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International Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research Volume: 4, Issue: 1, 2019

www.ijaser.in ISSN: 2455-9288

OVERVIEW OF INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) AND ITS APPLICATION ON HEALTHCARE [1]

Dr.M.MOHAMED MUSTHAFA,[2]K.VANITHA HOD/Al-Ameen Engineering College, Erode. AP/CSE- Al-Ameen Engineering College,Erode

Abstract: The introduction of mobile devices has changed our daily lives. They enable users to obtain information even in a nomadic environment and provide information without limitations. A decade after the introduction of this technology, we are now facing the next innovation that will change our daily lives. With the introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT), our communication ability will not be restricted to only mobile devices this new era equipped with latest advents of technology, enlightening world in the form of Internet of Things (IoT). Internet of things is such a specified and dignified domain which leads us to the real world scenarios where each object can perform some task while communicating with some other objects. The world with full of devices, sensors and other objects which will communicate and make human life far better and easier than ever. This paper provides an overview of IOT, Application of IOT and Technology Used in IOT. Keywords: Internet of Things IOT, Healthcare, Medical care, RFID, NFC, M2M, V2V

1. INTRODUCTION The age of the Internet of Things (IoT) is forthcoming [1]. It will give objects and even generated contents to the ability to communicate with other mediums. With the generated data from every object, the data will not remain raw as they are today but will be customized to the users based on their needs and even converge with other data. The concept of IoT is simple, although its capability is unlimited and its usage can change the entire paradigm of legacy technology. It is based on embedding a network interface into objects, enabling communications among them to provide various services for users. Consequently, each object will have its own identifier, such as an Internet Protocol address (IP address) in the current Internet that can connect and communicate with other objects through the IoT networking environment. Unlike the era before IoT, when the users could obtain data only from the service provider, the users can directly access the sensors and give commands to the actuators. With this capability, data from IoT applications will be utilized to provide a novel service to industry, academia, and even personal use. Internet of Things can be defined as the collection of two terms: one is Internet, which is defined as networks of networks which can connect billions of users with some standard internet protocols [2]. Internet connects several different sectors and department while using different technologies. Several devices like mobile, personal systems and business organizations are connected to Internet. The second term is Thing; this term is basically mean to these devices or objects which turn into intelligent objects [5]. Moreover this it is also a part of all objects of this real world. If we want to define IOT then we cannot define it precisely and concisely but Vermesan et al. defined the Internet of Things as simply an interaction between the physical and digital worlds. The digital world interacts with the physical world using a plethora of sensors and actuators [6].

2. OVERVIEW OF IOT In this section, we briefly describe the overview of the IoT structure, which Figure 1 presents. The structure of the IoT consists of four layers: service layer, platform layer, network

Copyright Š 2018 by the Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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International Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research Volume: 4, Issue: 1, 2019

www.ijaser.in ISSN: 2455-9288

layer, and device layer. Many research institutions adopt the IoT classification standard shown in Figure 1 to maintain specialty and consistency for IoT development. The service layer, which is on the surface, provides the interface and communicates with the users. Examples of the service layer are autonomous driving, health care, smart industry, personal devices, and door security. These services are connected with a platform layer to provide customized services to the users. The next layer of the IoT structure is the platform layer. The platform layer is located under the service layer and supports the IoT applications and services. There are many types of platforms, including the device platform, data analysis platform, service development platform, and service platform. For instance, the device platform provides an execution environment of services and development for users. Context awareness and prediction, cooperation among things, and connection between the service layer and other layers with the translation of natural language to machine language are examples of the data analysis platform. Furthermore, the service development platform provides development toolkits to users for them to easily develop IoT services. Finally, the service platform supports the generation and execution of a variety of applications. Along with the service and platform layers, one of the core layers of the IoT environment is the network layer. It serves to transmit the data among devices, contents, services and users. The network layer should be able to process, control, and manage enormous amounts of network traffic. A detailed elaboration of the network layer will be further described later in this paper. Finally, the device layer is a layer that perceives the environment with various sensing devices, processes it to send to the sink node or gateway, and responds to it if necessary. The device itself must be smart by applying autonomic actuation and a smart control algorithm. The device layer should be able to acquire and control the IoT devices.

Figure 1.Overview of IOT Architecture

Copyright Š 2018 by the Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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International Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research Volume: 4, Issue: 1, 2019

www.ijaser.in ISSN: 2455-9288

In addition to the four layers, security and privacy are important in IoT. Instead of identifying security as its own layer, each layer should incorporate a security solution to protect it from threats. Security issues should be handled as an important functional entity for each layer, and their current or prospective solutions should be customized according to specific properties and operations of each layer. Each layer is important and has its own roles and capability to enable IoT. Although each layer of IoT is important and should be discussed in depth, the aim of this paper is to describe the IoT network in detail. We will primarily focus on the IoT network in terms of its challenges and provide insights for the future IoT network.

