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Teacher’s Guide

Teacher’s Guide

Step-by-Step: Grade One Daily Lessons

The scientifically-based lessons contain a strong visual-auditory-kinesthetictactile component, ensuring that your teaching is interactive and effective. There are 36 Weekly Units plus 9 Supplemental Units. Each Unit introduces one or two new phonic elements in a 5-day teaching plan that aims for accuracy and fluency. Whether children are new to Letterland or already familiar with the child-friendly Letterlanders, you can:

Step-by-Step Teacher’s Guide

For many years Letterland has lead children to skillful reading, accurate spelling and a love of literacy with delightful letter characters and memorable phonic fables. This Grade One sequel to Letterland Step-by-Step Kindergarten Guide provides fresh support for you and your first graders on their journey to full literacy.

• Follow the systematic Letterland sequence, or match the sequence of your curriculum.

• Provide activities for whole class, small group, independent/partner practice and homework. • Use the all-new Intervention section to bring your at-risk readers up to grade level. • Enhance your teaching with Step-by-Step Word Cards for word sorting activities. • Teach carefully chosen high-frequency, irregular sight words along with decodable words and story words from the previous Units. • Use the rich resources of photocopiable material on the accompanying CD. • Ensure mastery by using the regular assessments provided for spelling and word reading fluency.

www.letterland.com ISBN: 978-1-86209-648-6

9 781862 096486 Product Code: TGG1

Step-by-Step: Grade One

• Reduce your planning time by using the specific, day-by-day lesson plans.

GRADE ONE

drawing


Contents Introduction Important Features of Letterland Step-by-Step G1 ................................................................. 6

Independent/Partner Read Review Sentences...................................................31 Prepare for Game of the Week.......................................31

Why Letterland Step-by-Step is Just Right for your First Graders .............................................................. 7

Day 3

Scope and Sequence ...........................................................12

Whole Class

A Road Map to Step-by-Step Units ......................................14 Five Day Unit Plan..................................................................20

Step-by-Step Weekly Activities Day 1

..........................................................................21

Whole Class Phonic Concept Review ..................................................21 Introduce concepts on the pocket chart .......................21 Live Reading .....................................................................22 Word Detectives ...............................................................23 Read new Word Cards in columns ...............................23 Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters .......................24

Small Group Teacher Builds Words for Reading ...............................24 New Tricky Words and Story Words .............................24 Read Student List ............................................................26

Independent/Partner Write and mark up words. Read to 2 partners ........... 27

.........................................................................32

Guess Who? .....................................................................32 Word Card Sort ................................................................32 Read the Decodable Story to the children ....................34

Small Group Dictate new Tricky Words ................................................34 Dictate 1 or 2 Review Sentences ....................................35 Children read the Decodable Story ...............................35

Independent/Partner Written Word Sort.............................................................35

Day 4

.........................................................................36

Whole Class Red Robot's Reading Race .............................................36 Play the Game of the Week ........................................... 37

Small Group Share homework sentences .......................................... 37 Reread the Decodable Story .......................................... 37 Spelling Sort......................................................................38 New Sentences dictation ................................................38

Independent/Partner Written practice test with a partner ...............................38

Day 2

......................................................................... 27

Whole Class Quick Dash ...................................................................... 27 Shared Reading of Songs ...............................................28 Live Spelling ......................................................................28

Small Group Children Build Words.......................................................29 Review Tricky Words and Story Words ..........................30 Read Review Sentences..................................................30

Fluency practice with a partner......................................38

Day 5

.........................................................................39

Whole Class Spelling Test ......................................................................39 Word Reading Fluency Check ........................................40

Small Group Suggested activities ..........................................................41

Independent/Partner Illustrate and picture-code words...................................41 Read the Decodable Story to 2 partners ......................42


Homework Activities............................................................42

Unit 31: R-controlled vowels ir ur... .................................... 73

Comprehension Activities ...................................................44

Unit 32: Schwa o/u˘ & R-controlled er ..............................177

Stone Story ........................................................................44

– ................................................................. 181 Unit 33: Long oo..

Reader's Theater .................................................................44

Unit 34: Short oo & u (put)................................................ 185

Plan and Play ......................................................................44

Unit 35: Dipthongs o¯ w ow/ou/ ou ................................. 189

Story Map

.......................................................................44

Unit 36: Dipthongs oy oi ................................................... 193

Preparing for Independent/Partner Activities .................45

Unit 37: Controlled vowels aw au ....................................197

Multisensory Activities for Blending & Segmenting.......46

Unit 38: Contractions/apostrophes ................................ 201

Game of the Week ..............................................................49

Unit 39: Consonant blends scr spr spl str .................205

U

Unit 40: Compound Words ................................................209

Step-by-Step Unit Plans

53

Unit 1: Word families ad ap at..........................................53 Unit 2: Word families ack am an ..................................... 57 Unit 3: Word families ix in ick ............................................61 Unit 4: Word families ock op ot........................................65 Unit 5: Word families ell et en ..........................................69 Unit 6: Word families ug un ut ......................................... 73 Unit 7: Short Vowels a˘ e˘ i˘ o˘ u˘ & ch qu ................................ 77 Unit 8: The Vowel Men at the End a¯ e¯ i¯ o¯ u¯ & y /i¯ / .............81

Unit 41: Suffixes -ly -ful .................................................... 213 Unit 42: Prefixes re- un- ....................................................217 Unit 43: Comparative Endings -er -est ........................... 221 Unit 44: Consonant plus le ................................................225 Unit 45: ea (Short e) ............................................................229

Assessment and Small Group Intervention

233

Assessment ........................................................................234 Intervention ........................................................................ 241

Unit 9: Giant all......................................................................85 Unit 10: Best Friends at the End ss ll rr.............................89

Appendices

Unit 11: Consonant Blends with s.........................................93

Children New to Letterland ................................................260

Unit 12: Consonant Blends with l......................................... 97

Letterland Express ...............................................................260

Unit 13: Consonant Blends with r ....................................... 101

More for Children New to Letterland ................................264

Unit 14: Final Blends -nd -nt -st -sk .............................. 105

Games for Review of Letterlanders & their Sounds ........265

Unit 15: Words ending with -nk -ng ................................ 109 Unit 16: Silent Magic e a_e ............................................... 113

Consolidating Short Vowel Sounds for Reading and Spelling ..............................................267

Unit 17: Silent Magic e i_e o_e ...................................... 117

The Sounds Trick ..................................................................268

Unit 18: The Blue Magic ce ge & u_e .............................. 121

The Actions Trick ..................................................................269

Unit 19: Long e: ee e_e .................................................... 125

The Character Names Trick .................................................271

Unit 20: Long e: ea.. .......................................................... 129

The Capital Letter Trick ........................................................272

Unit 21: Long a: ai ay ....................................................... 133

Letter Sounds Pronunciation Guide ...................................274

Unit 22: Long o: oa o¯ w.....................................................137

Costumes and Props ..........................................................275

Unit 23: Long i: ie igh ........................................................ 141

List of CD Contents ..............................................................276

Unit 24: Long i: -ind -ild -old.......................................... 145

Index

Unit 25: Long u: ue ui ew .............................................. 149 Unit 26: Final y/e/ ............................................................... 153 Unit 27: Suffix ed /ed/ ed /d/ ............................................157 Unit 28: Suffix ed /t/ Magic ed .......................................... 161 Unit 29: R-controlled vowels ar or ................................... 165 Unit 30: R-controlled vowels ore oor our /or/.............. 169

259

........................................................................277


Important Features of this Teacher’s Guide • • • • • •

Phonemic Awareness and phonic emphasis to support literacy works in the classroom Multisensory phonemic awareness training Systematic, synthetic phonics Scientific research-based instruction Interactive instruction to engage your children’s attention and accelerate learning Emphasis on fluency at all levels: letter sounds, words, sentences, and stories

Structure • 36 standard weekly Units of instruction • 9 supplemental Units for advanced teaching or to match contents of other reading programs used in your classroom

• Each Unit teaches one or two new phonic elements or affixes with appealing Letterland characters and memorable story logic

• Daily activities for whole class, small group, independent/partner practice, and homework Reproducible Resources on the Accompanying CD • Student pages for each Unit: Student List, Word Sort, Review Sentences, Decodable Story • 5 different games to be used with various Units • Assessment forms • Quick reference guides for the teacher Assessment and Intervention • Designed to be compatible with the Response to Intervention model (RTI) • Special Intervention Section for Tier Two or Three instruction • Optional Placement Assessment to match instruction to student needs • Weekly Unit fluency and spelling assessments for instructional decision making. • Tri-weekly fluency and spelling assessments for progress monitoring

Important Note on Styles Throughout this Teacher’s Guide, you will see words that the teacher might say to the children printed in blue without quotations marks. This text is meant to provide guidelines and does not need to be read word for word. Words that the children might say are printed with quotation marks and in “bold.” Words or letters that may be used in an activity or an explanation are also printed in bold.

6 Introduction


Why Letterland Step-by-Step Is Just Right for Your Students with quotes from the Researchers and Letterland Teachers All children need systematic phonemic awareness and phonics instruction. Letterland helps you guide your children ‘Step-by-Step’ through the

complexities of English phonics such as the five sounds of a in these words: “tray”

“tap”

“yard”

“yawn”

“tall”

National Reading Panel 1 “First graders who were taught phonics systematically were better able to decode and spell, and they showed significant improvement in their ability to comprehend text.”

Professor of Reading 2 “This program is not only extremely well thought out, it is highly imaginative and distinctly and usefully memorable.”

They can still be unsure of some consonant letter sounds. Letterland characters help children easily learn even the most challenging letter sounds - the ones with misleading letter names. Each Letterlander’s name repeats the target sound, and its shape triggers plain letter recognition.

Harry Hat Man

Traditional Letter Names

h

“aitch”

A Letterland Teacher “Students who were having difficulty learning letters/sounds were successful using Letterland.”

Walter Walrus

w

“double-u”

Golden Girl

“jee”

National Reading Panel “In a study by Ehri, Deffner, and Wilce (1984), children were shown letter s drawn to assume the shape of a snake, h drawn as a house (with a chimney). Children…taught in this way learned...better than children who were taught letters…with pictures unrelated to the letter shapes…”

1 National Institute of Child Health and Development (2000) Report of the National Reading Panel: Reports of the Subgroups. 2 Dr Bob Schlagal, Department of Language, Reading, & Exceptionalities, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA

7 Introduction


Your children may have trouble with capital letters that look very different from their lower case shapes. Letterland creates logical links for them. Each Letterlander does a special Capital Letter Trick when starting an important word such as a name or the beginning of a sentence.

Capital Letter Tricks

Bouncy Ben balances his best blue ball between his big brown ears.

Eddy Elephant loves to do his ‘elephant on end’ trick.

Golden Girl loves to get in her go-cart to start important words.

National Reading Panel .”..teaching children all the letters of the alphabet is not easy, particularly when they come to school knowing few of them. There are 52 capital and lower-case letter shapes, names, and sounds to learn. The shapes of many letters are similar, and, therefore, easily confused with one another.

Many children start the year confused about the five short vowel sounds. Letterland vowel characters and hand motions give children a ‘hook’ to remember the short vowel sounds.

Annie Apple

Eddy Elephant

Impy Ink

Oscar Orange

Uppy Umbrella

And special short vowel practice activities help children consistently apply these sounds in reading and spelling. National Reading Panel “The motivational power of associating letters with interesting characters or hand motions and incorporating this into activities that are fun is important for promoting young children’s learning.”

8 Introduction

Superintendent “The kids absolutely love Letterland. It has tapped into their imaginations, their different learning styles, and the way they like to learn.”


Every child needs to become skillful at phonemic blending and segmenting. Step-by-Step Units 1-7 give children ample practice in decoding and spelling simple short vowel words, using multisensory methods that help them grasp and master these essential abilities. ssssaaat, sss-ă-t

Word Stretching/Segmenting

Roller Coaster/Blending

Letterland Teachers

Finger Sounding Blending/Segmenting

National Reading Panel [Children] “...need to be able to blend sounds together to decode words, and they need to break spoken words into their constituent sounds to write words.”

“Easily transferrable to print for kids.” “Super-highly motivating!”

Once your class has learned simple short vowel words, they still need to master complex spelling combinations that represent new sounds. Letterland’s brief phonic fables combine fresh visual support with a story logic to make the new sounds memorable. Quarrelsome Queen never goes in a word without her umbrella to protect her long, beautiful hair. Irving Ir steals all the ink bottles he can find and proudly reports his catch by saying his last name, “Ir.” Researcher, Linnea Ehri 2 “You can’t become a skilled reader unless you know the system.” National Reading Panel “Learning vowel and digraph spelling patterns is harder for children; therefore, special attention is devoted to learning these relations.”

From his salty water wells, Walter Walrus splashes Annie Apple’s face. She complains, “Aw, that’s awful.”

The boy called Roy shouts, ”Oy!” as he plays leap-frog with Yo-yo Man.

Dr. Sally Shaywitz 3 “An engaging and helpful program.” Letterland Teachers “Brings the English language to life with stories that help students remember and connect.” “It works!”

2 Linnea Ehri. (2002). “Effective Phonics Instruction: What Research Tell Us.” Keynote address Annual Conference of the Reading Reform Foundation. 3 Sally Shaywitz, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Study, Yale University School of Medicine. (2005) Overcoming Dyslexia. New York: Knoph.

9 Introduction


Your children also need to learn dozens of high-frequency sight words that don’t follow phonic rules in order to read stories and write on their own. In each Unit you will teach children one to four of these words with the ‘3 by-3 Strategy,’ having them spell aloud 3 ways and tracing the letters 3 ways. Children also practice reading and writing their ‘Tricky Words’ in the context of the sentences and stories provided. 16 TW

16 TW

was

A Letterland Teacher “The Tricky Word Practice Activity ‘3-by-3’ worked very well with my students.”

very

16 TW

where

Researcher: Rolanda O’Connor 4 “Saying the letter names aloud as students study the word can focus their attention on all of the letters in sequence...” (p 86) “...introduce new words cumulatively and practice the new words in isolation, in lists among known words, and in the context of books and stories.” (p 82)

At this stage fluency needs to be a high priority. In each weekly Unit, children practice fluency with letter sounds and with words on word cards, in lists, in practice sentences, and in decodable stories.

b

s

Tricky Words

f

ie igh Letter Sounds

pie

night

high

one

lie

light

might

lives

tied

right

fight

Story Words

lamb

tries

Word Cards

Word Lists, Sentences, Stories

National Reading Panel ...”fluent and automatic application of phonics skills to text is another critical skill that must be taught and learned to maximize oral reading and reading comprehension.”

A Letterland Teacher “It’s great! My school students as well as my own child have learned so much this year.”

4 Rollanda O’Connor (2007). Teaching word recognition: Effective Strategies for Students with Learning Difficulties. New York: Guildford.

10 Introduction


Your at-risk children need additional, carefully targeted, and more intensive, small group instruction. After initial placement assessment and unit assessments, the Intervention

section provides daily activities to guide those struggling readers to success.

Letterland Teachers “Well thought out program and effective for at-risk students.” “The most successful curriculum for students with special needs!”

RTI Trainer and Author, Susan Hall 4 “Early intervention studies show that 95% or more of students can read successfully with strong early identification and intervention.” Researcher, Joseph Torgesen 5 “One of the most important goals of preventive instruction should be to maintain fundamental word-reading skills for at-risk children within the average range so that they can read independently and accurately— and with enjoyment.”

But most of all, your students are children, who learn best when deeply engaged through the power of stories, characters, drama, music, art and play. Letterland has all these components.

Live Reading and Spelling

Blends and Digraphs Songs

National Reading Panel ” It is ... critical for teachers to understand that systematic phonics instruction can be provided in an entertaining, vibrant, and creative manner.”

Fluency Plays

Picture Coding

Drama

Letterland Teachers “Friendly program with amazing results backed by DIBELS data.” “Students and teachers enjoy using it!”

4 Susan Hall (2008) Implementing Response to Intervention: A Principal’s Guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press 5 Joseph Torgesen (2004). “Preventing early reading failure and its devastating downward spiral: The evidence for early intervention.” American Educator, 28 (3), 6-10.

11 Introduction


Scope and Sequence Sections Short Vowel Word Families

Unit No. 1 2 3 4 5

Skill

Sample Decodable Words

ă word families More ă word families ĭ word families ŏ word families ĕ word families: ell et ŭ word families suffix s Short Vowel Review ch, qu

cap nap had mad cat hat pan man am ham back pack sick kick thin win six mix hot not mop shop rock sock tell well wet vet hen when run bug hug but bugs duck cups hugs cubs ducks up chin chop quack such beds hens has his if that which

is my the on a and I like this to likes he they went she do we

8

Open Syllables

she we go no my why hi I

many there zoo

9

all & short e, i, a

ball fall check chick bath path them him did

over see cannot

10

ff ss ll

bell sell fill chill huff puff cuff miss kiss less doll off

as have egg

11 12 13

s blends l blends r blends

skin stack smell stop stuff lag glad flip block club fly grass trap brick frog dress cry

what you down said our now under into

14

Final blends nd nt st sk

land end went best ask desk

about some

15

Final blends ng nk Suffix ing

thank think wing song long ink bring sending flying

want along

ā with Silent Magic e ī and ō with Silent Magic e ū with Silent Magic e Soft c/s/ and g/j/ before e ee, e-e

wag plan name tape made those rope hope n ride like side mine time riding hoping

6 7

Tricky Words

two helps too me for

The Vowel Men

Final Double Consonants

Consonant Blends

Silent Magic e

16 17 18

Vowels Out Walking and Other Long Vowels

19 20 21 22 23 24 25

ea ai, ay oa, ow/ō/ igh ie ild ind old ost ue ui ew

cute June cube nice ice place page huge racing chasing help these them keep see week feet green keeping left melt eat meat neat read clean each reading meaning wait main pain tail nail train paint mail trail playing okay boat coat grow follow throw show below coast yellow night light fight pie lie tie tied child wild wind mind find hold told most fold kind hind both blue clue new few fruit juice

12 Introduction

where was very would o'clock your from her little their soon our listen saw give could done are one lives himself look wind how house put


26 Sections

Unit No.

Three Sounds of ed

27

Variant Vowel Sounds

Supplemental Units

funny happy baby pony tiny easy

story work here

Skill

Sample Decodable Words

ed endings: /ed/ & /d/ sound ed ending: /t/ sound; ed as a magic ending

waited folded floated loaded stayed dreamed called spelled kicked reached locked checked closed liked raced chased named

29

ar or

car farm hard fork morning corn

hello heard come

30

ore oor our

more before four your door floor

who words ever

31

ir, ur

bird dirt stir third thirsty girl first

move warm

32

er, o/Ĺ­/

mother other brother love none number ever sister winter over

father water does

33

oo as in boot

boot moon room soon cool pool

around eyes again

34

oo as in foot u in put

pull put full push book good look

through who head

35

ou ow/ou/

cow now how down town brown proud out loud shout cloud south

can't don't shoes

36

oi oy

oil boil coin voice boy toy joy

together people

37

aw au

38

contractions

39

3 letter blends spr, str, scr, spl

spring splash spray street stray

ready were behind

40

compound words

evergreen firewood flashlight footpath milkweed butterfly

enough through

41

Suffixes ly, ful

awful helpful useful gladly quickly

talking hurry

42

re, un

reheat reuse reread redraw retry unplug unafraid unkind undo

school thought learned

43

Comparative endings er, est

faster fastest better best quicker quickest slower slowest harder

worse worst

44

Consonant-l-e

able table handle wiggle rattled struggle juggle juggling paddling

even goes

45

ea/Ä•/

bread breath dead deaf feather head heavy healthy instead ready

walk care

28 The Vowel Stealers

y=e

saw law crawl draw fault cause because pause crawled crawling he's she's what's don't can't didn't i wasn't weren't I'll, he'll, she'll

13 Introduction

Tricky Words of friend wash out took before

near should across won't guess sure


Reproducible pages for each Unit

The Student List is used daily in the classroom for a variety of activities. It also lists Homework assignments for Days 1-4.

You may want to make a booklet of the first 18 Units with these pages from the CD for each Unit: Student List, Review Sentences, Word Sort and Decodable Story. Then at midyear make a second book of the remaining Units.

Letterland Step-by-Step Units 1-18

Review Sentences provide practice with words from previous Units for reading and written dictation.

15 Introduction

Name ______


A Road Map for Step-by-Step Units Each of the 45 Step-by-Step Units includes four Teacher’s Guide pages of information and ideas for your teaching and four reproducible pages on the accompanying Teacher’s Guide CD.

Features of Page One of Each Unit

The Unit Focus explains the phonic skills and other objectives of the Unit.

Diagnostic Words help you decide if your children are ready to move on to the next Unit.

The pocket chart shows how to sort the words based on phonic sounds and patterns.

The Unit includes List A, B and C. Begin with list A, if children need more practice follow up with B and C.

Each Unit lists 12-14 Letterland Picture Code Cards that you will use for review activities throughout the week.

Tricky Words are irregular sight words.

Review words are included from previous Units.

New Spelling Sentences are practiced during the week and included on the end of the Unit assessments.

14 Introduction

Story Words are words from the Unit Decodable story that have not yet been taught.


More reproducible pages

A Decodable Story for each unit provides practice with new phonic concepts and Tricky Words.

Word Sort page: Children categorize their words by phonic patterns and write them in columns.

16 Introduction


Letterland Materials You Will Need Essential Products for Your Classroom Step-by Step Grade One

Order Code

Product and Description

TG1

Step-by-Step Teacher's Guide Grade 1 Includes CD with over 150 reproducible pages including a brief decodable story for each Unit

3

win 3

3 TW

to

big things thick 3S

T04S or T04

Straight Class Train Frieze or Pre-cursive Train Freeze

T31

Vowel Scene Posters 4 posters illustrating long and short vowels, Magic e, vowel pairs and r-controlled vowels

G1WL

Large Class Word Cards Word Cards for each of 45 Units, suitable for whole class use in a pocket chart (See www.letterland.com for recommended pocket chart suppliers with right depth pockets.)

3

things

Approximately 13 feet long alphabet with the Letterland characters, capitals and lowercase, in 4 sections

G1WCS

Small Word Cards Word Cards for each Unit, suitable for small group use

3

thick 3 TW

3 TW

to

T29 or T10 T25

Straight Picture Code Cards or Pre-cursive Picture Code Cards with Letterland character on one side, plain letter on the other. Includes letter combinations such as sh, ck, ai, ow, igh

Blends & Digraphs Songs CD Songs that explain sounds of letter combinations such as th, ch, vowel pairs, Magic e, consonant blends, etc. suitable for shared reading/singing

T99H or T99 T44

Beyond ABC (Hardback) or (Softback) Explains the sounds of letter combinations such as th, ai, ew, ur, etc. with stories and illustrations

Advanced Picture Code Cards with Letterland character on one side, plain letter on the other. Includes letter combinations such as wh, -all, 3 sounds of -ed, -ing, wr, our, ph, tion, etc.

T24

Handwriting Songs CD Songs for each letter describe correct letter formation using the features of the Letterland characters

Highly Recommended for Shared Use Across Your School T78

Living ABC Software Animated storybook pages, songs, and learning games. Teacher controls let you assign needed activities. (Site license)

T83

Living Code Cards Brief animated presentations of Letterland characters and phonic fables; use for reviewing the letter sounds that you choose and building words on the computer or projector screen (Site license)

V10DVD

Once Upon a Time Animated movie that introduces all the Letterlanders a-z in a delightful story. (Includes some previous edition characters.)

