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LEVIATHAN Edinburgh University’s Journal of Politics and Current Affairs February 2013 Volume III Issue II

Justice


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Made in Senegal: Is China unfair trade competition to this Senegalese tailor? Photograph by Elizabeth Cooper in Koussanar, Senegal 2008. Elizabeth Cooper is the Fair Trade Coordinator for Edinburgh University.

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Shariff Frank R. Crowe


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^(7%5&3!.C#'!"7%,#19#"+,(,#("%&/,(4#"+,%,#!%,# (&5'&*3!'"#3&?&.&!'#3!(7!."&,(#"!/&'5#;.!3,# &'#317'"%&,(#'1"#91%0!..-#!"#:!%#:&"+#"+,# DKf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Jessie Stevenson

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elsen, Pure Theory of Law, University of California Press, 1978, p. 66. 2 S. Shuster, Russia’s Pussy Riot Trial: A Kangaroo Court Goes on a Witch Hunt, in TIME Magazine. 3 A punk prayer earns two years in jail, in Euronews. 4 P. H. Russell, D. M. O’Brien, Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy: Critical Perspectives from Around the World, University of Virginia Press, 2001, p. 89. 5 Pussy Riot members sentenced to 2 years in prison, in USA Today. 6 Russia Frees One Punk Rocker, Keeps Two in Jail, in Voice of America. 7 Khodorkovsky judge denies being pressured into verdict, in BBC. 8 C. J. Levy, At Expense of All Others, Putin Picks a Church, in The New York Times. 9 N. Cohen, An evil collusion between a tyrant and a man of God, in The Guardian. 10 Russian Patriarch Calls Putin Era “Miracle of God,” in Reuters. 11 M. Albright, Madam Secretary, Miramax Books, New York, 2003, p. 142. 12 J. Yanosik, The Plastic People of the Universe, in Perfect Sound Forever.


