschinois et bouddhiques, III, p. 319-338), p. 335-337. See also G. Tucci, Some Glosses "Put the Guhyasamaia (Melangeschinois et bouddhiques, III, p. 339-353). On the origin and diffusion of Tantrism, see S. Ch Roy, Caste, Race and Religion m India (Man in India, XIV, 1934, p. 39-63, 75-220, 271-311, p. 92 et seq.; W. Koppers, Probleme der Religions-indischen geschichte (Antropos, 25, 1940-1941, p. 761-814), 773 and passim; RC Hazra, Influence of Tantra on the TattvasqfRaghunandana (Ind. Hist. Quart., IX, 1933, p. 678-704), Sylvain Levi, On a tantrikfragmentfrom Kucha (ibid., XII, 1936, p. 199-214); Baggchi PC, On some Tantrik texts studied in Ancient Kambuja; idem, Further notes on Tantric texts studied in Ancient Kambuja; idem, On Foreign element in The Tantra (studies reprinted in the volume Studies in the T Antras, p. 1-26, 45-60), B. Bhattacharya, The Cult Bhutadamara cf (Proceedingsand Transactions of the Sixth All-India Oriental Conference, Patna, 1933, p . 349-370). About Tantrism also see: E. Burnouf, Introduction to V6tudedu Bouddhisme Indien (2nd ed. Paris, 1876), p. 465; Barth, Oeuvres, vol. I, p. 178; Wilson, Sketch (ed. 1846), p. 159; Rajendralal Mitra, Buddhist Sanskrit Literature of Nepal (Calcutta, 1882), p. 17; Wassilief, Le Bouddhisme, P. 162 L. de la Vallee-Poussin, Bouddhisme, Etudes et materiaux (Memoires de I'Academie Royale Belgiaue .. London, 1898), p. 118; De la Vallee-Poussin, Bouddhisme, Opinions thistorie south of dogmatique (ed. Ill, Paris, 1925), p. 378; Kern, Show Buddhismus, vol. 11, p. 521; Winternitz, Geschichte, vol. I, p. 482; Bhandarkar, Report on the Search for Sanskrit manuscripts in the Bombay presidency, during the year 1883-1884 (Bombay, 1887), p. 87; Haraprasad Sastri, JV (ides of Sanskrit manuscripts, second series, vol. I, 1900, p. XXIV; H. Kern, Manual cflridian Buddhism (Strasbourg, 1896), p. 133; Waddel, La-Maisman, P. 147. About the Vajrayana, see also: H. P. Shastri, Discovery of a work by Ar-yadeva in Sanskrit (Journal of Royal Society of Bengal, 1898, idem, Buddhism in Bengal since the Muhammadan Conquest, idem, 1895. P. 55 et seq.) Bhatta-caryya, Origin and Development of Vajrayana (Ind. Hist. Quart., 1927, p. 733 ff., idem, Buddhists in Bengal, Dacca Review, vol. n, n. 7; idem, Glimpses of Vajrayana, Proceedings of the Madras


Eastern Conference , p. 134 ff., idem, The Home of Tantric Buddhism, BC Law Volume, Calcutta, 1945, I, 354361); S. K. From, The Buddhist Tantric Literature of Bengal (NewIndian Antiquary, I, Bombay, 1938-1939, p. 1-23); Sankrtyayana Rahula, Recherches bouddhiques: I. Les origines du Mahayana, 11. L'origine du 84 Siddhas Vajrayanaet them (Journal Asiatique, 1934, p. 195-230) G. Tucci, Animadversiones indicae, passim, idem, Tibetan Painted Scroll (Rome, 1939), p. 209-249 (p. 211 et seq., Compared with Gnosticism), idem, Buddhist Notes (Melanges chinois et bouddiques, IX, 1951, p. 173220), H. von Glasenapp, Tantrismus und Saktismus (Ostasiatische ZeMschrift, XII, 1936, p. 120-133), idem, Die Enstechung des Vajrayana (Zeit. Deutsche Morgan. Gesell., 1936, p. 546-572); idem Buddhistische Mysterien ( 1940, trans, franc. 1944), idem, der Ein Buddhistische InUiationsrHus Javanisch Mittelalters (Tribes, NF, II-III, 1952-1954, p. 259-274; it is the San Hyan Kamahayanam mantranaya, Tantric texts translated into Javanese in the thirteenth century, edited by J. Kats in 1910 and reissued in 1935 by Wulff K), L. de la Vallee-Poussin, Notes of bibliographic bouddhique (Melanges chinois et bouddhiques, V. 1937, p. 277 et seq.). About Tantrism in China and Tibet: Lin Likouang, Punyodaya (Na-t'i), a Tantrism in propagateur du Chine et au Cambodge to Go ~ poker Hhian-Tsang (Journal Asiatique, 1935, p. 83 -100), Chou Yi-Liang, Tantrism in China (Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, VIII, 1945, p. 241-332), Li An-Che, Rninmapa, the early form of Lamaism (Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1948, p. 142-163) and especially G. Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls, passim (see also Indo Tibetan, I, p. 93-135, III, p. 75 on Tattvasamgraha). About Nagarjuna: good bibliography in the article Nalinaksha Dutt, Indian Historical Quarterly, 1931, 633-653; add annotated bibliographies by L. de la Vallee-Poussin, Melanges chinois et bouddhiques, I, p. 383, n. 2, 392, III, 365, 374, V, 270. See especially Etienne Lamotte, Le Traite de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse de Nagarjuna (Mdhaprajna-paramitasastra). Translation with commentary, I-II (Louvain, 1944, 1949) and the analysis of P. Demieville, Journal Asiatique, 1950, p. 375-495. For the traditions concerning physician and alchemist Nagarjuna, see Jean Filliozat, La Doctrine classique de la medecine indienne (Paris, 1949), p. 9, 12. Also S. Levi, Un nouveau document sur le bouddhisme de basse epoque dans Vlnde (Bulletin London School Oriental Studies, VI, 1931, p. 417-429), p. 420,421, and our note VII, 2. Among the recent editions of Buddhist tantric texts, let us note: Sadho-namala (ed. B. Bhattacaryya, 1928, Gaekwad Oriental Series), B. Battacaryya, Two Vayrayana Works (Gaekwad Or. Ser, 1929: includes Prajfiopayaviniscayasiddhiy the Jnanasiddhi); Louis Finot, Sanskrit manuscripts of Sadhanas retrouvds en Chine (JournalAsiatique, 1934, 2, p. 1-86, editing and small Translation of texts tantric), P. C. Baggchi, Kaulajnananimaya and some minor texts of the school of Matsyendranatha (Calcutta Oriental Series, 1934: there are three short treatises: Akulavrratantra, Kulanandatantra, Jnanakarika) Sekoddesatika af Nadapada (ed. Mario Carelli, COS, Baroda, 1941). For the Hindu Tantra, Tantrik Texts show edited under the direction of Arthur Avalon (Sir John Woodroffe) from 1913 (twenty volumes in 1952). The most important are: Kulamava Tantra (vol. V of the Tantrik Texts, edited by Taranata Vidyaratna, London, 1917: text of capital importance for the Kaula school); KdivUasa Tantra (vol. VI, 1917, edited by PC Tarkatirtha); Mahanirwna-Tantra (trans.: The Tantra af the Great Liberation, 2nd ed., Madras, 1927), Tantra-Tattva (trans.: The Principles of Tantra, 2 vol., London, 1914-1916); Satcakranirupana and Padukapancaka (trans.: Serpent Power.


3rd ed., Madras-London, 1931). See also the Saktisangana Tantra, Ediciones B. Bhattacaryya, 4 vol. (GOS, Baroda, 1932), Arthur Ewing, The Saradatilaka-tantra (Jorn.Amer. Orient. Soc, 1902, vol. 23, p. 65-76). General works on Tantrism: Sir John Woodroffe, Shakti and Shakta (3rd ed .. MadrasLondon, 1929), idem, The Garland af Letters (Madras, 1922), P. H. Pott, Yoga Yantra (Leiden, 1948), J. Evola, The Yoga detto Potenza. Saggio sui Tantra (Milan, 1949) Shashi Bhusan Dasgupta, An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism (University of Calcutta, 1930, idem, Obscure fieligious cults as background of Bengali Literature (idem, 1946). He consulted with every advantage: Sir John Woodroffe, Kundalini Shakti (Yoga Int Zeit. Wissensch fur. Yoga-Forschung. I, 1931, p. 65-73), Heinrich Zimmer, "Zur Bedeutung des indischen Tantra-Yoga (Eranos-Jahrbuch , I, 1933, p. 9-94), Ananda Coomaraswamy, The Tantric Doctrine of Divine Biunity (ofBhadarkar Oriental Research Institute Annals, 19, 1938, p. 173-183). Note VI, 2: About Tantrism and iconography Recall that the non-ritual demanded veth'co no temples or statues of the dieses. The worship of images is recorded quite late in the texts (rv century BC), according to the Indian tradition, would have desarroflado among the Sudra. J. N. Farquhar, Temple and Image Worshipin Hinduism (Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1928, p. 15-23), sees in the Sudra to aboriginal Aryanizing-two, who admitted in Vedic society, contributed their particular rituals. Hypothesis possible if we consider the structure of religiosity rborigen, see p. 398 et seq. Regarding the influence of ideas on the tantric Buddhist art. see L. Bachofer; Ostasiatische Zeitschrift, 24, 1938, p. 74 et seq. Tantrism e! A-boron one original conception of the nature of the gods. Mahasukhapra-kasa in Advayavajra (Advayavairasamhraha, HP Shastri edition, p. 50-51) states that the gods are manifestations of universal Vacuum (sumja) and poi with "EXT ontol6gica have no existence. The Sadhanamala explains the origin of deities from "Empty" by a process involving four stages: 1 *) the correct perception of Sunyata, 2 ') the link with the bijamantra; 39) the conception of an image - icon, 4 ') the objective representation, projected out of divinity (Introduction of Sadhanamala, II, p. 122 et seq.). On the tantric iconography, see: A. Foucher, Etudes tur Viconographie bouddhique of I'Inde (Paris, 1900-1905, second estudto, p. 59, 101)) Gopinath Bao, Elements of Hindu Iconography (Madras, 1914), Alice Getty, The Gods oi Sort-hem Buddhism (Oxford, 1914); B Bhattacaryya, The Indian Buddhist Iconography (Oxford, 1924); A. K. Gordon, The Iconography of Tibetan Lamaism (1939) Ditto, Tibetan Religious Art (New York, 1952). For a better understanding of architectural and iconographic symbolism Indian, to consult the great work of Paul Mus, Borobudur (Hanoi, 1935), and the work of Coomaraswamy: Elements of Buddhist Iconography (Harvard University Press. 1935), The Philosophy of Mediaeval and Oriental Art (Zalmoxis, I, Bucharest, 1938, p. 20-49), Figures of Speech or Figures of Thought (London, 1945) Indo-series also Tibetiana Giuseppe Tucci (mainly volume-tions III - IV, / Tempi of Western Tibet and U parrot artistic symbolism, Rome, 1935). See also: Marcelle Lalou, Iconographie des etoffetpeintes (leg) in Manfusrimulakalpa (Paris, 1930); Auboyer Jeanine Le Trone et son Xlnde sym-bolisme dans ancienne (Paris, 1949); senorita Maflmann, Introduction to Vetude d ' Avalokitesvara (Paris, 1948) Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, 2 vol. (Calcutta, 1946). About the cult of Tara, see Waddell, The Indian Buddhist Cult of Avalo-htta and his


consort Tara (JournalRoya! Asiatic Society, 1894, p. 51-91). Note VI, 3: On the Jain asceticism and Yoga Jnarnamava of Subhacandra, ed. Nirnayasagara Press (2nd ed., 1913): Yoga (Chapter XXII, p. 232-238), dhyana (ch. XXV, p. 253), pranayama (Chapter XXTX, p. 284), mandala (p. 287). Alii found a curious classification of the phases of respiration: the expiration of the right window of the nose and aspiration by the left window are harmful, exhalation through the left nostril and aspiration through the right nostril of the nose are satisfactory ( p. 292 et seq.). The Yogasastra of Hemacandra, Haribhadra treaties (Yoga-bmdu, Yogadrstisamuccaya, Yogavimsikay Sodacaka), contain large amounts of detailed technical lles and even elements of folklore yogi. We found an exposition of his doctrines Nathmal Tatia, Studies in Jaina Philosophy (Banaras, 1951: Jain Cultural Research Society), p. 289 and ff.; Also R. Garbe, Samkhya und Yoga, P. 39 and if <r. He found the essence of philosophy and religion of the Jains in H. Glasenhapp von Der Jainismus - (Berlin, 1925); A. Guerinot, djaina Religion (Paris, 1926), Walter Schribring, Die Lehre der J RSS Atom, nach den alten Quellen dargestellt (Berlin, 1935, part of the Grundriss) C J. Shah, Jainism in North India, 800 BC-AD 526 (London, 1932). About Siddhi, the Yogini, etc, in the Jain tradition, see Kalipada Mitra, Magic and Miracle in Jaina Literature (Iridian Hist. Quarterly, XV, iunie 1939, p. 175-182). Andris Banerji, Origin of Jain Practices (Journal of the Oriental Institute, Baroda, 1952, I, p. 308-316), compares the presentation of the art Tirthankara Jain, "with arms dangling over his knees" (ajanu-lambita -bahu-dvayam), with the figures found in Harappa, whose arms also fall on the knees (MS Vats, Harappa, pi. XCIII, p. 331-332, fig. 300 and 318). A Banerji believes he can establish a relaci6n among the Jain ascetics nudity and nakedness of the figures protohist6ricas of Harappa (Vats, fig. 307-308, 317-318, and fig. 13-14, 1819,22 of Mohenjo -Daro). On this issue, see also below, Note VIII, 11. On the archaic elements, see P. C. Baggchi, Primitive element ofjainism (Journal Depart, of Letters, Calcutta Univ, vol. V, 1921, p. 349-364). On the iconographic symbolism, Ananda Coomaraswamy, The Conqueror's Life in Jaina Painting (Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art, December 1935, p. 1-18). Note VI, 4: About Mudra

