Design: A Development Tool For Lithuanian Business 2008 (Nr.2)
CULTURE IS LIFE RIDDLE, CALLED LITHUANIA MASTER MIKE MONEY TALKS YELLOW BOOK KDC FINASTA PUZERO
LITHUANIAN CONFEDERATION OF INDUSTRIALISTS
COVER: CHAIR “KORYS” BY V.PUZERAS, (P. 170). PHOTO BY KARLAS
OPINIO CRISIS: STILMULUS FOR INNOVATION TERRA NOVA
EXPOSITIO WALKING AROUND, LOOKING FROM A DIFFERENT ANGLE “Baldai 2008”
CULTURA CULTURE IS LIFE Vilnius – European Capital of Culture ‘09 12
CASA DE LA LLUVIA Lithuania at the Expo Zaragoza 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS “Klaipedos dizaino centras”
BLUE WITHOUT BLUE Zidra
“RIC” DO NOT TAKES “NO” FOR AN ANSWER “RIC”
WITHOUT MUSIC, LIFE WOULD BE A MISTAKE “B2gether”
ARGENTUM MONEY TALKS
FAVORITUS MIRROR OF THE MARKET Superbrands of Lithuania
RECTO/VERSO RIDDLE CALLED LITHUANIA Lithuania’s trademark contest
SECTURA INSPIRED BY THE BALTIC SEA 3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LAST BUT NOT LEAST “Finasta”
BIG BOSS “Kalnapilis Grand”
EXTRAORDINARY IS ORIDINARY “Orem” 109 HELLO, MY NAME IS LABAS “Labas”
LITHUANIAN SNOW WHITE “Snaige” 114
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS THE DEW “”
URBI ET ORBI
GOOD DESIGN IS (STILL) GOOD BUSINESS
IN CORPORE WHOLE IS GREATER THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS “Process 2007”
REBEARTH OF VOLFAS ENGELMAN “Volfas Engelman” 92
HISTORIA YELLOW BOO K Lithuanian trademarks
TABLE OF CONTENTS MODERN HERALDRY OF LITHUANIA
LEGE ARTIS BEAUTIFUL BOOKS ARE RARELY DUSTY Contest of the most beautiful book
PRO/CONTRA WE NEED REOLUTION. NOW 135 The complex development of Lithuanian design
ALMA MATER DEPARTMENT WITH THE AMBER SOUL 138
PERSONA INFALLIBLE TECHNIQUE AND THE MERCY OF INSPIRATION 142
MASTER MIKE Mike Malkovas
VISION OF LITHUANIAN INTERIOR Prof. dr. Vytautas Kibildis
(Lithuanian Graphic Design Association)
Contributing editors Mindaugas Puidokas
(Lithuanian Confederation of Industrialists) 178
(Baltomedia) Prof. Audrius Klimas
(Vilnius Academy of Art) Ass. Prof. Ausra Lisauskiene
IGNIS FATUUS CENTRE OF DECISION MAKING 188
(Vilnius Academy of Art) Marius Dirgela
(Lithuanian Design Forum) Marius Urbanavicius
Prof. Rimvydas Kepezinskas
ARS ARTIFEX NOTA BENE RIGHT ANGLE
Klaipeda Department of visual design
CREATIVITY: A SHORTCUT TO THE TOP
(Design Innovation Centre)
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MINISTRY OF ECONOMY
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CRISIS: STIMULUS FOR INNOVATION E
conomic crisis is shaking the world. It touched the Baltic States, too. Who will it harm most: the big or the small companies?
According to the Statistics department of Republic of Lithuania, small and average companies create more than 2/3 of the whole GDP of Lithuania, micro-companies (with less than 10 employees) make about 10% of the national GDP, but micro-companies make more than 3/4 of all Lithuanian companies.. This crisis should be an impulse for innovations. Is it worth investing in branding, design while facing the crisis? Experts are sure about it: no doubt it is. But the majority of literature covering branding give examples of such mega-companies, e.g. Apple, Amazon, BMW, Google, Nokia, Zara, etc. There are only a few ones of this kind in Lithuania. What should the small ones do? I took a book by David Vinjamuri this summer. It’s called “Accidental branding“, and covers successful cases of branding for namely micro-companies. Every story here starts with something unexpected happening, whether it is a cyclist realizing he can’t eat his sixth consecutive energy bar because it just doesn’t taste good (Gary Erickson of Clif Bar), a mother trying and failing to find videos with classical music, foreign language, and poetry for her baby (Julie Clark of Baby Einstein dreamed up a product while nursing her first baby—and was selling it throughout the country by the time her second came along), or a hitchhiker getting picked up on the side of a road in Maine by a
beekeeper who shares her values (Roxanne Quimby of Burt’s Bees, she sold her empire for $175 million in 2003—from an initial investment of around $400). Gary Erickson walked away from $60 million because he couldn’t bear to leave behind the company he had built from scratch. Gert Boyle watched her husband die, then three days later she was forced to take over the company he ran. Her only training was 22 years as a housewife. Craig Newmark demoted himself from CEO to customer service rep in the company he founded. Eric Malka sold his only valuable possession, a snow-white BMW, to raise the money to open the first The Art of Shaving store, Julie Aigner-Clark dreamed up a product while nursing her first baby—and was selling it throughout the country by the time her second came along. John Peterman built up a fortune over more than a decade of hard work only to see it all come tumbling down. Then he started to build it all over again. With no disrespect to the thousands of great brands you see every day on television and in the aisles of your local supermarket, I think the stories of these entrepreneurs are worth reading. This is a good thing to remember if you’re reading this book while secure in the bosom of a great corporation. There is a good chance that you’re competing with somebody who regards success as a lifeand–death matter. That’s the brand you want to watch out for. Not just because they make decisions faster than you do, but also because they sweat the details. They understand the customer in a way you don’t. They have targeted you as the enemy and all of their loyal customers know why. They know
By Robertas Jucaitis
how to tell their own story so customers will repeat it. They won’t forget those customers as their business grows. And they are not going to give up easily, not at all. They were real people, mostly from very modest backgrounds. None of them had MBAs or a lot of special training. And although they were bright and incredibly motivated, these people were not geniuses. They were ordinary people. Their brands, however, were not ordinary. These entrepreneurs all had a very clear set of values that they brought to the brand. Even though the actual products they sold would change over time for some of them, the values remained consistent. Moreover, these entrepreneurs were trying to solve their own problem. They were not listening to some focus group of consumers tell them what to do; they were the consumer. Traditional marketing practices did not reflect the complexity of the brand experience. The conclusion comes on its own accord: the most important thing is to believe in yourself, your idea, as well as the vision and persistence. Don Cherry, a famous jazz musician once said: “When people believe in boundaries, they become part of them“. It’s we ourselves who create obstacles. All I can wish you is more self-will and confidence.
The first Lithuanian travel organization company “Aviaturas ir partneriai” (the secondary company of the biggest travel organization enterprise in Lithuania “Novaturas”) changed its name into “Sofa travel” following its new philosopy “super easy, reliable, cheaper”. Design by “VRS” advertising agency.
The leader of Lithuanian sports clothes pro- “Ementor Group” (Norway), that owns one duction “Audimas” will mark its products of the biggest IT concerns in Lithuania with a new logo. The old logo will be used to “Sonex” is integrating 4 biggest suppliers of identify the company itself. Logo by Justin IT infrastructure solutions and services of Northern Europe and is changing its name Hug (France). into “Atea” from January 1st, 2009.
After Lithuania is closing its nuclear power-station in 2009, but is going to build a modern one. LEO LT is going to manage the building process. Design studio “RIC” has created the corporate identity.
The only producer of refrigerators in the Baltic States - “Snaige” which is also activly operating abroad is changing its logo. Logo designed by design studio “Idea Artis”.
“Radiocentras” is the first private and one of the biggest radio stations in Lithuania, established in 1991. Attempting to consolidate its positions and increasing the number of listeners, “Radiocentras” has renovated its logo. The new logo designed by Gintaras Znamerovskis
Lithuania is the only Baltic State which took part in this years’s international exhibition “EXPO Zaragoza 2008” in Spain. The theme of the exhibition: water and harmonious development. The logo of Lithuania was created by SC “Ekspobalta”, an agency of expositions, events and advertising. PORTFOLIO 5
One of the biggest real estate companies in Lithuania is “Zia valda real estate”. It’s expanding the activity abroad and changing its name into “Orem”. The company’s identity was created by “Have a Nice Day if You Had a Bad Day Before” studio. Read more about it in this issue.
