CONTENTS Introduction China Education system School (name of school) Lithuania Education system School (name of school) Basque country Education system Escolapios Calasanz Comparison between the countries References
CHINA Education system INTRODUCTION Language
Population Language status: Status of language education Education system Public and private Bilingual education forms
El chino mandarín es el idioma oficial del país.142 A diferencia de otros idiomas, tiene una amplia variedad de dialectos (5 reconocidos) y formas escritas (2 alfabetos reconocidos).143Actualmente, hay una gran confusión acerca de la categorización, pero por regla general se clasifican en 5 dialectos principalmente: mandarín, wu, min, yue y hakka.143 Es el idioma aislante por excelencia; todas sus palabras son monosílabas y tonodistintivas.144 Este idioma pertenece a la familia sino-tibetana, y también es oficial en otros países como laRepública de China y Singapur.144 Es el idioma más hablado del planeta con más de 1000 millones de nativos.
China is a country located in the east of the Asian continent. It covers approximately 9,6 square kilometers in total area and it is the world’s fourth bigger country and the most populate one with 1339724852 inhabitants. The capital of China is Pekin, but the biggest city is Shangai. The region is divided into 22 provinces, 5 autonomous areas, 4 municipality and 2 special administrative areas (Hong Kong and Macao). It is member of the ONU and of the APEC. Jaiotza eta heriotza tasa!
In 2001, there were altogether 17,770 secondary vocational schools (including vocational high schools, specialized secondary schools and skill workers school), with the enrollment of 11,642,300 students and the recruitment of 3,976,300 students.
Chinese students go to class five or six days per week. They start their classes at 7 a.m and they finish their classes at 4 p.m or later. On Saturdays many schools do mathematics and sciende exercises . A lot of students go to “buxiban”, it is a class of preparation that is given at night or on the weekends. As well as West Tutoria, these classes offer Chinese, English, Science and Mathematics classes and tutorias uno a uno. ( clases) .Apart of Mathematics and Science, students have to study the history of China, English, Literature, Music, Art and Gymnastic. In China the memorize and the concentration in Mathematics, Science and Chinese studies, as well as a good preparation for the extensive test for middle school, junior high school, high school and college entrance exams are standard practice. (asignaturas) The education is compulsory and free for chinese citizens between six and fifteen years. Between this ages, parents only have to pay books and uniforms for their children. Every Chinese children all get a primary and middle school public education. In each class there are 35 students more or less. After middle school, parents have to pay for public high school, and most of the people that live on cities can pay this modest fee. People who live in villages, cannot pay this fee and they leave their studies at the age of fifteen. There are a lot of private schools in China for wealthy Chinese people as well as dozens of international private schools. Most international schools will only accept to Chinese people eho have a foreign passport, but public schools are obligated to accept to children of legal residents. There are more than 70 schools approve from the Chinese Ministery of Education to give foreign instruction. Foreign people must pay an anual fee, that local residents have not to pay, the fee is around 28.000 RMB. (private schools) In the higher education, Chinese students start to prepare the Gaokao exam (National University Entrance Examinations). It is an exam that you have to pass it to enter in the university, and each career have a mark to enter, so students have to get a high mark to choose the career they want. Seniors that there are not at high school, they have to do a Chinese version of the Sat in the summer. (selectividad)
PRE SCHOOL China is one of the few governments that give much importance to preschool education. Since 1949 when the People’s Republic of China was founded, a Preschool Section was established in China’s educational department. The pre-school education in China is not compulsory and it lasts three years. Children enter at the age of three and finish with six years. They attend to kindergartens near their
neighborhoods, where they learn the basics of the native language and subjects. In this place, they play games, dance, sing and act. Children are taught from the early year the values of Truth, Kindness and Beauty. Each year of pre-school education is divided into two parts, each part last six months. When they finish pre-school education they start primary education. PRIMARY SCHOOL Children start primary education with six years, it lasts six years. This type of education is compulsory. Pupils study basic lessons as Chinese, Mathematics, History, Geography, Scienceâ€Ś Apart of these lessons they learn some lessons of politics and moral.. They also take part in sports and extra-curriculum activities. Foreign languages such as English are optional courses in the senior year of the primary education. SECONDARY EDUCATION Students start this type of education with twelve years. Secondary education is divided into two parts: junior high school program and senior high school. The first cycle last three years and it is compulsory. In this cycle, students begin to learn a variety of science subjects such as chemistry, physics and biology and other subjects such as history, geography and foreign languages. Physical education is enthusiastically encouraged. Senior high school education is a continuation of junior high school. Students take up specific subjects in either science or humanity subjects. It also lasts three years as junior high school but this one is optional and to do that you must pass an exam. This exam is very important because pupils have to take a good mark to study what they want.