17 Introduction


Additional Products Recommended Order Code

Product and Description

RWM

Rainbow Word Maker Sets Individual trays with foam magnetic letters, red vowels, blue consonants, with appealing Letterland scene as background and Letterland characters depicted in a rainbow a-z formation for indicating letter sounds and a-z placement on the board

T94

Vowel Readers – Orange Series (6 titles) Decodable books with vowel digraphs such as ai, ay, ee, oa, etc.

T64

Alphabet Tales Comic book style reader; one story for each of the a-z Letterland characters

T13 or T13 HB T22

First Picture Word Book (Softback) or First Picture Word Book (Hardback) A picture dictionary especially useful with ESL students

T88

Letterland Alphabet Desk Strip (pack of 10) Alphabet with the Letterland

Letterland Action Tricks Poster Illustrations of fun hand motions to help consolidate learning the sound of each letter characters, capital and lowercase for children’s desks

ABC HB or ABC SB T23 T19

ABC Book (Hardback) or ABC Book (Softback) Introduces each Letterland a-z with a beautifully illustrated scene and a story full of items beginning with the letter sound

Alphabet Songs CD Songs for each letter a-z to teach the sounds. Useful for all children new to Letterland and for reinforcing short vowel sounds Letterland Wordbook (Pack of 10) Personal spelling dictionaries with a Letterland character on each page a-z, and high-frequency words. Space for child or teacher to add more words

FC01

First Reading Flash Cards Capital and lowercase Letterland characters Aa-Zz, including long and short vowels. For Small Group and pair work with children needing practice with basic sounds and capital / lowercase matching.

T86

Letterland Cookbook Healthy, illustrated recipes help build literacy and vocabulary.

T47A T47B T47C T47D

Going to the Park (6 copies) useful for Reading Theater / fluency work Bouncy Ben Goes Shopping (6 copies) same as above What Shall We Do Today? (6 copies) same as above Let's All Go the Seaside (6 copies) same as above

18 Introduction


Getting Started Before you begin you may find it helpful to read through pages 20-52 to acquaint yourself with the instructional activities used in this Teacher’s Guide. You will find a complete description of the Five Day instructional plan that is used in each Unit. For each day, there are activities for whole class teaching, small instructional groups, independent and partner work, and homework. You may find that you want to use all of the activities or select those that are most useful for your children. Starting point for your class If most of your children are familiar with the Letterland characters and know most of the letter sounds, you may want to begin Unit 1 right away. Beginning with everyone together will enable you to teach the program routines and activities to the whole class. Later you may want to place groups of students in different Units based on their needs. Placement assessment With this two part assessment, you can decide where you students need to begin in the Letterland sequence. The two parts are the Fluency Screening and the Phonics Inventory. Both parts are administered individually and will take approximately 5 to 15 minutes per child. There is also a Letter-Sounds Checklist to be used as needed with your students. The instructions are found in the Assessment on pages 234 and 239. Teacher and student forms can be printed and copied from the Teacher’s Guide CD (TG CD). Intervention In most classrooms, you will have at-risk children who will need more intensive instruction targeted to their needs. The Small Group Intervention section, pages 241-258, will help meet these children’s needs and accelerate their progress. Children new to Letterland If many or all of your children are new to Letterland, you may want to begin with a few days to a week of the Letterland Express activities described in the Appendix on pages 260-263. With these activities, you can introduce the Letterlanders, and children can practice the letter sounds in an active and engaging way. Once children are confident about the Letterlander’s names and the letter sounds for the 13 letters used in the first Unit (a, b, c, d, f, h, l, m, n, p, r, s, t), you can begin right away in Unit 1. Flexible sequence These Units are ordered in a careful, logical sequence with plenty of practice and review of phonic patterns and hi-frequency sight words. While this sequence is instructionally sound and functional, you may wish to follow the sequence of another reading program used in your classroom. In that case, you can alter the order that you use these Letterland Units to match your program. In the Appendices, you will find suggestions for adapting to a different sequence. Pocket charts You will find it very helpful to have two pocket chart-one to keep your a-z Picture Code Cards in alphabetical order. This will make them easy to find for Live Reading and Spelling and other word building activities. Children can return their cards after making a word and learn about alphabetical order at the same time. This pocket chart should have at least 10 rows of pockets (approximately 34” by 53.”) It will work best if it is on a slanted easel or firmly attached to a wall.

Tricky Words

boat

low

could

soap

show

done

road

grow

are

coat

know

float

yello

The second pocket chart will be used for displaying and sorting Word Cards. It can be smaller with at least six rows of pockets (approximately 28” by 28.”).

19 Introduction


Five Day Unit Plan Each Unit follows this same Five Day plan. The page number after each item below leads you to instructions on using the activity with your children and an explanation of the purpose. You may also want to print out the Daily Instruction Guide Cards for Daily Activities from the Teacher’s Guide CD.

Overview of Day 3 Whole Class • Guess Who? p 32 • Word Card Sort, p 33 • Read Decodable Story to the children, p 34 Small Group • Dictate Tricky Words, p 34 • Dictate 1 or 2 Review Sentences, p 35

Overview of Day 1

• Children read the Decodable Story, p 35

Whole Class

Independent/Partner

• Review phonic concepts, p 21

• Written Word Sort, p 35

• Introduce new concepts on the pocket chart, p 21

• Read Word Sort with partner, p 36

• Beyond ABC book (for some lessons) • Live Reading, p 22

Overview of Day 4

• Word Detectives, p 23

Whole Class

• Read Word Cards, p 23

• Quick Dash, p 36

Small Group

• Red Robot’s Reading Race, p 36

• Teacher builds words for reading, p 24 • New Tricky Words and Story Words, p 24 • Read the Student List, p 26

• Play the Game of the Week, p 37 Small Group • Share homework sentences, p 37

Independent/Partner • Write New Words and sentences, highlight, and read to partner, p 27

• Reread the Decodable Story, p 37 • Spelling Sort, p 38 • New sentence dictation, p 38 Independent/Partner • Written practice test with a partner, p 38

Overview of Day 2

• Fluency practice with a partner, 38

Whole Class • Quick Dash, (review) p 27 • Letterland Songs/Beyond ABC book (for some lessons), p 28

Overview of Day 5 Whole Class

• Live Spelling, p 28

• Spelling test, p 39

Small Group

• Fluency Check, p 40

• Children build words, p 29

Small Group

• Tricky Words, p 30 • Read Review Sentences, p 30

• Choose from optional activities, p 41

Independent/Partner

Independent/Partner • Illustrate & picture-code words, p 41

• Read Review Sentences, p 31 • Write words for Game of the Week, p 31

• Read Decodable Story to 2 partners, p 42

20 Five Day Unit Plan


Step-by-Step Weekly Activities The activities for each day of the Five Day Plan are described in detail below. Activities are provided for three classroom settings: Whole Class, Small Group, Independent/Partner. In addition to classroom activities, Homework activities are included for each day (pp 42-3). You may decide to use all these settings and activities in your classroom or you may choose those that best suit your situation. You may choose to do some activities listed here for Whole Class in a Small Group setting instead, or vice versa . To become familiar with all these options, read through this section before beginning the Units. Within the Units, page numbers for each activity refer you back to a full explanation in this section. You may also find it helpful to print out the illustrated Daily Instruction Guide Cards for Daily Activities on the Teacher’s Guide CD. These can be printed on 5” by 8” cards and placed on a ring to refer to as you teach each day.

DAY 1 Overview of Day 1 Whole Class

Whole Class – Day 1 Setting In most classrooms, the teacher will want to teach the Units in sequence to all the students in the class. Even if you have some small groups of students working in earlier or more advanced Units, all of your children will benefit from the exposure to and participation in the whole class lesson. The whole class lesson is designed for about 30 minutes on Day 1 and about 20 minutes on Days 2-5.

Phonic concept review Materials Use the Picture Code Cards (PCCs) that were introduced or featured in the previous Unit. Procedures • Ask children to tell the sound and retell the Letterland story that explains the sound. • Specific directions are provided in each Unit. What is the purpose of this activity? • This review of phonic concepts is meant to be a quick refresher on the patterns taught in the previous Unit. On Days 2 through 4 there is a more thorough review of letter sounds and patterns from several previous Units. Because of the extent of activities on Day 1, there is limited time for review. This brief review is important as it will often help build a link with new concepts to be taught in the current Unit.

• Review phonic concepts • Introduce new concepts on the pocket chart

Introduce concepts on the pocket chart

• Beyond ABC book (for some lessons)

Materials Picture Code Cards listed at the beginning of the activity. (In some Units, you will also use the illustrated book, Beyond ABC, and/or the Blends and Digraphs Songs CD.)

• Live Reading • Word Detectives • Read Word Cards Small Group • Teacher builds words for reading • New Tricky Words and Story Words • Read the Student List Independent/Partner • Write New Words and sentences, highlight, and read to partner

Procedures • Within the Unit pages you will find specific instructions for using the above materials to explain the Letterland story or ‘phonic fable’ that helps children to understand and remember the sounds that letters or letter combinations make in words. In many of the lessons, children can do a simple, brief dramatization of the phonic fable. • Then you will use the PCCs to make a few words on the pocket chart for the children to

21 Five Day Unit Plan


decode. The PCCs needed and the words to make are listed in each Unit.

• In this part of the lesson and in a number of other Unit activities, children use various multisensory strategies to help them blend words for reading. These strategies include the rollercoaster (blending sounds as your right hand slides down your left arm) and finger sounding (children use their fingers to represent sounds). These methods are described in detail on page 46 (rollercoaster; finger sounding). • Variations To add some variety and to provide the best focus on a particular concept, some Units may call for you to skip the pocket chart and introduce the new concepts with Live Reading (usually the next step below) or with Live Spelling (usually done on Day 2).

Procedures • In Live Reading, children get a chance to be the Letterlanders. You distribute the PCCs needed to spell the listed words, one per child. Let the children stay in their seats until needed in a word unless the instructions state otherwise. Then line up the children with the letters in the first word facing the class holding their PCCs for all to see. • Stand behind the Letterlanders (the children holding the PCCs). They make their letter sounds in sequence as you tap each one’s shoulder.

Live Reading • Arrange children holding PCCs to form the word. • The children holding the PCCs make their sounds in order. • The other children repeat the sounds and then rollercoaster blend or f inger sound the word: /r/ /u/ /n/, run. • Use the word in a brief phrase or sentence. • Build the next word.

What is the purpose of this activity? • Using the Picture Code Cards on the pocket chart is an excellent way to focus children’s attention on the phonic concept and the phonic fable in a calm, quiet setting. It is a brief introduction that usually sets the scene for the more active Live Reading activity that follows it. Children have the opportunity to listen carefully to the new ideas that they will be using the rest of the week in reading and spelling activities.

Live Reading Materials Picture Code Cards listed at the beginning of the activity, and a Reading Direction sign (Appendix, p 264). On occasion, props for the Letterlanders are useful, such as a hat for Harry Hat Man or a flashlight for Lucy Lamp Light (Costumes and Props, Appendix, p 277).

• Next hold your hand over each Letterlander as the class finger sounds the word. • Then sweep your hand above the Letterlanders as the class blends the sounds to make a word. It is a good idea to say a brief sentence with the word at this point to make sure everyone ‘gets’ the word. • In many lessons, you will then change only one or two letters by letting other children with PCCs swap places to make the new word. • Children continue to use their multisensory blending strategies to sound out the words. What is the purpose of this activity? • In Live Reading children use their imaginations to actively play at the process of making words, changing words, and acting out the ‘phonic fables’ that support their reading and spelling development. This process leads to heightened attention and lasting memories of the concept.

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Read new Word Cards in columns

Word Detectives Materials Use the 2 to 4 sentences shown in the left margin of the Unit pages to write on the board or project for the class. Copies of the sentences for each student (optional, on the TG CD) highlighters, chalk, or markers Procedures • The sentences provide several examples of the phonic concepts being taught. • These sentences are often about the children’s Letterland friends. They learn to recognize the Letterlanders names easily by looking for the repeated capital letters in the Letterlander’s name (Bouncy Ben, Golden Girl, Uppy Umbrella, etc.) (The Character Names Trick, see page 273.) • After reading a sentence to the children and then with the children, they come to the board and picture-code the featured phonic element or they may simply highlight or underline the words with these elements. The targeted features are marked for you in this Teacher’s Guide. Some Units may call for coding vowels as long or short or for other special markings.

Materials For each Unit, there is a set of 18-40 Large Word Cards. The cards include decodable words using the phonic elements being taught, a few Tricky Words (irregular, high-frequency words that are often called ‘sight words’), and a few Story Words from the Decodable Story for the Unit. You will also need a ruler or some kind of pointer. Procedures • Before the lesson, display the Word Cards (List A, B or C) as illustrated in the margin for each Unit. (The example below uses Unit 1 words.) Leave a space at the top for the Picture Code Cards which you will be using in earlier lesson activities first, and then placing above the Word Cards.

Tricky Words

mad

nap

cat

Dad

lap

hat

had

map

sat at

Magic E came and made Mr. A appear.

the

my I Story Words

on

a

(The chart above shows only List A words.)

Kate and I have the same name. That cave by the lake is not safe. • Reread the sentences and then point to individual words for the children to identify. • These sentences are not strictly vocabularycontrolled since you will be reading them to the children first. (Other sentences and stories in these Units that children will read and write are carefully limited to words or letter sound patterns that have been taught directly.) What is the purpose of this activity? • Word Detectives lets children see and use the new concepts in the context of a meaningful sentence right away. They also benefit from searching for the phonic elements and applying them to read the words.

• The cards are placed so that all the words in a column include the same phonic element. (e.g. words with the -ad rhyming pattern in the illustration above, first column) with the related PCCs at the top. • Use a pointer of some kind such as the Star Wand pictured above. • Point to the words starting at the top and moving to the bottom and have children read them. (For Tricky Words and Story Words read the group of words to the children before asking them to read them.) • Use your voice to get them started but then fade your voice out so that you can hear the children saying the words on their own. • Read the column of words several times going a bit faster on each run through. Use the suggestions below to make this repetition more fun by pretending to be...

23 Five Day Unit Plan


Tractors, Trains, Planes (and Helicopters) • Tractors plow slowly through each word. This is usually used for the first reading. You may want to slide your pointer under each letter cuing children to slowly blend the sounds into a word. • Trains move along at a steady pace but not too fast. • Planes move along fairly fast—fasten your seat belts before trying this one. • Helicopters can go up and come down anywhere. When you are helicopters you don’t go straight down the column but skip around in a random order. After practicing all the columns you can be Helicopters hovering from one column to another. • You might also let a few children try rereading a column in pairs or threesomes with the children choosing whether they want to be tractors or trains, etc. What is the purpose of this activity? • Reading the Word Cards provides practice using the new phonic concepts in a supportive setting to decode words and to begin to recognize the words more quickly.

• Usually, the next word only differs from the previous word by one letter (e.g. lip to slip, coat to cot). You will be able to quickly change from one word to another.

• Have the children finger sound or Rollercoaster each of the subsequent words. At times you might call on an individual child to blend the word. Then let the whole group follow suit. • In some lessons additional instructions help you call attention to new concepts or provide interesting variations on this activity. What is the purpose of this activity?

Small Group – Day 1 Setting Teaching small groups of children with similar needs helps you provide the best instruction for each child. In small groups it is easier to maintain attention and each child gets more chances to respond and receive feedback. Some small groups of at-risk children may be working on an earlier Unit than the rest of the class. In this case you will need to adapt some of the Whole Class activities for the Unit that the small group is working on (See Intervention, pages 245-246).

• Reading the words that you build requires careful attention to each part of the word and provides lots of practice decoding words using the new phonic concepts. Sounding out with actions ensures maximum participation.

New Tricky Words and Story Words Materials A small chalkboard or white board; Story words from Unit Word Cards (TG CD); writing materials for the children.

Teacher builds words for reading

What are Tricky Words?

Materials Picture Code Cards (PCCs) listed at the beginning of the activity.

• ‘Tricky Words’ is the label given to words in the Unit that do not fit with the letter sound patterns taught up to that point. This category includes many of the irregularly spelled words that we use most in our language: was, are, said, from, etc. It also includes common words that contain patterns not yet taught: how, why, her, etc.

Procedure • This activity can be done by placing the PCCs in a pocket chart or laying them on a table were your small group is seated. You will mainly want to use the plain letter side of the cards. You could use the picture side for recently introduced sounds or when children need the extra support. • Spread your PCCs out so they are easy for you to locate. • Make the first word on the list and have the children finger sound or rollercoaster to blend the word (p 46).

• Each Unit has from 1 to 4 Tricky Words. Children are expected to learn to read and spell the Tricky Words over the 5 days of Unit instruction. Tricky Words are included in the Word Cards for the Unit. These may be printed or photocopied from the Teacher’s Guide CD (TG CD). Tricky Word cards are labeled by

24 Five Day Unit Plan


‘TW’ below the Unit number. These words are listed on the first page of each Unit in the Teacher’s Guide and on the reproducible Homework page and Student List for the Unit (TG CD).Tricky Words are used in the Spelling Sentences and in the Decodable Story for the Unit. Procedure for Tricky Words • Write the first Tricky Word on the board. • Say the word and use it in a brief sentence. • Help children hear the sounds in the word with rubber-band-stretching or finger sounding (p 4647). With the children, identify the letter(s) that do not ‘sound right’ in the word (e.g. the a in was, the ai in said). Indicate these letters with a wavy line underneath. If there are silent letters, rewrite them with a dotted line.

was

Invisible writing Next ask the children if they are ready for you to erase the word. If not, they practice a bit more. When all are ready, erase the word. Then everyone traces the letter with their fingers on the table or carpet three times always saying the word, then tracing and naming the letters, and repeating the word as they trace an underline. They change the voicing of each repetition as above: aloud, whisper, and silently mouthing of the letter names and the word.

3-by-3 Tricky Word Practice Say it. Spell it. Say it again.

• Air-tracing

• Aloud • Whisper • Silent (with mouth movements)

said

• Invisible writing

don

• Aloud • Whisper • Silent (with mouth movements)

cli m

• The markings needed are illustrated, like those above, in the margin in each Unit.

• Visible writing

• Aloud • Whisper • Silent (with mouth movements)

• 3-by-3 Tricky Word Practice After discussing and marking the words, follow the routine below with one or two of the words. Air-tracing Children look at the word on the white board and trace the letters in the air with their fingers using the following three steps. 1) They say the word (e.g. “done”). 2) As they trace each letter they say its letter names (dee-oh-en-ee). 3) They air-trace a line under the word as they say it again, (“done”). This air-tracing process is done three times, a) first with a normal voice, b) then in a whisper, and c) finally, children silently move their mouths as if saying and spelling the word.

Visible writing As the last step, children write the word three times following the same procedure as with air-tracing and invisible writing. They can write on an erasable surface or on paper. They should then erase or cover the word, so they next write from memory rather than copying. The process is presented in the box above. • Save additional Tricky Words for Day 2. What are Story Words? • Story Words are words that are included in the reproducible Decodable Story for the Unit (TG CD). These are words that have spelling patterns or other features that have not yet been taught. They are included in the story to add meaning and interest. Children are not expected to remember these words out of context.

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• Many of the Story Words will appear as List Words or Tricky Words in later Units. Story Words are underlined in the Decodable Story and listed on the first page of each Unit in this Teacher’s Guide. Story Words are included in the Unit Word Cards and are labeled with an S below the Unit number. The Homework page and Student List also include the Story Words.

• Read the New Sentences to the children, and then have them read them with you.

Procedure for Story Words • Use the Word Cards for the Story Words. Tell the children that these are words from the story that you will all be reading later in the week. • Show the first word, say it, use it in a brief sentence, and say it again. • Tell children that when you point to the card, they should say the word. Silently count to three and then point to the card. • Do the same with each word. • Go back through the cards one or two times and have children say them again when you point. Wait about two or three seconds before pointing to each word. • If there is confusion about the words, point out some feature of the word that will help them remember it. For example, This is bear. We can hear the /b/ at the beginning and the /r/ at the end. What are the purposes of these activities? • Practicing Tricky Words helps children learn to read and spell many of the words that occur most often in our language. Practicing the Story Words prepares children to read the Decodable Story. Some children may retain these words and make use of them in reading other books. The wait time before having children repeat the word requires them to briefly hold the word in memory and may give needed ‘think time’ when the words are reviewed.

Read the Student List Materials Copies of the Student List for the Unit from the Teacher’s Guide CD Procedures • Read the Tricky Word list to the children and then have them read it with you. Do the same with each of these lists: Tricky Words for Review, Review Words, New Words (List A, B, or C—usually you will be reading list A, unless your class or group is repeating the Unit).

What is the purpose of this activity? • By reading the Student List to and then with the children you are preparing them to accurately read the same list later in partner practice and for homework. It is important that they practice reading the words accurately; otherwise they would be practicing errors. The practice of reading this list accurately at different times and in different settings will help the children read these words more fluently when they meet them in other reading contexts.

Independent/Partner – Day 1 Setting While you are meeting with Small Groups, other children will have time to work on their own or with a partner. You will want to prepare them to be responsible for completing the suggested Letterland activities as well as other literacy tasks. (See Preparing Children for Independent/Partner Activities, p 45.)

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Write and mark up words, Read to two partners

with the character names. • Next turn the card to the plain letter side and

Materials Copies of Student List for the Unit (TG CD), writing materials (paper and pencil), highlighters, crayons or colored pencils

Overview of Day 2

Procedures • Children copy the ten words in the New Words list (A, B, or C) from their Student Lists. They also copy the New Sentences. Then they highlight or underline the new phonic elements in the words and sentences that were highlighted or picturecoded in the whole class Word Detectives activity. (Leave the Word Detectives sentences in clear view for reference.) Some Units may call for coding vowels as long or short or with other special markings. • After the children have written and highlighted their words, they meet with a partner to compare and correct their papers. Then the first partner reads the words to the second partner and vice versa. To indicate that this has been done, each partner signs the other partner’s paper. Next each child meets with a second partner to read the words again and sign each other’s papers. What is the purpose of this activity? • Children get practice writing the words. Finding and highlighting the new concepts helps them in recognizing these phonic elements. Reading the words to a partner helps make sure the child knows the word. Reading to two partners provides more practice toward fluency.

• Quick Dash • Blends and Digraphs Songs CD (some units) • Beyond ABC book (for some Units) • Live Spelling Small Group • Children build words

say, Sound? Children respond with the letter sound (e.g. /v v v / ). • Optional: Trace the plain letter with your finger as if writing it and say, Letter name? Children respond with the letter name (e.g. “vee”). • Follow the same steps with the rest of the PCCs. • Then tell the children it is time for a Sounds Race. Go quickly through the cards showing the plain letter side with children responding with the sound only (e.g. /vvv/, /mmm/, /ĕ/, /g/).

DAY 2 Whole Class – Day 2

• Go through the cards two or three times, each time a just a bit faster.

Quick Dash

• Changes over time As children who are new to Letterland become thoroughly familiar with the characters and sounds, skip asking for character names on most days and only work on sounds.