The biggest company in Lithuania, operat- “Lietuvos draudimas”, the biggest company ing in all Baltic States and the Great Brit- of non-life insurance has renovated its ain established back in 1977 - “Eismas” is identity according to its mother-company, planning more active development and ex- the biggest insurance group in the world panding its range of services has changed RSA, style. “Lietuvos draudimas” started its name into “Urbico”. The new name within some inner changes and offering its and identity created by “Baltic marketing clients some new solutions, then shifted to changing the brand that was created in the group”. Read more about it in this issue. Great Britain.
The decision of changing the logo of “Ekskomisarų biuras” was encouraged by the company growing, expanding the range of services and the wish to change the image, company positioning in the market and in the customers’ eyes. “Ekskomisarų biuras” is the first and one of the biggest private security companies in Lithuania. The logo created by Dalius Simanavičius (Studio “Logo4You”) 6 PORTFOLIO
“Sport 1”, the first sports TV channel start- “Finasta” is an investment bank. It was esed in summer of 2008 as a product of SC tablished in 2008 and is the only bank of “Sporto komunikacijos” (managed by Ūkio Lithuanian capital, working with investbankas investment group). The channel ment and private banking. The bank idenidentity created by prof. Audrius Klimas. tity created by “Euro RSCG MIA” agency.
Neringa, the most popular resort in Lithuania will present itself with a new logo to Lithuania and the world. The brand is followed by the slogan “Neringa: legend that inspires”. The logo includes the sense of all Neringa’s blazonry. Design by “PR Service”
On the left: Member of Lithuanian Graphic Design Association Marija Mikulskiene with the poster “Stone Soup” won the silver award in the 6th International Competition “NAGOYA DESIGN DO! 2008”. Design theme: The Act of Eating.
TERRA NOVA PORTFOLIO 7
Photos by LDF
WALKING AROUND, LOOKING FROM DIFFERENT ANGLE
By Marius Dirgela
On the opposite page: “Auga” by “Studio LTD”: the winner of the contest “[neformate]”
2008 03 27-30
Below: Bench “Karolina” by Renatas Sukys (“Design team”)
his year the “Baldai” (“Furniture”) exhibition in “Litexpo” looked totally different. New image was created (designer R.Jucaitis) which didn’t look for any connections with the previous continuous conservative communication. This year, the exhibition managers, with some consultations of the “Dizaino forumas” association changed the logo, established elite Design Hall, resurrected the Best Furniture Design contest and kept the Design gallery. Though you can’t step into the same river twice, Litexpo, being a national company, has the possibility to take over cherishing aesthetics and design again, encouraging others to grow the design culture within the participants. Especially when the interest in the furniture industry doesn’t go away, the number of visitors exceeded 30,000 and even 15,000 people bought tickets on Saturday.
test of furniture design [neformate] was held under the “Wood-do” slogan, with some links to “would”, “wood” and “voodoo”. The organizers, especially the irreplaceable curator Nauris Kalinauskas picked top 25 out of 50 participants. They were exposed in the exhibition. Juozas Brundza (“Studija LTD”), who won last year, took the first place once more, along with the honor to represent Lithuania in the international ICFF exhibition in New York in May 2008. His coatrack “Auga” if functional and decorative at the same time, it becomes one’s very own at once. Paulius Savickas’ chandelier (2nd place) didn’t show any new ideas: it played with the light shading through the wooden shell. It’s necessary to find a producer for this winner (just like all the others) that would have a larger market (and
producing capabilities) than ours. Otherwise they’ll be doomed to be showpieces, not things due to extremely high prime cost and the final price. “Pixel” table received the 3rd place as the most national showpiece. It’s made of oak and some dark exotic timber beams cut across. Gintautas Acas (“Luksto stiprumas“ (“Strength of shell“) stand), Vytautas Puzeras (“Korys” (“Comb”) sitting item of furniture) and Julius Bucelis (“Pinocchio” system of sitting items of furniture) were awarded with diplomas. Tadas Radzevicius (“Pixel” table) received a special prize by Rytis Zaveckas – “Dizaineriu duona” (“Designers’ bread”).
Nauris Kalinauskas’ system of office furniture “Office forever”, made of leaf steel was chosen to be the winner of the Best Furniture Design contest with the architect Rolandas Palekas being the chairperson of the jury. The second place was given to “Standard” company from Estonia for the “Sheff” chair (designer Katrin Soans). The third place was taken by the “Plantis” office furniture system, presented by “ErgoLain projektai” (designer Vytautas Puzeras). Finally, the collection of wooden furniture by Rytis Zaveckas was awarded with a diploma for “Creative mastership”. This year it was a bit lack of space in the Design Gallery again. The traditional con PORTFOLIO 9
On the left: General view of the exposition
EXPOSITIO Design students’ exposition was interesting, too. It’s clear that different design schools have different attitudes even in such narrow area as furniture. Teachers of Telsiai Institute of Art prefer a style that connects with the folk traditions: natural wood (usually darkened), struck iron, organic sculptural forms; for them, aesthetics is always more important than functionality. Schools Last year, the eclectic exposition of “Di- of Vilnius and Kaunas are more cosmopolizainas sviesoje” (“Design in daylight”) took tan, the forms are stricter, laconic. a big part of the gallery. This year it was replaced by a more homogenous view: the I think that next year “Baldai” will step “Skandinavijos ikonos” (“Scandinavian over the limit of pure furnishing and reach icons”) exhibition. Some tend to sew the for a competition with BT1 held in Riga to “Scandinavian model” to us, without seeing become the centre of the region. That’s why their famous design examples. There were we need to work internationally and be11 creations by Poul Henningsen, Borge come a regional, not just local event. Lindau, Arne Jacobsen and other famous Northern designers. They let us see and touch the quality and became the main point within the [neformate] and “Dizaino rinktine” exposures. There was one more special event: for the first time the “Dizaino rinktine” (“Design omnibus”) exhibition was exposed. You could find furniture created by such famous designers as R.Sukys, D.Budrys, Z.Stankevicius, J.Jurgaitis, V.Zabulionis, R.Baradinskiene and others. After Litexpo, it was taken to Riga, too.
Above: Table “Pixel” by Tadas Radzevicius, 3rd place at the competition “[neformate]” Above on the right: Coffee table by Andrius Miakinkov & Mykolas Ikamas (“[neformate]”) On the right: Chair “Liepa (July)” by Zilvinas Stankevicius (“Design team”) Luminaire “Dobilas (Clover)” by Paulius Savickas, 2nd place at the contest “[neformate]” 10 PORTFOLIO
EXPOSITIO Above: Chair “Three Kings” by Eugenijus Juozapavicius (“[neformate]”) On the left: Luminaire “N+H” by Grazvydas Bugas (“[neformate]”) On the right: Folding screen “Friky-in light” by Brigita Vasiliauskyte (“[neformate]”) Below: Chair “Pinocchio” by Julius Bucelis, the nominee at the contest “[neformate]”
Project “Shadow Square” of international festival “Lux - Festival of Lights” by Vilnius Art Gallery for Children and Youth. Photo by BFL/A. Ufartas
CULTURE IS LIFE
In a few months, Vilnius will officially take over the title of European Capital of Culture – an exclusive project in the cultural life of Lithuania. Please, tell some words about the final preparatory works. How the project was developed? It may be stated that we had achieved the run-in. All introductory events took place already. At present, we gear up for the inauguration of the events under the national programme “Vilnius – European Capital of Culture 2009” (VECC).