HIGHER EDUCATION Higher education in China is to train specialists for all the sectors of the country's development. This type of education is not compulsory and students can do this if they pass the exam of secondary education. This education is given at universities, institutes and centers of vocational education, it is important to distingue the vocational education, university education and courses of post grade because in each of them students can obtain a different degree. You can get undergraduate degree, master degree and doctoral degree. The academic course is divided into two parts of twenty weeks each one. The first one
starts in September and the other one in February. The assistance to the classes is compulsory. ADULT EDUCATION Adult education is an alternative high education that covers the universities of radio, television and correspondence. There are two different types of universities. On the one hand, there are partial time or free time universities where workers go. On the other hand there are universities of the county for rural people and workers out of time. These types of education are economical. Their aim is to educate to people that could not have a good education in their past because of the war, their culture, their customsâ€Ś and for those people that had to work very early.
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION It is provided at three levels: junior secondary, senior secondary and tertiary.
The first level it is carry out in the professional education and directed by workers, rural people and employees of another sector with a profesional basic knowledge and some promesional habilities. These schools of vocational training are in rural places, where the economy is less developed.
The second level is referred to vocational training in the higuer phase. It is made by specialist high schools, workers with habilities at schools and middle vocational schools. The vocational education of the second level has a role in the formation of human resources with practical habilities in primary and secondary levels of several types.
Consta de las escuelas secundarias técnicas y schoo1s normales, escuelas secundarias especializadas inscribir a jóvenes graduados de escuela secundaria con una educación que suele ser de 4 años y años, a veces 3, Algunas especialidades están abiertas a los graduados de secundaria de alto nivel con los escolares que duran 2 años. Las funciones básicas de estas escuelas para capacitar a nivel secundario talentos especializados y técnicos para la vanguardia de la producción, y todos los estudiantes deben dominar los conocimientos básicos la teoría y las habilidades de su especialidad, además del conocimiento cultural necesario para los estudiantes de la escuela superior.
The third level consists on secondary tecnical schools and normal schools.
School of China http://www.ycis-sh.com/
HIGUER EDUCATION There are two types of higuer education: universities and colleges. And the institutions of higuer education can be of the state or non state. This last one can make its practice with a license put by the Gobernment. Qualificatios of higuer education only can be obtained in the institutions of higuer education. In the colleges the studies are organize into studies of a degree. The unibersities studies are divided into three cycles: undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate. With the first and second cycles the student will have a profesional qualification or a master. Los estudios integrados conducen directamente a una maestría y / o una cualificación profesional, mediante la combinación de los ciclos primero y segundo de los estudios de nivel universitario. Estudios profesionales de especialización se organizan en el segundo ciclo después de los estudios de nivel universitario (licenciatura o equivalente en el campo de la especialización) para adquirir una cualificación profesional en un determinado campo Los trenes de los investigadores de tercer ciclo, profesores de arte, artistas y profesionales de la
medicina. Estudios de seguimiento de los programas registrados por el Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia. La calidad de los programas, así como las actividades educativas y científicas de instituciones de educación superior son evaluados periódicamente por el Centro para la Evaluación de la Calidad en la Educación Superior. El sistema nacional de créditos se basa en un promedio de 1600 horas de trabajo por año académico, un crédito correspondiente a 40 horas o una semana de trabajo. Hay tres modos de estudio: por la noche durante el día, y extramuros. ADMISIÓN A LAS INSTITUCIONES DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR: Para aplicar a los programas de licenciatura, el estudiante debe poseer un certificado de educación secundaria o equivalente. Para aplicar a los programas de posgrado, el estudiante debe tener una licenciatura o título equivalente. Para aplicar a los estudios de postgrado, el alumno debe poseer una maestría o su equivalente en el campo seleccionado. La admisión a todos los ciclos se lleva a cabo sobre una base competitiva de acuerdo a las normas de admisión establecidos por la institución de educación superior y validado por el Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia. VOCATIONAL TRAINING The vocational training are completen by young people from the age of 14. Training are four different programmes. 1 Type: from young people from the age of 14 who have not gained a basic education Type 2: 3 year vocational educational and training for those who have gained the basic education. Type 3: for people who have passes to upper secondary school Type 4: who have passed the upper secondary school leaving certificate, 3 to 4 year course of training compromise higher education and occupational qualification. On the other hand will be explained higher education. To entry on higher education students gain entry via selection by level of secondary school. Higher education is based on the European credit system. The duration of the course is of 4 years.