Sources on the senses of the term * mudra are grouped by O. Stein, The Numeral 18 (Poona Orientalist, I, 3, p. 1-37), p. 21, note, and analyzed by J. Przyluski, Mudra (Indian Culture, II, 1936, p. 715-719). In 1892, O. Francke mudra proposed to translate by "writing or art of reading" (Zeit f. Deutsche Morgan. Geseti. 1892, p. 731-734), the critique of A. Cooman-wany, Jouma. American Orient. Soc, 1928, vol 48, p. 279-281. Fritz Hommel, Pali mudda = babylonich Musara Herkunftder indischen und die Schrift (Stu-day Indo-Iranica, W. Geiger Ehrengabe fur zur Vollendung des 75 Lebensjahr, Leipzig, 1931, p. 73-84), believes mudra, in Pali mudda , "write, stamp," derive from the Babylonian (musaru, "writing, stamp") through the intervention of the ancient Persian transforms z d (musaru> muzra> mudra). In India, Mudra is linked with: 1 ') dance (Meerwarth, Les Ka-Thakalis du Malabar,


Journal Asiatique, 1926, p. 193-284;. Podubal Vasudeva, Kathakali and Diagram of Hand Poses, Trivandrum, Governamental Press , 1930); 2 ') the symbolic language (Penzer, The Ocean of Stories, Vol I, p. 46, 80-82, with a good bibliography; sefialemos to Dracott, Simla Village Tales, p. 47-50; Knowles Folk-tales of Kashmir, p. 215-220, W. Crooke, Secret Messages and Symbols used in India, Journal of Bihar Orissa Research Society, 1919, V, p. 451 ff.; J. Auboyer, Moudros et Up ou Le langage par signes, Oriental Art: III, 1951, p. 153-160), 3 ') iconography (see mainly Ananda Coomaraswamy, The Mirror of Gesture, Cambridge, 1917); 49) finally the ritual itself (Tyra de Kleen, Mudra *. The ritual hand-poses of the Buddha Priests and the Shiva Priests of Bali, London, 1925, 2 "edition, 1942; Aisaburo Akiyama, Buddhist HandSymbol, Yokohama, 1939, to him particularly valuable for illustrations). As is clear from Sabdastomamahaniddhi, P. 488 (quoted by Oppert, The Original Inhabitants cf India, p. 414, n. 170) mudra appears to have another sense: eating "fried grain. The mudra have considerable importance in the rituals of Japanese Buddhist sects of Tantric origin: If you-do-in-dzou. Gestures of them Vofficiantdans mystiques ceremonies et des Singon Tendai headquarters (Paris, 1899, p. 3-5, 15, 23, 31-38, eta). Do not remember the symbolism of gestures in the other religions (see, eg S. Langdon, Journal Royal Soc Aires, 1919, p. 531-556 and the Iranian side provided by JJ Modi, Asiatic Papers, vol III , Bombay 1927, p. 170-194). But it is interesting that the symbolic valorization of the rituals is maintained even in the most mystical evoluci6n, A century earlier Persian tradition gives jnv Al Hallaj the creation of a short text about the symbolism of the fifteen attitudes required during prayer canonical "mouthwash, is to acquire sincerity, suck water up the nose, js deny the pride stand in the attitude held high, is part of (a divine permanence, or shelter in his tent canopies, bow, solidarity is isolated in divinity. "(L. Massignon, Al Hallaj, mdrtir mystic of Islam, vol. II, 782). See also L. Gardet, nam Mention du divin, p. 665. On the mudra in tantric rituals, Tantra Mahanirvana (ed. Avalon, Madras, 1927), III, 4 (karanyasay dnganyasa), V, 48-74 (yonimudra), 86, 112 (jnana mudra, etc.).; Saradatilaka Tantra , VI, 75-111; Kamaratna Tantra (ed. Tattabhusan Pandit Hemchandra Goswami, Shillong, Assam Government. Press, 1928), p. 5. See also Gulik, Hayagriva, P. 51 and ff.; S. B. Dasgupta, An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism, p. 113, 177-178, 187. In the left hand Tantrism, mudra is the name of the sex rite compafiera (see pag. 248). It's hard to explain how it reached this designation; Przyluski notes that mudra, lit. "seal" also means "womb." But we shall see a continuation, the true meaning of sexual union in the Tantric ritual is the "freezing" of boddhicitta (in the contexts of this genre, appoints the semen virile). And the bandha mudra Hathayoga are used by the body positions through the quasi-they get to control the muscles and nerves in the genital region: now, as is clear from the text, this control is in relation to the control of respiration. Semen is mastering as respiration dominates, it can "stop", "freeze" in the same way that stops the respiration during the kumbhaka. Keep in mind that the "freezing" of semen through pranayama is always associated with a similar immobilization of states of consciousness (see p. 244). Note VI, 5: Mantra and Dharani. About manird in Vedism and Brahmanism, M. Winternitz Ceschitchte d. indischen Literatur, I, 148, 236; in Buddhism, idem, II, 275; in Tantra, I, 481. The dharani in preBuddhist era, idem, I, 94, 103; that term aparece.por first time in Buddhism and the


Lalttavistara Saddha-branch-pundarika (idem, II, 380); Waddel think the technique has existed since the origins of Buddhism: The Dharani cult in Buddhism, lis origin, deifiedlite-rature and images (Ostasiatische Zeitschrift!, 1912-1913, p. 155 ff.; see also Iridian Antiquary, vol. 43, 1914, p. 37 ff., 49, 92). Studies gene-ral: Wassilief, Le Bouddhisme, P. 144 et seq., L. de la Vallee-Poussin, Etudes et Materiaux, p. 119, J. W. Hauer, Die Dharani nรถrdlicher im Buddhismus und ihre in der sogenannten Parallelen Mithrasltturgie (Stuttgart, 1927), J. Woodroffe, The Garland of Letters (Madras, 1922: especially exposed theorizations of Tantrism Late) J. Evola, The Yoga Tl potenza (Torino, 1949), p. 234. Lists dharani, texts, interpretations Mahayana.: Vijnaptimatratasiddhi, The Siddhi of Hiuan Tsang, trans, and analysts L. de la ValleePoussin (Paris, 1928), II, 613-614, Le Traite de la Grande Vertude Sagesse, Nagarjuna, trans, and anal, by Etienne Lamotte, I (Louvain, 1944), p. 318 ff., R. Tajima, Etude sur le Mdhavairocana-sutra (Paris, 1936), p. 103, etc.. Mantra and Hayagriva dharani in worship, R. H. van Gulik, Hayagriva, the Horse-mantrayanic aspect of cult in China and Japan, p. 48 et seq.; In Japan, M. W. Visser, Ancient Buddhism in Japan (1928-1935), II, 520; also Lucian Scherman, Siddha, Sanskrit letters as mystical symbols in later Buddhism outside India (Art and Thought, Hommage a Coomaraswamy, London. 1947, p. 55-62). Almost all Tantra include presentation of a number of mantra, focusing especially on the CaradatHtaka Tantra, chap. XI-XXIII. The Tantrabhidhana with Vija-Nighantu and Mudra-niganthu (edited by Taranatha Vidyaratna. Tantric Texts, I, 1913) constitute a kind of dictionary where you are] you tantric meanings of the vowels and consonants. Important and very useful: Dakshi-namurti. Udharakosa. A dictionary of the secret 'code sylla.be Tantric (edited by Raghu Vira and Shodo Taki-, Lahore, 1938). On the theory of sound, go to the doctrines especialmpnte Mimamsa. View Umesha Mitra, Physical Theory of Sound and us Origin in Indian Thought (Allahabad University Studies, vol, II, 1926). Para-Zen practices, D. S. Suzuki, Essais sur le Bouddhisme Zen (trans, fr, Paris, 1944), III, p. 203 et seq. Sivafsmo important text of Kashmir (Tantrasara of Abhinavagupta, ed. Bombay, 1918, p. 12-17) translated and annotated by G. Tucci, Theory and practice of the mandala, P. 6668. On the mythical personificaci6n the mantra, J. Prrvluski, Les Vidyraja (Bull Ecole francaise Extr. Orient, 1923, vol. 23, p. 301-318, esp. Pag. 308 et seq.) Note VI, 6: The dhikr. Hughes, Dictionary of Islam (London, 1885), p. 703, summarizes the technique of dhikr according Maulawi Waliyullah Shah, Delhi. Louis Massignon, Passion d'al-Hallaj, P. 696 et seq., Idem, Le soufle dans VIslam (Journal Asiatique, 19,431,945, p. 436-438), see now L. Gardet, La mention du nom diom (dhikr) in mystique musulmane (Revue Thomas. 1952, p. 642-679, 1953, p. 197-216). The author does agree the "dhikr of the tongue" with Dharana and dhikr of the heart with dhyana (p. 670, 205). "If our analysis of the experience of dhikr is accurate, then this debernos say exp.riencia for his future rule over all parts of indiv'duo, the conscious to the subconscious, is presented as a more" soft " , although somewhat haphazard and indirectly, less certain to achieve the explicit goal of yoga (p. 207). With regard to relations between India and Islamic mysticism, see L. Massignon, Essai


sur lei origines du lexique tichnique of mistique musulmane (Paris, 1922), p. 75. 86; M. Moreno, Muslim mystics and mystical I Annali Lateranensi Indiana, Vatican City, 1946, p. 103-212; samadhi, 125, artificial ecstasy, 136, fana and nirvana, 156). Also see Emile Dermenghem, Techniques sixth on Islam (in the work Yoga. Thommen Science of comprehensive pub-lished under the direction of Jacques Masui, Paris, 1953, p. 274-283). Note VI, 7: Mandala Each Tantra has a mandala that is his own. See G. Tucci, Some Glosses upon the Guhyasamaia (Melanges chinois et bouddhiques, III, Brussels, 1935, p. 339-353), p. 342 and ff., On the mandala GuhyasamajaTantra, Mario E. Carelli, Sekoddesatika of Nadapada (Naropa) being a commentary of the Section of the Kalacakra Sekocldesa Tantra (Gaekwad Oriental Series, XC, Ba-roda, 1941), p. 25 and ff.; B. Bhattacharyya, Nispannayogavali, description of 26 mandala Abhayakaragupta text of the monastery Vikramasila, Gaekwad Oriental Series, CIX, Baroda, 1949). See A. Foucher, Etude sur-Phie I'lconogra bouddhique of I'lnde, vol. II (Paris, 1905), p. 8 and ff.; A. K. Cooman, WAMY, Elements of Buddhist Iconography (Cambridge-Harvard, 1938); M. W. de Visser, Ancient Buddhism in Japan (Paris, 1929), I, 159-175 jx:, L. Finot, Sanskrit manuscripts of Saddhanas (Journal Asiatique, Juhosetienibre 1934, p. 1-66), p. 13 ff., H. Zimmer und Yoga tm Kunstformen indischen KultbUd (Berlin, 1926), p. 54, 94, Paul Mus, Borobudur, I, p. 320; P. H. Pott, Yoga 1antra (Leiden, 1946); Hobogirin, III, p. 279 (chakuli, "choose the field"); E. Suzuki, Mandara (Eastern Buddhism, VII, May 1936), Chou Yi-Liang, Tantrism in China (Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. VIII, p. 241-332), p. 311-312, W. E. Clark, Two Lamaistic Pantheons (Cambridge: Harvard Univ Pr, 1937), I, p. XV-XVIII, Lin LiKouang, Punyodaya (Na-t'i) trantismo propagator of China and Cambodia in the epoch of Hiuan-tsang (Journal Asiatique, 1935, 2, p. 83-100). On the symbolism of the mandala and its relations with the symbolism of architectural, P. Mus, Borobudur, passim; G. Tucci, M symbolism arch'tttectonico dei tempi di Tibet Occidentale (Indus-Tibet III-IV, Rome, 1938), idem, Mc-od Hen and Ts'ao Ts'ao nel Tibet Indiano Occidentale ed. Contributo allo studio dell'arte e del suo Tibetan religious significance (Indus-Tibet l, Rome, 1932), on the symbolism of the temples circumambuiacion, Gisbert Combaz, L'evolution du stupa in Asia (Melanges chinois et bouddhiques, III, Brussels, 1935, p. 93-144), p. 124 and ff.; On the relationship between the symbolism of painted fabrics (leg) and the mandala, Marcelle Lalou, Iconogrophte des etoffes peintes (leg) in Manjusrimulakalpa \ Buddhica, VI, Paris, 1930). On the whole problem, see Giuseppe Tucei, Theory and practice of mandala (Rome, 1949). Focuses on symbolism, M. Eliade, Traite d'Hist Religi6n owe des (Paris, 1949), p. 321 et seq., Idem, Le Retour Mythede VEtemel (Paris, 1949), p. 30 et seq., Idem, Images et symboles (Paris, 1952), p. 47 et seq. On the psychological symbolism of the mandala, see C. G. Jung, one Alchemie Psichologie (Zurich, 1944), p. 139 et seq., Idem, Gestaltung des Unbewusten (Zurich, 1950), p. 187 et seq. Note VI, 8: About Hathayoga literature. See J. N. Farquhar, Outline of the Religious Literature of India (London, 1920), p. 384;