Photo by BFL/T. Urbelionis
The process of preparation was really complicated, because preparation for the project of such a scope took several years, starting from the political decision of Lithuania (in the year 2004) on submitting an application for the status of European Capital of Culture 2009, because this date coincides with 1000-year anniversary of Lithuania’s name. Lithuania was the first among the new EU Member States provided a right to organize this event. Usually, preparation for a project of such a scale that lasts for a year takes about 3-4 years. In Lithuania, the institution engaged in organizing the measures of the Capital of Culture was established only two years before the date of beginning of the event. So, the Organizing Committee made its best to complete all works well-timely within the total period of preparation. The public institution “Vilnius – European Capital of Culture 2009” made every effort for organizing the activities of the team formed of representatives of state institutions that meet each other at the same table in ex-
ceptional cases and for effective use of the funds allotted for the project. The run of the project was aggravated by the circumstance that the state authorities were not quick in providing financial warranties for the foreseen projects. Even today, we are not sure that we'll obtain all funds planned for the event. The other European Capital of Culture – Linz (Austria) does not get into collision with similar problems. In the year 2009, two cities - Vilnius and Linz – will be provided the title of European Capital of Culture. Is any cultural exchange or a cultural bridge between them planned? Vilnius and Linz will be only the second tandem of European Capitals of Culture within the total 25-year period of existence of this project. In the context of the European cultural life, this project is the largest event in the European Union. A link between the future European Capitals of Culture is of more formal character: both cities will be provided the title of European Capital of Culture for a period of one year. In the historical aspect, there were no deep cultural relations between those cities. We agreed with Linz to avoid following the principle of “a constrained marriage” and to develop our co-operation in a natural way – on the base of professional interests, i.e. professionals will find each other according to their interests. Such contacts are being established already. We are aware that cooperation between littérateurs, musicians, modern art and cinema centers as well as children groups will take place. PORTFOLIO 13
In 2009, Lithuania will present a unique mega cultural project. There has never been anything like the “Vilnius - European Capital of Culture 2009” project in our country. We’re talking to the director of “Vilnius - European Capital of Culture 2009” public institution Elona Bajoriniene; she will explain what are the last tasks of preparing for the event, what it’s going to offer us.
CULTURA “Art in Unusual Places” project “Requiem to Metamorphosis” by Jan Fabre. Photo by BFL/K. Vanagas
CULTURA PORTFOLIO 15
What most important and impressive projects are planned in the programme? The criteria of importance are not clear – whether the duration of an event in months or the sphere (visual arts, theatre, music and so on) or the part of the programme (they are six, including special arrangements, conferences and congresses as well as the programmes of European Arts, Culture (Re) Discovery, Living History and People). Among the most impressive events, the opening of the exposition "M.K.Ciurlionis and his contemporaries" at Vilnius National Art Gallery on 19-21 June should be mentioned. The painting works by M.K.Ciurlionis will be brought to the capital for the first time. On formation of the said exposition, we'll co-operate both with the Hermitage and museums of Poland. On the same days, the event “The Night of Culture” will be arranged (we hope it will turn into a traditional event in future European Capitals of Culture); in addition, on the bank of Markuciai ponds the oratorio “The Oak Mystery” by A.Griskevicius, A.Jonynas, G.Sodeika and E.Nekrosius, the greeting of VECC on occasion of 1000-year anniversary of Lithuania’s name, will be presented. The culmination will take place in the Old City of Vilnius where the impressive chorus of 300 singers from all parts of the world will present "Requiem" by G. Verdi. How many tourists do you expect to attract? After the analysis of the results of the activities of earlier European Capitals of Culture, we set the goal to attract 15% more tourists than usual. Of course, the results will depend on the season and the location, because traditionally Vilnius and Klaipeda (with Curonian Isthmus) attract a majority of tourists. Unfortunately, our forecasts are aggravated by the global economical crisis. Will this cultural project be continued after the year 2009? A considerable part of the funds is invested in projects that would be continued; however, they will not be financed from the budget of the Capital of Culture. The examples of such projects include the National Gallery, the Complex of Art Printing-house and the Design Innovations’ Center. We would like some projects, such as "Lux" , "Art in Nontraditional Spaces”, “The Night of Culture”, “The Day of Street Music”, “The Changing Capital of Lithuanian Culture”, to be con16 PORTFOLIO
On the left: Spectacular procession “Night Enters the City” by “Geru minciu magija”, Violeta Grigoraitiene. Photo by BFL/K.Vanagas On the right: “Eraritjaritjaka” – “Museé des phrases” by composer and director Heiner Goebbels. The production features famous French actor André Wilms and well-known Modriaan string quartet from Amsterdam. Photo by BFL/A.Ufartas
tinued and financed; however, it will depend on the will of politicians. It would grieve us to lose the three-year experience.... What results do you expect from VECC? What trace would it remain in the life of Vilnius and Lithuania? The results of Capitals of Culture are assessed in various aspects. The most visible is the new infrastructure. In our case, a considerable impact on the cultural life will be caused not only by newly constructed buildings but also by the systematic renovation of the whole important cultural infrastructure (for the first time in the period of Independence). Since the end of the Soviet period, it was practically provided no investments. Now the State Youth Theatre, the State Academic Drama Theatre, the State Opera and Ballet Theatre, the annexes of the Philharmonic and the Modern Art Center as well as public spaces, such as Vingis and Sereikiskes Parks, will be renovated within several years (some of them are renovated already).
Below: Passengers Lobby at Vilnius Railway Station. Project “Window to Light” of international festival “LUX – Festival of Lights” by Prof. Paolo Di Trapani. Photo by BFL/A.Ufartas
In all respects, this project is exclusive and such a project may be implemented only once in the life. The important challenge is making all state institutions involved to believe in the formed vision of the project. Distrust in ideas sometimes is caused by inertia and sometimes by the own interests. Various agencies choose different speeds of their activities; in addition, they follow different strategies and schedules, so making them to pursue the joint object is the most important challenge. How this project will affect other Lithuanian towns? I think our most important contribution in this respect will be the precedent to arrange changing of the Capital of Culture
within Lithuania under the project. The first of them was Zarasai. Other towns are able to disclose their potentials as well: they should form their visions, try to make them credible and implement them. In Europe, it was observed for a long time that if the "centre" becomes creative (first of all, in the sector of culture), the creativity turns into a value in other sector, such as economy or scientific research, as well. Creativity becomes "contagious". ”Live culture”, the conception of our event, is an attempt to show the essence – to single out creativity, as a value, and to show that it, as if circles on the surface of water, can spread in all directions, including the sphere of economy.
Less visible will be other investments that are of no less importance, such as investments in changes of habits of people and in social relations. I think the project of European Capital of Culture will assist us in our further integration in culture of West Europe and in formation of democratic and open society. What most important challenges were met in organizing the event of such a scale? Please, tell some words about the specificity of the project? PORTFOLIO 17
On the left: “Art in Unusual Places” project “Cube” by Lina Miklaseviciute. Photo by BFL/K.Vanagas “Art in Unusual Places” project “For My Prince” by Sigita Maslauskaite. Photo by BFL/A.Ufartas
Below: Vilnius residents and visitors celebrated “Let There be Night!”. Photo by BFL/S.Mazeika
Will there be any design-related events? The most important event would be an appearance of the Design Innovations’ Center, the new structure under Vilnius Art Academy that will be involved in organizing various design-related events, creative workshops, lectures and conferences. Among individual projects, I’d like to mention the project “Design for Everybody” organized by Lithuanian Design Forum; the Fashion Design Association plans to arrange international "Fashion Weekends” when Gedimino Avenue will turn into the largest European fashion podium. Beyond any doubt, you’ve analyzed the experience of other European Capitals of Culture; what lessons it provided? The format of the event is approximately similar everywhere – the project lasts for one year. It is a project of one town about the town. So, the cultural events should be concentrated only in the city provided with the title of European Capital of Culture. In fact, each project of such a kind, should find the own way in course of looking for methods of demonstrating its cultural vision, i.e. to analyze the own context, to formulate the own objects and to assess the own situation. Each city provided with the title of European Capital of Culture pursues different objects, as compared to other such cities; for example, industrial Linz strives to become associated with the word “culture” in the context of Austria; the similar objects are set by industrial Liverpool (we visited it for improving our skills in the sphere of 18 PORTFOLIO
event administering); Vilnius strives for increasing a notoriety of the city on the international scale. Culture is one of the spheres where Lithuania is sufficiently competitive worldwidely; do you assent to the idea that formation of the image of Lithuania would be purposeful on the base of cultural arguments? In any case, the cultural heritage is the forte of small and little known states. I’d look for more specific properties in this cultural tissue: for example, the stereotype bound with Austria is Vienna waltz. The cultural stereotype fit for Lithuania could be a sonorousness of the nation; however, this niche is already occupied by Latvia. In the broad sense, the unique character of Europe is its diversity. There is particularly high concentration of different and original
CULTURA cultures within relatively small territory. In this context, I’d envisage the cultural integrity of our nation. In Lithuania, the Baltic spirit is predominating, so, probably, we should look here for our exclusivity: for example, among European nations, Lithuanians were confessants of heathenism for a longest period.