http://www.euroeducation.net/prof/lithuaco.htm Vocational education and training can be completed in vocational schools by young people from the age of 14. The training comprises the imparting of both theoretical and practical knowledge. Four types of training programme are differentiated. Type 1 For young people from the age of 14 who have not gained a basic education leaving certificate which forms the basis of vocational education and training. This framework also affords the opportunity of gaining the lower secondary school leaving certificate. Type 2 3-year vocational education and training for those who have gained the basic education leaving certificate. They acquire a VET qualification (skilled worker status). Type 3 For those who have passed the upper secondary school leaving certificate, 1 to 2 years of vocational training Type 4 For those who have passed the upper secondary school leaving certificate, 3 to 4 year course of training comprising higher education and occupational qualification. Some modules correspond to Bachelor level, and credit for these may be transferred to a later course of higher education study. Vocational education and training, however, is not very popular with young Lithuanians, since it provides only limited knowledge which is no longer sufficient on the current labour market in the form is imparted. Many young people wish to obtain more knowled
BASQUE COUNTRY EDUCATION SYSTEM
Introduction In the Basque Country are spoken two languages, Basque and Spanish and most the schools have one of the 3 models, A, B and D. Model A is for those students that want to study all the subjects in Spanish. Model B is for all the pupils that want to study their subjects in both languages: half in Spanish and half in Basque. Model D is only for those people that want to study everything on Basque. In Basque Country there are two different schools: private and public. Public schools are free and in private schools we have to pay our children education. In the Basque Country education is compulsory between 3 and 16 years. The education system of the Basque Country has the pre-school education, primary education and secondary education, which are compulsory and after them if students want to study more they have vocational education or a higher education. Pre-school education Pre-school education lasts from 0-6 years of age. This education it`s not compulsory, it´s optional. Most of the children start at 3 years but in some places they start at 0. Pre-school education is subdivided into two cycles, the first one from 0 to 3 and the other one from 3 to 6. Pre-school education is based on the physical, intellectual, emotional, social and moral development of students. Primary education It is compulsory and it´s from 6 to 12 years. This education is divided into three cycles, each lasting for two years. The first one is from 6 to 8, the second one from 8 to 10 and the last one from 10 to 12. This education is based on the acquisition of basic cultural elements, receptive and productive oral and written skills, arithmetic and an increasing autonomy of action. Teaches also have to teach pupils a basic level of English and they have to be able to understand and to say easy words in this language. Secondary education It is compulsory and this education started with 12 years and the minimum exit age is 16. The purpose of compulsory secondary education is to ensure that students obtain the basic elements of culture especially on humanistic, artistic, scientific and technological aspects. Secondary education also shows the students habits to study and work and prepares them to take on responsibilities and exercise their rights, as well as to train them for further study or for a job. When the students finished secondary education, majority of them continue studying thereafter. Vocational education This education is more focused on the students who want to study something with the purpose of working. They have lot of practical sessions and they´re sometimes in factories. In vocational education there are three types: the first one is a lower cycle and it is for students that have not completed their compulsory secondary education, to start this cycle you must be 16. The second one is a second cycle for those who have leading in principle to the work market or secondary academic education. The third one requires previous completion of general secondary education and leading to the job market or university. The
purpose of vocational education is to facilitate the entry of young people into the job market and to respond to the requirements of the system of production. Higher education In higher education when students finish their degree studies they can choose 2 different options. The first option is to look for a job and the second option, is to continue studying. In the higher education all the universities do not offer the degrees in Basque. There are five universities in the Basque Country. Two of them are public: UPV/EHU which offers degrees on both language; and UPNA that from twenty three degrees only two are in Basque. The other three are private: The Jesuit University of Deustu where the presence of Basque is limited; the Opus Dei University of Navarre and the new small cooperativeowned University of Mondrag贸n where Basque is dominant in Arts subjects but not in Science. Most of the students go to the UPV/EHU. Universities offer diploma courses, degree courses and postgraduate courses.