G. W. Briggs, Gorakhnath and the Kanphata Yogis (Calcutta, 1938), p. 251-258, Dr. Mohan Singh, Gorakhnatha and Mediaeval Hindu Mysticism (Lahore, 1937), p. 8 and sig. See also below, in this book, note VIII, 3. Numerous editions of Goragsasataka with commentaries (Goraksa Pad-dhati, etc.). Edition and Translation of Satake, by Briggs, cited, p. 284-303. About Gorasasamhita, see also Tucci, Animadversiones indicae, P. 134-136. Hathayogapradipika: edition with commentary glosses Brahmanarjda and Srdhara (Bombay, 1889, several editions) with German Translation in the collection Sacred Books of the Hindus, the numeration of the verses sometimes differs from one to another edition). Gheranda samhita: ed. Vasak Bhuvanana Chandra (Calcutta, 1877), trans, English by Chandra Vasu Rai Bahadur SIRS (Bombay, 1895, Allahabad, 1914, in the collection Sacred Books of the Hindus, Adyar, 1933), trans, German by Richard Schmidt, Fakir and Fakirtum in alten und und modem iridium (Berlin, 1908, 2nd ed, 1921). Sim samhita: ed. and trans, into English by SIRS Chandra Bahadur Rai Vidya-nanda (Lahore, 1884; REEDICION Allahabad, 1923, Sacred Books of the Hindus). It were a great many paragraphs of these three treaties in Theos Bernard, Hatha Yoga (Columbia UMV. Press, New York, 1944) and Alain Da-nielou, Yoga, the method of reintegration (London, 1949). See also H. Zimmer, Lehren des Hathayoga. Lehrtexte (Yoga, Erne International Zeitschrift, 1, p. 45-82). For interpretaci6n, in medical terms, anatomy and physiology tantric, see, among others, Major Basu, Hindu System of Medicine (pu-blished study at Guy's Hospital Gazette, 118, reprinted in part in the introduction to Sioa-samhita, Allahabad, 1923). Also R. Roeseler, Die Grundlagen der Psychologis-chen Yoga practice (Stuttgart, 1928), p. 39 et seq., Dr. V. Relay, The Mysterious Kundalini (Bombay, 1929). Scientific Observations on hathayoguis: Charles Lalbry and Therese Brosse, Documents sur les Indes aux recueiUis "Yogis" par I'enregistrement simultane du Poulsen, of the respiration et de I'electrocardiagramme (Presse Medicate, 83 TP, 14 Oct 1936). See also Hubert Risch, Le Hatha Yoga, the somaire Expose mithode, quelques experiences and applications Fisiològiques tner-peutiques (ThiseFaculte of Medicine of Paris (1951); Jean Filliozat, Les limites des pouvoirs humains dans I'lnde (VHumain Limits, CarmÊlitaines Etudes, 1953, p. 23-38) with additional references and footnotes. Note VI, 9: Cakra, adhara, etc.. For the doctrine of the cakra: Satcakranirupana et Padukapancaka (ed. trans, into English by Sir John Woodroffe, The Serpent Power, 3rd ed., Madras-London, 1941); Kulamava Tantra (ed. Taranatha Vidyaratna, Tantrik Texts, Vol . V, London, 1917), chap. VIII; Goraksasataka (Poona edition, reprinted by Briggs, Goraknath and the Kanphata Yogis, Calcutta, Oxford, p. 284-304). About adhara, see Briggs, op cit, p. 317 et seq. Description and interpretation of the cakra in J. Evola, The Yoga della Potenza, P. 311 et seq. Recall that hesychasts tradition (see p. 71) distinguishes, according to some authors, four "centers" "concentration and prayer: V>) middle frontal cranial brain (locahzado in the region between the eyebrows), 29 central bucco-laryngeal (co-sponding to the "most common thought: the intelligence that is expressed in conversation, correspondence and in the early stages of prayer" A. Bloom), 3 ') pectoral center (located at the top and mid-chest. "Stability of thought, and


nuanced as manifested by Tunico element is much larger than in the previous cases, but is still thinking who defines the emotional coloration that is modified by it ", A. Bloom), 4 ') heart center (located in" the upper heart, a little below the left nipple, "according to the Greek Fathers," a little arribr "according Theophane Reclus him and others." It is the perfect physical attentional "Bloom Antoine L'Hesychasme, Yoga chretien ?, pa-gina 185 and ff.). Noto VI, 10: On "LenguajeMencionar Haraprasad Shastri, in his book Win or Donate Bouddha (Calcutta, 1916), sandhya-Bhasa explained as follows: All works of Sa-hajayana are written in sandhya-Bhasa, this is a Bhasa (language) of light and of darkness ( "alo-a-Dhari"), half light, half dark, certain bits are understandable, others are not at all in other pakbras in such dis-course on the dharma, which are so high, it also becomes to mention other things. "According Vidushekar Shastri (Sandhabhasa, Ind. Hist Quart, 1928, IV, 287-296)," the word sandhaya of Buddhists is the same as the term abhisandhaya Brahmanical texts. The Chinese original sources per-miten conclude that Sandha-abhiprayika BĹ&#x2122;asy means going-American, or "tntencionoT language. This same interpretation of the term is held by P. C. Baggchi, The Sandhabhasa and Sandhavacana (Ind. Hist. Quart., 1930, VI, 384484, article reprinted in Studies m the Tantras, 27-33), which provides new testimomos of Chinese origins, mainly from chapter 13 of Hevajatantra devoted to Sandha-Bhasa. Many a poet and mystic texts written in "intentional language" have been grouped by S. Dasgupta in an appendix of their Religious Cults obscure book (p. 477: Enigmatic language of the Old and Mediaeval poet). On Doha, see N. Shahidullah, Les Chants et Kanha mystiques Doha-Kosa (Paris, 1928); B. Bhattacharyya, The Date of the Buddha Gan or Doha (Behar Jorn. Orissa Research Society, XIV, 1928, p. 341-357); S. Dasgupta, op cit, p. 61, 93, 423, and passim; P. C. Baggchi, Materials for a critical edition of the old Bengali Caryapadas. A comparative study of the text and the tibetan traslation, Part I (Calcutta University Press, 1938, reprint from the Journal of Department of Letters, Vol XXX); also Anah Basu, Tattvasvabhavardstogitikudoha (hid Hist. Quart., 1924, p. 676 ff.); C. Ben-dall, Subhasita-Samgraha (Museon, new series, IV-V, Leuven, 1905), p. 71. Note VI, 11: "For losjmismos acts ..." The Prajnopayaviniscayasiddhi (1, 15) Anangavajra, the In-drabhuti teacher repeats the same maxim. In this treaty, as in Indrabhuti Jnanasiddhi of the maithuna is strongly recommended (ed. B. Bhatta-caryya, Two VajrayanaWorks, Gaekwad Orient. Series, Baroda, 1929, p. 20-29, 33-35, etc. .). The mudra (ritual spouse) must be submitted to the guru and the ritual can take place only through an initiation by the guru assured. Moreover maithuna with the mudra of consecrated bread that circumstance, the yogi can enjoy muieres many as you want, sip drinks alcol61icas, steal and even rrmtnr, without thereby committing a "sin." Indrabhuti, moreover, determines the end of the M> n <Jnanasiddhi that must be kept secret and reported only a lot started, otherwise would have grave consequences. The Subhasita-Samgraha (ed. Bendall, p. 38) cites some verses CHta-insuddhiprakarana of Arvadeva. with the same meaning qu "and the adage of Jnanasiddhi: vein vein badhyante jantaco randrakarmana hi. sopayena tu te-naive mucyante bhavabandanat. etc.


Moreover, since the Sutralamkara (XIII, 1J-13" * says "it is a through the kJesa (pasi6n or stain) cue to get out of the Mesa "Iklesata eva klesanihsaranam), quoted by L. de la Vallee-Poussin, oroposito of CHtavisuddhiprakaranade Aryadeva, in Bulletin of the O ^ cf London School errtttl VI, 1931, p. 413. About this treaty Arva-deva Prabbhubhai Patel, Boddhicittavivarana (Ind. Hist. Quart .. VIII, 1932, pag. 790-793), idem, CittavisuddhiiJrakarana (id., Ind. Hist. Quart., IX. 1933, p. 705-721): the Sanskrit text edition v Tibetan Translation has been made by the same wise: D. B. Patel, CitlaxAsuddhiprakarana of Anmdeva (Santiniketan. 1949), see also H. von Glasenapp, Mysteres houddhistes (trad. fr .. Paris, 1944), p. 32 et seq. Note VI. 12: Retention of semen respiraciSn and detention in China Henri Maspero has ertudiado in Trabaia: Les proce'de's de "Le principe vitaVdans nourrir taoiste religion (Journal Asiatique, 1937, ps. 177-252, 353-430) Chinese theories and techniques of respiration (see pag. 74). It is important ineluir aoui certain similarities with the tantric methods whose ob-jective is to stop both the Tespiracion and seminal emission. Here is an excerpt from the dp Bioeraphie Pure Transcendence VHomme fieel P'ei maitre, "pequefio written haEiogrdfico" Maspero believes that power v-century dating: the text puts the regression method of semen from five recipes master Immortal Tsiang: "It is necessary, by a perfect meditation away (all) thought (erterior) , then, men and may muieres pract; metcdo car the Eternal Life. This procedure is absolutely secret transmitais jno it more than sages (...) Each time you practice (this procedure), enter into meditation: first. it is necessary to per-der the v body awareness of the outside world. After. to rechinar teeth seven times, and this mutter nlegaria: That the Original Essence Bianco Metal-life distributed among my five-Flores (the five viscera). That the Senor CenterAmarillo Ancianc harmonize my soul and tidy my Essence. That Great Essence of Au <m? to-Si.ipremo, to coagulate bumores. becomes hard like a bone to Transcendent. "That the seven breaths of Great-Real Sin-Superior to roll inside. Oue the Ancient Mystery of Higher Essence to Essence then return leg to repair my brain. Do I unq (the yin and yang), the embryo Jewel case and that is with-server. "Um Upon completion of the prayer. Ervaren ^ men (the fixed spirit in) the rifiones, firmly retaining the Essence v distilling Respiration, that follows the spine and rises to the Ni-Houan, opposite to the flow: is what is called "bring back to Origen," Hovan yuan; the women retained (the fixed spirit) that nourishes the heart to your spiritual, immutable distilling fire, and will bring down the Respiration of both breasts to their kidneys, where the Respiration climbs the spine and is also a! Nihouan: this is what is called "transform the real" HOUA-Tchen. After a hundred days, you get to transcendence. If you are involved in (these proceedings) for a long time, spontaneously transforming one in Man-Real and living eternally, goes through the centuries. This is the "method to not die" (Maspero trans., p. 386-387). Witness the alchemical symbolism of the respiration and sex. R. H. van Gulik, Erotic color prints of the Ming period, with an essay on Chinese sex sand from the Han to the Ch'ing Dynasty, B. C. 206-A. D. 1644 (privatelypublished in fifty copies, Tokyo, 1951), made clear the homologation of alchemical terminology and sexual terminology, in the treaty s Taoist (p. 115 et seq.: The woman is compared to the crucible, etc.). . Here is another text: "A book of the Immortals says bring back the principle of the