Materials The 12 -14 Picture Code Cards (PCCs) listed on the first page of the Unit Procedures

Whole Class

“Vicky

• Hold the picture side /v v v / Violet” of the first PCC for all to see. Ask the children to wait until you touch the card with your other hand, and then to name the character (e.g. “Vicky Violet”). This allows you to give some think time to children who might not be quick

• You will find after several weeks that many of the PCCs you are using will be consonant digraphs (th, sh, wh, kn) or spelling patterns like (ea, er, ow, igh). Use the picture side of these for those recently introduced PCCs to review the phonic fable that explains the sound. (Children can usually supply the story themselves). Once children have mastered

27 Five Day Unit Plan


these letter combinations, you might just show the plain side for children to give the sound and then flip quickly to the picture side to confirm their answer as correct. Variation Children can do the Action Tricks (pp 271-272) as they make the sound. This becomes especially fun and challenging with the Sounds Race.

Variation Use the Plan and Play activity in the Comprehension section (p 45). With the songs, you may want some children acting out the lyrics at the same time that the others sing, rather than separating the reading and the action, as described for story reading.

Live Spelling Quick Dash

Materials The Picture Code Cards you will need are listed at the beginning of the activity along with the words to Live Spell. In some units, props are suggested to add interest and vividness to the activity (e.g. a ball for Kicking King to kick.).

1. Show the picture side and point to it. Children: “Bouncy Ben.” 2. Show the plain letter side. Teacher: Sound? Children: /b/ (Actions optional)

Live Spelling

3. (Optional) Trace the letter with your finger. Teacher: Letter name? Children: bee.

1. Say the word and a brief sentence: Dog. The dog wagged its tail. 2. ‘Pitch’ the word to the children: dog.

Sounds Race

3. Children ‘catch’ the word by repeating it: “dog.”

• Show plain letter sides quickly, one after the other. • Children give sounds only (Actions optional). • Repeat more quickly each time.

4. Children segment the word with finger sounding or rubber-band-stretching: /d/ /o/ g/.

What is the purpose of these activities? • Children need to be able to respond quickly to letters and letter combinations with the correct sound. By practicing these sounds and gently pushing for quicker responses, you will help children move towards reading and spelling fluency.

Shared Reading of Songs Materials Blends and Digraphs Songs CD; song lyrics projected or on a chart tablet. Illustrated lyrics suitable for projecting or printing are found on the Teacher’s Guide CD. Procedure • Read the lyrics to the children as you point to the words. • Play the CD for children to sing along as you point to the words.

5. Children decide which Letterlanders are needed. 6. Children with PCCs form the word. 7. The class finger sounds or rollercoasters the word to check the spelling.

• Pitch the next word. Children catch and segment it and make the needed changes to spell it.

What is the difference between Live Spelling and Live Reading? • Live Spelling is similar to Live Reading with one important difference. In Live Reading you are getting the children lined up with their PCCs without telling the class what the word is. The children then have to sound out or read the word. In Live Spelling, you beginning by telling the children what the word is, and their

28 Five Day Unit Plan


task is to segment the word into sounds and decide which letters are needed, in other words, to spell the word.

• If the next word differs by more than one or two letters, have all the children sit down and begin the process again.

Procedure

What is the purpose of this activity?

• Distribute the PCCs to children who remain seated until needed in a word. In some Units you will be instructed to have children with certain PCCs remain at the front of the class.

• Live Spelling requires that children practice segmenting words into individual phonemes or sounds. This is one of the two most important phonemic awareness abilities that facilitate becoming literate in alphabetic languages such as English. It also involves them actively and imaginatively in the process of spelling words and helps them to remember new concepts through dramatizing them.

• To Live Spell the first word, say the word to the class, use it in a brief sentence, say the word again and have the class repeat it. • A good way to get everyone’s attention and to insure that they respond in unison, is to “pitch the word” to the children. After you have said the word and the sentence, tell the children you will pitch the word to them. That means you will say the word with a throwing motion and they will hold up their hands and, make a catching motion as they repeat the word. Then their hands will be raised, ready for finger sounding or rubber-bandstretching.. • Children finger-sound the word (p 46) or rubberband-stretch it (p 47) to hear all the sounds.

Small Group – Day 2 Children build words Materials Letterland Word Builders or other sets of individual letters for each child. The letters and words that will be needed are always listed at the beginning of the activity. Alternative Materials You can use the Picture Code Cards for this activity and have children take turns placing the cards in the word. Procedures • ‘Pitch’ the word as in Live Spelling. Children ‘catch’ the word by repeating it and then finger-sound or rubber-band-stretch the word. • Children build the word with their letter sets. • Provide feedback to help children self-correct any errors. • Build the words on your own Word Builder and turn it so that children can compare their word to yours.

• Then you call on individuals or the whole group to name the first Letterlander (i.e. letter) that is needed for the word. Then ask for the second Letterlander, etc. • Children holding the PCCs that are needed line up to form the word. • Then the class checks the word to make sure it is correct by rollercoasting or finger sounding it.

• Have children spell the word aloud. (Option: have children cover the word with their hand and spell it aloud.) • If the next word differs by only one or two letters, children leave their letters in place as they segment the next word. Then they make the needed changes. • If the next word differs by more two or more letters, have children return letters to their place before beginning to build the new word.

• Often the next word only differs by one or two letters. If so, pitch the next word for segmenting as above. Then ask the children which Letterlanders need to be replaced. The children with the PCCs make the needed moves in or out of the word. The class then checks this new word.

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What is the purpose of this activity?

Read Review Sentences

• Building words that the teacher calls out gives children practice in phoneme segmentation and spelling with newly introduced phonic elements as well as those introduced earlier. Building the words rather than writing them allows easy correction of errors and a chance for you to intervene throughout the process when needed. Children also have to observe the details of words closely to change from one word to another.

Materials Copies of the Review Sentences page for the Unit on the Teacher’s Guide CD.

Review Tricky Words and Story Words Materials Word Cards for Tricky Words (current ones and a few from previous units) and Story Words. Procedures for Tricky Words • For any Tricky Words, not covered on Day 1, identify tricky parts of the word and practice with the 3-by-3 routine (p 25).

What are the Review Sentences? • The Review Sentences are 4 to 10 sentences that include both Tricky Words and decodable words from previous Units for systematic review. Procedures Follow these steps with each sentence: • Have children read the sentence to themselves. • Ask a question about the sentence content and have a child answer it. (Once everyone is familiar with this activity, children may take on your role of asking a question that either you or other children answer.)

• Review Tricky Words by showing the Word Cards, saying the word, and reminding children about the ‘tricky parts’ (or let the children tell them to you). • Go back through the cards several times, having the children read them. • Spelling the words Show the first word and tell children they are going to write it. Have them say the word and spell it aloud. Then remove the word from view and have children write it. • Show the word again for children to check their spelling. If any children make errors, come back to this word after all have been written. Then have everyone practice the word that was missed with the 3-by-3 Tricky Word Practice routine. Procedures for Story Words • Show each Story Word card. Read it, wait three seconds, and have children say the word when you point to it. • Go back through the cards one or two times and have children read them. What are the purposes of these activities? • These Tricky Word activities provide further practice reading and spelling very useful words. These words will be used in reading and writing the New Sentences on Days 3, 4, and 5. Practicing the Story Words provides further preparation for reading the Decodable Story on Day 3 and beyond.

• Read the sentence aloud together. • Ask a child to reread the sentence in the way that someone might say it in a conversation. • On sentences that seem suitable, let children try reading it with different emphasis or different pauses. You might sometimes discuss in what kind of situation someone might have uttered this sentence, creating a broader context for the sentence. • You might also ask children to find examples of words with a previously studied phonic element, a particular vowel sound, or other feature. What is the purpose of this activity? • Reading and working with these sentences provides continuous review of words learned and an informal assessment of children’s retention of previous material.

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Independent/Partner – Day 2

Games of the Week

Read Review Sentences Materials Review Sentences page for the Unit, found on the Teacher’s Guide CD (TG CD) Procedures • Children read the Review Sentences to a partner and listen to that partner read as well. Then they sign each others papers. • Each child does the same with a second partner. What is the purpose of this activity? • Partner’s serve as an ‘audience’ for the child’s reading. You have the opportunity to assign partners that may support a weaker reader.

Prepare for the Game of the Week Materials Copies of the Student List. Copies of the Game of the Week page designated for use with the current Unit (or the game of your choosing). Both pages are on the TG CD. What is the Game of the Week? • Each Unit suggests one of five different Game of Week activities such as Bouncy Ben’s Bingo for Unit 1. (Although a specific game is suggested for each Unit, you may choose any of the five games for any Unit.) Procedures for each game are provided on pages 49-52. Procedures • Children write their ten New Words and Tricky Words in the spaces on the Game page. If there are additional spaces, children add Review Words or Story Words of their choosing. • After the page is completed, the child reads the words to a partner who also helps make sure any misspellings are corrected. Partners sign each others papers.

• This page is turned in for a teacher check. Words have to be written legibly and correctly to get a check mark in the ‘Approved’ box and to avoid a check in the dreaded ‘Do Over’ box. • Some of the Games also require cutting the page into word cards. This can be done on Day 3 or any time after you have approved the handwriting. What is the purpose of this activity? • Each game provides practice in writing the words on Day 2 and in reading the words by playing the game on Day 4. The fact that it is a game provides a meaningful reason to write the words carefully and a motivation for reading and rereading the words as the game is played.

31 Five Day Unit Plan


• Who makes that sound?

DAY 3

• “Munching Mike.” • Show the picture side of the m PCC to confirm their answer.

Overview of Day 3

• Continue with the other sounds.

Whole Class • Guess Who? • Word Sort

Guess Who?

• Read the Decodable Story to the children

• Say the sound (with the PCC hidden).

Small Group

• Children repeat the sound.

• Dictate Tricky Words

• Ask, Who is it?

• Dictate 1 or 2 Review Sentences • Children read the Decodable Story

• Children name the Letterlander, or the letter(s).

Independent/Partner

• Variation: Children write the

• Written Word Sort

letter(s) in response to the sound.

• Read Word Sort with partner • If two letters make the same sound, such as c and k, teach the children to respond to the /k/ sound by naming both characters, Clever Cat and Kicking King.

Whole Class – Day 3 Guess Who? Materials The 12 -14 Picture Code Cards (PCCs) listed on the first page of the Unit. What is ‘Guess Who?’ • ‘Guess Who?’ is a review of letter sounds in which the children hear the sound without seeing the letter, and have to name the Letterlander(s) or letter(s) that make the sound. It differs from the ‘Quick Dash’ review by going from sound to letter instead of from letter to sound. In the ‘Quick Dash’ children are practicing a reading skill: seeing letters and making the sounds in order to read a word. In ‘Guess Who?’ children are practicing a spelling skill, hearing sounds and having to think what letters go with those sounds, just as they do when they spell a word. Procedures • Keep each PCC out of sight until children have identified the Letterlander or the letter. Some teachers use a specially decorated bag or box to keep the PCCs in, perhaps covered with colorful question marks. • If m is the first PCC, you begin with, Say this sound /mmm/. • The children say, “/mmm/.”

• When the sound is spelled with more than one letter, such as th or sh, you can ask children to respond with both character names (e.g. “Talking Tess and Harry Hat Man”) or with just the letter names (“t-h”). If the letter combination has been recently introduced or if some children need a reminder, have the children tell the phonic fable that explains the sound (“Harry Hat Man hates thunder and Talking Tess says, ‘There, there, it’s only the thunder.”) • Vowel digraphs In the sequence of lessons, children will first learn about long o as Mr. O shouting out his name at the end of short words like go and so. The next spelling for long o to be learned is o-consonant-e (e.g. hope). This spelling pattern is shown on the PCC as Mr. O, then a blank line, and then Magic e. Children at this point would respond to long o in the ‘Guess Who?’ review by saying, “Mr. O alone, and o-blank-Magic-e.” Later when oa and ow are learned as further spellings for long o, children will learn to

32 Five Day Unit Plan


respond by reciting, “Mr. O alone, o-blankMagic-e, o-a, and o-w.” This sounds rather challenging, but keep in mind that children only learn one or two spellings at a time, and therefore only have to add one or two new items at a time to their memorized list of ways to spell long o. Variations Instead of children responding to the sound by saying the Letterlander or the letter aloud, have children write the letter or letters. Most children enjoy doing this on small individual erasable boards. Having children write the letters gives you the opportunity to monitor their individual responses better by walking around or by having everyone show their board on a signal from you. What is the purpose of this activity? • The ‘Guess Who?’ activity provides practice in hearing a sound and thinking of the letter or letters that stand for that sound. This is a valuable spelling skill but it also strengthens the lettersound links for reading. Children need to develop quickness (automaticity) going from sound to letter to facilitate fluent spelling and writing.

Tricky Words

bag

gave

safe

plan

name

plate

wag

tape

snake

made

was

where Story Words

friend

party

ice cream

• Then hold up another word card for the children to read. Think about where this card belongs and raise your hand when you think you have the answer. (Children could

also respond on individual whiteboards, by first writing the letters of the PCCs that identify the column at the top).

• Display the PCCs as shown on the pocket chart illustration at the beginning of the Unit.

• Give the Word Card to a child to place on the pocket chart. The child says the word and tells why it belongs in the chosen column. For example, “This says ‘plan.’ It goes with Annie Apple because it says her sound in the middle.” (Of course, not all children’s answers will be this complete, but you can draw out this information by questioning the individual child or the whole class.)

• Review these PCCs by having children say the sounds and tell the phonic fables that explain the sound (in the case of single letters they can just say the Letterlander’s name and sound).

• Each time a child places a word in a column, let that child use the pointer to point to all the words in that column for the class to read aloud (e.g. “bag, plan, wag”).

• Place the first Word Card under the PCCs for each column one at a time, saying the word and explaining why it belongs in that column. For, example, This word is gave. I hear Mr. A and

• Continue with a different child placing each Word Card in the same way. After the word is placed, always have the child lead the whole class in reading the column of words.

Word Card Sort Materials Pocket chart, the Unit’s Word Cards, selected Picture Code Cards (PCCs), a pointer. Procedure

I see Magic e on the end, so this word goes here.

• Tricky Words are also included in the sort. The children place them under the ‘Tricky Words’ card (available on the TG CD at the beginning of the Word Cards file). • Error correction If the children place words in the wrong column, they may discover the error for themselves as they try to explain their reasoning. If they do not, use questioning to try to help the child self-correct. (E.g. What is the sound of the vowel? Which Letterlander makes that sound? or Can you hear Mr. A saying his name in your word?)

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• Make an error yourself now and then by placing a card in an incorrect column. Ask the children to explain why the word does not belong there.

Procedure

• Use extra cards from list B or C if you would like more examples of the pattern. (You may want use these other words in other activities during the week, also.) • Mystery Column In some Units the question mark card (?) may be used as the header for words that do not follow the phonic patterns of the other columns. This will be a miscellaneous column that some teachers like to call the Mystery Column. You can also use the Mystery Column to include a few words from previous units for review. Using this column challenges children’s thinking, because not only do they have to look for the new concepts but they have to consider the possibility that the word contains none of the targeted patterns. Of course, you will want to use this technique sparingly with children who do not yet clearly understand the basic patterns. Variations After placing about 2/3 of the cards on the pocket chart, you may want to switch to Sorting by Sound. Instead of showing the word card to the class, keep it out of sight for a moment and say the word. Have the children repeat the word and raise their hands when they have worked out which column it belongs in. Call on someone to place the card. As before, ask for the child’s reason and have the whole class read down the column.

What is the purpose of this activity? • Sorting words draws attention to their sounds and spelling patterns. Children also get a chance to verbalize their understanding of new concepts. By reading and rereading the words children are building accuracy and fluency. Sorting by Sound contributes to spelling skill.

Read the decodable story to the children Materials A copy of the Decodable Story for the Unit (TG CD) What is the Decodable Story? • For each Unit there is a reproducible story of one to three pages that features a number of words that contain the new phonic elements being taught. The story only uses already taught words and phonics concepts, Tricky Words, and Story Words from the current or previous Units.

• You read the Decodable Story to the children in whole group. Later the children read it themselves several times in small group and then during Independent/Partner time. After that children may take a copy home to read to their parents. • The Teacher’s Guide pages provide ideas for introducing the story to your children. • After the introduction, read the story aloud to the children. • In some Units there are questions to ask during the story at certain stopping points. • In all the Units there are questions and discussion ideas for after the story. For some stories there are suggestions to use specific comprehension ideas from the Comprehension Activities section on pages 44 and 45 (e.g. Story Stone, Reader’s Theater). These activities may work nicely with other stories as well. They can be used in whole group or small group. What is the purpose of this activity? • Reading the Decodable Story to the children prepares them to read it themselves. Introducing and discussing the story adds interest to stories which have a rather limited language range, due to the controlled vocabulary. In addition, you encourage children’s active listening, build comprehension strategies, and foster speaking skills.

Small Group – Day 3 Dictate new Tricky Words Materials Tricky Word Cards; writing materials.

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• First review the Tricky Words by having children read them. • Then remove the cards from view, say each word, and have the children write it.

• Read the story in unison with all the children in the group. Fade your voice out to listen to children reading. Fade your voice back in to keep them in unison.

• If any children make errors, practice the words with a few repetitions of Invisible writing (see page 25).

Dictate 1 or 2 Review Sentences Materials Copy of Review Sentences for you. Writing materials for the children. Procedures • Choose one or two of the Review Sentences in the Unit. • Read the sentence at a slightly slowed but normal sounding rate. It helps if you say it with some rhythm and expression. • Children repeat the sentence twice in unison copying your rhythm and expression. • Children write the sentence. • If someone needs the sentence repeated, say the entire sentence and have the child repeat it. Try to avoid breaking up the sentence to dictate it. • Observe children as they write and assist as needed to ensure correctness. • After completing the two sentences, have children read them. What is the purpose of this activity? • Children practice holding the sentence in their minds long enough to write it. They also practice spelling previously studied words, the use of capital letters and punctuation, and handwriting.

Children read the Decodable Story Materials Copies of the Unit’s Decodable Story (TG CD). Procedures • Read the title and let children share what they remember about the story that you read to them in the whole class session. • Review the underlined Story Words. • Ask children to read the story to themselves. Tell them you will help with any unknown words. • After they finish reading, ask for comments on the story, or ask a question or two.

• Have individuals read part of the story. Or you could ask questions that are answered by reading aloud certain sentences in the story (e.g. Read the sentence that tells...). • For some stories there are suggestions to use specific comprehension ideas with page references (e.g. Story Stone, Reader’s Theater). These activities may work nicely with other stories as well. They can be used in whole class or small group. What is the purpose of this activity? • Children become better readers by reading. These stories provide specific practice with phonic concepts that the children are learning or are reviewing. They use only words that they have been taught how to read. That gives them confidence in their growing reading ability.

Independent/Partner – Day 3 Written Word Sort Materials Student List, Copies of the Word Sort page for the Unit (TG CD). Procedures • Children use the Student List and write their New Words under the corresponding picturecoded letters. • Tricky Words, Story Words and other words that do not matching patterns go under the miscellaneous column, identified by a question mark.

35 Five Day Unit Plan


• Children meet with a partner to compare papers and make corrections as needed. Then each one reads all the words on the page to the other partner. Partners sign each others papers.

Day 4

Overview of Day 4 Whole Class • Quick Dash • Red Robot’s Reading Race • Play the Game of the Week Small Group • Share homework sentences • Reread the Decodable Story

What is the purpose of these activities? • The written word sort gives children a chance to categorize words by their selected phonic elements and practice writing the words. With a partner, they also practice reading the words, building fluency and accuracy.

• Spelling Sort (Teacher dictates words) • New Sentence dictation Independent/Partner • Written practice test with a partner • Fluency practice with a partner

Whole Class – Day 4 Quick Dash Materials The 12 -14 Picture Code Cards (PCCs) listed on the first page of the Unit. • Same Procedures as on Day 2 (p 27)

Red Robot’s Reading Race Materials Copies of the Student Word Study List for the Unit for each child. Procedures • Practice reading these parts of the Student List: Tricky Words, Tricky Words for Review, Review Words, New Words and Sentences. • Tell the students you are going to start out as rusty robots just creaking along. Have everyone move in place for a moment like a slow rusty robot. Then stop the movement and read in unison through the lists in a fairly slow

36 Five Day Unit Plan


deliberate fashion. • Next have children move in place a bit faster as they pretend to be robots warming up. Then stop moving and read together at a steady pace. • Finally, have children make quicker movements as if they are Rapid Roller-skating Robot Racers. Stop and read the list at a quick (but not too quick) pace, based on the children’s ability to keep up. To Make it Fun You may want to do something to make this somewhat rote activity more motivating. You could have children make Robot head gear out of foil to wear only during this activity. Or you could declare that this is the one time during the week they could wear the hat of their choice in class—a Robot Thinking Cap. Another idea would be to make special individual Robot pointers with craft sticks with a picture of a robot on one end. These pointers would be used for this activity only.

What is the purpose of this activity? • The Robot Reading Race is designed to build word reading fluency and to prepare children for the Fluency Check on Day 5.

Play the Game of the Week Materials Game board page or game word cards completed on Monday. For some games there is a second page that will be needed at this time to play the game. All game pages are on the Teacher’s Guide CD (TG CD). Procedures • Children play one of the five games described on pages 49-52. Each Unit lists one of these games as the Game of the Week, but you can choose any of the others. • Some games require additional simple game materials such as some kind of pawns or game pieces or dice. • For the purpose of these games, see ‘Independent/Partner – Day 2,’ (p 31).

• Most games can be played between a pair of children. Once children learn the games, you may decide to use them as Independent/Partner activities.

Small Group – Day 4 Share homework sentences Materials Sentences written by individual children for Day 3 Homework. Procedures • You and Impy Ink have inspired children to write Incredibly Interesting Sentences in your Homework Prep on Day 3 (see p 43). Now children need the opportunity to share their intriguing, inventive sentences. • Children volunteer to share their favorite Interesting Sentence with the group. • After a child shares a sentence, encourage a brief discussion about what made that sentence interesting. For example, Did it tell about something so well you could see it, or hear it? Did it use special words that helped make it more appealing? Did it tell about something exciting, unusual, or funny? Did it tell about something that made us think of our own experiences or have certain feelings? • If the sentence could be more interesting, ask questions to elicit information that might add interest or make the meaning clearer. • Just a few minutes of this kind of sharing can have the effect of improving children’s effort, creativity, and skill at writing spelling sentences. And that is likely to spill over into other writing.

Reread Decodable Story Materials Copies of the Decodable Story for the Unit (TG CD) for each child. Procedures • You may have groups that do not need further practice on the Decodable Story. You many want to use this time for other reading materials. • If your group does need more practice to read the story fluently, practice one of these ways: • Echo read – You read a sentence. Then

the children read the same sentence.

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• Choral read – The group reads in unison. • Mumble read – Everyone reads aloud but

quietly at his or her own pace. • Partner read – Each child reads to a

partner, and then listens to the partner read. • See also Plan and Play and Reader’s

Theater, under Comprehension Activities, p 44.