SCHOOL IN THE BASQUE COUNTRY In The Basque Country there are a lot of good schools which do a good practice. Below, it is described a school of Vitoria-Gasteiz that is called Escolapios Calasanz. Escolapios Calasanz is a catholic private school, multilingual ( two models: A and B) , at the service of the society, that its aim is the development of the person in all of their dimensions based on Christian values. This school works with responsibility sharing with all the community ( students, families, teachers, monitors and trainers) opinions and experiences. It try to improve the organization of the school taking account people, resources, quality plans, always searching a balance between spontaneity and systematization. Escolapios promote the personal relation with students taking account their individulity, capacity, personality, home and social environment...to special attention to those students who need it. These are the values of the school: Person as a man and part of a collective is the fundamental element of the education act. The constant formation of all the member of the Community. Integration of families in different fields of the school. Solidarity and respect as fundamental values. The continuous improve with curricular innovation adequate to the moment and for the future. Basque as a linguistic treasure that it must be promoted. Evangelical values, directors of the activity and life of the school. This school only have pre school, primary and secondary education. Below this three types of education are going to be described: Preschool can last six years because there are classes since children are 0, but most of the children used to enter to this school when they are two years old. There are two classes in each course, a class is for model A and the other one for B. The timetable is on the mornings start at 9:00 and finish at 12:30 and they have a break of half and hour at 11:00
and at the afternoon they have class between 15:00 and 17:00. In preschool there are three cycles. The first one, start with zero years and finish with two. The second one between two and four years. The last one, is the last cycle of preschool and it starts with four years and finishes with six, when they finish this cycle, children starts primary school. Primary school last six years and there are two classes per course. And apart of these two classes there is another class that Is for those students that goes bad with their studies and need help. As it was said before, there are two models, A and B. The timetable is as the preschool one. When students finish primary school, at the age of 12 they start secondary education. Secondary education last tfour years, and when they finish this they have to change to another school to do the high school. As pre and primary school there are two models, and in each course there is a class. In the second year students do an optional subject, they can choose between French, Mathematics in our life and a workshop for the education of the body and health. In the third year students also have to choose an optional subject but the options are different: French, classic culture and audiovisual communication. In the last year of the secondary education, there are another three different options: French, artistic drawing and graphic design. Apart of these three optional subjects, students must choose what they want to study if technology, letters or science. Once they have chosen they do Biology, Technology or Latin. Apart of the classes there are three other classes. One is to help students who have problems with their studies, other one is called PIEE that is for those people who have a disability. In this class they do a lot of thing, for example they do handicrafts and food and then once a month they sold in the school the things that they have done. And the last one is called AAT, that is for people who cannot study because they have an intellectual disability. In this class they work, for example sometimes they go to Barria, that is a village near Vitoria where this school has a house with a garden and there they do a course of gardening and they grow plants and then they sell them as the handicrafts. To do this last one, students must be over sixteen. The timetable is on morning starts at 8:05 and finish at 13:15 and they have a break of twenty five minutes at 11:00, then on the afternoon they have between 15:00 and 17:00, except of Wednesdays and Fridays that they do not have to go to class.