Above: Tero Saarinen, one of the most famous dance choreographers in Europe, presents a highly complex and impressive new dance performance, “Next of Kin”. Photo by Tanja Ahola On the right: Project “Art Cells” by Vilnius Academy of Arts. Photo by BFL/K.Vanagas PORTFOLIO 19
CASA DE LA LLUVIA (RAINHOUSE) Photo by BFL/S. Mazeika
By Ricardas Stankus
Lithuania was the only country of the Baltic States to participate in this year’s international exhibition in Spain “Expo Zaragoza 2008”.
he central subject of the world exhibition “EXPO Zaragoza 2008“ includes water and harmonious development. Because using water resources upon maintaining the ecological balance is recently one of the most important concerns of the humankind, this problem requires the maximum attention of the international community. All states should contribute to developing and applying new strategies of rational using the water resources. Encouraging this process was one of the most important purposes of the fourty-fifth world exhibition.
Photo by BFL/S. Mazeika
Lithuania also is the only country named after rain, so it’s natural that the Lithuanian pavilion was called “The Rain House”. “VRP/Hill & Knowlton” (PR agency) made the creative concept of Lithuania’s participation in the exhibition, “Expobalta” made the architectural-graphic conception.
the way, the expected number of visitors was higher - about 7-8 million.
only among states that are members of this organization (in the meanwhile, Lithuanian is not presented in the list of 154 states that are entitled to make decisions on the place and the subjects of world exhibition, on the current "Expo" policy and so on). Among large states of the world that had the largest pavilions as well, Germany was singled out as the state that most successfully reflected the subject of the exhibition; in respect of design, the pavilion of Japan was recognized the best.
According to Romas Jankauskas, the General Commissar of Lithuanian exposition, the Director of Public Information and Public Relations Department of the Ministry of Environment, the number of visitors of the pavilion of our country “The Rain House” (the author and implementer of the projects - Saulius Valius, UAB "Ekspobalta") amounted to 820 thousand, i.e. considerably exceeded the expected number; our pavilion was one of the most popular By the way, the cost of the pavilion of According to the organizers of “EXPO among visitors. Poland (the state included in the same cateZaragoza 2008“, this exhibition should turn gory with Lithuania) that was awarded with into the site for large-scale worldwide dis- Prizes of the International Bureau of Ex- the third prize amounted to eight million cussion on using water resources, meetings positions for the best reflection of the sub- euro (four times more than the pavilion of and debates of states, international orga- ject and the best design were distributed Lithuania). nizations, users, water operators and managers. Its purpose is extension of the gen The relay-race for organizing a similar eral understanding of the possibilities and international "Expo" exhibition was transproblems of using water resources of the ferred to Jaosu, South Korea (the subject Earth. In the exhibition, the best experience of the exhibition will be preservation of in water using and worldwide innovations oceans); however, the nearest world exhibiwill be presented. tion "Expo" will be organized after one year and half in Shanghai. The principal theme In the twenty-five hectare territory on of the future exhibition in China: “Better the bank of the Ebro River in Zaragoza, City, Better Life”. about 150 pavilions were constructed for 105 states of the world, 3 international orgaWhat does Lithuania distinguish for? nizations, 19 autonomous regions of Spain, Lithuania is one of few states of the and some over ten informal participants world where population of towns drinks (companies) as well as impressive thematic water from underground sources only; in pavilions. addition, there are abundant pure lakes and rivers. Within three months, some over five million and half visitors from Spain and all In the name of Lithuania, the word “lieparts of the world visited the exhibition; by tus“ (”rain”) is encoded. Living in Lithuania, PORTFOLIO 21
being a Lithuanian means to communicate with rain, to perceive its nature and to know its meaning. Rain finishes and starts. Rain washes away and grows. Rain rotates the wheel of the water cycle. Down the ages, the repeating constant of the landscape and climate affects the rhythm of the life of the nature and humans in a subtle way. We are shaken down with rain. Our country is the only country of the world named in honour of rain. In Lithuania, rain discloses its creative character in the best way: here it lives, vitalizes, raises and refreshes. It is the source of the conceptual idea of “The Rain House” – Casa de la lluvia that turned into the official name of the Lithuanian exposition at exhibition “Expo Zaragoza 2008“. Rain lives in Lithuania. Lithuania is the land of unique wild nature. Rain grows. Lithuania is rapidly moving forward, its economy, towns, opportunities of the population grow. Rain inspires. Lithuania is impressive and astonishing. The country has a rich cultural heritage and active modern cultural life takes place here. Vilnius – European Capital of Culture 2009. Rain refreshes. Lithuania is the land of new refreshing impressions. It is a green point in the Baltic region. The art born from water streams Rain is associated with autumn and blue colour that is typical colour of eyes of Lithuanian girls. Water also means transparency, harmony, immaculacy and everything natural. For this reason, Lithuania chose rain as the key accent of its exposition. The key part of the pavilion is a large cuboid house (the total space of the pavilion is 578 sq m.) with the walls replaced by rain. The friendly rain deity of the house accesses only well-wishing visitors. The central object of the pavilion is the unique water installation "The Alive Rain" – interactive "smart" water that invites to communicate and to get to know Lithuania. It consists of three decreasing rectangles with the planes of their walls formed by falling water – the rain. Jets in the rain walls respond to motions of a human and open the door; the visitor enters the door and then non-moistened travels to the smallest rain premise that forms the most intimate atmosphere.
"It is a friendly rain. If a person with good intensions comes, he (she) will successfully pass the rain wall,” Saulius Valius, the author of the architectural idea of the pavilion, says. “The hidden cameras will show a person entering this zone on the screen and then project the image onto the internal monitor. So, each person having entered the Rain House will disclose him(her)self.” Inside the House, the visitors feel themselves to be surrounded by rain where wonderful images of Lithuania are reflected. The visitors look at the photos with their heads raised upward, thus the illusion of looking to images being nearby is formed. In the Rain House, one can find seven wells that invite to look inside. Each well
provides different information on Lithuania, such as history, economy, or culture. Nearby, a pond with hot and cold water streams where images can be formed by mixing them is situated. The pictures drawn by the visitors are projected onto the opposite wall and their copies can be issued to the authors. On the development of the pavilion’s conception, the key criteria included clearness, comprehensibility, humanity and exclusivity as well as creative disclosing of the subject of the exhibition “Water and Harmonious Life”. It was strived to disclose the national identity of the country to visitors from Spain and other states as clear as possible, to form a positive image of Lithuania, Above: Pavilion of Lithuania Photo by BFL/S.Mazeika On the left: Mecys Laurinkus, Ambassador of Lithuania to Spain at the pavilion of Lithuania Photo by BFL/S.Mazeika
CULTURA Above: Event during the National Day of Lithuania: performance of violonists’ trio “Electric Ladies”. Photo by BFL/S.Mazeika On the right: Event during the National Day of Lithuania: performance of jazz band “A.Labutis Trio”. Photo by BFL/S.Mazeika Event during the National Day of Lithuania: performance of opera singer Asmik Grigorian. Photo by BFL/S.Mazeika
CULTURA > Lithuania and water > Since ancient times, Lithuanians consid ered water to be saint and idolized it, be cause they believed souls, spirits or dei ties living in it. They believed the magic power of rivers and springs. > > There are almost 30 000 rivers and rivu- lets in Lithuania (their total length is > 64 000 km). Only 13 of them are longer > than 100 km. > There are about 6000 lakes in Lithu- ania, including almost 3000 lakes of the area exceeding 0.5 ha each. The total > area of Lithuanian lakes is 880 km². Lakes form about 1.4% of the territory of Lithuania. In addition, there are 340 artificial ponds of the area exceeding 5 ha each. There are up to > 3150 small lakes (of the area 0.05–0.50 ha each); their total area is only 530 ha. > > On the average, each square metre of the territory of the country includes one kilometre of a watercourse of a river or > a rivulet. > The longest national river is the Nemu- nas; its total length is 927 km (including > 475 km in the territory of Lithuania) > > The length of the key water ways, including the Nemunas River, the Kaunas Reservoir and the Curonian Lagoon, is over 600 km. > The largest Lithuanian lake is the Druksiai Lake (43.5 km2), the longest to disseminate information that is topical both for ordinary visitors of the exhibition and for professionals in environmental protection and water resources.