Spelling Sort Materials Copies of the Word Sort page for the Unit (fresh copies of the same page used on Day 3) see the TG CD. Procedures

Independent/Partner – Day 4 Written practice test with a partner Materials Student List, writing materials Procedures • The first partner calls out the New Words (List A, B, or C), Review Words and the New Sentences for the second partner to write on paper. • First partner checks the paper and has second partner rewrite any missed words twice. • Second partner does the same for the first partner.

• This time instead of children copying words to the correct column from their Student List, you will call out each word. They will select the column and write the word, spelling it independently.

Fluency practice with partners

• First say or ‘pitch’ the word and have children ‘catch’ and repeat it (p 47).

Procedures

• Children finger-sound or stretch the word. • Then they point to the column where they think it belongs. If they have chosen the correct column, have them write the word. If one or more children have chosen the wrong column, help them selfcorrect by questioning. • If children misspell a word, help them self-correct by questioning. • Use the New Words and the Tricky Words and, if time, a few Review Words. Review Words go in the Question Mark column.

New Sentence dictation

Materials Student Lists. Minute timer (optional). • Children read their Student Lists to a partner and then listen to their partner read. Partners sign and date each other’s list. • If you have timers that children can use on their own (sand timers, a clock with a second hand, or other timers), you can teach children to work in groups of three to time each other reading the Student List. Each one of the three has a special role: • Reader—reads as much of the Student

List as possible in one minute (all the words and sentences in white boxes). • Timer—watches the timer, says ‘go’ and

after 60 seconds, ‘stop’.

Materials A copy of the New Sentences for you (first page of the Unit in this Teacher’s Guide) or the Student List. Writing materials for the children (most children like dry-erase white boards).

• Coach—counts errors, marks the last

word read, and counts words correct per minute. You can place the list in a transparent sheet protector and the Coach can mark errors and the stopping place with a dry-erase marker.

Procedures • For each Unit there are two or three ‘New Sentences’ that make use of the Tricky Words and a few of the New Words in the Unit.

• After the first reading, the same child reads again trying to get more correct words.

• Dictate New Sentences in the same way as described for Review Sentences on Day 3. Briefly, say the sentence in an expressive, rhythmic fashion. Children repeat it twice. Then they write it. Help as needed. Children read both sentences when done.

• Children switch roles until each one has two turns at reading.

• Then results are graphed on the Robot Racer chart (TG CD).

• Some children may finish the whole Student List in less than a minute in which case they start reading at the beginning again until time is called.

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• New sentences—Dictate the two new

sentences. Say the sentence in an expressive, rhythmic fashion. Children repeat it twice. Then they write it. No help is provided because you are assessing what they can do on their own. You can repeat the entire sentence again as many time as you feel are needed. All the new Tricky Words are included in the sentences.

Day 5 Overview of Day 5 Whole Class • Spelling test • Fluency Check Small Group • Choose from optional activities Independent/Partner • Illustrate and picture-code words • Read the Decodable Story to two partners

Whole Class – Day 5 Spelling Test Materials List of words from the first page of the Unit in this Teacher’s Guide for you. Copies of Spelling Test form from TG CD for the children. • The test includes the following: • Sounds (6)—Select six sounds from Picture

Code Cards or Advanced Picture Code Cards list for the Unit. Be sure to include any introduced in the Unit. To begin the test, say the sound and have children repeat it. Then they write the letter or letters that represent the sound. If they have learned more than one way to spell a sound, they write all that have been studied (e.g. for the sound /ō/, they might write: o, o_e, oa, ow). • New Words (List A, B, or C)—with four

Review Words mixed in. Select four review words and intersperse with the new words. • Diagnostic Words—These four words have

There are two versions of the Spelling Test form. The above is all on one page. On the following page is the two page version with primary writing guidelines. For both, see the Teacher’s Guide CD. The starred words above are review words which you mix in with the new words to insure that children are listening for sounds and thinking about spelling patterns to match them. You can choose four words from the Words for Review.

the same spelling patterns as the words in the list, but are not included in the ten New Words. The child’s spelling of these allow you to judge if the child is transferring knowledge of the sounds and patterns to other words rather than only memorizing the assigned words.

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Evaluation One important purpose of this Spelling Test is to determine if your students have mastered the skills of the Unit. If they have reached mastery, then they are ready to proceed to the next Unit. If they have not reached mastery, then you will want to consider repeating the same Unit using List B or C. The spelling test along with the Word Reading Fluency Check below will help you determine mastery. Children need to reach the mastery goals of both of these assessments in order to be ready to progress to the next Unit.

Word Reading Fluency Check Materials Timer. Copies of Student List, and Reading Robot Racers record (TG CD). • Children pair up. One is the Reader first, the other is the coach. Spread pairs out as much as possible around your classroom. • You do the timing for all pairs at once. When you say, Go, all Readers begin with the Tricky Words and then go on to read all the words and sentences in the white boxes (Tricky Words for Review; Review Words; New Word Lists A, B, and C; and New Sentences). Time them for one minute. • Coaches put a small mark beside any missed words and lightly mark the stopping point. Then they count up the words correct per minute (wcpm) using the small numbers on the page. • Readers chart their score on their Reading Racer Record. • The same children read again and chart their second scores. • Then the Coaches and Readers change roles. Evaluation Collect the Reading Racer Records. Children who score at or above the fluency criteria listed here and who also meet the criteria on the Spelling Test are ready for the next Unit. Criteria for Word Reading Fluency • Early part of the year: 25 words correct

Spelling Test form with primary writing guidelines.

The most useful indicator of mastery on the spelling test is the child’s spelling of the Diagnostic Words. In addition to this, you will want to consider the child’s overall correctness on and the New Words. Review Words, and the Tricky Words in the sentences. Use the criteria below along with your own judgment to decide if the child has mastered the current Unit. Criteria for Spelling Mastery 3 of 4 Diagnostic Words spelled correctly 80% of all the words spelled correctly • For further discussion of using the mastery criteria to plan the next steps for instruction see below under Word Reading Fluency Check – Evaluation.

in 60 seconds • Mid year: 30 words correct in 60

seconds • End of year: 40 words correct in 60

seconds • Children who do not meet both criteria (spelling and fluency) need to work on the same Unit again moving to list B or C. • Of course, as always teachers have to make decisions that make sense in terms of making instruction manageable in your classroom. If more than 20-25 percent of the class does not meet the criteria, then you would probably want to repeat the Unit using list B or C for all. If only a few children miss the criteria, you may want to continue with the same Unit in a small group, while moving the whole class to the next Unit.

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Procedures • To culminate the Unit, children will picturecode or illustrate the New Words and Tricky Words. Each child has a different word to work with as explained below. You can write the large, single words on the pages for the children or have them write the words. • There are three different types of assignments you can give. You may want to think about which assignment would be best for each child. (Over a number of Units, however, you might let each child try all of the three.) • You will want to avoid continuing to move children through the Units who do not show mastery week after week. For these children, you will want to make use of the Intervention plan on pages 257-258.

• Picture-code the word. Write the word

large enough to fill most of the page. The child picture-codes each letter in the word based on the sounds or spelling patterns in the word. This assignment would fit most children.

Small Group – Day 5 On Day 5 use your Small Group time as best suits your schedule and the needs of each group. Some suggested activities are listed below. • Use the time for other components of your reading program to work on comprehension, fluency, or writing. • For children who did not meet the spelling or fluency criteria, work on the skills or words that they need more instruction or practice with. • Work on fluency with the Decodable Story for the Unit. Start a separate Reading Racer Chart for story reading. Time children and record words correct per minute in contextual reading.

• Illustrate the word. Write the word at

• Reread Decodable stories from previous Units. • Catch up on activities that you did not have time for earlier in the week. • Play the Game of the Week with the whole small group or let pairs or threesomes play the game. • Play Concentration (also called Memory Game). Lay small Words Cards on the table face down and try to match words with the same phonic element. Tricky Words can be ‘wild cards.’ If children read a Tricky Word correctly, they pick it up by itself and then choose an additional card.

Independent/Partner – Day 5 Illustrate and picture-code words Materials Plain white paper; and either crayons, markers or paint.

41 Five Day Unit Plan

the top of the page in letters of about one inch (3 cm). Children create a drawing that illustrates the meaning of the word in some way. Use this assignment for words that may be less familiar to children or may have a second meaning that could be illustrated. This assignment would suit a child who is fairly artistic and creative even if the child is not strong in reading and writing.


• Write a sentence using a Tricky Word

and illustrate it. Write the word at the top in one inch letters (3 cm). The child creates a sentence using the word and writes the sentence on the page, at the bottom. Then they illustrate the sentence. This might be an assignment for a child who is fairly strong in literacy and art.

• The resulting products make good bulletin board material or wall decorations that will remind the children of what they have learned as you move into the next Unit.

Read the Decodable Story to two partners Materials Copies of the Decodable Story for the Unit. Or other reading materials that you choose. Procedures • Use the Decodable Story for children who need more practice. Use other reading materials from your classroom for other children. • Children read the story to a partner who signs the back of their page and vice versa. (If reading from a book, you could make a special ticket that needs to be signed.) • Then the child does the same with a second partner.

Homework Activities Homework activities are intended to provide additional practice reading and writing the Unit words. Homework activities for Days 1 through Day 4 are listed on the Homework page for each Unit. The same activities are used every week with the words and sentences from the current Unit. For each of the four daily assignments below there is a “Classroom Prep” paragraph with suggestions for demonstrating or reminding the children of what they need to do for homework that day. You will, of course, want to spend more time with this in the first few Units until children and parents are used to the routine. It will continue to be important to at least briefly review the assignment each day throughout the year preferably near the end of the school day. A letter explaining the activities for parents can be found on the Teacher’s Guide CD. It would be very helpful to demonstrate and discuss the activities at a parent meeting early in the school year. Children will need support at home to complete these activities. When that is not possible due to language differences or parent working hours, the school should strive to provide extra help for the child during the school day, or before or after school to complete homework assignments.

Day 1 Homework • Classroom Prep As shown in the illustration, children circle the lists of Tricky Words, Tricky Words for Review, Review Words, the assigned list of New Words (A, B, or C), and the New Sentences. This makes clear to the children and parents which words they are to read for homework. • Assignment Children read through all the words and sentences that they have circled above once and then go back and read all again. A parent or other adult signs under the Day 1 assignment on the Homework page.

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Day 3 Homework Classroom Prep To encourage children to write better sentences, say something like this. Impy Ink is a very good writer. We want to be like Impy Ink and write very interesting and imaginative sentences. Tell me which sentence is more interesting. 1) The cat ran. 2) The sleek gray cat charged after the squealing mouse. Talk about why it is more interesting. Let children try to say some interesting sentences with one of the Unit words in it. (Note below the important follow up step when the children return with their sentences on the next day.) • Assignment Children write five (5) sentences using at least one list word in each one. • Follow-up When children bring in the sentences they have written, let them share some of them in whole group, or better yet, in small group. After a child reads a sentence, discuss with the class what makes the sentence interesting and occasionally discuss what might be done to make it even more interesting.

Day 2 Homework • Classroom Prep Demonstrate the Look-SayCover-Write-Check method on the board. You can copy the form from the Teacher’s Guide CD or teach children to use regular lined paper. Use these instructions: • Copy all the words into the first column of the three-column page. • Look at the first word and say it. • Cover it up and write it. • Children check if they have written it correctly. • They cover it and write it again.

Day 4 Homework • Classroom Prep Tell children that they need to have some one read out the New Words, a few Review Words, and New Sentences. (Tricky Words are included in the sentences.) The child writes the words and sentences without getting a peek until done. Then any missed words should be practiced using LookSay-Cover-Write-Check. • Assignment Children take a practice spelling test at home. They practice missed words with the Look-Say-Cover-Write-Check strategy.

• Finally they check the word again. They do the same with each word. If children miss words, they mark through them, look at the correct spelling again, and write them on the back of the page. Then have children practice two or three words on their own. After a few weeks, have a child demonstrate on the board. • Assignment Children follow the steps on the Look-Say-Cover-Write-Check reproducible (TG CD). These steps are also included in the parent letter (TG CD). •

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IUnit 1I

Word Families: ad, ap, at The activities that are used on each Five Day Unit are explained in detail on pages 20-52. Reading through those pages and referring to them as needed will help you guide your children in all the Units.

mad

nap

cat

Dad

lap

hat

had

map

sat

Tricky Words

my

the

is

a

Unit Focus Children learn to sort words according to rhyme patterns--ad, -ap, and -at. They also learn to finger sound words for reading and spelling using onsets and rimes, e.g. h-ad, m-ap, c-at.

at

List A

on

cat Dad

nap lap

mad had

hat at

sat map

bat had

tap fat

Diagnostic Words: bat, cap, fat, sad

List B Picture Code Cards for Review (PCCs) 1 3 5 6 7 11 14 18 20 22 27 30 31 33

ă b c d d f h l m n p r s t

Annie Apple Bouncy Ben Clever Cat Dippy Duck Diana Duck Firefighter Fred Harry Hat Man Lucy Lamp Light* Munching Mike Noisy Nick Peter Puppy Red Robot Sammy Snake Talking Tess

*Introduced in this lesson

mad rat

cap lap

sad sat

Diagnostic Words: nap, cat, map, Dad

List C tap nap

mad Dad

map bat

sad cap

sat hat

Diagnostic Words: mad, lap, rat, fat

Tricky Words the is my

on a

New Spelling Sentences The cat is on my lap. The cat had a nap.

53 Unit 1

Display the first of the four Vowel Scene Posters (above) as you begin Unit 1. Refer to it as you introduce the ‘very important’ vowel letters—short vowels in Units 1-7, the Vowel Men and y as a vowel in Unit 8.


Day 1

DAY 1 You will need • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) See the list of 14 cards on the previous page • Word Cards for Unit 1, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown (previous page) • Student List for Unit 1, copies from TG CD • Highlighters, chalk, or markers Preparation • Display the sentences below for Word Detectives at child-level, TG CD

Clever Căt hăd a năp on the măt. Peter Puppy is a tăd bit săd. Harry Hăt Măn hăd a hăt in his lăp.

Finger Sounding with Onset and Rhyme Touch thumb to first finger and say /c/. Touch thumb to second and third finger and say /at/.

Touch thumb to all fingers at once and say ‘cat’.

Whole Class Phonic concept review (p 21) • Show the plain letter side of each of the 14 PCCs for Unit 1 (previous page). Have children give each sound.

Introduce concepts on the pocket chart (p 21) PCCs: ă, b. c, h, s, t Words: at, sat, cat, bat, hat • Hold up the Annie Apple Picture Code Card (PCC). Annie Apple is one of the very important vowel sounds. The vowel sounds are important because almost every word has at least one vowel. Say, ‘vowel.’ “Vowel”. We are going to see that we can make lots of words with Annie Apple. • On the pocket chart, form the word at with the Picture Code Cards for Annie Apple and Talking Tess. • Ask students to make the two sounds and blend them together. Use at in a sentence. • Say, Together Annie Apple and Talking Tess make lots of words. • Make -at words by adding the consonants at the start. • Show children how to finger sound using Onset and Rime. See the illustrated instructions at the left. Children finger sound all the -at words using the onefinger-two-finger method. • Explain that they can read lots of rhyming words in this way by just changing the sound at the start.

Live Reading (p 22) PCCs: ă. b, c, d, h, l, m, p, s, t Words: hat, mat, sat, sad, mad, had, map, cap, lap • Introduce children to Live Reading by telling them they are going to be the Letterlanders and put their sounds together to make words. • Tell them that the Letterlanders think their job of making words is very important. Show them how to hold PCCs up in front of their chests so everyone can see them. • Have two children hold the Annie Apple and Talking Tess PCCs very close together as they stand facing the class. Have everyone read their word, at. • Pass out PCCs for h, m, and s to children and have them line up on the ‘audience’ left side and come forward one at a time to stand beside the children with at. Have the class finger sound the words.

54 Unit 1


Tricky Words

the is

my on a

• Let two children be ad, and later have two more be ap. Give the consonant PCCs that will be needed to other children and Live Read the remaining words in the same way as with the at words.

Word Detectives (p 23 and TG CD) • Print the sentences from the TG CD, and project to the class. Read the sentences with the children and let some of them highlight or underline the words with -at, -ap, and -ad as shown. Also, have children add a breve to any a’s with Annie Apple’s sound. You can say the breve is Annie Apple’s smile.

Read the new words (p 23) More Day 1 Activities Independent/Partner • Write and mark up words, p 27 Homework • Read words and sentences two times, p 42

• Read the words in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, and Planes activity.

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading (p 24) PCCs: ă, b, c, d, f, l, m, p, s, t Words: cap, lap, map, mad, sad, bad, bat, fat, sat • Build each word and have the children read the words, finger sounding or rollercoaster blending the sounds. (p 46). New Tricky Words On the board write the Tricky Words as shown at the left. Discuss the letters that are not saying the sounds the children have learned and mark them as shown. (Further instructions page 24.)

DAY 2 You will need • PCCs listed on the first page of Unit 1 • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets From TG CD

• Unit 1 Decodable Story • Student Lists • Bouncy Ben’s Bingo

Note: Pronunciation of the o in the word on varies by region. Talk to the children about the sound they hear and whether it needs a wiggly line. Read the Student List (p 26 and TG CD)

Day 2 Whole Class Quick Dash (p 27)

Live Spelling (p 28) More Day 2 Activities Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p 31 • Write words on Bouncy Ben’s Bingo, p 49 Homework • Look-Say-Cover-WriteCheck: words, and sentences, p 43

PCCs: ă, b, d, h, l, m, p, t WORDS: bat, hat, had, mad, map, lap • Distribute the PCCs to the children. • Say the first word. The children repeat it. • Have children finger sound the word one-finger-two-finger style, and decide which Letterlanders are needed, e.g. /b/-/at/. • Children with the needed PCCs come forward to Live Spell the word. • Have the class finger sound or rollercoaster blend the word to check the spelling. • Leave the children with PCCs in place as you say the next word.

55 Unit 1


DAY 3 Whole Class • Guess Who? p 32 • Word Card Sort, p 33 • Read Unit 1 Decodable Story to children, p 34 Small Group • Dictate Tricky Words, Review Sentences, pp 34-5 • Children read Unit 1 Decodable Story, p 35 Independent /Partner • Written Word Sort, p 35 Homework • Write 5 Sentences, p 43

• Children repeat the word, finger sound, and decide which Letterlander to replace in the word. • Continue in the same way with each word.

Small Group Children build words (p 29) Letters: a, b, c, d, m, p, s, t Words: cat, bat, bad, sad, mad, map, cap Review Tricky Words and Story Words (p 30) Read Review Sentences (p 30)

Days 3 to 5 Use the daily plans on pages 32-42 for Day 3 to Day 5 using Unit 1 materials and the Picture Code Cards listed at the beginning of the Unit. Additional information for Unit 1is provided below.

Day 3: Decodable Story (p 34)

DAY 4 Whole Class • Quick Dash, p 27 and 36 • Reading Race, p 36 • Play Bouncy Ben’s Bingo, p 49 Small Group • Share sentences, p 37 • Reread Unit Story, p 37 • Spelling Sort, p 38 • Dictate Sentences, p 38 Independent / Partner • Practice Test, p 38 • Fluency Practice, p 38 Homework • Practice Test, p 43

Before reading “Cat Nap” to the children: Ask them to close their eyes and imagine pictures in their minds as you say something like the following. Think about a pet cat you know or imagine one. Notice the color of your cat. Now imagine this cat inside someone’s house. Most cats like to take a lot of naps. Sometimes when people take a short nap, they call it a ‘catnap’. Listen to this brief story and imagine the cat and the people in it, too. After reading the story, ask children to tell about the color of their imagined cat and about what happened in the story. Tell them they will be reading the story later on for themselves.

Day 3: Written Word Sort (p 35) • Guide children filling in the first words in each column as shown below, to be completed during Independent/Partner Work.

mad

nap cat

the

Bouncy Ben’s Bingo This reproducible Game of the Week is one of five found on the Teacher’s Guide CD. On Day 2 children write their words on the page for you to check for accuracy. On Day 4, play the game with your class. Instructions are found on page 49.

DAY 5 • Spelling and Fluency Checks and more, pp 39-42

56 Unit 1


IUnit 2I

Word Families: ack, am, an Unit Focus

can

jam

back

ran

Sam

sack

van

Pam

pack

Tricky Words

like

List A can sack

am

I

Children sort words according to rhyme patterns--am, -an, and -ack. They learn why c and k go together at the end of short words (e.g. back). In some regions the a in an and am is not a pure short a sound, due to the nasal sound of /n/ or /m/ after it. In that case, to avoid confusion have the children pronounce an as a Unit rather than separating the two sounds. Do the same for am.

jam Pam

back pack

ran van

Sam am

ham back

sack Sam

back Sam

man can

Diagnostic Words: fan, ham, tack, man

and

List B pan fan

am man

pack Pam

Diagnostic Words: jam, can, rack, van Picture Code Cards for Review (PCCs) 1 3 5 11 14 17 18 20 22 27 30 31 58

ă b c f h j k m n p r s v

71

ck

Annie Apple Bouncy Ben Clever Cat Firefighter Fred Harry Hat Man Jumping Jim* Kicking King Munching Mike Noisy Nick Peter Puppy Red Robot Sammy Snake

List C ham sack

van ran

Pam pack

Diagnostic Words: am, tack, jam, tan

Tricky Words I and

like

Story Words ____

New Spelling Sentences Sam and Pam like jam. I like my backpack.

Vicky Violet* Digraph ck*

* Introduced in this Unit

57 Unit 2

____

Review Words nap dad

bat lap


Day 1

DAY 1 You will need • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review • Word Cards for Unit 2, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown (previous page) • Unit 2 Student List, TG CD • Highlighters, chalk, or markers • A ball that can be kicked by Kicking King in the classroom (it could be a balloon or a wad of newspaper shaped into a ball) Preparation • Display the sentences below at child-level for Word Detectives

Whole Class Phonic concept review (p 21) • Ask children why vowel letters such as Annie Apple are important? “They’re in almost every word.”

Introduce concepts on the pocket chart (p 21) PCCs: ă, c, h, j, m, n, p, s, v Words: am, Pam, ham, jam, Sam, man, pan, can, van Word Cards: I, am, Pam, also cards with pictures of Sam and Pam, and the card with a period (full stop). • Place the Unit 2 Word Card with the picture of a girl on the pocket chart. Beside her form the sentence, “I am Pam” with the Word Cards including the period card (full stop) at the end. • Read the sentence to the children and then with them as you point to words. • Ask children to say the sentence putting in their own names. (“I am ...”) • Form the word am with PCCs. Have children sound it out and ask if they can think of words that rhyme with am (e.g. Pam, ham, slam, lamb, ma’am).

Sammy Snake has a very long backpack. Sam and Pam had ham and jam. The man ran to the van.

• Make the -am words (from the list in the blue box above) and have the children finger sound them using the Onset and Rime method (see Unit 1). • Show the picture of Sam, when you make his name. Tell the children that Sam and Pam will be in their Decodable Story this week. • Make the rime -an for children to finger sound and then the four -an words.