Essence to repair the brain is to copulate for this well stirred Essence, (then) when the east exit is taken quickly (the penis) with the two middle fingers of his left hand and takes him back in front of the scrotum and the anus, is pressed hard, and at length expelled the Respiration through the mouth while grinding your teeth become several tens of times without retaining the Respiration. So when you issue the Essence, Essence can not get out, but returns Jade Stem (penis) and up to enter the brain. rrans This procedure is Eirnortales-mitted by one through other: make the oath, as they drink blood, do not pass it at random "(Yu-fangtche-yao, Ib, trans. Maspero, p. 385). Also van Gulik, P. 78. These techniques probably represent sex tantric influence: the Concepcion & Yi of sexual union as a spiritual union between male and female principles represented by the Sun and the Moon, brings to mind, in a curious way, the Hathayoga and sahajiya. For the same practices in Japan, v \. R van-Gulik, P. 85 et seq 'Note VI, 13: sahajiya and Vishnuism About sahajiya see Manindra Mohan Bose, An Introduction to the Study of the PostChaitanya sahajiya Cult (Journalof the Department of Letter, Calcutta University, vol. 18, p. 1-162, 1927) and Chaitanya Post sahajiya Cult (Calcutta , 1930); Shashibushan Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults as Background of Bengali Literature (Calcutta, 1946), p. 131 et seq. About visnuita mystical literature, Dineschandra Sen, History of Bengali Language and Literature (Calcutta University, 1911); The Vaisnava Literature of Mediaeval Bengal (1917); Chaitanya and His Age (1922); Chaitanya and his companions (1917), Melville T . Kennedy, The Chaitanya Movement (Oxford, 1925). On the "emotion" (rat) to be cultivated relations with the divinity, see Abhayakumar Guha, Rasa-Cult in the Chaitanya Charitamrta (Sir Asutosh Mookerjee Silver Jubilee Volumes, Vol. Ill, particularly III, p. 368-388 , Calcutta, 1927). S. K. Devoting a full study of the problem erudici6n classifications rhetoric of mystical feelings: The BhaktiRasa-Shastra Vainism of Bengal (Indian Historical Quarterly, XIII. 1932, p. 643-688). Here is a list of anubhava ( "Results") that pursues and strengthens the mystic emotion caused by love of Krishna: nrtya (dance), viluthita (roll on the ground) gita (singing), krosam (shouting-violent) tanu-motana (twisting of the body), H端niken (howling), jrmbha (yawn), SVAS-Bhum (profusion of Sighs), lokanapeksita (contempt of popular opinion), Udasrava (be foaming at the mouth), atta-hasa ( laugh loudly) fhuma (vertigo) and hikka (hypo). All these classifications ret6ricas correspond to specific experiences. Note VII, 1: Alchemists, yogis and the "flight mdgico" Rasarnava quoted by Madhava in his treatise Sarva-darsana-Samgraha (p. 80, edition "Anandashram Series", trans. Cowell, p. 140), refers to the process whereby dehavedha yogi can fly through the air (see also PC Ray, A History of Hindu Chemistry, vol. I, p. 76 Introducci6n). Siddhi is well known, such as the Yoga own ehamanismo. In India there is considerable number of legends about kings and wizards flying (eg., Tawney-Penzer, The Ocean of Story, Vol. II, p. 62 et seq., Ill, 27, 35, V, 33 , 35, 169, VIII, 26, 50, etc.).. The lake could not be miraculous Anavatapta attained except by those who possessed the supernatural power of blowing up the Buddha and Arhat Anavatapta reached in the blink of an eye, or even that in the Hindu legend, the nor rose in the air toward the divine and


my country terioso North-called Svetadvipa: W. E. Clark, Sakadvipaand Svetap-vipa (Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol 30, 1919, p. 209-242); M. K. Rønnow, Some remarla on Svetadvipa (Bull. Orient. School of London, V, p. 253 ff.); On Anavatapta, T. Watters, On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India (London, 1904-1905), vol. I, p. 35; M. W. de Visser, The Arhats in China and Japan (Berlin, 1923, IV Sondervrdffentlichender Ostasiatische Zeitschrift), p. 24 ff.; On Svetadvipa, Eliade, Le Chamanisme, P. 367 et seq.; Otto Maen-chen-Helfen, pre-christian Svetadvipa in China (New Iridian Antiquary, II, 1939, p. 166-168), on the flight of Arhats, de Visser, cited, p. 172 et seq., Sylvain Levi and Edouard Chavannes. Les seize arhats protecteurs of Ut loi (Journal Asiatique, 1916, p. 1-50, 189-304), p. 23, 263. Concerning the "magical flight" in China, Eliade Chamanisme, P. 394; B. Laufer, The prehistory of aviation (Field Museum, Anthropological Series, "XVIII, No. 1, Chicago, 1928), p. 14 et seq.; In Tibet, J. Bacot, Marpa the translator (Paris, 1936), p. 13. On the legend of the three supernatural coati surrounded by the sea and that no one can approach, see E. Chavannes, Les memoires histo-riques of Sse-Ma Tsien, vol. II, Paris, 1897, p. 152-153. See also E. W. Hopkins, The Fountain offouth, Jouma. Amer. Orient. Soc, vol. 26, 1950, p. 1-67. Note VII, 2: Nagarjuna alchemist For the biography of Nagarjuna, see A. Grilnwedel, Taranatha's Edelstein-minne (Berlin, 1914), p. 14 and sis., Max Walss, The Life ofNagarjuna from Tibetan and Chinese sources (Hirth Anniversary Volume, London, 1923, p. 421455) and in this book, Note VI, 1. With referenda on the relationship with alchemy, P. C. Ray, Hindu Chemistry, vol. I, p. 92 et seq. the Introduction; A. Grilnwedel, Die Geschichte der 84 Zauber, P. 221-222; Jean Filliozat. Nagarjuna et Agastya mddicins, Alchimist et sorciers (Actes du XX Congres International de 'Orientalist is, 1938, Brussels, 1940, p. 228 et seq.) Idem, La doctrine classique indienne Medicine (Paris, 1949, p. 10). Does not exclude the possibility that, besides the tantric alchemy will drive this, some observations have passed for mineral6gicas Mar part of the alchemical tradition and transmitted under the name of Nagarjuna: the symbiosis between the "true mystic (or metaphysics) and the "truth of observation" (rudiments of scientific thinking and experience Alchemist) is a phenomenon throughout the history of alchemy. Thus, for example, in Rasopanisad (ed. KS Sastri, Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, n. 92, see the list of Barnett, Jouma. Royal Asiat. Society, 1930, p. 445-446) is the following indication (16 Adhyaya): "The sage Nagarjuna had the vision of this procedure magical kingdom in southern Kerala, where there is so much forest, not far from evil, in a village by name holding conditions (priti) is ex-bring-shaped rocks Pippali with streaks of gold. They are removed and reduced to the soft powder. This powder is treated with horse blood, using human blood liquefies it seven times, crushing it with water again and basil five products of the female of the bull, then it is dry according to the rules, so as to form a kind of tail that passes through the sieve into the liquid obtained is added to centime copper (?), each portion of the copper so treaty is duplicated on all melted and mixed with a portion of on * is mixed with honey, milk, etc.., gold is then obtained uri mag-nified, as bright as the gold in the river "(Trad. Sylvain IA vi, Kanishka et Sata-vahana, Journal Asiatique, 1936. p. 61-121, p. 104; the text had already been in-pleado by S. in his article: A bouddhisme nouveau


document sur le pays dans de basse epoque, Bull. Eastern School of London, 1931, p. 421). Note VII, 3: On Indian alchemy A. Waley, References to alchemy in buddhist scriptures (Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, London, vol. VI, p. 1102-1103). Also are to be found allusions to alchemy in Mahayana-samgrahabhashya (Nanji, 1171, translated into Chinese by SSIItsang, about 650) and Abhidarma Mahavibhasa (Nanji, 1263, trans. HSII-Tsang, 656-659). Certain information concerning alchemist Nagarjuna in the work of E. Lamotte, Le Traite de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse, t. I (Louvain, 1944), p. 383, note 1. See also O. Stein, References to alchemy in buddhist scriptures (Bull. School Oriental Studies, VII, 1933, p. 262 et seq.) And Note VII, 2. For alchemy and pre-qufmica Indian, see P. C. Ray, A History of Hindu Chemistry, vol. I (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1903), vol. II (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1925); also Rasacharya Kaviraj Bhudeb Mookerjee, Rasajala-nidhi. Ocean of Indian Chemistry and Alchemy, 2 vol. (Calcutta, 1926-1927; compilation worthless, but it contains large number of citations from traditional alchemical works). On the role of mercury in Indian alchemy, P. C. Ray, Treatise, I, p. 105 Introduction; E. von Lippmann, Enstehung und Ausbreitung of Alchemie (Berlin, 1919), p. 435; vol. II (Berlin, 1931), p. 179; Jolly, Der Stein der Weisen (Windisch-Festchrift, Leipzig, 1912). p. 98. On the sitter Tamil A. Barth, Oeuvres, I (Paris, 1914), p. 185. J. Filliozat, Journal Asiatique, 1934, p. 111-112: the titar divided the sarakku (substances, ingredients) in an and pensarakku ingredients male and female division which brings to mind the binomial yin-yang of Chinese theorizing. L. Wieger (Histoire des Croyances re-ligieuses et des opinions philosophiques en Chine, 2nd ed., Hien-hien, 1927, p. 395) say that the Taoist alchemist Ko-Hung (Pao-p'u-tzu) in the third century had made a treaty Rasaratnakara imitation, attributed to Nagarjuna. In that case, the Rasar atnakara, which was considered as belonging to the seventh or eighth centuries (Lamotte, Traite de la Grande Vertu, I, p. 383, n. 1) "could actually be traced to the time of the Buddhist Nagarjuna second century "(J. Filliozat, The Doctrine of midecine indienne classique, p. 10). But there is also the possibility of that alchemy has been influenced Tamil China (). Filliozat, Taoismeet Yoga, Dan Vietnam, No. 3, August 1949, p. 113-120, esp. p. 120). About Cordier alchemical manuscripts, see J. Filliozat, Journal Asiatique, 1934, p. 156 and rig. The list of matters relating to the Greco-Egyptian alchemy, in R. P. Festugiere, La Revelation d'Hermes Trismegiste, I (Paris, 1944), p. 217. On the psychology of alchemical symbolism, see C. G. Jung und Alchemie Psichologie (Zurich, 1944, 2nd ed., 1952), idem. Die Ueber-Psichologie der tragung (Zurich, 1946). On the metaphysics of alchemy, see J. E vola, La tra-dizione hermetica (Bari, 1931). Note VII, 4: Chinese Alchemy We found alchemical texts and translations of the corresponding lists tes in the following works: E. von Lippmann, Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie, vol. I, p. 449-461, vol. II, p. 65-66, O. Johnson, A Study of Chinese Alchemy (Shanghai, 1928); A. Waley, Notes an Chinese Alchemy (Bull. Orient. School of London, VI, 1930, p. 1-24); W. A. Martin, The Lore of Cathay or the Intellect of China (New York, 1901), p. 41-71; A.