lake is the Asveja (or the Dubingiai) Lake (almost 22 km long), the deepest lake is the Tauragnas Lake (62.5 m deep) Lithuania is one of few European states where pure underground water is used for public water supply (for drinking and other purposes). The content of chemi cals and pathogenic bacteria in this water found in the depth from 300 to 400 m is very low. Today, about 11 000 bores over the coun try extract water from about 20 aquifers On the average, a resident of Lithuania uses about 6500 m3 of water a year. In the 18th century, healing properties of mineral waters were disclosed and development of Birstonas, Druskininkai, Likenai and Palanga resorts began. In the country, about 18 sorts of min eral water are extracted; it is used as drinking-water as well as for healing purposes. 11 names of local natural mineral waters are bottled by 7 national enterprises. Hydroelectric power plants gener ate from 2 to 3% of the total energy produced in the country. The average annual precipitation in the territory of Lithuania is about 750 mm; the humidity – 78% In the country, a year includes 178 rainy days. 90 km of the Baltic Sea coast belong to Lithuania.
CULTURA Above: Lithuanian lakes. Photo by K.Driskius On the left: Spanish girl with the Lithuanian National Flag. Photo by BFL/S.Mazeika On the opposite page: Above: Pavilion of Lithuania. Photo by BFL/S.Mazeika Visitors enjoy the rain at the pavilion of Lithuania. Photo by A.Bakas On the right: Inside the pavilion. Photo by BFL/S.Mazeika
X-PANSION By David Barringer
David Barringer is the author of the works of design criticism American Mutt Barks in the Yard, co-published in 2005 by Emigre and Princeton Architectural Press, and There’s Nothing Funny about Design, forthcoming from Princeton Architectural Press in spring 2009. He is the winner of the 2008 Winterhouse Award for Design Writing & Criticism.
More and more Lithuanian companies choose the letter “X” in their names (“NDX energija”, “Maxima”, “X-teen”, “D.I.X.I.”, “Auto X”, “X sportas”, “X servisas”, “Studija X”, “X club shop”, etc., also many Lithuanian music bands). “X” doesn’t belong to the Lithuanian alphabet. How can we explain this phenomenon? It’s the same in all the world, not only in English-speaking countries. Let’s dig deeper into the roots of the popularity of “X”.
Above: “X-Wing” (S-72) a helicopter by Sikorsky. Below: Jaguar XK model. On the right: Malcolm X, an American human rights activist.
blurs the line between letter and thing, between symbol and act. So often used as an unknown quantity, a placeholder, it also functions as the signature of an illiterate, a result of slashing at the surface. To x is to mark, and X is the mark. It is the quintessential mark. As a letter, X reigns in pop culture: as identifier (Generation X, X Games), as shorthand (“thx” or “tx” for “thanks” in text-messaging), and as the whole word (“X” for the drug ecstasy or MDMA). But in the abecedarian world of lexicography, the measure of a letter’s prestige is the number of dictionary pages devoted to a letter’s words. Word count is market share. Dictionary is demographic. Lexi is sexy. And in the dictionary, the X pages are lean, indeed. The 24th letter of the modern Latin alphabet is more flexible than its lex-lack suggests. As a noun, X represents the unknown, whether person, place or thing. It is also a verb—to x is to mark with an X or delete, cancel or blot. (In the image at right, an X signature marks an 1801 Land Deed. A clerk or lawyer adds the first name in front of the X, the surname after, a “his” or “her” above, and the word “mark” below. X is a legitimate signature when a person is ill, blind, incapacitated or illiterate.) X is also an adjective, familiar to drinkers of XXX liquor (moonshine), wearers of XXXL clothing (“XL” for “extra-large”) and purveyors of X-rated materials (the X rating has been officially replaced by NC-17, although adult films still use the X designation). PORTFOLIO 27
Below: “XBox 360” a VGC by “Microsoft”; “Tonix” an energy soda by “The Pluto Beverage”. On the right: “Mac OS X” by “Apple”; “The X files” a TV series by “20th Century Fox Television”.
As symbol, X is a strike in bowling and baseball, a defensive player in a football diagram, a kiss at the end of a letter or text message. On maps, X indicates infantry or mountaintop. X multiplies (2x2=4), relates dimension (2x4), and signifies the unknown algebraic quantity (2x-4x). X prescribes medicine (Rx), reacts chemically (rx), raises a musical note to a double sharp and refers to pins and lamps in circuit diagrams.
cried, “Only Y and Z to go!” I happened to be flipping from U to Z when the injustice made itself known. X may mark the spot, but its pages are easy to miss. The X pages are lonely stragglers, arriving only after the happening party of W is over, and they are easily overwhelmed and ignored in the rush toward Y. Flimsy and insubstantial, the X pages are an embarrassment to the eye, a disappointment to the fingers.
As a creative mark, X checks the box, the ballot, the tic-tac-toe square, and the goods on a treasure map. X also closes the Window.
Yet, we would barely know which way to turn without the X-axis. We simply can’t break from X-ray. And none of us would be here without the X chromosome. The other letters may sneer with contemptuous xenophobia at poor little X, but where would those other letters be, typographically, without the x-height? As designers, we are naturally xenophilic (a word not listed in my dictionary’s X pages).
Still, an impatient lexicographer x-ed out way too many X words in his sudden hurry to complete his duty. He got to X and
So does this deficit cry out for remedy? If it does, we’ve more than made up for it in the world beyond the dictionary, the real world of slang and commerce, lingo and branding, movies and nicknames and books and, just, stuff. In the world of books, X is anonymous and dangerous but also transformative, transcendent. Mr. X might take a break from Project X to attend Symphony X with Nathalie X sometime around Twilight X. After graduating from Academy X on Earth X, Soldier X might be stationed at Camp X and soon deployed to Planet X to battle the Virus X from Dimension X (exhausted 28 PORTFOLIO
yet?). On X Day, Little X might play The Game of X with the X President. If there’s A Warrant for X, the X Bar X Boys are probably Looking for X, which will surely end in The Tragedy of X. In the well-paneled rooms of comic books, X functions mainly as the mysterious name of a character (X in Dark Horse Comics, X and Professor X in Marvel Comics) or a team of characters (Marvel’s X-Men, X-Force and X-Statix). But X is also a place (Planet X), a weapon (Weapon X), and the title of a manga series. In movies and television, X suggests secrecy, bravado and science gone wrong. Mr. X was a character on The X-Files as well as in the film JFK. Dr. X, or Dr. James Xavier, was a character in the 1963 sci-fi horror flick, X: The Man with the X-Ray Eyes. In
To name oneself with an X or an ex- is to self-annihilate. It can be destruction for the purpose of creation. A phoenix rises out of the X’s. A person reborn as an identity without limitation, without restrictions, without moral code. That’s the transformation imagined by creators of comic-book and movie heroes.