Live Spelling (p 28) PCCs: ă, b, c, k, p, ck Words: cap, cab, back, pack

More Day 1 Activities Independent/Partner • Write and mark up words, p 27 Homework • Read words and sentences two times, p 42

• Distribute the single letter PCCs and have the five children with PCCs stand to the audience left. • Ask the children which two of the Letterlanders standing there make the same sound. (“Clever Cat and Kicking King”) • That’s right, they make the same sound and they are very good friends, but the tricky thing for us is which one goes in which words when we hear their /k/ sound. Let’s try a word. Everyone say cap. Have children finger sound (or rubber-band-stretch) cap. • I wonder which one we use for that first sound, /k/? Let’s try Kicking King first. • Build the rest of the word kap (sic) and then say, What is one thing Kicking King likes to do so much? Hint: it’s in his name. “Kick”

58 Unit 2


b

• Yes, he loves to kick and he always kicks in the Reading Direction. With the ball, show that if the King tries to kick in the word kap, he will kick Annie Apple. Let the child with c replace the one with k.

a

• Live Spell the word cab with k at the beginning and have the children tell you why Clever Cat must replace the King. “He will kick Annie Apple.”

Tricky Words

I

liike

and If children are not familiar with Mr. I, introduce him briefly with the Tricky Words I and like. Mr. I says his name in words /ī/.

DAY 2 You will need • Review PCCs • Unit 2 Decodable Story • Unit 2 Student Lists • Zig Zag Zebra’s Zoom • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets

• Whisper to Kicking King that he should start pretending he is crying or angry because he hasn’t been put in any words. • Oh, Kicking King, don’t worry. We will work this out. Let’s think...you can’t go at the start of words because you will kick somebody. If you were in the middle... no, you would still kick someone. Where can we put Kicking King in a word? “At the end” • Let’s try the word back. Make back with b-a-k at first. Let Kicking King show that he can kick in the Reading Direction without kicking anyone. • But, this word is still not quite right. Who is a really good friend and makes the same sound as Kicking King? “Clever Cat” • That’s right, and Clever Cat just loves to watch Kicking King kick because he is the best kicker in all of Letterlander. • Have Clever Cat try lining up after Kicking King in the word (bakc, sic) and elicit from the children that she might be kicked there. Let them suggest her proper, safe place in the word back. • Clever Cat and Kicking King are in so many words that we have a special picture of them together. Show the ck PCC and then hand it to the c and k children to hold together in place of their separate cards. • When these two are together, they make their sound at exactly the same time so that we hear only one /k/ sound. • Change the word to pack for the children finger sound. Question them about why Kicking King is at the end and why Clever Cat is where she is. • Show children on the board how the words back and pack can be joined together to make the familiar word backpack. • On another day, you might show that Kicking King does start a few words like kangaroo, kick, king and kite, but he must be careful not to kick in them.

Word Detectives (p 23) More Day 2 Activities Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p 31 • Write words on Zig Zag Zebra’s Zoom, p 49 Homework • Look-Say-Cover-Write: words, and sentences, p43

• Read the sentences with the children and let some of them highlight or underline the words with -am, -an, and –ack.

Read the new words (p 23) • Read the words in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, and Planes activity.

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading (p 24) PCCs: ă, b, c, f, j, m, n, p, r, s, ck Words: back, pack, sack, Sam, jam, Pam, pan, ran, can. fan • Build each word and have the children read the words by finger sounding or to rollercoaster the sounds. (p 46).

59 Unit 2


DAY 3 Whole Class • Guess Who? p 32 • Word Card Sort, p 33 • Read Unit 2 Decodable Story to children, p 34 Small Group • Dictate Tricky Words and Review Sentences, pp 34-5 • Children read Unit 2 Decodable Story, p 35 Independent /Partner • Unit 2 Written Word Sort, p 35 Homework • Write 5 Sentences, p 43

New Tricky Words On the board write the Tricky Words (shown on the board, previous page). Discuss the letters that are not saying the sounds the children have learned, and mark them as shown. (Further instructions, see page 24.) Read the Student List (p 26 and TG CD)

Day 2 Whole Class Quick Dash (p 27)

Live Reading (p 22) PCCs: ă, b, j, m, n, p, s, v, ck Words: back, pack, sack, Sam, am jam, Pam, pan, van, can. • Have various children retell ‘the Letterland logic’ for putting Clever Cat and Kicking King at the end as you make the ck words.

Small Group Children build words (p 29) DAY 4 Whole Class • Quick Dash, p 27 and 36 • Reading Race, p 36 • Play Zig Zag Zebra’s Zoom, p 49 Small Group • Share sentences, p 37 • Reread Unit 2 Decodable Story, p 37 • Spelling Sort, p 38 • Dictate Sentences, p 38 Independent / Partner • Practice Test, p 38 • Fluency Practice, p 38 Homework • Practice Test, p 43

DAY 5

Letters: a, c, h, k, m, n, p, s, t Words: can, man, pan, pack, sack, Sam, ham, Pam Review Tricky Words and Story Words (p 30) Read Review Sentences (p 30)

Days 3 to 5 Use the daily plans on pages 32-42 (outlined here in margin) for Days 3-5.

Day 3: Decodable Story Before reading “Pam and Sam” to the children: We have been making the name’s Pam and Sam and now we are going to find out a little more about Pam and Sam. Let’s pretend they are new students in our class and listen to this story to learn what they like. After reading the story, ask children to tell about what Pam and Sam like to eat. Ask the children to make up some new ideas about what Sam and Pam might like to do. Tell them that in small group time they will be writing about themselves in the story blanks and something that they like.

jam

can

• Spelling and Fluency Checks and more, pp 39-42

60 Unit 2

back

Unit 2 Written Word Sort for Days 3 and 4


IUnit 3I

Word Families: ix, in, ick Unit Focus

win

pick

six

pin

thick

fix

thin

kick

List A ?

Tricky Words

likes

this

to

he

Children sort words according to rhyme patterns--in, -ix, and -ick and learn additional short i words. Digraph th is introduced with its two sounds: voiced th (as in this, the, that) and unvoiced th (as in thin, thick, and path). To differentiate the two sounds we use the conventional underlined th for the voiced sound and a plain th for the unvoiced.

win thick

big with

pick fix

with

Diagnostic Words: mix, fin, lick, it

big

List B

Story Words

things

big mix

kick six

thick` thin

pin thin

six kick

pin it

sick fin

win mix

fix thick

Diagnostic Words: win, fix, pick, with

List C Picture Code Cards for Review (PCCs) 1 3 12 14 15 18 22 31 33 39 40 51 73 74

ă b g h ĭ k n s t w x ck th th

Annie Apple Bouncy Ben Golden Girl* Harry Hat Man Impy Ink Kicking King Noisy Nick Sammy Snake Talking Tess Walter Walrus* Fix-it Max* Digraph ck Voiced th* Unvoiced th*

pin in

pick thin

with lick

Diagnostic Words: big, fin, six, sick

Tricky Words

Story Words

Review Words

likes this

things

fan am

to he

Unvoiced th as in thick, thin, thumb and thunder

New Spelling Sentences This is a big hat. Pam likes to kick.

* Introduced in this Unit

Voiced th as in this, that, the and then

61 Unit 3

pack mad

jam sat


Day 1

DAY 1 You will need • Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review plus f, p, m • Beyond ABC, p 12 • Word Cards for Unit 3, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart as shown (previous page) • Student List for Unit 3, TG CD • Highlighters, chalk, or markers • Hat for Harry Hat Man, telephone for Talking Tess Preparation • Display the sentences below for Word Detectives at child-level

Whole Class Phonic concept review (p 21) • Show the Annie Apple PCC and ask, What makes vowels like Annie Apple so important? “She’s in almost every word.” • Show the ck PCC and ask children to tell the sound and the story of why these two are together at the end of little words. “Kicking King has room to kick at the end, and Clever Cat likes to watch him safely from behind.”

Introduce concepts on the pocket chart (p 21) PCCs: ĭ, th, th • Hold up the Impy Ink Picture Code Card (PCC). Impy Ink is another one of the very important vowel sounds. Why are they important? “Because almost every word has at least one vowel.” What is the sound of this vowel? / ǐ / We are going to make lots of words with Impy Ink this week. • Display both th PCCs in the pocket chart. • Read the story of th in Beyond ABC to the children. Have them search the illustration for pictures of things with the th sounds.

Fĭx-ĭt Măx can fĭx sĭx bikes in one day. Noisy Nick hĭts the tĭn căn wĭth a stĭck. Ĭs Walter Walrus thĭck or thĭn?

Dramatize the th story • Let one student be Talking Tess and another be Harry Hat Man—each holding their own PCC. • The two stand at opposite sides of the classroom. • The whole class makes thunder noises. • Harry puts his hands to his ears and Tess runs to him and says, “There, there it’s only the thunder.” • Hand the th Picture Code Card (#73) to both of them to hold together.

More Day 1 Activities Independent/Partner • Write and mark up words, p 27 Homework • Read words and sentences two times, p 42

• Pair up all the children, Harry’s and Tess’s on opposite sides of the room. Everyone makes thunder noises, then Harry and Tess each play their part. Let partners switch roles and repeat. Recognizing the quiet sound of th • Have the children say the word thumb. Use the word in a brief sentence. • Rubberband-stretch the word with the children (p 47). “thuuuummmmb.” • Now let’s start the word again but stop on the first sound. “/th..../” • Can you feel that your tongue is sticking out just a bit and air is coming out of your mouth? Put your thumb up to your mouth and make the whispered sound of /th... /. “/th..../” • Your tongue might just touch your thumb. This is the quiet sound of t-h that begins the words thumb, thin and thunder. Isn’t it funny that the word thunder begins with a whispery sound?

62 Unit 3


Tricky Words

• Now, let’s stretch the word there, like when Talking Tess says “There, there...” and then start to say it again but stop on the first sound. “th...eeeerrrrrre, / th.../”

li kes to

• This is the noisy sound of t-h. We still stick out our tongue but we are adding our voices, giving it a vibrating sound. Let’s see how long we can stretch out this sound. It may tickle. “/th.............../”

this

• So when you see th in a word you know it says one of two sounds. This card (#74) shows Tess and Hat Man with their hands over their ears when they say “thunder” and so it is the quiet sound that begins th...under.

he

If children are not familiar with Mr. E, introduce him briefly with the Tricky Word he. Mr. E says his name in words /ē/.

• On this card (#73) with Harry pointing upward, they are saying “There” and so we hear the louder buzzy sound /th/.

Live Reading (p 22) PCCs: ă, ĭ, f, k, m, n, p, s, t, w, x, ck, th, th

DAY 2 You will need • PCCs for Review • Blends & Digraphs Songs CD, #4

• Unit 3 Decodable Story • Unit 3 Student Lists • Fishing with Firefighter

Words: thick, kick, pick, pin, thin, win, with, six, fix, mix, this, that • Have two children hold the ck card and line them up beside Impy Ink (ick). • Give each th card to pairs of child. Give out the other PCCs, also. • Call for the needed Letterlanders for each -ick word and line them up for the class to finger sound the words using the Onset and Rime method from Unit 1, e.g. th-ick. (p 46). • Do the same with -in and -ix words. Then build this and that to practice reading words with the voiced th.

Fred word pages

• Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets Preparation

• Prepare song lyrics for display

Word Detectives (p 23) • Read the sentences with the children and let some of them highlight each word family in a different color. Have others add ‘smiles’ (breves, ă, ĭ) to letters with Annie Apple or Impy Ink’s short vowel sounds.

Read the new words (p 23) • Read the Word Cards in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, and Planes activity.

More Day 2 Activities Independent/Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p 26 • Write words on Fishing with Firefighter Fred word page, p 51 Homework • Look-Say Cover-Write: words, and sentences, p 43

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading (p 24) PCCs: ă, ĭ, b, f, g, n, p, s, w, x, ck, th, th Words: fix, six, sick, pick, pin, win, thin, with, that, this, big (with can be th or th) • Build each word and have the children read the words, finger sounding or rollercoaster blending the sounds. (p 46). New Tricky Words On the board write the Tricky Words (shown in the margin). Discuss the letters that are not saying the sounds the children have learned and mark them as shown. (Further instructions, page 24.)

63 Unit 3


Read the Student List (p 26 and TG CD)

DAY 3 Whole Class • Guess Who?, p 32 • Word Card Sort, p 33 • Read Unit 3 Decodable Story to children, pp 34-35

Small Group • Dictate Tricky Words and Review Sentences, p 35 • Children read Unit 3 Decodable Story, p 35 Independent /Partner • Unit 3 Written Word Sort, p 35 Homework • Write 5 Sentences, p 43

Day 2 Whole Class Quick Dash (p 27)

Blends and Digraphs Songs • “The Thunder Song,” Track 4. See Shared Reading, page 28.

Live Speling (p 28) PCCs: ă, b, g, ĭ, n, s, w, ck, th, th WORDS: this, that, win, wig, big, thick, thin • Have various children retell the Letterland story of Talking Tess and Harry Hat Man when you spell th words. Also, ask them to identify the more noisy sound and the quiet sound of th.

Small Group DAY 4 Whole Class • Quick Dash, p 27 and 36 • Reading Race, p 36 • Play Fishing with Firefighter Fred, p 51 Small Group • Share sentences, p 37 • Reread Unit 3 Decodable Story, p 37 • Spelling Sort, p 38 • Dictate Sentences, p 38 Independent / Partner • Practice Test, p 38 • Fluency Practice, p 38 Homework • Practice Test, p 38

Children build words (p 29) Letters: c, h, i, k, k, n, p, t, w Words: with, win, pin, thin, thick, kick Review Tricky Words and Story Words (p 30) Read Review Sentences (p 30)

Days 3 to 5 Use the daily plans on pages 32-42 (outlined here to the left) for Days 3-5.

Day 3: Decodable Story Before reading “In a Fix” to the children: What does Kicking King like to do most of all. “kick” Of course, it is in his name. And what does Fix-it Max like to do? “fix things” We are going to read a story about how these two can help each other do the things they love to do. After reading the story, ask children what happened to the King and what Fixit Max might do to help him. After the children, read the story themselves in small group, you might want to use the Plan and Play activity on page 32.

DAY 5

fix

• Spelling and Fluency Checks and more, pp 39-42

64 Unit 3

win

pick

to


lUnit 22l

Mr. O with Mr. A and Walter Walrus Unit Focus Tricky Words

boat

know could

low

soap

show yellow done

road

grow

are Story Words

coat plow

float

wind

outside

Children learn about long o as in oa and ow. Mr. O and Mr. A follow the Vowels Out Walking story line. The first Vowel Man waves and says his name while the second silently looks out for Vowel Stealers. The ow as in low is explained with a story about the mischievous Walter Walrus. In Unit 35 they will learn a related story about the sound of ow in how and down.

List A boat grow

24 ŏ Oscar Orange 35 ŭ Uppy Umbrella 45 ai Mr. A & Mr. I 49 ay Mr. A & Yo-yo Man 50 ch Digraph ch 52 ea Mr. E & Mr. A 53 ee Mr. E & Mr. E 60 ng Digraph ng 61 oa Mr. O & Mr A* 68 ow/ō/ Mr. O and Walter * 71 sh Digraph sh 73 th Voiced th 74 th Unvoiced th

Advanced PCCs (APCCs) 39

kn

King & Nick*

*Introduced in this Unit.

road coat

low yellow

show float

Diagnostic Words: goat, row, slow, load

List B goat follow

Picture Code Cards for Review (PCCs)

soap know

toast road

throw know

slow soap

coach blow

Diagnostic Words: boat, show, float, snow

List C snow row

loan goal

coast load

flow own

below boat

Diagnostic Words: low, toast, slow, road

Tricky Words could are

done

Story Words

Review Words

plow outside

stay mail June

wind

New Spelling Sentences Could the toast be done? We are going to the boat show. Noisy Nick is in the way, so Kicking King can’t kick. The King is too angry to speak. So we only hear Nick’s /nnn/ in words like know and knot.

137 UNIT 22

way dream ice

wait teach


Day 1

DAY 1 You will need • Review plus b, c, d, f, g, n, ō, p, r, s, t, t, w, also Advanced PCC: kn • Word Cards for Unit 22, List A, B, or C on the pocket chart • Unit 22 Student List • Highlighters, chalk, or markers Preparation • Display the sentences below for Word Detectives • Make a ‘water wand’ for Walter Walrus as shown on the next page

Whole Class Phonic concept review (p 21) • Show the PCCs for ai and ay. Children tell the story and sound of these pairs. Then have children repeat these words and tell which pair of Vowel Men the word is spelled with: wait, say, tray, paid, rain, play

Introduce concepts on the pocket chart (p 21) PCCs: b, f, g, l, n, ǒ, ŏ, p, r, s, t, w, oa, ow/ō/, sh

APCC: kn

Words: boat, soap, float, goat, goal, low, show, grow, snow, know Introduce oa • Hold up the oa PCC and ask if anyone can figure out what each Vowel Man is doing and what sound we hear for oa. Repeat the rhyme: The first man says his name but his friend won’t do the same.

I know the coach can teach me to kick a goal. Golden Girl wants to grow a low row of tulips by the road. Walter Walrus has a furry coat that helps him float.

More Day 1 Activities Independent/Partner • Write and mark up words, p 27 Homework • Read words and sentences two times, p 42

• Refer to the Vowels Out Walking poster and have a student point out Mr. O and Mr. A. • Push the plain oa forward three times as children say, /ō/ /ō/ /ō/. • Make the oa words above on the pocket chart and have children finger sound them (one tap for oa). After making each word write it on the board, forming a column of oa words. Introduce ow • Show the picture side of the ow PCC (# 68). Let’s see what Mr. O does when Walter Walrus tries to splash his salty water on Oscar Orange. Read the story and share the picture from Beyond ABC (pages 22-23). Dramatize the story • Choose children to be Oscar Orange, Mr. O and Walter Walrus with each one holding their own PCC (ŏ, ō, w). Have Oscar and Walter stand side by side facing the class. Walter holds the ‘water wand.’ Mr. O stands off to the audience left. Walter begins pretending to splash Oscar and Mr. O comes rushing in between the two, holding up his left hand and saying, “Oh, no you don’t!” Then Oscar and Walter hold the ow PCC in front of Mr. O. • Let several groups of three take turns demonstrating the scene or group all the children into threes to act out the scene at the same time. • Push the plain letter side of the ow PCC forward three times as children say the sound: /ō/ /ō/ /ō/. Make the ow words • Make the ow words low, show, grow, and snow for children to finger sound. After making each word, write it on the board forming a column of ow words.

138 UNIT 22


Tricky Words

could done are

Make a water wand for Walter Walrus.

• Tell children about the sound of kn. Show the picture side of the Advanced Picture Code Card as you explain: When Noisy Nick gets in the way of Kicking King’s kicks, the king is too angry to speak, so all we hear is Nick’s /nnn/ sound. • Push the plain kn forward three times for children to give the sound: /nnn/ /nnn/ /nnn/. Make the word know for children to finger sound. Comparing oa and ow words • Have children look at the two columns of words. Which spelling ow or oa usually comes on the end? You can tell them that oa hardly ever comes at the end of a word. We are more likely to see ow on the end although it does not have to be at the end. Have the children speculate about why oa is not usually on the end. Perhaps Mr. A get’s a bit dizzy on the end like Mr. I (or they may have a better reason). Note: There is no Live Reading in this Day 1 lesson.

2

tape

Word Detectives (p 23) 3

1

• Read the sentences (as shown on the previous page) with the children and let some of them highlight or underline the words with oa in one color and ow in another.

Read the new words (p 23) • Read the words in columns on the pocket chart with the class using the Tractors, Trains, and Planes activity.

DAY 2 You will need • PCCs for Review plus d, ĕ, g, l, p, r, s, t, y, ll • Unit 22 Decodable Story • Unit 22 Student List • Letterland Word Builder or other letter sets

Small Group Teacher builds words for reading (p 24) PCCs: b, c, d, f, g, l, s, t, t, sh, oa, ow/ō/ APCC: kn Words: coat, coast, toast, goat, goal, load, low, flow, blow, know New Tricky Words and Story Words (p 24) Read the Student List (p 26 and TG CD)

Day 2 More Day 2 Activities Independent / Partner • Read Review Sentences with two partners, p 31 • Write words on Zig Zag Zebra’s Zoom game, p 49 Homework • Study-Cover-Write: words, and sentences, p 43

Whole Class Quick Dash (p 27)

Live Spelling (p 28) PCCs: d, ĕ, g, l, p, r, s, t, y, ll, oa, ow APCC: kn Words: yell, yellow, row, road, load, grow, goat, low, slow, soap, know • Have two children with the oa PCC and two more with the ow stand to the audience left to be ready to go in a word. • Have the class stretch the words as usual and decide who goes in each word or what needs to be changed to make the next word.

139 UNIT 22


DAY 3

Small Group

Whole Class • Guess Who? p 32 • Word Sort, p 33 • Read to children: Unit 22 Decodable Story, p 34 Small Group

Children build words (p 29)

• Dictate Tricky Words, Review Sentences, pp 34-35

Read Review Sentences (p 30)

Letters: a, b, d, f, g, h, k, l, n, o, p, r, s, t, w Words: blow, low, flow, float, goat, grow, row, road, load, soap, snow, show, know Review Tricky Words and Story Words (p 30)

• Children read Unit 22

Decodable Story, p 35 Independent / Partner • Written Word Sort, p 35 Homework • Write 5 Sentences, p 43

DAY 4 Whole Class • Quick Dash, p 36 • Reading Race, p 36 • Play Zig Zag Zebra’s Zoom game, p 49 Small Group • Share sentences, p 37 • Reread Unit 22 Decodable Story, p 37 • Spelling Sort, p 38 • Dictate Sentences, p 38 Independent / Partner • Practice Test, p 38 • Fluency Practice, p 38 Homework • Practice Test, p 43

Days 3 to 5 Use the daily plans on pages 32-42 (outlined here to the left) for Days 3-5.

Day 3: Decodable Story Before reading “The Snow Plow” to the children: This story happens during a snow storm. A child is going to ride in a snow plow truck with Dad as he plows snow off the road. They have a problem because the snow is so deep that they cannot see where the road is. Let’s see what they do about it. After reading the story, discuss the solution to the problem posed in your introduction. You may want to use the Story Stone activity to help children retell the rest of the story (p 44). Then you might read the story again and stop after each sentence or two and ask the children what words they heard with Mr. O’s name in them. Have them predict whether a word needs oa or ow. (You might remind them that oa is hardly ever on the end and that ow often is).You could write the words on the board in two columns.

boat

DAY 5 • Spelling and Fluency Checks and more, pp 39-42

140 UNIT 22

low

could


Assessment and

Small Group Intervention Assessment Assessment for Placement, Diagnosis and Yearly Evaluation .................................................. 234 Step-by-Step Assessments ......................................235 Weekly Spelling and Fluency Checks .....................236 Tri-weekly Review Assessments ........................ 237 Administering Assessments for Placement, Diagnosis and Evaluation .............................. 237 Administering Review Assessments .................. 240

Small Group Intervention Identifying Children for Intervention .......................... 241 Getting Started .......................................................... 243 Five Day Intervention Plan ........................................ 243 Intervention Instruction (Days 1 to 5) ....................... 244


Levels of Step-by-Step Assessment 1. Placement, Diagnosis and Yearly Evaluation 2. Weekly Spelling and Fluency Checks 3. Tri-Weekly Review

Assessment Letterland Step-by-Step provides assessments for a number of purposes. The chart on the next page lists the various Assessments and provides information on each one. There is no need to use every assessment with every child. You may have other assessments that will meet some of your needs. Some children may not need certain types of assessment. Just decide which ones will provide information that will help you in teaching your children. Each Assessment is described briefly below. Instructions for the assessments follow, beginning on page 236. All Forms for children to read, and for you to use for scoring, are available on the CD accompanying this Teacher’s Guide.