Forke, The World Conception of the Chinese (London, 1925), p. 227-300; Mircea Eliade, Alchimia Asia-tica (Bucharest, 1935), p. 9-44; Dr. Teney L. Iu Ch'iang Davis and Wu, Chinese Alchemy (The Scientific Monthly, New York, 1930, vol. XXXI, p. 225-235) .Id, Tao Hung Ching (Journal of Chemical Education, 1932, vol. 9 p. 859862) 'Lu-Ch'iang wuy Tenney Davis, An ancient Chinese treatise on alchemy Tung entitledTI an MC. Written by Wei Po-Yang about 142 A. D. (Isis, 1932, vol 18 p 210-289), B. Laufer, Compte rendu de Johnson, Isis, 1929, vol. 12, P 330-332 - J-R-Partington, Nature, 1927, vol. 119, p. 11, vol. 120, p. 158, vol. J28, ismr p. 1074-1075; B. F. Read, Nature, vol. 12, 1027, p. 877-878; Masumi Chikashige, Alchemy Oriental (Tokyo, 1936); W. H. Barnes, Possible reference l "Chinese Alclxemy in the Fourth or Third Century BC (The China Journal, vol. 23, 1935, p. 75-79); T. L. Davis, The Dualistic Cosmology and Us relation to the background of Chinese and of European Chemistry (Isis, vol. 35, 1936, p. 334 et seq.), Williams H. Barnes and H. B. Yuen, Tao, the Recluse (AD 452-536), Chinese Alchemist (Ambix, vol. 2, 1946, p. 138-147), Homer H. Dubs, The Beginnings of Alchemy (Isis, vol. 38, 1947, p. 62-86). About Ko Hung (Pao Fu Tzu), see: P. Wieger, Histoire des Croyances gieuses religious opinions et des phUosophiques en Chine (2nd ed, Hienhien, 1922), p. 385-406; A. Forke, Ko Hung, der Philosoph und Alchemist (Archiv f. Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. 41, 1932, p. 115-127), Johnson, op, p. 133-134; T. L. Davis, Ko Hung (Pao-p'u tzu), Chinese Alchemist of the fourth century (Journal of Chemical Education, vol. II, 1934, p. 517-520), Lu-Ch'iang Wu and T. L Davis, Ko Hung on the YeUotoand the White (proceedings of the American Academy of Art Sciences, vol. 70, 1935, p. 221-284), this last article contains the Translation of the Chapter IV.V VI of the Treaty of Ko Hung, Chapters I-III are translated by Eugen Feifel, Monumenta Serica, vol. 6, 1941, p. 113-211 (see idem, vol. 9, 1944, New Translation of Chapter IV, also for Feifel) and Chapters VII and XI, T. L. Davis and K. F. Chen, in his study The Inner Chapters of Pao-pu-tzu (Proceedings Acad, of Arts and Sciences, vol. 74, 1940-1942, p. 287-325). H. H. Dubs believes the origin of alchemy should be sought in China in the fourth century BC. He argues that alchemy could not be born but a civilization that was little known gold and where to ignore the methods of dosage of the quantity of pure metal, however, in Mesopotamia, these methods were known since the fourteenth century BC, which makes unlikely the Mediterranean origin of alchemy (Dubbs, p. 80 et seq.). But this opinion seems to have been accepted by historians of alchemy (see F. Sherwood Taylor, The Alchemists, New York, 1949, p. 75). Dubbs thinks the West has penetrated alchemy with Chinese travelers (op. cit, p. 84). However, do not exclude the possibility that alchemy "scientific" in China represent a foreign influence (Laufer, Isis, 1929, p. 330-331). We know that An Shih-Kao, the famous translator of Buddhist scriptures birth, who lived in China in the second century, knew deep magic and astrology Iranian (H. Maspero .. Buddhists Communautis et chinois aux moines et ra n sHcles, Bulletin de Vecol Francaise d'Extreme Orient, 1910, p. 222; Prabodh Chandra Baggchi, Le Canon Bouddhique en Chine: les translations teurs et les traductions, vol. I, Paris, 1927, p. 8, 23, P. Pelliot , T'oung Pao, vol. 19, 1919, p. 64). however if lgncramos also knew alchemy (Waley, Notes, p. 23). Chinese astrology was influenced by Iranian astrology (L. de Saussure, Les origines Vastronomiechinoise, Paris, 1930, passim). The cultural and


commercial relations between China and Iran are very anti-guages, on the other (B. Laufer, Sino-Iranica. Chicago, Field Museum, 1919, p. IS9). The role of labor in the kingdom-Roman trade but has been well highlighted, according to Chinese sources, by F. Hirth, China and the Roman Orient (Shanghai, 1885), p. 42, 70, 173, 174. On the role of the Arabs, see Hirth and W. W. Rockhill, Chan \ u Kua, His work on the Chinese and Arab Trade ... entitled Chu-fan-chi (Petersburg, 1911), p. 2-15. See also our book, Alchimia Asidtica, P. 42-44. On the penetration of ideas mediterranean in China, see Dubs, cited, p. 82-83, notes 122-123. Note VII, 5: Metallurgy and Alchemy We have studied in other works the relation between shamans and herre-ros: Le Chamanisme, P. 408. Chinese mythological traditions sympathize with the founders of the dynasties and the "secrets" Metallurgical, see Marcel Cranet, Ltgendes Danses et de la Chine ancienne (Paris, 1926), vol. II, p. 609 et seq., Passim. Furnaces for melting metals were assimilated to the cosmic principles: Yu linked to five furnaces and four with yin yang, as Chinese metals divided into masculine and feminine: Cranet, cited, p. 496; F. of Mely, L'alchimie chez les Chinois (JournalAsiatique, 1895, p. 314-340; this is an article that should be discussed with caution), p. 330 and ff. The ovens have become a kind of judges, for the simple fact that an operation was taking place sacred in them could recognize the virtue and the greatest punishment inflicted on a condemned prisoner was boiled to do so in this kind of homos. The construction of a furnace was an act of virtue, and was to be em-pinned by a man who knows "the rituals of art" (Granet, cited, p. 491, 496). The Rig Veda (X, 72, 2) still preserves the tradition of certain drugs vegeta-les (jaratibhih osaddhibhih) who owned the blacksmith; on this issue, see Manindranath Benerjee, Iron and Steel in the Rigvedic Age (Indian Historical Quarterly, vol . V, No. 3, 1929, p. 432437), idem, On Metals and Metallurgy in Ancient India (Ind. Hist. Quart., 1927, p. 121133, 793-802). Not dwell on relations, infinitely complex between the Cyclops, the fingerprint, the Curettes, the Telchines and metalworking R. Eisler, Das und die Qainzeinchen Kenites (Le Monde Oriental, vol. 23, 1929, p. 48-112: blacksmiths, dancers, magicians); Bengt1 Hemberg, Die Kabir (Uppsala, 1950), p. 286 et seq., Idem, Die Idaiischen DaktUen (Eranos, vol. 50, Uppsala, 1952, p. 41-59). It is likely that the minerals were extracted from a mine similar to embryo Kubu Babylonian word has been translated as "embryo" for certain authors, and other "abortion", see the bibliography and the essence of the con-troversy in our study Metallurgy, Magic and Alchemy (Paris-Bucharest, 1938), p. 30 et seq. Anyway, there is a hidden symmetry between the metal and obstetrics: the sacrifice that was made at times close to the kilns where they were preparing minerals, resembles obstetric sacrifices, the oven was treated as a matrix, that was where the "embryos" mineral "debian lle-var to term growth, improve, and in a time considerably shorter than they would need to be hidden in the bosom of the earth. In turn, the alchemist continued and perfected the work of nature, while working in their own development: suefia with "terminating" the growth of metals, to transmute them into gold. Note VIII, 1: On the Aghori, the Kapalika and worship of the skulls See W. Crooke, Aghori (Hasting's Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol I, p. 210-


213), idem, Tribes and Castes of the N. W. Provinces (1896), vol. I, p. 26; H. Balfour, Life of an Aghori Fakir (Journal of Anthropological Institute, 26, 1897, p. 340-357), H. W. Barrow, On Aghoris and AghorapanthU (Journal Anthropological Society of Bombay, vol. Ill, 1893, p. 197-251). The Barrowstudies, based on documents collected by Leith, is the most subs-tancioso safest and few have been written at the time has *. Found in a comprehensive bibliography and a rich oral information. See also Buchanan, Montgomery, The History, Antiquities, Topography and Statistics of Eastern India, vol. II (London, 1836), p. 492. About Aghori late nineteenth century, see Oman, The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India (London, 1903), p. 164-167. Some excerpts from two comments were unpublished publicadcs by Tucci. Animadversiones indicae, P. 131. The author himself plays a list of 24 Kapalika according to the Sabara-Tantra, an identical list, included in Goraksasiddhantasamgraha He also specified that these 24 Kapalika were created by Natha (Siva) to fight with the 24 avatars of Vishnu (Animadversiones indicae, p. 129). On the coalescence of the LokaKapalika Vatikan, see Dakshina Ranj an Shastri, The Lokayatikas and the Kapalika (Ind. Hist. Quarterly, VII, 1931, p. 125-137). Concerning the role of the skulls desempeiiado Lamaism, consult W. W. Rockhill, On the use of skulls in Lamaist ceremonies (prdceedings of the American Oriental Society, 1888, p. XXIV-XXXI); B. Laufer, Use of human skulls and bones in Tibet (Field Museum of Natural History, Department of An-tropology, Leaflet, No. 10, Chicago, 1923), who thinks sivalta influence of Tantrism (p. 5). But Indian influences overlapped probably an ancient local beliefs fund, as the skulls desempefian religious and divinatory role in Siberian shamanism: Eliade, Le Chamanisme, P. 223, 383, etc. Protohist6ricas on relations between the cult of the skulls and the idea of renovation of cosmic life in China and Indonesia, Karl Hentze Zur Bedeutung des chinesischen Zeichens urspr端ngliche t'ou = Kopf (Anthropos, vol. 45, 1950, p . 801-820). With regard to the worship of the skulls in western India and regions lirni-trophoblast, see R. Heine-Geldern, Kopfjagd Assam und Birma und Menschenopferin (Gesellschaftin Anthropologischen Mittedungender Wien, vol. 47, 1917, p. 165), idem, Mutterrecht Kopfjagd und im westlinchen Hinterindien (idem, vol. 51, 1921, p. 106-140) , W. Schmidt und Kopfjadgim Westlinchen Mutterrecht Hinterindien (Anthropos, vol. 14-15, 1919-1920, p. 1138-1146). About human sacrifice offered to Siva and Kali, in the Kamarupa (Assam), tantric region par excellence, see E. A. Gait, Human Sacrifice in Ancient Assam (Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. 67, 1898, p. 56-65); W. Koppers, Probleme der indischen Religiongeschichte (Anthropos, 1940-1941, p. 761-814), p. 775 ff. VUI Note 2: On the "orgy" of VaUabhacarya About rasamandali (lit. "Circles of the game"), which often degenerate into orgies, see Wilson, Sketch of the Religious Sects of the Hindus, 2nd ed., P. 119, Grows, Mathura, 3d ed., Allahabad, 1883), p. 283, 295, etc., Carpenter, Theism in Mediaeval India, p. 434; Bhandarkar, Vaisnavism, P. 76; Faquhar, Outline, D. 312; H. von Glasenapp, Die Lehre Vallabhacaryas (Zeit. f. u. Iranistik India-nistik, Bd 9, 1934, p. 268-330). Erotic excesses of the "Maharajah" who practiced rasmandali until the end of the turpitud patologica were reported in a violent panfieto, History of the Sect of Maharajas, in Vallahhacaryas in Western India 'London, 1865), and from there drew their reports all


later authors. SIMILAR orgies took place in tantric circles sakticos and the regions of Himalayas, mainly in Garhwal: it was the cdi-marg (coli - bra), so called because it had as a companion of the woman whose rite had been oorpino drawn by lot (Ward, Wilson and Aitkinson, cited by Briggs, Gorakhanath and the Kanphata Yogis, p. 173 et seq.). Interestingly, observ-ing that describes Freyers orgies like those of vamacari, which according to the battles between the Parsis of India (A New Account Persia af an East India, W. Crooke edition, vol. I, 1912, p . 294; vol. II, p. 255). About orgies sa-steps of the Muslim Persia, see S. C. Benjamin, Persia and the Persians (London, 1883), p. 353355; C. J. Wills, In the Land of the Lion and Sun, in Modero Persia (London, 1891), p. 154, 339, etc. We found simi-lar practices in Chiragh-Kush, "the extinction of the lamps; E. Elias, E. D. Ross, A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia (London, 1898), p. 218, note. West-ermarck (historyof Human Marriage, p. 51) and after, Crooke (Fryers, vol. II, p. 255, note 1) reject the authenticity of these testimonies. Anyway, from what we know about Russian sects (KK Grass, Die russischen Sekten, 2 vol., Leipzig, 1907-1909; discussion of the topic in R. Hertz, Melanges de Sociologie religieuse et de Folklore, Paris, 1928, p. 229) and also on the cult of the Innocents in Bessarabia, like sacred orgies are not improbable. Note VIII, 3: Gorakhnath, Matsyendranatha and 84 SIDDHA About Gorakhnath and yogis Kanphata see Dalpotram Pranjivan Khakhar, History of the Kanphatas of Kachh (Indian Antiquary, vol. VII, 1878, p. 298300); W. Crooke, The Tribes and Castes of the North Western Provinces and Oudh, vol. HI (Calcutta, 1896), p. 153, 159, L. P. Tessitori, in Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics, vol. XII, p. 833-835, Mohan Singh, Gorakhnath and Mediaeval Hindu Mysticism (Lahore, 1937), George W. Briggs, Gorakhnath and the Kanphata Yogis (Calcutta, Oxford, 1938); Shashibhusan Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults (Calcutta, 1946), p. 219-287-442-460. About Goraksanath worship in Bengal, see S. C. Mitra, On the Cult of Gorakshanath in Eastern Bengal (JorunalDep. Letters, Calcutta University, 1926, p. 16-21). God is the protector of cows; also S. C. Mitra, On the Cult cf Gorakshanath in the District of Rangpur in N. Bengal (Journ. Anthr. Soc Bombay, vol. XIV, 1927, n. 1, p. 1-5), Geo W. Briggs, The Chamars (Madras, 1920), p. 149 and ff. About Matsyendranatha, Tucci, Animadversiones indicae, P. 133 and ff.; Syl-vain Levi, Le Nepal, I, p. 347 et seq., P. C. Baggchi, Kaulajnana nirnaya and some other minor texts of the school or Matsyendranatha (Calcutta, 1934), p. 8-32 of the Introduction; S. B. Dasgupta, Obscure Cults, p. 442 and ff. For the 84 Siddha Griinwedel vet Albert, Die Geschichte der Zauber vierun-dachtzig (mahasiddhas), aus dem tibetische iibersetz (Baessler-Archiv, vol. V, Leipzig, 1916, p. 137-228); Udhili Gura (p. 205 -206); Indrapala and Lui-pa (p. 215-216); Guru Lui-pa (143); Lilapada (144); Virupa (p. 145-147); Dombi (p. 147-148); Gorakhnath (p. 153154); Capari (p. 201-202); vyali (p. 221-222); Karunia and Nagarjuna (p. 165-167) and so on. Tucci, Animadversiones indicae, P. 138; VVadell, Lamaism, p. 42; S. Levi, Un nouveau document sur le bouddhisme de basse epoque dans I'lnde (Bull. School Orient. Stud., 1931, vol. VI, p. 417-429; on Nagarjuna, p. 420-421); Sankrtyayana Rahula, Re Recherche bouddhiques (Journal Asiatique, 1934, p. 195-230); Baggchi, Kaulaj-nana-nirnaya, P. 20 and ff.; Briggs, Gorakhnath, P. 136 S. B. Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, p. 232 and ff.; V.