1998’s American History X, Edward Norton’s character attempts to erase his neoNazi past and start over. Ice Cube starts over by playing Triple X in the sequel to xXx, in which Vin Diesel played the original Xander Cage. Predating the boys is Agent Triple X, Barbara Bach’s character in the 1977 James Bond film, The Spy Who Loved Me. As for the spies who worked for a living, MI5 used the XX System (or Double-Cross System) in WWII counterespionage overseen by the Twenty Committee, which gave the system its name (20 in Roman numerals is XX). Triple X Syndrome is a real chromosomal abnormality in which women have three X chromosomes (one consistent effect is the women are very tall). Syndrome X is a “syndrome” because it puts “60 million Americans at risk for heart attacks,” and it’s
an “X” because it’s a “hidden” condition, so says the eponymous book’s jacket copy. X is a blank placeholder, but it is the blank placeholder. No other letter quite marks the spot like X. A cross. A double slash. A burning brand. It’s the way it looks, the innumerable ways it can be replicated, but also the way it sounds in the mouth. Eks. Its sound is that of swords crossing, a fillet hitting the fry-pan, a curse. A hex. It also sounds like a coughing up, like a hair is caught in the back of your throat. Eks. Eks! You’re trying to get rid of something you don’t want. Cough it up. X it out. Ah, yes, the ex, as in ex-wife, ex-husband, ex-girlfriend, ex-boyfriend. My ex. Your ex. How’s your ex? Gone, my friend, long gone. X-ed out. The shorthand nickname is a way of blotting out the person, the past, the thing. But the saying of it keeps the bitterness alive. The ex symbolizes what the nickname seeks to redact. Saying the past is past somehow keeps the past alive. It’s akin to the censorious XXXXX’s calling more attention to the words beneath. The ex is paradoxical.
In real life, Malcolm X sought to reclaim his identity by reclaiming his name. Then there’s “mystery” woman who modeled for John Singer Sargent’s Madame X, a painting that scandalized Paris in 1884; she turned out to be Virginia Avegno Gautreau of Louisiana, a woman who sought to reinvent herself in France. As Roman numeral, X identifies you as one in a series, a holder of the tens place. Pope Gregory X (1271–1276), for example, made his name by writing a letter famously opposing the blood libel: the claim that Jews killed and ate Christian children (“[W]e order that Jews seized under such a silly pretext be freed from imprisonment”). And then there’s Jesus. In January 2007, the New York Sun reported that Saudi Arabia may ban the letter X because “it resembles the mother of all banned religious symbols in the oil king-
And saying it also sounds like the end. The end of something. Something that was but is no longer. A nothing. A nihilistic letter. Comic artists used to use X’s over a character’s eyes to show death. In Latin, ex means “out of,” which might be why the word existence sounds like its opposite: exexistence. Ex-ist. I used to be. Now I’m an ex-me. I’ve gotten over myself, forever. PORTFOLIO 29
Below: “X-acto” knives by Elmer’s Products; “X-men”, a comic-strip by “Marvel”. On the left: “xXx”, a movie by “Revolution Studios”.
In aerospace, X stands for “experimental,” and the culture loves to appropriate the experimental. From NASA’s X-33 Program and the X-15 aircraft, you get the XWing fighter from Star Wars and the 2006 X-Plane postage stamp, featuring an image of the X-15.
dom: the cross.” The X is not a reference to the cross. It does, however, stand for Christ in words like “Xmas,” but only because the first letter in the Greek spelling of Christ is X (Χριστος). X can also stand for a group or ethic. The punk-originated straight edge movement is signified by a variety of X logos: X, XXX, xXx, sXe and 24 (X, the 24th letter). Minor Threat’s 1981 song “Straight Edge” condemned drugs and alcohol, giving singer Ian MacKaye an “edge.” An X on the back of the hand derives from a 1980 story that a club owner branded the underage Idles with black X’s on their hands. Coincidentally, and as more proof that X can be its own opposite, X’s were tradition-
ally used to indicate the strength of an ale. Dos Equis (“Two X’s”) is a brand of Mexican beer, and XXXX, or Four X, is a brand of beer made by Queensland brewers. Whether alcohol is involved or not, X has often been the easy answer to the hard question of naming bands, songs and albums. X is the name of albums by Klaus Schulze, INXS, The Beloved, K-Ci and JoJo, Queens of the Stone Age, Def Leppard, Anna Vissi, and Liberty X. X is also a Los Angeles punk band, not to be confused with The Ex, an anarchist punk band from the Netherlands, or X-Alfonso, a Cuban musician. XXX may have been a 1999 album by ZZ Top, but XXX Records is an underground dance label in Vienna. The creation myth of the band Brand X is that a music critic scribbled “Brand X” in the studio diary. That joke on pop culture has given us Brand X Martial Arts, Brand X Internet, Brand X Music Catalog, and Brand (x), a U.K. ad firm that claims, without irony, to be “(x)ceptional” and to possess “(x) pertise.”
Above: “XXXX” (pronounced four-X), a beer by “Castlemaine Perkins”, Australia; “X-Wing Fighter” from “Star Wars”, a postage stamp by USPS . On the right: “Syndrome X”, a book by G.Reaven, T.K.Storm & B.Fox.
In naming, X brings with it echoes of science and technology. It’s cool the way a machine is cool, impersonally sequential, simple as a number and yet its meaning is beyond the ken of the average Joe. X is like a password into a secret language, one that may endow the speaker with a false sense of insider expertise by way of a mere facility with the jargon. You don’t have to know what it means as long as you say it with confidence.
The resonance of X as a signifier of mysterious precision explains why it’s so common in commerce and branding. The Jaguar X-Type. The 2008 Mitsubishi Evolution X. The X2000, Sweden’s high-speed train. The X-Acto knife. Mac OS X. The X game for Nintendo’s Game Boy. Microsoft’s Xbox console. VitaminWater XXX (with three antioxidants). The X is a California rollercoaster (the seats swivel around). Product X is a protein powder for bodybuilders. The X-Vest adds weight for exercise. Very few drug names start with X (Xanax, Xenical), maybe because that’s too scary, but dozens of others incorporate X into the name (from Aciphex to Lovenox to Zyprexa). Check out your local Yellow Pages for companies like X-treme Car Care, Xpress Motorsports, and Xtreme Tans, and compare these mini-mall youth-culture examples with the luxe Boomer retail lure of Paloma Picasso’s X pendant and other X jewelry for Tiffany’s. X can be childlike, maybe recalling simple gestures with a crayon. These gestures are now remembered fondly, with nostalgia, performing the simple miracle of changing X from a No to a Yes.
RIDDLE CALLED LITHUANIA By Robertas Jucaitis
Finally, Lithuania has its own trademark: a brand new logo, based on the concept “The Country of Courage”. We’re talking to the key people of the recently ended contest.
PART I THE GODFATHER Interview with Paulius Senuta, director of the advertising agency “Not Perfect”, one of the creators of Lithuania’s image strategy. Are you satisfied with the results of the Contest? Yes, in fact I am satisfied. The shape of the won logotype is audacious, modern and interesting; in addition, it conforms to the task. However, on the other hand, it might be some more effective in the visual aspect. Probably, the authors of the logotype belong to the few of the authors who understood the task and provided the strictest response. The creative task emphasized that the nature of the logotype should be audacious; however, only few designers took a conceptual view of this requirement. Were you afraid starting such a task: creation of a symbol of the national reputation is a sufficiently specific project? When you start such a project, you know that you’ll be damned in any case. Irrespectively of its results. I know this situation took place in other countries as well. It is not a secret that many persons refused participation in the project on the phase when I was forming the group. I am not inclined to give a prominence to myself; however, I thought: "If you refuse, who will do this?” Why, in your opinion, the Chancellery of the Government decided to rely on the local forces instead of choosing the usual way in such a situation, i.e. engaging a well-known international logotype-designing company? Probably, such step was predetermined by the amount of the budget? No, I do not think so; however, in spite of absence of any restrictions of our budget, the rates of the remuneration for our work were symbolic. However, in respect of orientation towards the local forces, I’d like to say the following: when you seriously go deep into the matter, you find that the most famous names in this sphere (in spite of respecting their professional mastership) attract (and even press) developing countries more by their authority than by original ideas. On making an acquaintance with their projects, you can see that their ideas 32 PORTFOLIO
Mission of renewal of the Goro province in Afghanistan, lead by Lithuania. This mission is a part of the international security support operation in Afghanistan, lead by NATO. Photo by BFL/Saulius Paukstys
On the opposite page: “Lithuania: A Success Story” a representational book about Lithuania . Concept by “VRP/Hill & Knowlton”, design by design studio “Fonografika”. On the left: Paulius Senuta, director of the advertising agency “Not Perfect”. Photo by Julia Goyd.