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Julius Colwyn

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(44(6%># 1%# 1$# <.$$13-(# 4.0# +# 6*1-'>$# 4&%&0(# ).%# %.# 3(# '(<()'()%# .)# %*(10# $.61.;(6.; ).216#3+6A50.&)'c#%*+%#/(#6+)#-1,(#1)#+# 2.0(#X&$%#$.61(%:7#Y?!J#$%+%($#%*+%#'1$+'; ,+)%+5('# $%&'()%$# 6+)# +)'# .4%()# '.# '(4:# %*(# .''$# +5+1)$%# %*(2# /*()# 51,()# %*(# .<<.0%&)1%:# %.# '.# $.7# D*(# Y01)6(>$# D0&$%# *+$# '.6&2()%('# %*(# 50(+%# 6.$%$# ^# +6%&+-# +)'# <.%()%1+-9# (6.).216# +)'# *&2+)# ;# .4# ('&6+%1.)+-#'1$+',+)%+5(7#d.*)#e+/-$#4+; '$4!%=&$3*-*0&/#*&.2!/&14%%&!*"/+$-&$1&@& D*(.0:# .4# d&$%16(# /1%*# %*(# +$$(0%1.)# %*+%# AB4!/+"*&+!&/#*&.2!/&5+2/4*&$1&!$"+(%&+-!/+/4; %1.)$7`KZ# ?$# 1%# ).%# .&0# '&%:# %.# ()$&0(# %*+%# .&0# $6*..-$# +)'# ('&6+%1.)+-# <.-161($# &<; *.-'#%*1$#,10%&(#4.0#+--f 1 Collins English Dictionary (2013), retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/ justice?showCookiePolicy=true. 2 J.Humphrey, R.Cassin, S.Hessel, P.Chang, C.Malik, E.Roosevelt, Article 1, ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ (1948), retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http://www.un.org/ed/documents/udhr/. 3 M.Corak, J.Waldfogel, L.Washbrook, J.Ermish, A.Vignoles, J.Jerrim, ‘Social Mobility and Education Gaps in Major Anglophone Countries’, Research Findings for the Social Mobility Summit, London, Carnegie Cooperation of New York, The Sutton Trust (May 2010), pp9, retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http://carnegie.org/fileadmin/Media/Publications/social_mobility_summit_2012_v4.pdf. 4 Research Findings for the Social Mobility Summit, pp15, retrieved 3 January 2013. 5 Ibid., pp17. 6 S.McNally, S.Telhaj, ‘The Cost of Exclusion: Counting the cost of youth disadvantage in the UK’, The Princes Trust (April 2007), pp13, retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http://www.princes-trust.org.uk/ PDF/Princes%20Turst%20Research%20Cost%20of%20Exclusion%20 apr07.pdf. 7 OECD, PISA In Focus 5, education policy, ‘How do some students overcome their socio-economic background?’ (June 2011), pp1, retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/ pisa2009/48165173.pdf. 8 A. Goodman, P. Gregg, ‘poorer children’s educational attainment: how important are attitudes and behaviours?’ Report for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (March 2010), pp14, retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http://www.jrf.org.uk/system/files/poorer-children-education-full.pdf. 9 Report for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, pp18, retrieved 3 January 2013. 10 Social Mobility Summit, pp9. 11 E.Sellstrom, S.Bremberg, ‘Is there a “school effect” on pupil outcomes? A review of multilevel studies’, Journal Epidemiol Community Health (February 2006), vol 60(2), pp49, retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2566146. 12 Teach First Graduate Recruitment Brochure 2012, retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http://graduates.teachfirst.org.uk/downloads/teachfirstgradborchure12.pdf. 13 Report for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, pp34, retrieved 3 January 2013. 14 PISA In Focus 5, pp3, retrieved 3 January 2013. 15 Ibid., pp2. 16 Joseph Rowntree Foundation, pp28. 17 Young People Omnibus 2012, pp28, retrieved 3 January 2013. 18 Joseph Rowntree Foundation, pp41. 19 Journal Epidemiol Community Health, retrieved 3 January 2013. 20 About us, Teach First, retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http:// www.teachfirst.org.uk/AboutUs/. 21 Muijs D. Chapman C. Collins A. Armstrong D., ‘Maximum Impact Evaluation: The impact of Teach First teachers in schools’ (October 2010), pp4, retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http://teachforall.org/ articles/max_impact.pdf. 22 ‘Teach First Founder thanks Uxbridge High School’ (23 January 2012), retrieved 3 January 2013. Available at: http://www.teachfirst.org. uk/TFNews/TeachFirstFounderthanksUxbridgeHighSchoolforsupport30359.aspx . 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid., pp8. 25 Ibid., pp41. 26 Young People Omnibus 2012, pp28. 27 J.Rawls, ‘A Theory of Justice’, pp3, Cambridge, US: Harvard University Press (1971).