V. Raman Sastri, The Doctrinal Culture and Tradition of the Siddhas (Cultural Heritage of India, Sri Ramakrishna Century Volume, vol. II, p. 303-319); S. K. De, Buddhist Tantric Literature m Ben-go /, p. 15 ff. (Kukkuripada, Lui-pa, Matsyendranatha, Gorakhnath, Kanhu-pa, etcetera). On the relationship with alchemy, see this book. Note VIII, 4: The funeral of ascetics The custom of burying the ascetics and yogis, instead of burning their bodies, is quite old in India: A. R. Keith Religion and Philosophy the Veda, p. 417, n. 3. Vaikhanasasmarta-sutra (V, 8) mentions the rites fune-oped of yogis> of yati-whose bodies are buried near a river, and the sannyasi (X, 8). It was logical not to deliver the fire the bodies of those who had obtained the liberation, whose soul was already identified to God. The ascetics were buried in the position of meditation, and their graves were raised about Jingo. Many of these later became rumba in tem-ples. W. Simpson thought he saw in this custom the origin of Indian religious architecture (Some suggestions of Origin in Indian Architecture, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1888, p. 49-71). "The bodies of the monks, unlike other Hindus are buried, and the cemetery (the monastery) contains about two hundred graves .- The body is buried in sitting position, and in the case of mere novice, a construction of bricks from three to four feet high enough to cover the grave. For most important monks, a temple is necessary: inside and immediately above the corpse is placed necessarily a lingam. It seems that even up to novices has been considered necessary to the Lingam ... Buddha Gaya and Gaya Among several monasteries of Hindu sannyasi, and elsewhere the graves are semejantes "(op. cit, p. 56). The ascetics are buried sitting posture or yogi, the same that led to the liberation. His identification with Siva is attested by the lingam erected on their graves. In the Archaeological Survey of India, Southern Circle, 1911-1912, we read (p. 5): "The sannyasi are not burned, but buried and built an altar with a lingam to mark the place", idem, 1915-1916 , p. 34: "In the case of the sannyasi (...) is sometimes a raised brick platform on the site of the tomb is placed there (...) and a lingam stone, as if to proclaim to the world that the body reached buried under the sacred form of Shiva-linga "(A. Coomaraswamy, Journal Amer. Orient. Soc, 1918, p. 264). In some places, the skull of the yogi is broken out to allow the "soul and respiration. Oman describes the ceremony to be attended in the province of Madras, as follows: "The body was placed in position saddhu sitting in the tomb, were stacked on the specific amount of salt and covered it with earth. Then, on the crown of his head shaved, even visible, they proceeded to break large number of coconuts in order to break the skull and thus allow the soul imprisoned escape. coconuts fragments used for the liberation of the soul of the dead, were in great demand by the participants "(Oman, Mystics and Ascetics, p. 157, and also ÂŁ Abb Dubois, Morals, Part II, chapter 36). The breaking of the skull the funeral custom is also proa-tice in other regions. In Malaysia, we say that the soul leaves the body through the top of his head. " Recall that the pull, the man the Semang physician, is buried with his head out of the grave: Paul Sche-besta, Lo * Pygmies (trad, the trances, Paris, 1940), p. 154. Note VIII, 4: The funeral of ascetics The custom of burying the ascetics and yogis, instead of burning their bodies, is quite old in India: A. R. Keith Religion and Philosophy the Veda, p. 417, n. 3. Vaikhanasasmarta-sutra (V, 8) mentions the rites fune-oped of yogis> of yati-whose bodies are buried near a river, and the sannyasi (X, 8). It was


logical not to deliver the fire the bodies of those who had obtained the liberation, whose soul was already identified to God. The ascetics were buried in the position of meditation, and their graves were raised about Jingo. Many of these later became rumba in tem-ples. W. Simpson thought he saw in this custom the origin of Indian religious architecture (Some suggestions of Origin in Indian Architecture, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1888, p. 49-71). "The bodies of the monks, unlike other Hindus are buried, and the cemetery (the monastery) contains about two hundred graves .- The body is buried in sitting position, and in the case of mere novice, a construction of bricks from three to four feet high enough to cover the grave. For most important monks, a temple is necessary: inside and immediately above the corpse is placed necessarily a lingam. It seems that even up to novices has been considered necessary to the Lingam ... Buddha Gaya and Gaya Among several monasteries of Hindu sannyasi, and elsewhere the graves are semejantes "(op. cit, p. 56). The ascetics are buried sitting posture or yogi, the same that led to the liberation. His identification with Siva is attested by the lingam erected on their graves. In the Archaeological Survey of India, Southern Circle, 1911-1912, we read (p. 5): "The sannyasi are not burned, but buried and built an altar with a lingam to mark the place", idem, 1915-1916 , p. 34: "In the case of the sannyasi (...) is sometimes a raised brick platform on the site of the tomb is placed there (...) and a lingam stone, as if to proclaim to the world that the body reached buried under the sacred form of Shiva-linga "(A. Coomaraswamy, Journal Amer. Orient. Soc, 1918, p. 264). In some places, the skull of the yogi is broken out to allow the "soul and respiration. Oman describes the ceremony to be attended in the province of Madras, as follows: "The body was placed in position saddhu sitting in the tomb, were stacked on the specific amount of salt and covered it with earth. Then, on the crown of his head shaved, even visible, they proceeded to break large number of coconuts in order to break the skull and thus allow the soul imprisoned escape. coconuts fragments used for the liberation of the soul of the dead, were in great demand by the participants "(Oman, Mystics and Ascetics, p. 157, and also ÂŁ Abb Dubois, Morals, Part II, chapter 36). The breaking of the skull the funeral custom is also proa-tice in other regions. In Malaysia, we say that the soul leaves the body through the top of his head. " Recall that the pull, the man the Semang physician, is buried with his head out of the grave: Paul Sche-besta, Lo * Pygmies (trad, the trances, Paris, 1940), p. 154. Note V1II, S: yogis and fakirs It would be interesting to follow the first information that entered Europe about the yogis and "miracles" of the fakirs, Garbe reproduces some of them (Samkhyauna Yoga, p. 4748). Also Ueber den Schein-tod Indischer wiUkurlichen Fakirs in south mdischen KuUurgeschichte Beitrage, Berlin, 1903, p. 199 and ff. The passage of the pound Honigberg, Thirty-fiveyears in the East (London, 1852) on the Yogi Haridas who was buried for four months, is reproduced in the appendix of the Yoga An Introduction to Philosophy (2nd ed., Allahabad, 1925 , p. 64-70) SIRS Chandra Bahadur Rai Vidyarnava. Wilson (Skechtofthe Religious Sects of the Hindus, Calcutta, 1846, p. 133, note)-pared, according to the ASTATIC Monthly Journal (March 1829), the story of a yogi who could remain airborne for long periods ( twelve to forty minutes). He accepted anywhere repeat this test, "not for money but for free." That same yogi could spend several hours under


water. "He refuses to eiplicar as he does, saying only that in it's a habit." MonnierWilliams (Indian Antiquary, October, 1878, t. VIII, p. 265) relates akrunos' cases heard miracles that yogis talk or see the same. Concerning the Rope-Trick there is an abundant bibliography: R. Schmidt, Fakir undFakirtum (Berlin, 1921), p. 167 ff.; Massignon, Al HaUaj, vol. I, p. 80 et seq. (the rope-trick in the Muslim hagiographic legends), YuleCordier, The Book of Sir Marco Polo (London, 1921), I, p. 318, Hayes O 'Grady, Silva Gadelica (London, 1892), p. 321 (the "miracle of the chord" attributed to Manannan Mac Lir, god of the sea.) Oman (Mysticsand Ascetics, p. 183-184 quoted according to the Civil and Military Gazette (Lahore, May 1895), the case of a yogi buried and resurrected ten days after giving a perfect description of Heaven. The levftacion, the combustibility of the body and other miracles of the fakir, moreover, are known in other geographic regions (Leroy, The Levttation, Paris, 1928, idem, * What men salamanders, Paris, 1931). In the accounts of travelers Arabs, Persians and Chinese find the description of tantric yogis and ascetics. "In India, there is a known population of baykardiy. These men are walking naked and hair covers their body and the natural parts, are allowed to grow the few, very sharp, just remove the broken parts of a ; living as wandering monks, each wearing a human skull hanging from the neck by a thread ... " (Abu-Al-Hassan Zeyd of Syraf. Trad. Reinaud, Relation de voyages / 'aits par le' Arab 'penalized et dans les pays et en Chine, tome I, Paris, 1845, p. 133-134; other descriptions in Reinaud, Memoire sur au milieu du pays anterieurement Xle. siecle d'apres Les ĂŠcrivains arabes, chinois et persons in the Menvoxres of TActuUmiedes Inscriptions, vol. 18, p. 1-399, Paris 1849). Ma Huan, in his description of the region of Cochin, speaks of the "choki (yogi) who lead a life as austere as the Taoists of China, but who are married" (Geo. Phillips, Calicut and Aden, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. April 1898, p. 343). yogis always on the Cochin, see WW Rockhill. Notes on the relations and trade of China with the Eastern Archipelago and the Coasts of the Indian Ocean during the fourteenth century. Part IV (Tuning Pao, 1815, vol. XVI, p. 450-451) where mention is made â&#x20AC;˘ the texts of Ibn Batuta, Nicolo di Conti and Duarte Barbosa, on the Malabar yogis. There are other descriptions in Fryer, A New Account of East India and Persia (edici6n W. Crooke, 1912, etc), vol. I, p. 138, vol II, p. 35 (an ascetic who wore a gold ring on the penis), II, p. 77 (on the lingayats), II, p. 104. Do not forget that saddhus yogis and have contributed to the spiritual unification of India with his travels through the whole country, its convents and places sagradbs. Although divided into numerous sects, their techniques' ascetic and mystical path had little difference between them. The Indian religious 6rdenes were "militarized" in the Middle Ages. India also met the orders of knights-ascetics, probably organized for the defense of religious oflntra Muslims. Over time, these orders "militarized" became, in some regions, they had real hordes terrorized the villages. The British domination and the his-prirnio desarmo, but even today are, in some tem E the, the weapons of those "military 6raenes" and "Kumbh Mela, the evan sannyasis wooden spears in procession, emblematic of weapons of old. J. N. Farquhar, The Fighting Ascetics of India (Bulletin of John Ryland's Library, Manchester, 1925), idem, The Organization of the Sannyasis of Vedanta (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, July 1924) numerous unpublished documents on the activity of the "gentlemen ascetics "in the eighteenth century have been published by Rai Sahib Jamini Mihan Ghosh, Sannyasi and