Valdas Adamkus, The President of the Republic of Lithuania at the press conference. Photo by BFL/ Sarunas Mazeika
repeat and are very much alike. I’d dare to say that: a) their creativity and innovativity are limited; b) they usually smatter a problem. It is understandable that a development of a serious project is impossible, if you come to a country for two weeks only. The British say: "Ignorance is bless". Yes, ignorance includes a certain share of the truth. However, how to get to know the share admissible for you? Does a danger of our inability of objectivization of the own sensations because of lacing with stereotypes arise? I do not think so. Foreign consultants are laced with stereotypes as well. After consideration of the logic of their thinking (I analyzed projects from abundant countries), I can state that their projects present
an absolute embodiment of stereotypes, such as modern – traditional, the Orient – the West and so on. And then it is tried to cover this skeleton with the so called “creative stress”. In fact, the way of the minimal resistance is chosen by offering the minimum creative expression. I am not aware of the extent of the benefit of such ideas to the customer. So, I do not think that involving foreign consultants would be the most optimum settlement of the problem for the country. Let’s look at our situation. Before developing such a project, an analysis of similar works in Lithuania and abroad (who, where and how made them) should be carried out. Some situational analyses were carried out in Lithuania already; however, the authors
of those projects were afraid of making a further step because they were aware of “a rap over the knuckles” they would get, if they offer anything concrete. It was the most important problem for them. Because of this, there were no strategic offers. If no offers are provided, there is no criticism as well. It is a convenient attitude. Development of such a project requires few courage, wisdom and marketing logics. Of course, few of creativity as well. I agree that an experience in implementing similar projects provides advantages. In the initial phase of the project, I made abundant discoveries while reading all available books in this sphere. However, much more important plus is your capability to offer absolutely new and fresh ideas. At one conThe participants of the “LT United” project: (from left) Marijonas Mikutavicius, Victor “Wee” Diawara, Andrius Mamontovas and Saulius Urbonavicius-Samas. Photo by BFL/ Andrius Ufartas
ference, Darius Maikstenas (the Director of "Omnitel" for strategical communications) to the question "Are we able to make that ourselves?" answered: "Yes, we are. However, we cannot believe that we ourselves made that well"... In the course of the work, we decided to limit ourselves with the already made analyses; however, we were forced to carry out a new one and finally we took the step that was not taken by others – we developed 28 strategic ideas. The chosen idea ("The Country of Courage") is unique in the market. At present, the other process takes place: the brand’s book (don’t confound with a logo book) is being formed. Brand book is a description of the philosophic substantiation. What does it distinguish for? I’d like to single out two different notions. The first is a graphical-visual expression and the second is a philosophic expression of what you are doing and how do you conduct (I mean both a company and a country). I refer the first one to as a "logo book" and it is being made by the company "Protingi sprendimai" (the winner of the contest of graphical sign and slogan); the second book – I refer it to as a "brand book" – is being made by our group. The latter depurates and details everything that shall be shown, a courage is emphasized and it is explained how the courage will serve for tourism, investments and export. Had the functionaries doubts about “insufficiency” of your competence, in spite of your notoriety in the business world, for developing the national logotype? If we speak about commercial trademarks, most probably, nobody in Lithuania has a larger experience as compared to me. I worked much with commercial enterprises seeking to form their philosophy. For me, a trademark is equivalent to business philosophy. In Lithuania, only I (plus, possibly, some persons) helped to the board of a company with thousands employees to formulate and depurate the attitude towards philosophy of their business. Few professionals have such an experience. In this project, I envisage an analogous situation. The question "What is the country?" is, first of all, the matter of the national identity: the nation itself should perceive and decide what it is and what it would like to be. Later, this identity shapes up into specific forms of expression, such as a logotype and so 34 PORTFOLIO
on. However, in my opinion, a logotype is only one of elements (although very important) – as if a signature that allows judging whether your hair is tangled or done. Such is the role of a logotype according to my understanding; however, its developing requires perceiving what we wish and can be. In my opinion, the project materialized into considerably stronger matters than a development of a logotype only. It already implemented a number of more important functions, such as an initiative related to an opportunity of construction of Guggenheim-Hermitage Museum and producing a historical film about Lithuania. It already turns into a certain conception that informs what and how should be done. If we go deep into contents of books by Simon Anholt or Wally Olins, we can see that they offer a
similar way: first of all, a certain intellectual territory that originates new means of expression is defined. Did you adopt the experience of "Not Perfect" of the mother network (“Landor”, one of the worldwidely known authorities in branding belongs to “Young & Rubicam”) in this sphere? Methodology is not magic. Rather it is the conclusion of wisdom. Beyond any doubts, we took an interest in the accumulated experience; however, I cannot state that it markedly impacted the final result. Because the customer requested fiddling about everything according to a certain system, we applied the system of Simon Anholt. However, I do not consider it exclusive.
The legendary fans of Lithuanian basketball. Photo by BFL/ Saulius Ziura On the right: Arvydas Macijauskas, one of the leaders of Lithuanian National team. Photo by BFL/ Saulius Ziura
In fact, two factors are important in national branding philosophy; they include a confidence of the population and motivation with complexity, because it is rather complicated set of images. They are united with the joint attitude towards marketing that turned into something unclear today. Stagnation of marketing? No; however, it lost the conception of single idea that formerly was dominating and now is out of use, because it lost its sense in the today life. Probably, this discipline even should not be named marketing. In this context, the ideas on persons that can ensure effectiveness of marketing expressed by Adam Morgan (in my opinion, he is one of the wisest persons in marketing) in his book "The Pirate Inside" are interesting and topical. On return to trademarks, I’d like to say that I consider them as a definition of the way of business development and everything to be under the spotlight, i.e. how we’ll develop Lithuania and what will be under the spotlight. What period is covered by the plan of actions provided in the project? I was involved only in developing the milestones of the plan for 5 years. I think it would be interesting to get an acquaintance with the guide of the conception “Lithuania – a Country of Courage” that identifies the milestones in the spheres of tourism, investments and export. It’s existence will depend considerably on changes of the geopolitical environment; however, I think, it
will exist for five years. How you succeeded to come to understanding with the customer? I am glad to know about existence of such enthusiasts in the Government. The background was positive, some results appeared already and the project progresses. In the beginning of the work, we felt that the customer expected a perfect result out of any criticism. However, I think perfect things to be amorphous. By the way, the Chancellery of the Government recently took one more large step forwards – established a portal for the window of Lithuania to the world. Implementing of this project is a great merit of Laurynas Bucalis, the vigorous leader of the Communication Department under the Chancellery of the Government. A person lacking certain personal features should not be capable to implement such a project.
On the left: Sarunas Jasikevicius, a key player of Lithuanian National Basketball Team during a solemn meeting of the National team. Photo by BFL/ Sarunas Mazeika
Were you criticized much? One of my criteria for inspecting a viability of an idea in its conceptual form is an assessment of a possibility to criticize it. If an idea is out of criticism, it is likely a phrasemongering that lacks of creative potency and cannot be materialized. Somebody considers this being a convenient way for avoiding criticism. However, this way is not acceptable for me. I think the key criterion of success is believing in your work. Is the fact that we are the last EU Member State in country branding positive or negative? Only several European states, i.e. Denmark, Estonia, Poland and Lithuania, developed a profound and consistent national branding project (not only developed a national logotype). Two directions should be singled out: "Country branding" (or a development of the national identity) and "Destination branding" (branding of the subject of travels, or development of tourism-oriented identity). Country branding strives to represent the country in a well-rounded and complex way, it tries to answer the questions "What is the country?, "What is the people?". For example, how we image Germans? We image them to be pedant, precize and some tedious... ...However, is such thinking based on stereotypes? And what is branding? It is working with stereotypes – forming or altering one or another stereotype. Generally, the word “branding” frequently is a subject of speculations: for many persons, it is "carte PORTFOLIO 35
success to the company...British marketing expert John Grant asserts that innovations are the impellent, not the image.