Assessments for Placement, Diagnosis and Yearly Evaluation Fluency Screening You may want to use this fluency assessment with all children at the beginning of the school year, along with the Phonics Inventory below, to decide where they should begin in this Teacher’s Guide Units. The child reads from a series of Word Lists for 30 seconds per List. (Each list includes words from a number of related, sequential Units.) Children continue from the A List into the B-D List, etc. until they drop below the Borderline number of correct words per minute (cwpm). You can then use this assessment again to measure progress at the end of the year by retesting and comparing the results with the child’s initial level of mastery of this crucial ability to read words fluently. Phonics Screening Use this Phonics Inventory assessment, along with the Fluency Screening above, to decide on initial placement in the Units. The child reads the lists of words (without being timed) to show how well they can apply phonic knowledge to decoding words. They continue with progressive lists until their accuracy drops below the Borderline Score. Your detailed analysis of the results will show you which phonic elements the child still needs to learn. Letter Sound Checklist This assessment should be used with children who do not show mastery on Section A of the Phonics Screening. Children respond to single letters or letter combinations (e.g. digraphs th, ea, ar). Children continue until they are missing approximately half or more of the items in a Section. Beginning Sounds Assessment Use this assessment with children who are only able to read a few words, or less, on the Fluency Assessment and Phonics Inventory. Use it to determine if children have phonemic awareness of beginning sounds and are able to isolate initial sounds in spoken words (e.g. / b/ in bird). The full instructions for this assessment are on the scoring form on the Teacher’s Guide CD (TG CD). Using Assessments for Initial Placement and Grouping After assessing the children with the Fluency Screening and Phonics Inventory you will want to compile the data from these two assessments on the Class Record. As shown on page 236, it can be very helpful to list your children from lowest to highest, based on their scores.

234 Assessment


Step-by-Step Assessments For Placement, Diagnosis and Yearly Evaluation Assessment

Purpose

Individual or Group

When / How Often

Time

Fluency Screening

Placement in units

Individual

Beginning of Year

5-15 p 234 and minutes p 237

Gives starting point for Phonics Inventory

Instruction pages

End of Year

Evaluation of yearly progress Phonics Inventory

Letter Sound Checklist Beginning Sounds Assessment

Placement in units

Individual

Beginning of Year

Diagnostic information

As needed

Evaluation of Yearly Progress Diagnostic Information (especially for Intervention) Intervention placement Diagnostic information for intervention

Individual

End of Year As needed

Individual

As needed

Individual

Weekly

Group

Weekly

Individual

Every third week

Group

Every Third Week

10-20 p 234 and minutes p 238

5-15 minutes 5-10 minutes

p 234 and p 239 p 234 and TG CD

3-5 minutes 20-25 minutes

p 236 and p 237 p 236 and p 237

Weekly Spelling and Fluency Checks Unit Fluency Check Unit Spelling Test

Determines mastery and whether to advance to next unit Determines mastery and whether to advance to next unit

Tri-weekly Review Assessments Review Assessment Progress monitoring of Fluency Review Assessment Progress monitoring of Spelling

235 Assessment

3 p 237 minutes 15-20 p 240 minutes


Wise

5

Ms. Wise’s Class, An Example of Placing Students Based on Assessments Ms. Wise listed her students’ data on the Class Record at the left from lowest scoring to highest. (For convenience, children’s names are shown as letters in the first column.) The second column lists the highest level of mastery on the Fluency Screening by Section. The rest of the columns show the children’s scores on the Phonics Inventory. Since 15 of her 21 students already showed mastery of Section A which corresponds to Units 1-7, Ms. Wise decided to begin her whole class in Unit 8. She knew that this would meet the needs of the middle of her class, and that most of the children above this level would soon be challenged by the Units they would reach as a class within a few weeks. Ms. Wise also knew that beginning with Unit 8 would not fully meet the needs of Students A-F. So she planned to further assess these children and work with them in small intervention groups. Her assessment and placement for Intervention is discussed on page 241 in the Intervention section.

Weekly Spelling and Fluency Checks At the end of the Five Day Plan for each Step-by Step Unit, you will be assessing your students with Fluency Check and Spelling Test. This is a very important part of the instructional program, because these assessments allow you to see if your children have mastered the phonic skills and the set of words taught in the Unit. If they score at or above mastery level, you can feel confident in continuing to the next Unit. If they have not mastered the Unit, you will want to repeat that Unit for another five days using the alternative Lists B or C. Full details for administering these assessments and making decisions about pacing your children are in the Day 5 Instruction Plan on pages 39-40. You will find further discussion on using these assessments with Intervention Groups in the Intervention section on pages 241-242.

236 Assessment


Tri-weekly Review Assessments The Fluency and Spelling Reviews are both based on the same lists, one for every three Units. These lists include both decodable words and Tricky Words from previous Units. Give the Tri-weekly assessments anytime during the week after you have completed the third Unit. Children should not practice on this list prior to being assessed. These are important assessments because they show if the children are retaining the skills and information from several Units. If they are not meeting the criteria for both reading and spelling, further review is called for within the three previous units. Fluency Review Children read the list for one minute. Compare the number of words correct per minute to the mastery criterion printed on the page. These criteria are slightly lower than those for weekly assessments since children do not have the opportunity to practice them. Spelling Review Test the children as a group, spelling 20 words, including decodable words and Tricky Words. The goal is to spell 80% or more of the words correctly without additional study of the words.

Administering Assessments for Placement, Diagnosis and Evaluation Placement You can use the Fluency Assessment and Phonics Inventory to decide the best place to start your students in this Letterland Step-by-Step phonics/spelling program. Give the Fluency Assessment to each child. Use each child’s performance on the Fluency Assessment to decide the child’s starting point for giving the Phonics Inventory. Enter each child’s scores on the Class Record. Use the Class Record to group children and choose a starting point for the class, or for each group. Follow these steps: Administering the Fluency Assessment 1. Start every child with the Fluency Assessment Student Pages Section A. You will time the child reading the words in each Section for 30 seconds. 2. Point to the first row of words and then the second and tell the child, Read the words going from left to right as quick as you can without missing words. Keep going until I tell you to stop. If you do not know a word you can skip it. Say ‘skip’ so I will know you are going on to the next word. If you get stuck on a word for more than five seconds, I will tell you to go on to the next word. 3. Ready? Begin. Time the child for thirty seconds. 4. As the child reads, follow along on the score sheet. If a word is read correctly, make no mark. If the child misreads a word or skips a word make a slash mark through it. 5. Say Stop at 30 seconds. Draw a bracket after the last word read. 6. Count the number of words read correctly. Enter this number in the score box. If the child’s score is in the Borderline or Mastery range check the appropriate box and administer the next Section in the same way. 7. If the child’s score is less than the Borderline range, stop and go to the Phonics Inventory. (If you have reason to think the child may be able to read in the Borderline or Mastery level on the next Section, you may, of

237 Assessment


course, continue.) The table below shows how to use the child’s scores on the Fluency Screening to choose a starting point for the Phonics Inventory. 8. If the child is unable to read any of the words or only one or two, you may stop before the end of 30 seconds. Administering the Phonics Inventory 1. Begin the Phonics Inventory based on the first Fluency Assessment Section, not in the Mastery range: If the child’s first level below Begin the Phonics Inventory mastery is... with... Section A Section A Section B-D Sections B, C, D Section E-F Sections E, F Sections G-I Sections G, H, I Section J Section J 2. Have the child read the words in each line from left to right. 3. As the child reads, follow along on the score sheet. If a word is read correctly, make no mark. If the child misreads a word, write what the child said above the word. If the child self-corrects, make a check mark beside the word you have written (this will count as correct). If the child gives no response to a word, circle the word. 4. If the child hesitates for more than five seconds, tell him or her to go on to the next word. 5. Administer the Sections according to the table above. If the child is struggling too much in a section, you may stop at any point. Administer additional sections if you think you will obtain useful information. 6. The best place to begin the child’s instruction is within the range of Sections on the Fluency Screening where the child first scored below Mastery (e.g. BD). Within that range of Sections, choose the first level that the child is below Mastery on the Phonics Inventory. (For example, if the child scores Mastery on Section A and B but not on Section C, begin lessons with the first Unit in Section C.) If the child is at Mastery on the Phonics Inventory on all the Sections (e.g. B-D), the child should still begin with a Section in this range in order to build fluency since he or she did not show mastery on the Fluency Screening. You will want to flexible in choosing a beginning point so that you can form no more than 3 or 4 groups within your class. 7. Some teachers choose to start their whole class in Section A, Unit 1. You may choose to do this and then after children have learned the routines of your classroom and of this program, you may want to form 2, 3 or 4 groups for instruction. Other teachers continue to teach the same Unit to everyone in whole class lessons. Then they form one or two small groups for intervention. Within these groups, the teacher works on the Units needed by the children based on their assessments and teacher observations.

238 Assessment


Assessment Sections with Corresponding Instructional Units and Concepts Section

Units

A

1-7

B

Concepts

Section

Units

Concepts

Short Vowels and Consonant Digraphs

F

23-26

Other Long Vowel Patterns

8-10

Open Syllables, Double Consonants and all

G

27-28

Suffix ed

C

11-15

Consonant Blends

H

29-32

R-controlled Vowels

D

16-18

Magic e, ce and ge

I

33-36

Variant Vowel Sounds

E

19-22

Vowel Pairs, Long Vowel Sound

J

37-45

Supplemental Concepts

Diagnosis You can use the Phonics Inventory to look at the specific skills a child needs. This is especially useful for children who are receiving intervention instruction. After you have completed assessing the child, examine each error and circle the letter or pattern of letters in the right-hand columns that the child missed. Use this information in planning lessons especially for Intervention groups. The Letter Sounds Inventory is included as an additional diagnostic tool to be used as needed. At the beginning of the year children who can read only a few words on the Fluency Screening or the Phonics Inventory, should be given the Letter Sounds Inventory. For these children, you will probably only want to administer Section A. 1. Point to the first letter on the student page and ask, What is the sound of this letter. If the child says the letter name, say, “The sound of this letter is /mmm/. Can you say that sound with me /mmm/?” Circle the m to indicate an error and point to the next letter. 2. Do not give the child the sound after the first letter. Do not tell the child if the answer is correct or not. Wait 3-5 seconds for the child’s response and then move on. If the child does not give any sounds on the first row, you may stop. 3. If the child does not give a sound, circle the letter. If the child gives an incorrect answer, write it above the letter. 4. Follow additional instructions on the score sheets. 5. Continue into the next section if the child was correct on at least 50% of the sounds. This assessment is for diagnosis rather than a score. Examine the child’s errors to determine which sounds the child needs to learn. If you wish to have a score for measuring progress, count the total number of sounds correct.

Evaluation You can evaluate the children’s mastery of skills and their progress in the program by re-administering parts of the Fluency Screening and the Phonics Inventory after a period of instruction. For example, if the child was below

239 Assessment


Mastery in Section A, you could work through Units 1-8 over a number of weeks. Once the child has completed these Units, re-administer Section A of both of these assessments to check for mastery and to show progress to parents, administrators, colleagues and perhaps most importantly the child. Of course, it is also possible that giving the assessments again may show weaknesses which require further instruction.

Administering Review Assessments Review Assessments are given after every three units. They are used to monitor children’s mastery and retention of fluent word recognition and correct spelling of the words and patterns taught. Should children study for this assessment? Children should not be given review lists to study. If children have truly learned the words each week, they should be able to spell at least 80% of them correctly and should be able to read them with fluency without additional study. When do I give the review assessments? These assessments should be given in the week following the completion of the units tested. For example, during week four of school, you will already be teaching Unit 4. On Day 2 or 3 of that week give the Review Assessments for Units 1-3. There are two types of Review Assessments: • Fluency Review – A list of 40 regular words and 10 Tricky Words for timed reading. 1. The Goal for each assessment is listed on the page in Correct Words Per Minute (cwpm). 2. This assessment is done individually. Give the child a copy to read from and mark any errors on your copy. Time the child reading for one minute.

For Teachers Following a Different Sequence If you are using Step-by-Step Units in another order, you will need to construct your own review test for the three pervious units used in your classroom. Select approximately equal numbers of words from each unit. Choose a variety of words that use all the patterns taught in each lesson. Also, do not select all the easiest words or all the more difficult words. Try to choose a group of words that reflect each unit as a whole.

3. Count the number of words read correctly. You may want to give the child two tries to reach the goal. 4. be given addition instruction and practice, using the words from the previous Units. 5. The Goals for the Assessment increase over the course of the year just as the goals for weekly assessments do. The Goal for the review assessment is slightly lower than for the weekly assessments because children do not have as much recent practice with the Review Assessment as with the Student List for each Unit. Units

Goal

1-12

20 cwpm

13-24 25 cwpm 25-45 35 cwpm • Spelling Review – Use the first 6 Tricky Words on the Review Assessment and the first 14 Regular Words for children to spell as you call out the words. This assessment can be given to a whole class or small group together. Children scoring less than 80% correct should be given addition instruction and practice with the words from the previous Units. • If children have passed weekly spelling and fluency assessments, they will usually be successful in these reviews. If they are not, it is a clear indication that further study is needed.

240 Assessment


Five Daily Intervention Steps 1. Letter Sounds 2. Word Building: Reading and Spelling 3. Word Cards and Fluency 4. Tricky Words and Dictation 5. Text Reading

Assessments Used for Selecting Students and Planning Instruction

Small Group Intervention More and more schools and teachers are realizing that they can make a difference with their at-risk children. Letterland Step-by-Step provides you with solid, high-quality small group intervention plans to enable you to help your struggling readers reach success. Each Volume of Letterland Step-by-Step provides an Intervention section that reflects current knowledge and research on increasing children’s ability in the areas of phonemic awareness, phonics, word recognition, spelling, and word reading fluency. These plans along with additional work, where needed, on fluency in text, comprehension and vocabulary, can help bring struggling readers up to grade-level performance. It is general recognized that from 20 to 30 percent of children in a typical classroom may need additional instruction beyond that offered to the whole class in order to make adequate progress as readers. This instruction should be offered in small groups of children with similar instructional needs. Group size should be limited to no more than five children. Two to four children is ideal.

Identifying Children for Intervention Many schools or school districts have in place their own procedures and assessments for identifying children for intervention. If this is the case in your school, the children that are identified in this process as below grade-level expectations in the areas of phonics, phonemic awareness, word recognition, or oral reading fluency will benefit from the instruction offered here. If your school does not have a placement procedure for intervention, you can use one of the two methods below to choose children for initial placement in intervention.

Using Letterland Step-by-Step Assessments for Placing Children in Intervention Groups In the Assessment section (pp 234-240) of this Teacher’s Guide you will find instructions for administering assessments that will help you select children for intervention. Children who are substantially below the average for the class on these assessments should be provided small group Intervention. As an example of how one teacher might select children for Intervention, look at the Class Record for Ms. Wise’s class on page 236. Based on the data gathered, she decided to begin her class in Unit 8 Having made this decision, Ms. Wise turned to look at the data on the six children who had not shown mastery of the A Section of the Fluency Screening. Students 1-6 would need small group instruction on the content that the rest of the class had already mastered. Of these six students only one was able to read more than 3 simple threesound short vowel words on the Phonics Inventory. Ms. Wise decided she needed more information about their letter sound knowledge and so she administered Section A of the Letter Sound Checklist (Instructions, pages 234 and 239; Forms, TG CD). The Class Record of Basic Sounds a-z at the top of the nest page shows for which letters each child gave the correct sounds and the total number of sounds correct.

241 Small Group Intervention


Ms. Wise also used the Beginning Sounds Assessment (TG CD) with these six children. She knew that some children might know the sound to give when shown a letter but may not be able to identify or isolate that sound at the beginning of a word. These scores on this are shown below. Number of Correct Beginning Sounds Child A: 1

Child B: 2

Child C: 14

Child D: 23

Child E: 20

Child F: 1

In both Letter Sounds and Beginning Sounds children 1 and 2 were considerably below the other four. She decided that these two would be one Intervention group. Given limited phonemic awareness and little Letter Sound knowledge, she decided to use the Intervention from Volume 1 of Letterland Step-By-Step Kindergarten with these two children. This can be found on pages 192-218 of that Volume. With the other four children, she believed that with their Letter Sound knowledge of at least a majority of the letters and considerable beginning sound phonemic awareness, that they could begin with Unit 1 using the Intervention plan provided in these pages. She knew that at first they may need to repeat some Units, but that mastering these basic words and skills would pay off in the longer term.

Intervention Placement Based on Performance on Early Units Another teacher, Ms. Sharpe, used the assessments required by her school district and decided that most of her children needed to begin with Unit 1 in this Teacher’s Guide. After two weeks of working in the Units with the whole class, Ms. Sharpe found that five of her children were not able to meet the criteria on the weekly Spelling and Fluency Assessments (pp 236-7). She then assessed only these five children, with the Letter Sounds Checklist and the Beginning Sounds Assessment. Like Ms. Wise she decided to work with two Intervention Groups. She knew that some at-risk children would make faster progress than others. With two groups she had the flexibility to allow each child to reach mastery and to move children between the two groups when their progress warranted it. She began both groups with Unit 1 for Intervention knowing that the children with more letter sounds knowledge were likely to move more quickly through the Units than the other small group. She continued to include the children in Intervention in the whole class lessons so that they could participate in Live Reading and Spelling and other activities, but their written work and homework was assigned from the Unit that they were using in the Intervention Group.

242 Small Group Intervention


Getting Started This Step-by-Step Intervention plan uses the same units as used in general classroom and many of the same activities. Intervention groups will often be working in an earlier unit than the whole class. For example, you may be teaching Unit 11 to your whole class, while one Intervention group is working on Unit 2 and another on Unit 7. As you form your Intervention groups and begin meeting with them, the following points may be helpful. • Keep groups small, two to five children in a group. • Meet daily. Your days are full of scheduled and unscheduled events. Make Intervention Groups a priority. • Keep groups flexible. You may have children who are not initially placed in Intervention in the beginning of the year, who begin to struggle with keeping up with the rest of the class later. On the other hand, you may have children in Intervention groups who are able to catch up with the class and not need further Intervention at some point in the year. • Children in this Intervention may benefit from participating in the Whole Class lessons in the unit assigned to the rest of the class. You can find beneficial ways to involve them in the Live Reading and Spelling, Quick Dash and Guess Who, and other Whole Class activities. But most of their written work, homework and fluency practice should come form the unit they are using in the Intervention group. • Make sure that children meet the criteria for Spelling and Fluency in the weekly assessments before moving to the next unit. Only by mastering each level will they continue to show progress and become stronger readers.

Five Day Intervention Plan Total Time: 24-33 min

DAY 1

DAY 2

DAY 3

DAY 4

1. Letter

Introduce new PCCs

Quick Dash

Guess Who?

Quick Dash * ++

2. Word

Build words with PCCs to illustrate new phonic concepts May also use Beyond ABC or Blends and Digraphs Songs CD Sort words. Tractors, Trains, Planes, and Helicopters *

Letterland Word Builders: Children build words to read *

Letterland Word Builders: Children spell words

Call out words for Written Word Sort ++

Play the sort game and practice reading words with Tractors, Trains, Planes, and Helicopters Practice 1 or 2 Tricky Words with 3-by-3 strategy. Read all Tricky Words Read the new decodable story to and with children

Fluency practice with Student List or Decodable Story, Group timing

Individual timing on Student List or Decodable Story

Dictate New Sentence 1

Dictate New Sentence 2 ++

Reread the decodable story with children*

Children partner read the decodable story ++

Sounds (2-3 min) Building: Reading and Spelling (8-10 min)

3. Word Cards

and Fluency (8-10 min)

4. Tricky Words Practice 1 or 2 Tricky and Dictation (3-5 min)

Words with 3-by-3 strategy. Read all Tricky Words

5. Text Reading Read review (3-5 min) sentences *

DAY 5: Spelling Assessment * If time is limited, this activity could be omitted or shortened. ++ Children may conduct these activities themselves as you time one child at a time reading the Student List.

243 Small Group Intervention


Intervention Instruction

Intervention Guide Cards from the Teacher’s Guide CD

Once you have placed children in an Intervention group and selected the best unit to begin with, follow the Five Day Plan below for each unit. Your instruction will focus on the Unit you have selected. Particularly on Day 1 you will want to refer to that Unit’s pages in this Teacher’s Guide. You may also so want to use the Intervention Guide Cards, which provide an outline of each of the five days of intervention in a form that can be printed on 5½ inch by 8½ cards

DAY 1

Day 1 Materials You will need • Picture Code Cards listed in Unit pages • Unit Word Cards • Beyond ABC book (for some units) • A pointer • Small dry-erase board for yourself • Small dry-erase boards for children (or paper and pencil) • Review Sentences page for the Unit (TG CD)

1. Letter Sounds Introducing New Picture Code Cards Materials On page 1 of the Unit, use the PCCs introduced for the first time in the Unit, marked in the margin box with an asterisk (*). Procedure for Basic Sounds a-z ‘Basic sounds’ are the most common sounds for the single letters a-z. For the vowels, the basic sounds are the short vowel sounds of Annie Apple, Eddy Elephant, Impy Ink, Oscar Orange, and Uppy Umbrella. Teacher: Show the picture side of the PCC, e.g. Eddy Elephant. This is Eddy Elephant. Say hello to Eddy Elephant. Children: “Hello, Eddy Elephant” Teacher: Let’s use our Sounds Trick (p 270) to discover his sound. Teacher and Children: Start with two hands together slowly pulling them farther apart while rubber-band stretching (p. 47) the Letterlander’s name. “Eĕĕĕĕeddy Eĕĕĕĕelephant.” Begin to stretch the name again but stop on the first sound: /ĕ/. Teacher: Turn the PCC to the plain side. So, when we see this letter, what do we say? Push the PCC forward three times to prompt the children to repeat the sound.

e

Children: “/ĕ/ /ĕ/ /ĕ/.” Teacher: Do the same with each new Letterlander. Then review the new sounds showing just the plain letters and having children say the sounds. Procedure for Letter Combinations and Alternative Sounds Use the steps below for new Picture Code Cards such as consonant or vowel digraphs, for the Vowel Men, and for alternative sounds for single letters (e.g. Oscar’s Bothersome Little Brother in other and Yo-yo Man with an /ī/ sound in my and try.) This box in the corner of each Unit shows the Picture Code Cards that are new.

Teacher: Show the picture side of the PCC and share the information on the back with the children. For example, you might say the following when introducing the alternative sound of o in other and some. This is Oscar’s bothersome little brother. He is too little to say, /ŏ/ like Oscar. So

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he says ‘uh’ in words like love, some, and mother. Let’s say his /ŭ/ sound three times as I push his plain letter forward. Children: “ŭ, ŭ, ŭ.” Why Oscar’s Little Brother says “uh”

You will usually be giving further information on these new sounds in Part 2 below based on suggestions in the Unit pages.