Fakir Raiders in Bengal (Calcutta, 1930). Note V / / I, 8: Late on Buddhism and "crypto-Buddhist" Mahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri was among the first to draw attention to lowBuddhism era; is a summary of his work and the bi-ECO-BIBLIOGRAFIAS of its work in the article that I dedicate Narendra Nath Law, Indian Historical Quarterly, IX, 1933 , p. 307-414 (principahnente p. 356-369). It highlights his works: Buddhism m Bengal since the Muhammadan Conquest (Journal Asiat. Soc Bengal, 1895, 1 "part, esp. P. 57 et seq.) And The Discovery of Living Buddhism in Bengal. Material substances (first impor-tant extracts Sunya-Purana) in the book of Nagendra Nath Vasu, The Modem Buddishm and Us followers in urine (Calcutta, 1911): Survival of Sunya and dharma (p. 45 et seq.) , worship of Dharma, P. 14, 21, 111, etc.. See also Maheswaran Neog, The Worship of Dharma in Assam (Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1951, p. 219-224). You can monitor the survival of Buddhism popular in Bengal and Orissa province for the construction of catty V stupa that will continue to rise until recently: Vasu, P. 139 and rig.; Also Ramprasad Chanda, Bhanja Dynasty Ancient Capital ofMayurbhani and Theit Khiching (Mayurbhanj, 1929: reports of archaeological investigations 1922-1925). Decadent on Buddhism, Benoy Kumar Sarkar, The Folk-Element in Hindu Culture (London, 1917), p. 169, 181, P. C. Baggchi, Decline of Buddhism in India, and its causes (Sir Asutosh Moo-kerjee Silver Jubilee Volume, Calcutta, 1925, vol. III, p. 405-421). Sunya-Pura-na has been edited by N. N. Vasu (Parisat edition), a new edition was made by Charuchandra Banerjee, with important studies by M. Shahidullah, Chatteriee and Charuchandra Basant Kumar Banerjee. About the cult of Dharma, S. N. Dasgupta, Oscure Religious Cults, p. 297-358, 461-478. On the roots of Buddhism in crypto popular environments, S. C. Mitra, The Cult of the Tortoise-shaped deities of Midnapur and Bankura in Western Bengal, in the play Some curious cults of Bengal (Journal Anthropological Society, Bombay, vol. XI, n. 5), p. 446454. Late on Buddhism (fourteenth century) recorded by the travels of a priestly Indian dowry, Dhyana Chadra, in addition to other provinces of Bengal and Orissa (Madras, Punjab, Coromandel, etc..), Arthur Waley, New Light on Buddhism m Medieval India (Memoir is chinois et bouddhiques, I, 1932, p. 355-376). Noto VIII, 7: Yogini, Dakini, YoJba, Durga. On the influence of indigenous and exotic cults on Tantrism, see G. Tucci, Tracce lunare di cult in India (Rivista di Studi Orientali, XII, 19,291,930, p. 419-427), p. 423, n. 1 idem, Animadversiones lndicae, P. 156 et seq., P. C. Baggchi, On foreign element in the Tantra (IndianHistorical Quarterly, VII, 1931, p. 1-16, reprinted in Studies in the Tantra, p. 45-60); on possible Iranian influence on Buddhist iconography, A. Griinwedel, AltKutsch, Religionsgeschichtliche Archaeologische und Forschungen aus Gemdlde an Temara-Hbhlen buddhistischen Jahrhunderte acht nach der ersten Geburt Christi (Preuss. Turfan-Exped., BeTlin, 1920), 1 * part, p. 54 et seq. On the cults of the vegetation in India, see the abundant material of J. J. Meyer, Trilogie altindischer Machte und Feste der Vegetation, 3 vol. (Zurich Leipzig, 1937) and Odette Viennot, Le culte de Tarbre dans Vlnde ancienne (Paris, 1954). About Durga, also Pratapachandra Ghosh, Durga Puja (Calcutta, 1841); E. A. Payne, The Sakta, An


introductory and comparative study (Cal-CUTA-Oxford, Religious Life of India Series), Sten Konow, Europe parallelogram your the Durga Pwa (Journal Asiat. Soc Bengal., 1925, p. 315-324 ); W. Koppers, Probleme der indischen Religionsgeschichte, passim. On the relationship between Tantrism and the female sorcery, S. N. Roy, The Witches of Orissa (Bombay JournalAn-throp. Soc, XIV, 1929, p. 185-200) and W. Koppers, cited, p. 783. About yaksa, yaksini, dakini: N. Peri, Hariti, the Mere-of-demons (Bull. Eccle Francaise Extr. Orient, XVII, 1917, No. 3, p. 1-102, esp. P. 38, 81-tantric cult, low magic, and so on. ), see also Jean Fillozat, Etude in-dienne Demonology. Kumaratantra him of Ravana, Paris, 1937, and our article: Notes on demonology, Zalmoxis, I, 1938, p. 197203, Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, yaks, I-II (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, Washington, 1928, 1929); M. Li-Nossi, Les peintures de la collection TIBETAINES Loo (Melanges Linossier, 1932, vol. I, p. 1-97, esp. P. 53 et seq.) Jitendra Nath Banerjee, Some Folk Goddesses of Ancient and Mediaeval India (Indian Historical Quarterly, XIV, 1938, p. 101 -109); M. Lalou and J. Przyluski, Yaksa Gandhatva et, dans le-ta Mahasamayasuttan (Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, III, 1938, p. 40-46), Joseph Masson, La religion dans le poptdaire Pali Canon (Louvain, 1942), p. 126-131, Charles Autran, L'EpopĂŠe Hindou (Paris, 1946), p. 170-190. The plea "women and the Tree": J. Ph. Vogel, The Woman dnd Tree or salahhanjika in Indian Literature and Art (Acta Orientalia, VII, 1929, p. 201231); on yaksa protectors stupa, Ramaprasad Chanda, Mediaeval Sculpture in Eastern India (Journal Depart. Letters, Universitv VNL III Calcutta, 1920. p. 225-246) p. 236. About the Catty: V. R. Ramchandra Dikshitar. UNON /,. My HM. U, Catty (Ind. Hist. Quart. XIV, 1938, p. 440-451), in southern India: K. R. Subramanian, Buddhist Remains in Andhra (Madras, 1932), p. 24 ff., N. Ramanayya Venkata, An Essay on the Origin of the South Indian Temple (Madras, 1930), p. 53 et seq.; In Tibet: Giuseppe Tucci, Mc'odRten and Ts to Ts' to Indian ed nel Tibet occidentale (Indus-Tibet l, Rome, 1932). p. 25 et seq. About yaksini in yaks and Jaina iconography, see J. Burges, Digambara Jaina Iconography (Indian Antiquary, December 1903, p. 459-464), p. 464. About pitha. see Dines Chandra Sirkar, The Sakta pitha (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, XIV, No 1, 1948, p. 1-108). Note VIII, 8: The contribution Dravidian Formerly the transformation of Indo-Aryan is explained by the influence of the Drava, see, for example, R. Caldwell, A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages (3rd ed., London, 1913); Sten Konow, Linguistic Survey of India, vol. IV, p. 278 et seq.; S. K. Chatterji, The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language (Calcutta, 1926), I, p. 174 et seq. Caldwell argued in particular that the flexion of the Sanskrit and the appearance of brain-tplicaban e. through the Dravida, but the trend toward longer existed cerebrality in Indo-Aryan, Jules Bloch et Dravidian Sanskrit (Bull. Soc Linguistique Paris, XXV, 1924. p. 1-24, trans, into English in Baggchi PC, PreAryan and pre-Dravidian in India, Calcutta, 1929, p. 35-59); id .. Some Problems of Indus-Aryan Philology (Bull. London School Oriental Studies, V, 1930, p. 719-756), p. 730-744, idem, L'Indo-Aryene, modems du Veda aux temps (Paris, 1934), p. 321-331. The phenomenon of the brain was also known by the Munda languages, J. Bloch, Some


Problems, p. 731-732; J. Przyluski, A People of Punjab ancien: les Udumbara, Journal Asiatique, 1926 (trans. Baggchi. Pre-Aryan and pre-Dravidian, p. 156). As for aboriginal influences on Sanskrit, Jules Blcch think rather in Munda influences, especially with regard to vocabulary (see note HIV, 10). It has been thought possible relationships between the Dravida and Etruscan, Drava and the Ural Schrader, Dravidisch und Uralisch (Zeitschriftf. Iranistik u. In-dianistxk, \ \ \, p. 81 ff.) T. Burrmv, Dravidian Studies IV: The Body in Dravidian and Uralia (Bull. London School Orient. Studies. XI, 1944, p. 328-356). About nntropologia and ethnology of the Dravidians, G. Montadon, The Race, Les races (Paris, 1933), p. 174-177, idem. Traite d'Ethnologie Culturelle (Paris, 1934), p. 180 and ff., A. L. Kroeber Anffiropoiogi / (1923), p. 478 and ff. As for the religious life of the Dravidian peoples and gramadevata, material and bibliography is found in G. Oppert, On the Bharatavarsa or original inhabitants of India (Wetrninster, 1893); W. T. Elmore, Dravidian Gods m Modem Hinduism (New York, 1913); H. Whitehead, The Village Gods of South India (Madras, 1921). Also see ^ S. Ch Roy, Oraon Religion and Customs (Ranchi, 1928), J. S. Chandler, Names of God in the Tamil Language Which denote his Oneness (JournalAmer. Orient. Soc, vol. 45, 1925, p. 115-118); O. R. von Ehrenfels, a Matriarchal Traces of Civilization among the Kolli Malai-yalis (Journal Royal Asiatic Society, Bengal, IX, 1943, p. 29-82). The contribution of the religious spirit Dravidian Hinduism has been considerable, however we hesitate to follow the opinion of G. W. Brown (The Sources of Indian Philosophical Ideas, tn Studies in Honor of Maurice Bloomfield, Oxford, 1920, p. 75-88) when he accepts a Dravidian origin for all large-des intuitions and fundamental concepts of Indian thought With regard to the bid, see: Jarl Charpentier, The Meaning and Etymology of tuja (Indian Antiquary, 1927, p. 93-99, 130-136, in German, in Festgabe H. Jacobi, 1926, p. 276-297 ); J. Przyluski, Totemism vigetalisme et dans Vlnde (RevueHist. d. Religions, 1927, 347364). The gramadevata can take any form: Gramadevatapratistha mentions, among many faiths "forms" the skull of Brahma, Vishnu's head, the skull of Renuka, the face of Draupadi, Sita's body, the Pra-matha (procession that follows If you are going to), the Paris (companions of Visnu), demons of all kinds, the yogini, different kinds of idols of the Sakti in made-ra, stone or clay, etc.. Note VIII, 9: Snakes, Dragons, NAGA On the cult and symbolism of the serpent see: J. Ph. Vogel, Serpent Worship in Ancient and Modern India (Acta Orientalia, II, 1924, p. 279-312) especially p. 305 below, on the naga in Kashmir and the Punjab (BR Beotra, Gods and 'Tempts in the Suket States, Journal Asiat. Soc Bengal, 1931, p. 165-176, esp. P. 170 et seq.) , J. Ph. Vogel, Indian Serpent-Lore or The Nagas in Hindu Legend and Art (London, 1926), p. 35 et seq., M. Winternitz, Der Sarpabali ein altindischer Schlangencult (MUteil.d. Anthr. Gesell, in Wien, XVIII, 1888, p. 25 et seq.). We will not take into account the hypothesis of F. Oldham (The Sun and the Serpent, London, 1905) according to which the Nagas have been human beings who considered themselves descendants of the Sun is the first Kern warned that the Nagas were linked to the Waters. Dragons and snakes are identified with the "Senor place" with the "natives",


Charles Autran, L'EpopĂŠe hin-doue (Paris, 1946), p. 68-169. On the metaphysical symbolism of the Serpent, who represents the pre-formal mode of the Universe, the "One" no frag-mented that precedes all Creation, Ananda Coomaraswamy, The Darker Side of the Dawn (Washington, 1938), idem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: Indra and Namuci (Speculum, Jan. 1944, p. 1-25). The only case of human sacrifice ofiolatria Indian is known to date was recorded among the Khasi of Assam: the serpent deity is called U Thlen. On the myths associated with U. Thlen, see R. T. Gurdon, The Khasis (London 1914), p. 175-178; lady Rafy, Folktales of the Kashi (London 1920), p. 58-64 A recent case of sacrifice, dating from 1924, it recounts-do S. Ch Mitya, On a recent instance of the Khasi custom of offeringiiu-man sacrifices to the Snake Deity (Journal Anthr. Soc Bombay, vol, XIII, 2, 1924, p. 1-7), 5-6. About the different ways to present the gods iconographic Naga Combaz see Gisbert, L'Inde et I'Orient classique (Paris, 1037), p. 56 et seq., Idem, Masques et Dragons in Asia (Melangeschinois et bouddhiques, VII, 1939.1945, p. 102 et seq., The Drag6n, 136, the makara in India; 172, the Dragon in China). J. Przyluski, in his article shall The Princess of fishy smell and Nagi in the traditions of East Asia (EtudesAsiatiques, 1025, vol II, p. 265-284) en tudi a group of legends which reflect certain aspects of maritime Southeast civilization. Underlying idea: a magical-religious forces that makes heroes lies in the water (...). These legends are openly opposed to the idea of continental peoples, Indo-Aryan and Chinese, where the gods dwell in the tima of the mountains and in the upper layers of the atmosphere. In China, the divine power and authority come from above EMPE-tor is the Son of Heaven "(p. 281). Another idea complementary to the sacredness of the water: the sovereignty belongs to the women and passed by half women. Przyluski L. Also, Dragon chinois et Naga indien (Monumenta Serica, EI, 2, 1038, p. 602 et seq.) idem, Le Prologue-cadre des Mille et une hutis et le theme of svauamvara. Contribution to Conies Fhistoire des indiens (JoumalAsiatique, 1024, p. 101-137; traces of matriarchy in the stories in-god, in Cambodia, chrno folklore, etc.).. On the aquatic symbolism, see our books: Religion des aVHistoire tratti *, p. 168 et seq.; Images et Symbole *. p. 164 et seq. Note Will, 10: Munda, Proto-Munda He found the bulk of the literature appeared until 1933 in C. Rega-mey, Bibliographic analytique des travaux aux relatxfs Elements anaryens dans la civilization et les langues findi. (Bull. Ecole Franc. Extr. Orient, 1934, p. 429-566). The starting point of all investigations of the world is found in studies of Wilhelm Schmidt in which the detailed relationships established between the group and lingiiistico ks Mon-Khmer languages of the Mala-sia, W. Schmidt, Die Mon-Khmer-Vbiker, Bindeglied em Volkem zwischen Zen-tralasiens und Austronesiens (Archiv fur Anthropologie, NF, V, 1906, p. 59,109; trans, into French by Madame J. Marouzeau. Bull. Ec Fr Extr . Orient, VII, 1007, p. 213263, VIII, 1008, p. 1-35). Description of the Munda languages, Grier-son, Linguistic Survey, vol. IV (1906), p. 1-275. S. K. Chatterji (The Study of Kd, Calcutta Review, 1923, p. 455 et seq.) Prefers to call "Kolari" lingiiistico this group (of kol, aria pronunciation of an old world word means' hombre1) With regard to the influence of languages and cultures australoasiaticas ks on tivilization Sanskrit and the Indo-European View: Sylvain Levi, Priaryen et pridravidien dans Vlnde