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“Lockerbie bomber Abdelbaset al-Megrahi dies in Tripoli”. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/worldafrica-18137896 [Accessed 14 November 2012] 2 BBC. (2007) “On This Day – 21st December 1988: Jumbo jet crashes onto Lockerbie”. [Online] Available at: http:// news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/21/newsid_2539000/2539447.stm [Accessed 14 November 2012] 3 Ibid. 4 MacAskill, Kenny. (2009) “Lockerbie decision”. [Online] Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Speeches/Speeches/Safer-andstronger/lockerbiedecision November 2012] [Accessed 14 5 Ashton, John. (2012) “Megrahi: You are my Jury”. [Online] Available at: http://www.megrahiyouaremyjury.net/ [Accessed 14 November 2012] 6 Black, Robert. (2012) “A Statement by Justice for Megrahi on the death of Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed al-http://lockerbiecase.blogspot. co.uk/2012/05/statement-by-justice-for-Megrahi”. [Online] Available at: megrahi-on.html [Accessed 14 Novemeber 2012] 7 Swaine, Jon & Cramb, Auslan. (2009) “Kenny MacAskill to face furious MSPs over Lockerbie bomber release”. [Online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/scotland/6080538/KennyMacAskill-to-face-furious-MSPs-over-Lockerbie-bomber-release.html [Accessed 14 November 2012] 8 Ibid. 9 Herald Scotland. (2012) “Reaction: politicians and relatives on Megrahi’s death”. [Online] Available at: http://www.heraldscotland. com/news/home-news/reaction-what-they-said-about-megrahisdeath.1337522058 [Accessed 14 November 2012] 10 Allardyce, Jason & Allen-Mills, Tony. (2010) “White House Backed Release of Lockerbie bomber Abdel Baset al-Megrahi”. [Online] Available at: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/whitehouse-backed-release-of-lockerbie-bomber-abdel-baset-al-megrahi/ story-e6frg6so-1225896741041 [Accessed 14 November 2012] 11 BBC. (2009) “FBI boss attacks Megrahi release”. [Online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/8216122.stm [Accessed 14 November 2012] 12 Ibid. 13 Massie, Alex. (2010) “The Loony BP-Lockerbie Conspiracy Theory”. [Online] Available at: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2010/07/20/bp-and-the-lockerbie-bomber-why-the-conspiracy-isfalse.html [Accessed 14 November 2012] 14 Carrell, Severin. (2010) “We released Abdelbaset al-Megrahi in good faith, says Alex Salmond”. [Online] Available at: http://www.guardian. co.uk/uk/2010/aug/20/abdelbaset-al-megrahi-good-faith-alex-salmond-lockerbie [Accessed 14 November 2012] 15 BBC. (2009) “Majority ‘oppose’ Megrahi release”. [Online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/8226585.stm [Accessed 14 November 2012] 16 Herald Scotland. (2009) “Mandela backs decision to free Megrahi”. [Online] Available at: http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/politics/ mandela-backs-decision-to-free-megrahi-1.825275 [Accessed 14 November 2012] 17 MacAskill, Kenny. (2009) “Lockerbie decision”. [Online] Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Speeches/Speeches/Safer-andstronger/lockerbiedecision November 2012] [Accessed 14 November 2012] 18 Gandhi International Institute for Peace. (2012) “Essential Quotes of Mahatma Gandhi”. [Online] Available at: http://www.gandhianpeace. com/quotes.html [Accessed 14 November 2012]


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1 A Hadith is a saying or an act or tacit approval or disapproval ascribed either validly or invalidly to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Islahi, A.A.I, 2009. Fundamentals of Hadith Interpretation. 1st ed. Lahore, Pakistan: Al-Mawrid. 2 CIA Site Redirect — Central Intelligence Agency. 2012. CIA Site Redirect — Central Intelligence Agency. [ONLINE] Available at:http:// www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id.html. [Accessed 20 December 2012]. 3 Lawrence Rosen, 2000. The Justice of Islam: Comparative Perspectives on Islamic Law and Society (Oxford Socio-Legal Studies) Edition. Oxford University Press, USA. p.155 4 2004. The Qur’an (Oxford World’s Classics Hardcovers). Edition.


Inviting interested editors, graphic designers, illustrators, and writers to contribute to our next issue. The theme for our Spring issue will be â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Developmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Development tends to be understood in terms of economic progress. But is there more to it? Many argue that the basic purpose of development is to enlarge human freedoms, to expand the choices people have to live full and creative lives. Others have understood development to be the fusion of modern advances in science, technology, democracy, values, and social organisation. Some see development simply as positive change. But is development necessarily a good thing? Is there a clear model of the ideal state towards which it aims? Is the whole idea Western-centric, imposed by powerful people upon the less powerful, or can it be a bottom-up process? How should it be assessed? Through GNP, employment, literacy, or Gross National Happiness? These are some of the questions you might like to look at for our next issue. We hope this rich theme inspires you to contribute! The deadline for submission is 10th April, 2013. Visit us online at leviathanjournal. com, or email us at leviathanjournal@gmail.com to find out more.

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