2. Word Building: Reading and Spelling Introducing New Phonic Concepts Materials The Picture Code Cards identified in the Unit for Introducing Concepts on the pocket chart and for Live Reading. In some Units, the Beyond ABC book is also needed. Adapting the Whole Group Introduction to Small Group Intervention Each Unit begins by introducing new phonic concepts in the context of building words with PCCs on the pocket chart, and with Live Reading. These activities are described beginning on the second page of each unit in this Teacher’s Guide. A few Units may use Live Spelling on Day 1 or include other variations. Some Units include sharing of pages from the Beyond ABC book. You will want to adapt these activities from the Whole Class introduction to suit the Small Group Intervention setting. Here are some ways you might adapt these lessons: • If you are working at a table, you may want to make words on the table rather than on a pocket chart. In this way, you will not have to turn away from the children to build words and children can easily reach the Picture Code Cards when the lesson calls for their participation. • You may want to make a mat on which you and the children can build words. The mat will help children in positioning letters and it can be moved around the table as children take turns adding letters or reading the words. Unit 12 page 2

Teacher Students

Unit 12 page 3

The teacher has distributed the Picture Code Cards from the Live Spelling list in Unit 3 (p 64). The PCCs that are introduced in the Unit are on the picture side and the others on the plain letter side. To build a word the teacher calls out the sounds needed and children provide the PCCs to build the word.

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• When you present the Live Reading part of the lesson, you will want to continue to build words on the table. To involve the children you could give each child three or four PCCs which they contribute to the words. • You may use more individual turn taking in the small group. For example, whereas in Whole Class you may have all the children sound out most of the words together, in Small Group you can ask individuals to sound out more of the words. When you do take individual turns, you will usually want the whole group to repeat the response. For example in the case of finger sounding a word, after one child does it, have the group then finger sound the same word. • You may decide in some lessons to build fewer words. Since you only have a few children, they will still get a number of opportunities to participate. On the other hand, if you see that your students need more practice you could add a few words from the Unit’s Lists A, B, or C. • If the children do not master the Unit in five days based their Spelling and Fluency Checks (p 236), you may be teaching the same Unit for an additional week or more. In this case, you may choose to shorten the introduction of new concepts. You could also let the children do more of the explanation of the characters actions and sounds based on their memories from the week before. Simply adjust the lesson to the needs of your group. Suggestions for Introducing the New Concepts • Follow the instructions for Introducing concepts on the pocket chart, from the Unit Teacher’s Guide pages. Build the words on the table or a pocket chart. • In those Units that call for reading from the Beyond ABC book, use it as described, getting each child involved in identifying words with the target sound in the text or illustrations. • In lessons that call for children to dramatize the story that explains the sound, be sure to get all the children involved. This will make the explanation and the sound more memorable. Suggestions for Practicing the Concepts in Words In most Units the next activity for Day 1 is Live Reading. Since Live Reading is not usually practical with small groups, you may want to build the words on a mat which you can move around on the table as shown on the previous page. • Distribute the PCCs evenly to the children. • The children lay these on the table in front of them. • Call out the sounds or the Letterlanders in the order that they are need to form the word. • Children with the needed PCCs either hand you the card or place them on the mat. • Everyone finger sounds the words to read them. • Have children take back cards not needed in the next word and replace them with the letters needed. Say the sounds and have children add the PCCs to the mat. Then they finger sound the word.

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3. Word Cards and Fluency Sorting the Words

Unit 10 Tricky Word

puff

bell

miss

have

off

will

hiss

as

doll

egg

Materials Small Word Cards (12-18) for the Unit selected from list A, B, and C; cards for the Unit Tricky Words and the card labeled ‘Tricky Words.’ In some Units you will use the Word Card with a large question mark (?). Picture Code Cards (PCCs) are used at the top of two to five columns of Word Cards to identify the target sound. The PCCs needed are shown in the illustrated pocket chart on the first page of each Unit. A pointer (could be a closed pen) for pointing to the words. Procedure • Teacher: Arrange the PCCs, so that the Word Cards can be sorted below them. Point to each PCC. Let’s say these sounds. • Children: Say the sounds in unison. • Teacher: Place the first card in each column as you say the word and briefly explain why it belongs there (e.g. This is puff. It ends with two f’s. It goes under Best Friends on the End Firefighters Frank and Fred. Give children Word Cards one by one as they follow the instructions below. The sequence of cards should be random so that the children have to decide which column.

mess huff huff

Unit 17 Tricky Words

bike

rope

would

five

hope

o’clock

write

home

your

ride

close

writing

closing

• Children (each one in turn): The first child decides on the column for the Word Card, places it and reads it. The child uses the pointer to point to the PCC at the top of the column as everyone says the sound, and then points to each Word Card in the column as they all read the words. • Teacher: Help children to self-correct any errors. Occasionally ask children to explain why the card belongs in the column. Take a turn yourself now and then. You might sometimes place a card in the wrong column asking children to explain why it doesn’t belong. Continue the sort until there are 3 or 4 words in each column.

Word Card Fluency Practice Lead children in rereading the words more and more fluently each time with the Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters activity (fully explained on page 24). Point to the words in a column for children to read, first moving slowly down the column and then repeat a bit faster each time. Tell children they are pretending to be one of the following as you increase the speed: • Tractors – Slowly slide your pointer under the letters of each word as children sound through the word slowly but smoothly (no breaks between sounds, e.g. /ffffffăăăăăănnnnn/, fan) • Trains – Point to each word going down the column at a slow but steady space. • Planes – Point to each word in sequence at a somewhat faster pace. • Helicopters – Rather than going in sequence, point in a random order to the words in a column or across all the columns as children read the word. Any of the above ‘speeds’ can be repeated at a slightly faster or slower pace as needed. You can also let individuals take turns reading a column. The child can be the “Leader Reader.” Follow up with the whole group rereading the same column “following the leader.”

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4. Tricky Words Materials Tricky Word cards from Small Word Cards for the Unit, a white board (a small hand-held one will do), writing materials for the children.

Unit 22

Tricky Words

could done are

22 TW

Introducing Tricky Words Procedure For more detailed description see pages 24-26. Teacher: Write the word on the white board, say it and use it in a sentence. Children: Repeat the word. Teacher and Children: Rubber-band-stretch the word and discuss which letters are making their usual sounds and which are not. Teacher: Mark the letters as shown on the third page of the Unit in the green chalkboard illustration. • Lead Children in the 3-by-3 Strategy for practicing the Tricky Word (in the left margin). Follow the above steps with one or two Tricky Words.

are

Reading Tricky Words

22 TW

done 22 TW

could

Procedure Teacher: Show the Word Card and say it. Use it in a brief sentence and say it again. • Ask children to remember the word. Count to five and point to the word. Children: Read the word. Teacher: Do the same with all Tricky Words for your Unit. • Go back through the words more quickly one to three times.

3-by-3 Tricky Word Practice Always: say it, spell it, say it again as you underline. Air-tracing • Aloud • Whisper • Silent (with mouth movements) Invisible writing • Aloud • Whisper • Silent (with mouth movements) Visible writing • Aloud • Whisper • Silent (with mouth movements)

Children: Read each word immediately. Teacher: If children miss a word, point out a part of the word that will help them remember it or to distinguish it from other words.

5. Text Reading Reading Review Sentences Materials A copy for each child of the Review Sentences for the Unit (TG CD). Procedure For a detailed description see pages 30-31 Teacher: Ask children to read the first sentence to themselves. Children: Read Sentence One silently (or quietly). Teacher: Ask a question about the content of the sentence. Call on a child to answer. Teacher and Children: Read the sentence aloud together. Then have one or two children read the sentence aloud. Do the same with 4 to 10 sentences.

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Day 2 Materials You will need • PCCs for Review for the Unit • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Unit Word Cards • Small dry-erase board for yourself • Small dry-erase boards for children (or paper and pencil) • A pointer • Unit Decodable Story, TG CD

DAY 2 1. Letter Sounds Quick Dash Materials Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review from the first page of the Unit. You may want to limit the number of cards or substitute others that the children need to practice. Procedure For a detailed description see pages 28. Teacher: Show the picture side of the PCC. Have the children wait until you point to the character before they name the Letterlander. That way you will be able to wait a few seconds for those students who may need some thinking time for recall. As you point, you can say. Who is this? Children: Name the Letterlander. Teacher: Show the plain side, What’s her (his) sound?

Who is this? “Annie Apple”

a

Children: Say the sound. Teacher: Finger trace the letter using the correct handwriting strokes. Children: Say the letter name. Teacher and Children: Do the same with each PCC. Then go back through the PCCs showing only the plain letter side. Children respond with the sound only. Do this a few times a bit faster each time.

What’s her sound? /ā/

bna ea sh Sounds Race: Quickly show the plain letter sides. Children respond with the sound to develop automaticity. Repeat even faster.

Variations: As children progress, they may not always need to name all the Letterlanders. You might just have them name recently introduced Letterlanders. When presenting PCCs with more than one letter (e.g. th, oa, igh), you might show the picture side of those recently introduced and have child tell the Letterland story logic that explains the sound. With more familiar PCCs, just show the plain letter side and ask for the sound.

2. Word Building: Reading and Spelling Children Build Words for Reading Materials Letterland Word Builders or other sets of letters for each child Preparation: Make a list of 8-12 words from Unit Lists A, B, and C and any review words you wish to include. Do not include irregularly spelled Tricky Words in this activity. Arrange words in the order of a word chain when possible—each word differing from the one before it in only one or two letters or sounds (e.g. red, bed, fed, fell, fill, will, well, yell, yet, yes). Alternatively, you could use lists of words from the Teacher’s Guide pages for the Unit, provided at the beginning of the following activities: Live Reading, Live Spelling, and Children Build Words for Spelling. Procedure In this activity you tell children the sounds or letters needed to build the word but you do not say the word. They build the word and then read it themselves.

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The following steps apply to Units 1-15. For the variations to this procedure for Units 16-45 see below. Teacher: Here are the sounds in the first word: e.g. /r/ /ĕ/ /d/. Children: Repeat the sounds: /r/ /ĕ/ /d/. • They build the word with the magnetic letters. • As a group, all touch under each letter and repeat the sounds: /r/ /ĕ/ /d/. • Slide fingers under the word blending the sounds, then say the word: “rrrrrrĕd, red.” Teacher: Use the word in a brief sentence or phrase. • If the next word only differs by one sound, tell children which sounds to be changed: (e.g.) Change /r/ to /b/. • If the next word differs by more than one sound, say each sound for children to repeat. Children: Build or change the word. Touch under each letter, saying the sounds, and then blend the sounds as they slide their fingers below the word. Variations: For Units 16-45, name the letters in the word rather than the sounds (e.g. p-l-a-t-e). Children still build the words, touch under the letters as they say their sounds, and slide their fingers below as they blend. For some groups of children with less experience or skill with blending sounds, you may want to use rollercoaster arm blending (see page 46).

3. Word Cards and Fluency Sorting Game The Sorting Game is a way of maintaining student interest and heightening attention in the word sorting activity. All of your students are on the same team and they compete with you. They gain team points for each word sorted correctly and for reading the words in the column.

Unit 17

Tricky Words

car

for

hello

far

born

come

Materials Small Word Cards (12-18) for the Unit selected from list A, B, and C; cards for the Unit Tricky Words and the card labeled ‘Tricky Words.’ In some Units you will use the Word Card with a large question mark (?). The Picture Code Cards that are illustrated in the Pocket Chart on the first page of your Unit in this Teacher’s Guide. You will also need a small erasable board to keep score. Procedure • Place PCCs at the top of columns as in the first page of the Unit in the Teacher’s Guide. Do the same with card labeled ‘Tricky Words’ and, if needed, the ‘?’ card.

yard large storm hear storm

• You and the children each take turns placing a word in a column and leading the group in reading all the words in that column. • Each time a child sorts correctly and the team reads the words correctly, the children’s team gets a point.

Teacher Students

• If all of the children in the group are not attentively participating in reading the words, then you get the point. Children will learn to encourage each other to pay close attention. With your guidance they can learn to do this in positive ways. • If a child makes an error, you will help correct it but you get the point.

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• Each time you place your card and read the words you get two points (since there is only one teacher against several children). You should tell the children that you will make a few mistakes intentionally. If they ‘catch’ your error and can correct it, the children’s team gets your two points. This enhances their engagement even when it is your turn. Also, by making errors on purpose, you can ensure that the children win the game.

Tractors, Trains, Planes and Helicopters Once the words are sorted with the above Sorting Game, lead the children in reading fluency practice as on Day 1 with this activity. Adjust the activity to fit your children. Some may need more practice with the slower Tractor mode while others may be able to skip this step and practice with the faster paced Trains, Planes or Helicopters mode.

4. Tricky Words 3-by-3 Tricky Word Practice Always: say it, spell it, say it again as you underline. Air-tracing • Aloud • Whisper • Silent (with mouth movements) Invisible writing • Aloud • Whisper • Silent (with mouth movements) Visible writing • Aloud • Whisper • Silent (with mouth movements)

Materials Tricky Word cards from Small Word Cards for the Unit, a white board (a small hand-held one will do), writing materials for the children. Procedure for Introducing and Practicing Tricky Words For more detailed description see pages 30-31. Use the 3-by-3 Strategy with the Unit Tricky Words that were not practiced on Day 1. In Units with only one or two Tricky Words you may want to practice some Tricky Words from previous Units that the children have not yet mastered. Procedure for Reading Tricky Words Practice reading all the Unit Tricky Words and any others that the children need to practice with the steps shown in the left margin (detailed instructions, page 25).

5. Text Reading Read the Decodable Story Materials Copies for you and each child of the Decodable Story for your current Unit. Procedure • Introduce the story using the suggestions on the fourth page of the Unit in this Teacher’s Guide. • Read the story to the children with expression and drama. • Discuss the story using the suggestions from the Unit page, also. • Distribute copies of the story. Identify the underlined Story Words (if any) before the children read. • Read the story in unison at a pace that matches their needs. Reread to work on fluency and expression.

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Day 3 Materials You will need • PCCs for Review for the Unit • A bag or box to hide PCCs • Small dry-erase boards for children (or paper and pencil) • Letterland Word Builders or other letter sets • Student List for the Unit, TG CD • Small dry-erase board for yourself • Unit Decodable Story, TG CD

DAY 3 1. Letter Sounds Guess Who? Materials Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review from the first page of the Unit. You many limit the number of cards or substitute others that the children need to practice. A bag or small box to hide the PCCs (or use a book). Writing materials for children. Dry-erase boards work nicely. Procedure For a detailed description see pages 32-33. Teacher: Do not show the PCC at this point. Say the sound. Children: Repeat the sound and write the letter. Teacher: Who is it? Children: Name the Letterlander(s).

?

Variation: Once the children have learned different letters or letter combinations that make the same sound, they should write all the ways they know to spell the sound (e.g. for /k/ they write: c, k, ck). After they have written the letters, they can just name the letters rather than the Letterlanders. Who says /d/?

2. Word Building: Reading and Spelling Spelling with Letterland Word Builders Materials Letterland Word Builders or other sets of letters for each child.

Picture Code Cards are hidden for ‘Guess Who? Children hear the sound and write the letter or letters.

Preparation: Make a list of 8-12 words from Unit Lists A, B, and C and any review words you wish to include. Do not include irregularly spelled Tricky Words in this activity. Arrange words in the order of a word chain when possible—each word differing from the one before it in only one or two letters or sounds (e.g. red, bed, fed, fell, fill, will, well, yell, yet, yes). Alternatively, you could use lists of words from the Teacher’s Guide pages for the Unit at the beginning of the following activities: Live Reading, Live Spelling, Children Build Words for Spelling. Procedure In this activity you will say the word and children will segment the word and then spell it with their letter sets. Teacher: Say the word. Use it in a brief sentence or phrase. Say the word again: (e.g.) Team. I am on a football team. Team. Children: Repeat the word: “team.” • They finger sound the word: /t/ /ē/ /m/. • They build the word. Teacher: Help children as needed to ensure correct spelling. When everyone is ready, ask the children to use the letter names to spell the word aloud.

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Children: “t-e-a-m, team.” Teacher: Cover the word and spell it aloud again. Children: “t-e-a-m, team.” If the next word differs by only one sound from the previous one, children leave letters in place as you say the next word. If the next word differs by more than one sound, have children clear the previous word away first by returning the letters to their places.

3. Word Cards and Fluency Reading Student List for Fluency Materials: Copies for you and each child of the Student List for the Unit. Lead the children in reading. Have everyone point as you all read in unison. Set a reasonable but steady pace guiding the children with your voice as needed to keep everyone together. Fade your voice out at times to listen to children read. You may choose to leave out one or two of the lists from List A, B, and C and the Story Words. It is important to read all the other lists and the New Sentences. Procedure • Read the list with the children a second time a somewhat faster pace. Try to establish a steady rhythm as you read. • Time the group and report the time it took to read to the group. • Have the group set a reasonable but challenging goal to reduce the time. Reread until they reach the goal. Variation: You may prefer to have children work on fluency with the Decodable Story for the Unit instead of the Student List. In that case, you can combine Activities 3 and 5 for this day. You will also want to use the Decodable Story for timing children for fluency on Day 4.

4. Tricky Words and Dictation Dictate a New Sentence

We want to sing along with you.

You read one of the two New Sentences to the children and they write it. The New Sentences include the Tricky Words for the Unit and words that contain the phonic elements taught in the Unit. Materials Writing materials. Copy of the Student List or the Teacher’s Guide for yourself. Procedure • Say the sentence with rhythm and expression. • Children repeat the sentence twice with the same rhythm and expression as you. • Children write the sentence. • Help as needed. If a child needs the sentence repeated, say the whole sentence again. Have the child repeat it. Avoid breaking the sentence into separate phrases unless absolutely necessary. • Each child reads their sentence to you as they complete it.

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• Provide a correct model. A nice way to do this is to let one child write on a larger white board or chalkboard for all to see. Or you could let the children check their sentence against a copy of the Student List.

5. Text Reading Read the Decodable Story Materials Copies for you and each child of the Decodable Story for your current Unit. Procedure • Read the story title and ask children to share what they remember from the story. Encourage them to listen to other children’s comments and to try to add something from the story that no one else has mentioned. • Read the story in unison as children point to each word.

Day 4 Materials You will need • PCCs for Review from page 1 of the Unit • Unit Word Sort page for each, TG CD • Unit Word Cards • 2 small boxes or trays marked ‘New’ and ‘Used’ • Unit Student List • Robot Racer’s chart for each, TG CD • Timer • Unit Decodable Story

DAY 4 In the Day 4 Lesson, you will be timing children individually on reading the Student List. You can teach the children to carry out the rest of the lesson activities with little direct involvement by you. This will allow you to sit nearby and give your attention to timing each child. For the first few weeks, you may need to spend time training the children to manage the activities. During these weeks, you may be able to listen to one or two children read during the group time and find a few minutes during the day to time the others. Once children learn the routines, you will be able to listen to each one read for timing during the lesson while the others are productively engaged. As children begin with Activity 1 below, you will begin with Activity 3 with one child perhaps at one side of the table while the rest work together on the other side.

1. Letter Sounds Quick Dash Materials Picture Code Cards (PCCs) for Review from the first page of the Unit. You many limit the number of cards or substitute others that the children need to practice. Procedure Distribute the PCCs equally to the children. Each child takes a turn ‘being the teacher’ with his or her PCCs. You can practice this with children on Day 2 or during the whole class lesson. Teacher child : “Show the PCC picture side.” Children name the Letterlander. Teacher child: “Show the plain side.” Children say the sound. Teacher child: “Finger trace the letter with the right handwriting strokes.” Children say the letter name.

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2. Word Building: Reading and Spelling Spelling Word Sort

car start

fork

hello come

Materials Copies for each child of the Word Sort page for the Unit from the Teacher’s Guide CD. The 10 Word Cards for the assigned word List A, B, or C and perhaps a few additional ones from the lists not assigned this week. Also, Word Cards for the Unit Tricky Words. Preparation: Place the word cards in a shallow box or tray marked ‘New’ as shown in the left margin. Provide another box labeled ‘Used.’ Distribute the Word Sort pages. Procedure • One child reads the first word but does not show it to the other children. • All the children write the word in the column under the matching picturecoded letters. Tricky Words and other words that do not match the picturecoded letters are written under the question mark (?). • After everyone has written the word, the child shows the Word Card to the group. The children check their spelling and make corrections if needed. • Then the child places the card in the Used box and the next child draws a Word Card, etc. • After all the Word Cards have been used. Children partner-read the words on their page going down the columns.

3. Word Cards and Fluency Reading the Student List for Fluency You will be timing each child reading the Student List for 60 seconds. Each child will get two tries at reading the list. You will compare the child’s highest number of correct words per minute (cwpm) to the criteria for the current Unit (see below) to decide if the child has mastered the words of this Unit. Materials: Copies for you and each child of the Student List for the Unit. A Reading Robot Racers chart for each child, which is used for several weeks. A stop watch or other timer. • The child begins at the top of the page reading all the words in the white boxes—Tricky Words, Tricky Words for Review, Review Words, List A, B, and C words, and New Sentences. • The child reads for 60 seconds. Make a note of any words missed. Use the numbers at the side of each line to help you calculate the number of words read correctly (cwpm). Record this number and the date on the child’s Reading Robot Racer’s chart. Make a horizontal line on the graph to show the child where to fill in with color after the second reading. • Point to any missed words on the Student List, say the word, and have the child repeat it. • Time the child a second time reading the page and record the date and score. Praise the child for good effort and point out any improvement from the first to second reading or from previous readings.

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• The child fills in the two columns of the bar graph up to the lines that you have drawn as you begin to time the next child. • Children who do not meet the criteria below for mastery can practice reading the Student List. They can be timed again on Day 5. • The mastery scores below should be interpreted with flexibility. You will use children’s scores to decide if the group should move on to the next Unit or continue to work on the same one. Use of the mastery scores for intervention groups is discussed further on page 38. Mastery Goals for Reading Student List Early Grade One

Units 1-12

25 cwpm*

Mid-grade One

Units 13-24

30 cwpm

Late Grade One

Units 25-45

40 cwpm

* correct words per minute Variation: You may prefer to time your children on reading the Decodable Story for the Unit. In this case, you should practice the story on Day 3 during Activity 3 instead of the Student List.

4. Tricky Words Dictate a New Sentence

We will race to the lake.

One of the children can read the second of the two New Sentences to the children and they will write it (Sentence One was done on Day 3). The New Sentences include the Tricky Words for the Unit and the words that contain the phonic elements taught in the Unit. Materials Copy of the Student List for each child. Writing materials. Procedure • The designated child reads the sentence with rhythm and expression. Other children keep their Student Lists out of sight. • All the children repeat the sentence twice in unison. • The reader puts his or her copy of the Student List out of sight. All the children write the sentence. • Each child reads their sentence to another child as they complete it. • When all have finished writing, they compare their written sentence to the one on their Student List and make any needed corrections.

5. Text Reading Read the Decodable Story Materials Copies for you and each child of the Decodable Story for your current Unit. Procedure • Children pair up. If there is an uneven number, form one group of three. • Each child reads the story to their partner. • If there is time, children may change partners and read the story again.