(Journal Asiatique, 1923, p. 1-57, trans, into English by P. C Baggchi, Tre-Aryan and Predravidian, Calcutta. 1929.. D ^ 63-126), J. Przy-Hiskia, De quelques noms anaryens in mdo-aryen (Memoires of Socima 'of Lmguistique de Paris, vol. 22, 1921, p. 205-210); idem Emprurtts anaryens in mdoaryen (Bulletinde the Societe de Linguistique, vol. 24, p. 118-123; langala Sanskrit, plow, languda, baston, IMGA; Australo-Asian common root lak), idem, Empnmts anaryens in Indo-aryen (1924, vol. 24, p. 255-258, and the names of betel in Austral-Asian), volume 25, pag. 66-75 (Sanskrit bana 'arrow', words such Australo-Asian Panah), vol. 26, p. 98103 (the name of the ele-Fante, eta), vol. 30, 1930, p. 196-201, idem, The numeration vigesimal in India (Rocznik Orientalistyczny, vol. IV, 1926, p. 230-237), idem, Bengali numeration and nonaryan substratum (trans, into English in Baggchi, Pre-Aryan and Pre Dravidian, p. 25-32); F. B. J. Kroner, An Austro-Asiatic Myth in the Rig Veda (Mededelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 1950, vol. 13, n. 7, p. 163-182: Indra and the boar, which kills an arrow shot through a mountain), idem, Proto-Munda Words in Sanskrit (Verhandeling der kon. Nederl. Ak v. Wetenschappen, vol. 51, n. 3, Amsterdam, 1948) idem, Munda and Indonesian (Orientalia Neerlandica, p . 372-401). As for the Austro-Asiatic migrations to India, Paul Rivet think "from South Asia or from Malaysia, in ancient times, left a series of human migration that spilled into a fan shape across the Pacific and Indian Ocean, and that after all the islands inhabited by these two oceans, reached the east of the New World, northern Japan, west Europe and Africa "(Les Oceaniens, p. 250, Journal Asiatique, 1933, p . 235-256). The first human wave would have been Australian, Melanesian second. In the region of Benares petroglyphs have been found identical to the aus-Ceratodontidae petroglyphs. The use of the boomerang has persisted in the Celebes, in southeastern India and the Cujerat (p. 236). "I am convinced, and this conviction is affirmed but every day, that existed throughout the Mediterranean region and Bafia by a more or less large part of Africa, Oceania substrate, which exercised its influence over the peoples of diverse origin invading these regions through the centuries "(Paul Rivet, et Oceanien Su'merien, Paris, 1929, p. 8). The center of dispersion was undoubtedly South Asia or Malaysia (idem, p. 9). For R. Heine-Geldern, however, the arrival of the Dravi-ing to India would have preceded that of the AustraloAsian: Ein Beitrag zur Chronologie des Neolithikus in Siidostasiens (Festchrift W. Schmidt, Vienna, 1928, p. 809 -- 843: munda on migration, p. 814-830), idem, der Austronesiens Urheimat undfruheste Wanderrungen (Anthropos, vol. 27, 1932, p. 543619). Also Dr. C. Tauber, Entwicklung der Menschheit in der Ur-Austra-Liern bis auf Grund der neusten Europe Forchungen Wanderungen Tiber die der Oceania (ZurichLeipzig, 1932). Excellent study of cultural stratigraphy of the various Indian peoples of Herman Nigger meyer, Totemismus in Vorderindiens (Anthropos, vol. 27, 1932, p. 407-461, 1933, p. 579-619). About Polynesian influences in southern India, see: James Hornell The Origin and Ethnological Significance of the Indian Boat Designs (Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. VII, 1920, fasc. 3), id. The Boats of Ganges (idem, vol. HIV, 1921, fasc. 3). Sumatra-India Analogias H. C. Dasgupta, A Few Types of Indian Shapur (idem, vol. 26, 1930, p. 411-412: The sher-Bakr "tiger-male" p. 143-148, 211-214) id., On a Type of Sedentary Game preoalent tn Shahpur (idem, vol. 26, 1930, p. 411,412: the sehr-Bakr


"tiger-goat", recorded game in Orissa in Tibet and Sumatra). See also Walter Ruben, Ueber die Literatur der vorarischen Stamm lndiens (Deutsche Akademie d. Wissenschaftenzu Berlin, Heft 15, 1952). Note V / / /, 11: Harap pa and Mohenjo-Daro Sir John Marshall, Mohenjc-Daro and the Indus Culture, 3 vols. (London, 1931, colaboraci6n), E. Mackay, The Indus Civilization (London, 1935, trans, into French, Paris, 1936); M. S. Vats, Excavations at Harappa (1940), Heinz Mode, Indische und ihre Beziehungen zum Fruhkulturen West (Basel, 1944, p. 165-171, bibliography); H. Heras, More about Mohenjo-Daro (New Indian Antiquary, I, 1939, p. 637-641); Fr GELP, Induskultur und Hinduismus. Elemente der Voraris-che indischen kultura (Ostasiatische Teitschrift, N F. seventeenth, 1941, p. 201-205) V. Goloubev, Essais sur Fart by Hindus. I.: L'homme au chale Mohenjo-Daro (Bull.Ecole Francaise Extr. Orient, vol. 38, 1938published in 1940i-p. 255-280: a purpose of the image that was believed to recognize a yogi in meditation, the author thinks that this is the effigy of a priest-dowry influentia Asian statuary art above). On all these problems, see the admirable synthesis of Stuart Piggott, Prehistoric India (Penguin Books, 1950; et Harappa Mohenjo-Daro, p. 132-213). Not listed here the many published trials, to decipher the inscriptions of the Indus: we will mention only some: W. de Hevesy, The Eastern Island and The Indus Valley scripts, Anthropos, vol. 33, 1938, p. 808-814 (but see also R. von Heine-Geldem, Die Osterinselschrift, idem, p. 815-909); B. Hrozny, kultura Inschrtften und von der ProtoLNDER und Harappa Mohenjodaro <ArchivOrientdlny, XII, 1941, p. 192-259, XIII, 1942, p. 1-102). About the cult of the vegetation in the Indus civilization, see Odette Viennot, Le Culte de Tarbre dans Vlnde ancienne (Paris, 1954), p. 7-19. Note IX, 1: Diffusion of yogic techniques and cultural contacts between India and the world About Tibetan yoga, see: L. A. Waddell, Lamaism in Sikhim (The Gazetteer of Sikhtm, Calcutta, 1894, p. 241-392), particularly p. 305 and ff. (on the "meditative positions and breathing techniques), Alexandra David Neel, L'entrainement chez les psychique Thihetains (Bull, General TInstitut psychologique, 1927, p. 179-207) and Mystiques Magiciens et du Tibet, Paris, 1929 , p. 245 et seq. See also J. Bacot, MOaripa (Paris, 1925), p. 200 and ff.; W. Y. Evans-Wentz, Tibet's Great Yogi MUarepa (Oxford, 1928), p. 194 et seq., Idem, Le Yoga TibĂŠtain secretes et les doctrines (trad, to fr., Paris, 1938), passim; A. Griinwedel, Die Legenden des Nations clothes, des Hauptoertreters des Nekro-mantenund Hexentum (Leipzig, 1936, but see also G. Tucci, in Journal Roy. Asiat. Soc, 1935, p. 677-688); S. Hummel, Die Lamaistischen Tempelfa-hnen und ihre Beziehung zu Yoga, Tribe I, Stuttgart, 1952-1953, p. 239-252. About Yoga in Mongolia, A. M. Pozdnejev Dhyana Samadhi und im mongo-Lischen Lamaismus (ZeitschrrftfuT Buddhismus, VU, 1926, p. 378-421). About dhyhana (Ch'an) in China, Ed Conze, Le bouddhisme (trad, to fr. Pari *, 1952), p. 199 "ff.; John Blofdd.The Path of Sudden Attainment. A treatise of the Ch'an (Zen) School cf Chinese Buddhism, by Hui Hoi of the Tang Dynasty (London 1948), on the ten, DT Suzuki, Essays in Zen Buddhism, I-III (London, 1927, 1933, 1934); idem / ntroductton to Zen Buddhism (London, 1949) idem, Manual of Zen Buddhitm (Kyoto, 1935; traduction of texts). With regard to the diffusion of Indian spiritual techniques in Indonesia, everything has


been said in the monumental work of Paul Mus, Borobudur (Hanoi, 1935). See also J. Przyluski, Le bouddhisme Bali tantric d ', d'une publication Ricento AVRE * (Journal Asiatique, 1931, p. 159-187): Javanese Tantrism is similar to the Japanese Shingon sect, but it represents an earlier stage (op. cit, p. 160). On the cultural ties between India and China, Elmer H. Cutts, Chinese-Indian contacts prior to the latter half of the century ftrtt (Indian Historical Quarterly, XIV, 3, September 1938. P. 488-502); Baggchi Prabodh Chandra, India and China, A thousand year * of cultural relations * (2nd ed. Bombay, 1950, p. 221-222, bibliography). On the cultural ties between India and Europe, will find materials and bibliographies esendales in Henri de Lubac, The recontra du bouddhisme ETDE YOccident (Paris, 1952); E. Lamotte, Le * relations * between yields premieres et YOccident (The Nouoelle Clio, V, 1953, p. 83-118); on Indian influences. Memorial Sylvain Uvi (Paris, 1937), p. 190, 208-207, 210-212. etc., Marcel Mauss, between hlstoriques Rapports et la mystique mystique Hindou occidentale (resurgence of eleven pages of the Proceedings of the Congress of Christian history, Paris 1928). "Lafia had already observed that, in the work of Plotinus, the preparatory procedures for the ecstasy were comparable to those of Buddhism and some other Brahmanical systems (...). Indeed, in a magic papyrus of the second century, is made of menci6n certain Hindu beliefs (Norden, Geburt des Klndes, 1924, p. 112), Isis is there compared to Maya, the name and personification of the Buddha's mother and also from the "Grand Illusion." See also H. de Lubac, Textes alexandrins et bouddhiques (* Recherche de science religieuse, vol. 27, 1937, p. 336351), Jean Filliozat, La doctrine of "Brahmins d'apres taint Hippolyte (Revue Hist. Relig., July-December 1945, p. 59 -91), id. Vlnde Les Exchange And Empire romain et aux siecles Tere premier * chretienne (Revue Historique, January-March 1949, p. 1-29); id., La doctrine classique indienne medicine (Paris , 1949), p. 205 ff. The problem of Indian influence on Christian theology and mysticism-nas just been comprehensively addressed by Ernst Benz, Indische Einfliisse aufdie Fruhchristliche Thedogie (Akadsmie der Wissenschaftenu, d. Literatur, Jahrgang 1951, n. 3, Wiesbaden, p . 172-202, see especially p. 197, Ammonia * diffusionit the Sakas et la philosophie indienne dans les milieux et neo-chretien platonicien * * d'Alexandrie). But we must not forget that this influence is exer-oj6 also in reverse: in Isvaragita, imitation late; sivaita, the Bahagavad-Gita, Yoga, interpreted as union of the human soul with God (Isvara = Siva) is sunapha appointed, the term is also found in the astrological work of Varahamihira (sixth century after Christ). Now it is of Greek origin (Winternitz, Geschichte d. Ind. Litteratur, III, 567, 669, 571): Produi Plotinus and tynaphi use the word in the sense of mystical union between the soul and spirit, see P. E. Dunxmt, Sunapha. Note sur un passage de Htvaragita du Kutmapurana (Claster Butt. Lettres, Sciences Morales et politique * deTAcademitde Belgique, V t series XVII, p. 444-450). See also Olivier Laoorobe, Note tur Plotin 't U pensions indienne (Annuaire de Pratique de Xtcole ÂťHautes Etudes, Sciences Migleuses, 1950-1951, Paris 1950. P. 3-17).