3. APPLICATION OF IOT Medical care or health care is one of the major challenges of this world, it is estimated that approx 20-30 billion [7] population of this world suffer from different disease such as arthritis, asthma, cancer, COPD, diabetes [8], care for elderly people such as Heart Attack [9] detection, Activity and Movement Recognition of elderly people[4] and many more. The past few years have witnessed that Internet of Things (IoT) [11] has evolved a lot and continues to evolve in Medical care or health care is one of the major challenges of this world, it is estimated that approx 20-30 billion [7] population of this world suffer from different disease such as arthritis, asthma, cancer, COPD, diabetes [8], care for elderly people such as Heart Attack [3] detection, Activity and Movement Recognition of elderly people[10] and many more. The past few years have witnessed that Internet of Things (IoT) [11] has evolved a lot and continues to evolve in As the internet of things is a new idea for physical objects or things, called “smart devices” and is a very challenging area in the field of information technology and computer science. For scholars, the main challenges while deploying internet of things are to prepare and process data for classification because of an unprecedented increase in the amount and complexity of data collected by different types of sensors.

Figure 2.Application of IOT

The IOT permit the smart health objects for remotely managing and sensing the data of the smart health devices across the network infrastructure this will reduce human intervention and also Copyright © 2018 by the Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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International Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research Volume: 4, Issue: 1, 2019

www.ijaser.in ISSN: 2455-9288

increase efficiency, productivity, accuracy and economic benefit of the devices and also helps the patients in accessing the health services from a remote location. 4. TECHNOLOGY USED in IOT 4.1 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): RFID is a system in which there is a reader to read many tags[4]. It uses the technology of radio waves to send the information of an object in the form of serial number which is attached to the tag. It uses the electromagnetic fields to transfer the data on the tags so that it can automatically identify and track the objects, corresponding to a particular tag[1]. As we already mention that RFID technology is based on reader and tags, so in the initial phase of research RFID defines in threeconfigurations: Active RFID  Passive RFID  Active Reader Active Tag Active RFID - (Passive Reader Active Tag), the reader receives the signal or information from the device which runs on battery and this battery is operated by a device called active tag. This information exchange will take place in limited range of the active tags and the passive readers which is from 1-2000 feet depending upon the architecture [14]. Passive RFID - The second one is Passive RFID (Active Reader Passive Tag), most commonly used, such tag does not have any battery or onboard power supplies, so it requires energy to send the data and thus harvests the energy from the RFID reader. Active Reader Active Tag - The last one both the reader and tags are active so it is an Active Reader Active Tag. Although both the reader and the tags are active, but tags will start sending information only when it is awoken by the reader or when it comes in the proximity of the reader[19]. So by this we can say that the main components of this technology are tag, reader, power supply, antenna, access controller, software and server. 4.2 Near Field Communication (NFC): Near Field Communication is somehow little bit similar to RFID, it combines a RFID reader in a mobile phone, which makes it better, reliable and efficient for the users. Near Field Communication is a short-range wireless technology with the frequency of 13.56 MHz, typically work for very small distance up to 4 cm[4]. Allows intuitive initialization of wireless networks and NFC is complementary to Bluetooth and 802.11 with their long distance capabilities at a distance circa up to 10 cm. It is first developed by Philips and Sony companies. Data exchange was approximately 424 kbps. Power consumption during data reading in NFC is under 15ma[3]. There are two modes in NFC technology:  Active  Passive Active Mode - In active mode both the devices are active and communicate with each other by sending the signals. Passive Mode - In passive mode one of the device sends the signal rather other just receiving it.NFC doesn’t need pairing, it cannot work from a long distance and in this way this technology is secure and use for mobile payments. 4.3 Machine to Machine Communication (M2M) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) refers to the communications between computers, embeddedprocessors, smart sensors, actuators and mobile devices (DYE, 2008). The use of M2M communication is increasing in the scenario at a fast pace. For instance,researchers predicted that, by 2014, there will be 1.5 billion wirelessly connected devices excluding mobile phones[12]. Now a days, there are approx 2 billion wirelessly connected devices which can gather information from the sensors, analyse this data and send the information to other devices to perform some task. Copyright © 2018 by the Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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International Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research Volume: 4, Issue: 1, 2019

www.ijaser.in ISSN: 2455-9288

Machine receives the information and perform the operation with the help of actuators, sensors, embedded processors and application software.. 4.4 Vehicle to Vehicle Communication (V2V) In this technology the objects are vehicles, which can communicate with another vehicle or the sensors around them. The main aspect of concern here is, there is no proper method to define the protocols because the object is moving and communicating with another moving object or with the sensors on the roadside [13]. So we are not able to define any routing protocol. This communication can work for a long distance and make an efficient communication among objects. This technology was designed primarily with the aims of traffic control, safety and accident avoidance. 5. CONCLUSION Current IoT research has been classified in terms of layers of service, platform, network, and device. In this paper, we focused on the network layer, which we believe is the most important part of realizing the IoT environment. We surveyed the IoT network and presented insights about the future IoT network. The success of IoT will be based on the novel architecture of the IoT network. Without well-designed network architecture for the IoT, IoT services and devices will not seamlessly operate and provide necessary services to the users. To give insight to researchers, we introduced a novel architecture for the IoT network and some techniques that are predictable or certain in such as architecture, such as IoT network management, connection management, grouping and privacy. REFERENCES 1.

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International Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research Volume: 4, Issue: 1, 2019

www.ijaser.in ISSN: 2455-9288

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Copyright © 2018 by the Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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OVERVIEW OF INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) AND ITS APPLICATION ON HEALTHCARE  

The introduction of mobile devices has changed our daily lives. They enable users to obtain information even in a nomadic environment and pr...

OVERVIEW OF INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) AND ITS APPLICATION ON HEALTHCARE  

The introduction of mobile devices has changed our daily lives. They enable users to obtain information even in a nomadic environment and pr...

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