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Day 5 Materials You will need • Spelling Assessment Form A or B, TG CD or writing paper

Form A

Form B

DAY 5 Spelling Assessment Day 5 is reserved for the Spelling Assessment. More detailed instructions for this are found on pages 39-40. Some teachers do the assessment by meeting with the group as usual. Others administer several assessments from different Units for more than one group at the same time (see suggestions below). Materials: Teacher’s Guide, page one of the Unit. Writing materials for the children. Optional: Spelling Assessment Form A or B from the Teacher’s Guide CD. Contents of the Spelling Assessment Standard Assessment 6 Sounds 10 Decodable words (List A, B, or C) 4 Review words (call these interspersed with the decodable words) 4 Diagnostic words 2 Sentences Mastery Criteria: 80 % correct spelling overall; 3 of 4 Diagnostic Words correct Abbreviated Assessment Some teachers may choose to give quicker assessment to their Intervention group. Children still study all the words and sentences and do not know which ones will be on the test. Be careful to select words that provide a sampling of all the phonic elements that have been taught in the Unit. 6 Sounds 6 Decodable words (List A, B, or C) 2 Review words (call these interspersed with the decodable words) 3 Diagnostic words 1 Sentences Mastery Criteria: 80 % correct spelling overall; 2 of 3 Diagnostic Words correct Giving more than one Assessment simultaneously: You may want to administer the Spelling Assessment from two or three different Units to several groups at the same time. If you choose to do this, the suggestions below might by helpful: • Give each group a name, color or number (e.g. Red, Green, Blue). Make sure children know their group name very well. • Call out the group name and then the first word for that group. Then do the same with each group (e.g. Green group: Fish. The fish swam upstream. Fish. Red group: Treat. We had a treat after lunch. Treat, etc.) • Continue this process with all the words and sentences on the assessments.

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Moving to the Next Unit? The Fluency Check and the Spelling Assessment are designed to help you make the decision whether to continue working on the same Unit or to move the children to the next Unit. Ideally, all the children in a group will meet the criteria for both fluency and spelling. When some meet both criteria but not all of them do, the decision is not made easily. This decision is an especially critical for children in Intervention groups. On one hand, they are already at least somewhat behind their classmates, so you want to move along as quickly as possible. On the other hand, at-risk students need to master the current content or they will struggle with further challenges even more.

Moving On? The chart to the right shows Chelsea’s fluency scores over three weeks. Her teacher has drawn a red line at 20 words per minute as this is the goal score of the first third of the year.

For Intervention groups, it is generally not a good idea to move the group along until they have all met the criteria for both fluency and spelling. If most have reached the criteria but one or two have not, you might still move along if the lower scoring children are close to the criteria. If one or two children in the group are consistently having trouble meeting the goals, you could try providing them additional practice time with you or a tutor or volunteer. If the gap between the lowest children and highest in the group is consistently large, you may need to consider regrouping. Most authorities recommend regrouping only after six to ten weeks. You need to make sure that your grouping plan works for you. Most teachers find three small groups can be workable. Having more groups may not allow you the time and manageability to meet the needs of all your children.

Chelsea

On January 1, she read Unit 10 Student List twice not reaching the goal. Her teacher praised her for improving from 11 words to 16. Chelsea’s group mates had similar scores. Their teacher assigned Unit 10, List B for the second week. At the end of another week of study in Unit 10, Chelsea surpassed the goal on her second try. She and her group moved on to Unit 11. In the third week, Chelsea managed to reach the goals on Unit 11 for Spelling and Fluency. She and her group moved on to Unit 12.

258 Small Group Intervention


Appendices Children New to Letterland ....................................... 260 Letterland Express ...................................................260 Using other Letterland Materials ..............................264 Games for Review of Letterlanders and their Sounds .................................................. 265 Consolidating Short Vowel Sounds for Reading and Spelling ........................................... 266 The Sounds Trick ...................................................... 268 The Actions Trick ....................................................... 269 The Character Names Trick ...................................... 271 The Capital Letter Trick ............................................. 272 Letter Sounds Pronounciation Guide ....................... 274 Costumes and Props ................................................ 275 List of CD Contents .................................................. 276 Index...........................................................................277


Children New to Letterland You may have a few children or an entire class of children who are new to Letterland. Either way you can still begin your teaching with this Step-by-Step Teacher’s Guide. If children know the basic sounds for just the 13 letters below, then they are ready to begin Unit 1.

a b c d f h l m n p r s t

The 13 letter sounds used in Unit 1

Day 1 Materials You will need • Picture Code Cards: a, c • Beginning Sound Pictures (TG, CD) for a, c • Pocket Chart

Children respond to the picture side with the Letterlander’s name: Annie Apple

Children respond to the plain letter with the sound: ă

a

If only a few children are new to Letterland, you may want to go ahead with Unit 1. Just take some extra time to practice the Letterlanders’ names and sounds with those few new children, or with your whole class. You can choose from activities on page 265 that review Letterlander names and sounds and also work on phonemic awareness of the beginning sounds in words. If most of your class is new to Letterland, the activities below under the heading Letterland Express are designed to help you introduce your children to the Letterland characters and the sounds of these letters in one week. These activities will also help you introduce some important phonemic awareness and phonics activities. By observing your children as they do these activities, you will also be able to learn more about their literacy development as you begin to teach them.

Letterland Express Day 1 Introduce New Letterlanders • Show the picture side of the Annie Apple Picture Code Card (PCC). This is Annie Apple. She lives in a special, friendly place called Letterland where the letters live that make up all our words. You can see the other Letterlanders on our Letterland Train Frieze. We are going to be getting to know all of them soon. • What the Letterlanders like to do best of all is help us learn all about the shapes and sounds of letters, so that we can read and enjoy all kinds of stories and books. Each Letterlander has a special sound that they make in words and Annie Apple and all her friends say their sound two times in their own name. So we can use her name to remember her sound. Here’s how: First we say her name: Annie Apple. You say it. “Annie Apple.” Then we just start to say her name again and stop almost as soon as we start, like this: /ă/. Can you say it? “/ă/” • Let’s do it all together. Say her name. Then start to say it again but just make the first sound. “Annie Apple, /ă /.” That is called the Letterland Sounds Trick. • Show the plain letter a side of the PCC. People who don’t know the secret of Letterland only see this shape in words. But now we know that Annie Apple is hiding behind her letter. Can you use your imagination to see Annie Apple in this shape? What color is she? Is she frowning or smiling?

260 Appendices


• When we see her plain letter like this, we just say her sound so we don’t give away her hiding place. Push the card forward several times as the children say /ă/ each time.

c

• Introduce Clever Cat in a similar way but more briefly. Have children do the Sounds Trick to discover her sound, “Clever Cat, /k/.” Also, have them respond to the plain letter several times with just her sound, /k/.

Match Beginning Sound Pictures with the Letterlanders • Place the Annie Apple and Clever Cat PCCs on your pocket chart as shown at the left. Place the 8 Beginning Sound Pictures farther down on the pocket chart with the c-words and the a-words mixed randomly. • The Letterlanders like to collect pictures of things that begin with their sounds. We are going to help find some pictures that begin with Annie Apple’s /ă/ sound and Clever Cat’s /k/ sound. Point to all the pictures and name them with the children. • Here is a picture of a cup. Say cup: “cup.” Does cup begin with /ă/ or with a /k/ sound? Children help decide that cup begins with /k/, Clever Cat’s sound and so the picture goes with Clever Cat. Place the picture under the Clever Cat PCC. Point to the c PCC and have children say /k/. Then point to the picture as children say “cup.” • Model sorting a few more pictures with children helping to decide where they go. Each time you add a picture, have the children say the sound and name all the pictures in that column. • Then ask children to look at the rest of the pictures and think about where they go. Call on one child at a time to come forward, select a picture and place it in the column where it belongs. After the picture is placed, let the child who placed it point to the letter and the pictures as all the children say the sound and name the pictures.

Days 2-5 We are the Letterlanders • Distribute the PCCs for all the Letterlanders than have been introduced one per child. To each of the other children give a Beginning Sound Picture.

Days 2-5 Materials You will need • Picture Code Cards: ă, b, c, d, f, h, l, m, n, p, r, s, t • Beginning Sounds Pictures for above letters • A pointer • Make a Reading Direction sign

• Each of the children with a PCC takes a turn doing the following: • Shows the picture side of the PCC. • Says (e.g.) “I am Annie Apple.” • Shows the plain letter and ask: “What’s my sound?” • Class says the sound, /ă/. • Child says, Who has a picture that begins with my /ă/ sound? • Children with /ă/ pictures come forward and hand a picture to Annie Apple saying. “I have an astronaut for you, Annie Apple.” • Child playing the Letterlander says, “Thank you.” • Each child with a PCC does the same. Sounds Race • Take up the PCCs to get ready to review the previously introduced Letterlanders in this way. • Show the plain letter side of each PCC one at a time. Have children respond with the sounds. Repeat this process two or three times a bit faster each time.

261 Appendices


Introduce the New Letterlanders • Introduce the new Letterlanders as you did Clever Cat on the first day. New Letterlanders for each day are listed below: Day 2: d s t : Dippy Duck, Sammy Snake, Talking Tess Day 3: n p r : Noisy Nick, Peter Puppy, Red Robot Day 4: h l m : Harry Hat Man, Lucy Lamp Light, Munching Mike Day 5: b f : Bouncy Ben, Firefighter Fred • Follow these steps with each new Letterlander: 1. Show the picture side and tell the Letterlander’s name. (e.g. Dippy Duck) 2. Have children use the Sounds Trick to discover the sound. (e.g. “Dippy Duck, /d/.”) 3. Push the plain letter forward several times as the children repeat the sound. (e.g. /d/ /d/ /d/)

Match Beginning Sound Pictures with the New Letterlanders • Play the game of sorting Beginning Sound Pictures under the three new plain letters. Follow these steps: • Sort a few pictures yourself with the children helping to decide which sound each picture name begins with. • Ask children to look at the rest and think about where they go. • Children come forward one at a time and place a picture. • After the child places the picture, he or she points to the letter and then each picture under it as everyone says the sound and then names the pictures.

Live Reading and Live Spelling • Make a Reading Direction Sign. Place in so it can be seen over the children in the spot where you will have them do Live Reading and Spelling • Follow the steps for Live Reading or Live Spelling each day as shown below: Activity

Words

PCCs

Day 2

Live Reading

sad, at, cat, sat

a, c, d, s, t

Day 3

Live Spelling

nap, rat, cap, dad

a, c, d, d, n, p, r, t

Day 4

Live Reading

ham, lap, sat, mad

a, d, h, l, m, p, s, t

Day 5

Live Spelling

bat, bad, fan, map, cab

a, b, c, d, f, m, n, p, t

Live Reading • Have the number of children needed for the word come forward and hold the PCCs standing in order, facing the class so that the class can read the word they form. • Have the children with the PCCs say their sounds in turn.

262 Appendices


The Rollercoaster

(for Reading) • •

• •

Stretching the Word (for Spelling)

Stand behind the children with the PCCs. Hold your hand over the head of each letter in sequence and have the class say the sound. Then have the class repeat the sounds as they touch their arms in three places as shown at the left. Next have the children slide their hands down their arms as they say the sounds without stopping in between blending the sounds together to make the word. Use the word in a brief phrase or sentence to confirm what the word is. Line new children up to form the next word.

Live Spelling • Give out the PCCs needed for the word and have children stand in random order facing the class to the audience left of where they will be forming the word. The rest of the children remain seated. • Say the word to the children. Everyone repeats it. • Rubberband-stretch the word as shown at the left. Children slowly pull their hands farther apart as they slowly prolong the word. • Then they start to stretch the word again, but stop their hands almost immediately saying only the first sound. • Let children decide which Letterlander is needed to start the word. Have this child move into place beneath the Reading Direction sign. • Children stretch the word again. This time when they get to the middle (vowel) sound, show them how to jiggle their hands slightly at that spot as they repeat the vowel sound. They choose the Letterlander who steps into place beside the first letter. • Then children stretch the word again—this time jiggling the final sound. They choose the last Letterlander who moves into place to complete the word. • Finally, stand behind the children with PCCs and guide children in sounding out the word using their arms as ‘rollercoasters’ as in Live Reading. • Give PCCs for the next word to new children. Follow the same steps.

Ready to Begin? After the week of activities above, most children will be ready for Unit 1 of this Teacher’s Guide. If you would like to check individuals on their knowledge of the 13 letter sounds taught to this point, you could write or type these letters on a page and assess each child. Simply point to each letter and have the child say the sound. Record any errors and the total number correct. If most children are getting most sounds, your class should begin with Unit 1. Sounds will be reviewed in each unit and children will get lots of practice using the sounds to read and write words. If you find your children need more practice with the thirteen letter sounds, you may want to use some of the activities on page 265.

263 Appendices

Unit 1 begins on page 53.


More for Children New to Letterland The activities below can be used by children in your class who are new to Letterland or who need additional practice with letter sounds or awareness of beginning sounds in words.

Using Other Letterland Materials Living ABC Software Each Letterlander talks to the children about his or her sound and guides them in finding things in the scene that begin with their sound on the highly interactive Living ABC Software. They can listen to a song about each letter sound and trace the each letter with another song that describes the letter formation. There are games for recognizing letter shapes, identifying sounds in isolation and in words, matching capitals and lower case, and building words. And you can set the controls to provide just the letters you want the child to practice. Great for both group and independent work.

Letterland ABC If your whole class is new to Letterland, you may want to use the Letterland ABC book to read to children about each Letterlander a-z. Children can explore the illustrations for items beginning with the characters sound, and even your advanced students will learn enriching vocabulary in these stories.

Vocabulary Cards For a class of children learning about Letterland for the first time, the Vocabulary Cards can be very useful. There are three large pictures of things that begin with each a-z sound with a sentence linking the character to the word. The words are printed in large letters on the back with picture-coded initial letters, and there are rhyming words in the corners. You can use these colorful cards in place of, or in addition to the Beginning Sound Pictures for the activities on page 260-263.

First Reading Flashcards These versatile First Reading Flashcards are picture-code cards that are small enough to use in centers in self-directed activities, playing games that provide practice on letter sounds and matching capital and lower case. As children make progress, there are useful instructions for more constructive activities.

264 Appendices


The Capital Letter Trick Objectives ● ●

To learn when capital letters are used. To learn capital letter shapes.

Teaching point

Each Letterlander has a special way of turning their letter into a capital. They are so proud at being given the important job of beginning someone’s name or a sentence that they do their Capital Letter Trick. The TRICKS In Letterland, the capital A shapes are called Applestands. The apples sit on the Applestand ˘ at the start of important words, such as names like Anne, Andrew and while they say ’ a...’ Ashraf. Bouncy Ben’s head is still in the same position in his capital letter shape. The only difference now is that he is balancing his ‘best blue ball’ between his ‘big brown ears’. Bouncy Ben shows off this trick whenever he starts an important word. Whenever Clever Cat starts important words, such as names, she takes a deep breath and gets bigger. The funny shaped door with Dippy Duck’s head poking out is Dippy Duck’s very own-duck door. This is her trick for making sure you know she is starting an important word. Eddy Elephant is very proud of his ‘elephant on end’ trick. He sits down and points everything—his trunk and all his feet—in the Reading Direction whenever he starts an important word. Firefighter Fred takes a deep breath and gets bigger to start an important word. His letter gets a bit sharper as well. When Golden Girl is needed to start an important word, she gets out of her garden swing, gets into her go-cart and drives along in the Reading Direction. She always turns up in her go-cart twice to start the two words in her name, Golden Girl. When Harry Hat Man has a chance to start a name, he is so happy that he does a handstand with his hat on! When Impy Ink takes a deep breath, his letter gets so tall and thin that you can’t see his ink spot any more. Instead, his letter looks long and thin like his ink pen. Whenever Jumping Jim can start an important word, he is so pleased that he does a big jump, and his head and his ball disappear in the clouds. When Kicking King starts an important word, he takes a deep breath. His arm and kicking leg then get longer so he will look more important in that word.


Whenever Lucy Lamp Light starts important words, she takes a deep breath and gets bigger. Her legs also grow longer, so long in fact, that she has to kneel with her legs on the line. Munching Mike may look big, but he’s really only a little monster (too little to start important words), so his much bigger Mum does the job for him. Nick starts important words with three big nails which you can see in Noisy Nick’s name.

When Oscar Orange is needed to start an important word, he takes a deep breath and gets bigger. When Peter Puppy has a chance to start an important word he is so pleased that he pops up so that everyone can see him better. He hopes his ears will pop up too, but sadly they still droop. This very different capital letter shape is Quarrelsome Queen’s Quiet Room. She likes to sit very quietly in it to start important words, like her own name! When he starts somebody’s name, Red Robot takes a big breath and gets bigger. But the rascal changes his letter shape as well, just to make it more difficult to recognise him. So look very carefully and remember it is still Red Robot. Whenever Sammy Snake has a chance to start an important word, like a name or a word on a sign, he takes a deep breath and gets bigger. When Talking Tess starts her name or a sentence, she takes a deep breath and grows so tall that her head disappears in the clouds. We still know it’s Tess, though, because we can still see her arms. Like everyone else in Letterland, Uppy Umbrella loves starting important words. All she has to do to get bigger is to take a deep breath. Vicky Violet has discovered how to make her very own valuable Vase of Violets get bigger just by taking a deep breath herself! So that’s what she does whenever an important word, like a name or the first word in a sentence, needs her sound. When Walter Walrus takes a deep breath, his letter gets bigger. It even holds more water! He always makes his letter bigger when he has a chance to start an important word, like somebody’s name. Like many other Letterlanders, Fix-it Max just takes a deep breath to make his letter bigger. But you will hardly ever find his capital letter at the start of a word. The best place to look for it is in the important word EXIT. When the Yo-yo Man has a chance to be in an important word, he quickly empties out some of his yo-yos (which are heavy) so that he can step lightly up on to the line to show how important that word is. When Zig Zag Zebra has a chance to start an important word, she takes a deep breath and gets bigger. We don’t see her looking big or small very often in words, however, because she is very shy.


Letter Sounds Pronunciation Guide Pronunciation models ● Letterland Alphabet Songs (a–z sounds and long vowels) ● Letterland Blends and Digraphs Songs (consonant blends, consonant digraphs, vowel digraphs) Pronunciation Accurate pronunciation of each letter sound is a vital factor in teaching children how to access print. Inaccurate pronunciation can lead to a delay in-reading and predictable spelling inaccuracies, such as suipu for sip. The three simple categories set out below are guidelines for pronouncing consonant sounds accurately in Live Reading, Live Spelling and other activities.

1 Whispered sounds are never spoken with voice, (‘c…’ not ‘cuh’).

2 Prolonged sounds can be extended, (fff…). They are helpful for independent spelling and Slow-speak dictation.

274 Appendices

3 Almost closed mouth sounds are the hardest to say. Although they contain a small amount of voice, try to avoid adding an unwanted ‘uh’ sound by keeping your mouth almost closed.


Costumes and Props Children love to dress up, especially as their favorite Letterland characters. It strengthens their emotional bonds with the letters and sounds and helps build very positive expectations of the learning experience. Annie Apple

Apple leaf hat; red t-shirt

Bouncy Ben

Big, brown ears

Clever Cat

Yellow ears

Dippy Duck

Headband with picture of Dippy Duck’s head

Eddy Elephant

Elephant ears

Firefighter Fred

Firefighter helmet; hose; raincoat

Golden Girl

Long blond ponytail made of wool; green glasses

Quarrelsome Queen

Crown and cape; plain ‘royal’-umbrella

Harry Hat Man

Hairy green hat or hat picture on a headband

Red Robot

Square, red cardboard headgear; red-sack

Impy Ink

Headband with yellow dot; yellow letter on blue t-shirt; a special pen

Sammy Snake

Snake headband; toy snake

Jumping Jim

Jeans jacket or a jump rope

Talking Tess

Headphones or phone

Kicking King

Crown and cape

Uppy Umbrella

Small umbrella hat or real-umbrella

Lucy Lamp Light

Lampshade hat; flashlight

Vicky Violet

Violet t-shirt; flower necklace

Munching Mike

Cardboard monster mask covered in foil, or headband

Walter Walrus

Grey flippers

Noisy Nick

Toy hammer and tinfoil nails

Fix-it Max

Toy tools and cap

Oscar Orange

Orange on a headband

Yellow Yo-yo Man

Yellow cap; yellow t-shirt; yellow yo-yo

Peter Puppy

Long droopy ears

Zig Zag Zebra

Ears on headband; black and white-striped clothing

Vowel Men

Other

Mr A

Red and white striped apron

Silent Magic e

Red crepe paper wand

Mr E

Top hat featuring the letter e

Arthur Ar

Green cardboard headgear

Mr I

Ice-cream cone made of rolled up paper

Orvil Or

Orange cardboard headgear

Mr O

White beard

Ernest Er

Purple cardboard headgear

Mr U

Official hat

Urgent Ur

Purple cardboard headgear and boots of purple fur

Irving Ir

Purple cardboard headgear and an ink-splashed shirt


List of CD Contents Unit Activities Beginning Sound Pictures Decodable Stories—Units 1-45 Review Sentences—Units 2-45 Student Lists—Units 1-45 Word Detectives—Units 1-45 Written Word Sort—Units 1-45

Games Bouncy Ben’s Bingo Fishing with Firefighter Fred Impy Ink’s Incredible Color Game Tick Tack Tess Zig Zag Zebra’s Zoom

Homework Letter to Parents Look-Say-Cover-Write-Check Form

Assessments and Record Sheets Beginning Sounds Assessment Class Record Sheets Fluency Screening Letter Sounds Checklist Phonics Inventory Reading Robot Racers (A & B) Review Assessment Forms Spelling Test forms (A & B)

Procedure Cards Daily Instructional Guide Cards Intervention Guide Cards

Fidelity Checks Fidelity Check Forms

Lyrics Blends & Digraphs Song Lyrics 276 Appendices


Index a /ŭ/ (Parachute) a_e ack ad āēīōū & y /ī/ ăĕĭŏŭ ai all am an ap ar at au aw ay bl br ce ch ck cl cr dr e! (Magic e)

Page

177 113 57 53 81 77 133 85 57 57 53 165 53 197 197 133 97 101 121 77 57 97 101 101 113, 117,121, 125 e (Blue Magic e) 122 e (Burned out) 177 67 e (they) e_e 126 ea (eat) 129 ea (head) 229 157 ed (ed) ed (d) 157 ed (t) 161 ed (Magic) 161 ee 125 69 ell en 69 221 er est 221 et 69

ew fl fr -ful full ge gl gr ie i_e ick igh -ild in -ind ing (Magic) ir ix kn -le mb ll ly -nd -ng -nk -nt o (other) o_e oa ock oi -old oo (boot) oo (foot) oor op or ore ot ou our 277 Index

Page 149 97 101 213 214 121 97 101 141 117 61 141 145 61 145 117 73 61 137 225 145 89 213 105 109 109 105 177 117 137 65 193 145 181 185 169 65 165 169 65 189 169

ow (know) ow (now) oy pl pr qu rerr scr sh sk -sk sl sm sn sp spl spr ss st -st str sw th th tr u (put) ue u_e ui ug -un unur ut wh (h) wh (w) wr y /e/ y /ī/

Page 137 189 193 97 101 77 217 89 205 65 93 105 97 97 97 97 205 205 89 97 105 205 93 61 61 101 185 149 121 149 73 73 117 173

73 202 69 118 153 81

Grade One Teacher's Guide  

Essential resource for teaching phonics and spelling instruction for your classroom.

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