Is the creative potential of our country able to develop adequate and innovative ideas that reflect the conception of “The Country of Courage”? I hope, yes. I think that the conception of “Country of Courage” can be a source of inspiration. Is there a risk of suspension or termination of this process of identity formation in case of change of political forces? Of course, we are not protected against such a situation; however, in the course of the work, I have not met politicians indifferent to the project, so I think that this train will not stop. blanche" that allows ignoring any logic and talking rubbish. For example, the advertising company "Leo Burnett" prohibited any discussions in the marketing-advertising slang inside the company in its new philosophy "HumanKind" that appeared several months ago. No “brands”, no values or "mission statement"! Is there any antagonism in the formulation of the task seeking to develop a universal graphical symbol fit both for business and tourism? For me, a graphical brand is no more than a symbol. On examining the results of branding projects of other countries, we’d get to know that the most frequent question is "How?", not "What?". Because the spheres of business and tourism are very different, we strived to orient ourselves to the notion "How?". Danes in their conception state "We make everything rationally", representatives of New Zealand state "We develop everything on the base of new ideas", and we declare: "We are audacious ". The answer
Above: The gothic-style castle of Trakai isle in the Galve lake (End of XIV c. – beginning of XV c. ) Photo by BFL/ Kestutis Vanagas On the right: Campanile of Vilnius University Church of St Johns Photo by BFL/ Kestutis Vanagas 36 PORTFOLIO
lies in the need to perceive the role of each element of marketing. If taken individually, a single element solves nothing. I’d like to formulate the question in the following way: "What is the role of the logotype of Lithuania?" The answer would be the following: a) to identify Lithuania; b) to present Lithuania at the most desirable angle of vision. From this point, I do not envisage a serious problem in the fact whether the logo is usable for tourism or encouraging investments. The logo itself is not the means of attraction; it is only a signature of the communication means. Maybe, somebody expected a miracle picture capable to attract monies and tourists in a magic way. However, is there worldwidely any picture able to do so? It does not exist and never existed; and it will not exist in future. In our case, it is a signature that’s role is showing more brave Lithuania. Is this role unreasonably given a prominence in this case? I agree with you. I take a great interest in anthropology as a certain impellent of marketing and find a number of examples bound with making fetishes of certain symbols providing them a magic totemic power. Similar trends can be traced in our modern society as well. One of the most interesting examples is the history of the logotype of British telecommunication company "Orange". "France Telecom" company, its new owner, started replacing logotypes of all telecommunication companies acquired by it with the logo of the said company expecting "Orange" to the best warranty of success. However, this action did not bring a
RECTO/VERSO PART II THE JOURNEY OF THOUSAND MILES BEGINS WITH A SINGLE STEP Interview with Eugenijus Morkevicius, director of creative advertising agency “Protingi sprendimai”, the winner of the contest “Brand of Lithuania”. Congratulations for winning the contest! How did you celebrate your victory? We haven’t celebrated it yet. Actually, we have not finished some works on this project yet. Was it a surprise for you to hear you are the winners? In fact, preliminary results of votes online showed other trademarks as leaders. Yes, the decision of the committee was rather unexpected. We had evaluated Internet users’ taste and were quite skeptical towards this election. We thought our project would be too modern and were expecting a place in the Top 3. But we were really glad when we heard about the victory :)
On the right: Eugenijus Morkevicius, director of creative advertising agency “Protingi sprendimai” ( “Smart Solutions”). Photo by BFL/Andrius Ufartas
Wasn’t it difficult to deal with the short terms of the contest? Really, it was too little time for analysis and creation. How did the whole work go? Two people in our agency were analyzing the analogue projects. After that we were having intensive brainstorming. The main questions that we were struggling to answer were: “Who are we in fact?”, “How can we be different?”. While working and brainstorming we had to drop some stereotype ideas which can be applied to any country. Then we got this idea of multi-color. We were trying to join the contrasts: the need for high technologies and the historical attachment that our people have towards the country and the nature. What brands from other countries did you find interesting? I liked the brand of Czech Republic really much. It contains such simple and comprehensive symbols (dialog “bubbles” used in comics), represented in a very persuasive context. The Spanish tourism brand is impressive too. It reflects the Spanish character really well. What do you think of Latvian and Estonian branding solutions? I don’t really like the Latvians’ aesthetic solution. I don’t feel any persuasive branding idea in it (“The land that sings”). In my opinion, the Estonian brand is nice, but as far as I know, they are going to change it. Estonia chose better time to develop the PORTFOLIO 37
identity of the country. It happens often speaking of all 3 Baltic states. The graphical expression of the brand is modern, the idea is simple and easily understandable. We are nearly the last country about to join the market of tourism and attracting investment. Is it good or bad? I think it’s neither good nor bad. The most important thing is to come and start working: we haven’t been able to make ourselves do that so far. Only by working and correcting your mistakes you can develop. To make the first step is what matters most. Didn’t you find it difficult to suggest a slogan next to your brand? It was one of the contest conditions, but it’s usually an issue for advertising and public relations agencies. We suggested our “Sense of Challenge”. It didn’t persuade the committee, nor did any other slogans of the participants. This position is still open. Wally Olins – the famous branding expert is coming to Lithuania. LEPA invited him to create some references according to the current strategy of branding. Maybe he will suggest some persuasive slogan? Our work for now is to create a brandbook. This is the area we feel most confident (we still have to create slogans and marketing strategies for our clients, too) How do “Smart Solutions” see themselves in the market? Are you a universal or narrow company of communication services? We are a creative advertising agency. The scope of our services is really broad: from website design to booklets design. We are an independent small studio, considering this fact to be an advantage: it gives us the possibility to be more flexible and deeper when we deal with clients’ problems. Didn’t this project stop the work of your company? Such large projects usually are very painful for small studios. We chose a good work strategy: first, two people were working with analytics, and three-four people were working as “firemen”: completing all necessary tasks. A small agency like ours simply cannot afford to stop other work. This contest was a real challenge to us, and a possibility to check our strengths and potential.
Lithuanian trademark is Lithuanian contour arranged from color elements of different size with “Lithuania”recorded in it. The mark emphasizes Lithuanian territorial entity and strengthens national identity. A tangle of strict shapes provides energy; strict angles create an impression of solidity. Angles sticking out of imaginary contours of the country symbolize introduction of novelties, dynamism and great opportunities.
Did you participate in the first contest of creating the brand of Lithuania? We had to skip the first contest because of the financial requirements which were too strict. Luckily, this second contest was simpler and made the participants free from gathering lots of bureaucratic documents and financial burden. This time we all could spend more time for creation. The group of strategy creation developed 28 potential ideas of strategic trends. How did the creative process go in your studio? It was very similar, as developing different initial ideas is an essential condition in professional creation.
Was the winning idea the most powerful or some kind of halfway? It’s difficult to say. Subjective criteria usually dominate in work process. Before the finish, we had to choose one of the 3 final versions. One of them contained some similar idea as in the Internet users’ favorite No. 2 (LT’S GO by “Inorek Grey”). However, we dropped that direction.
Can you guess why the large Lithuanian advertising agencies didn’t participate? Also, why do you think the contest didn’t bring any foreign branding consultants? It’s difficult to say. As far as foreigners are concerned, most probably it was the issue of very short terms. Also the contest budget may have seemed too small. It’s quite weird that the big Lithuanian companies didn’t want to participate. Maybe the failure of the first contest deterred them. Do you participate in meetings in the Government office and defend one or another idea of the brand development? We have participated 4 or 5 meetings. In each of them, we have to defend out positions against 8-12 officers. There are some critical points in the creative process. We cannot go on without defending them and getting an approval. Are you going to develop the Lithuanian brand further? For now, our mission ends with creating a brandbook of the graphical contest winning brand, where we have added some extra things that weren’t included into the order: we have outlined the strategic idea and “moodboard”, also chose an evocative font set that reflects the main idea. Have you tried any non-traditional things which could add something original to the strategic idea of “The country of courage”? We are professionals in graphical design, so we do only what we are good at. But there will be some original graphical solutions in the brandbook (e.x. we suggested a creative interpretation of the national ribbon). On the other hand, the brandbook of the country style differs from corporative ones: it’s not so strict and canonized, there is more space for creative freedom in it.
Where was the Lithuanian brand used internationally for the first time? Or maybe it still hasn’t been used? It was used for the first time this summer, in the video for Olympic Games in Beijing. How long do you think your brandbook can be used? I think at least for 5 years. Do you believe that Lithuania as a country has any chances to work its way? The most important thing is to dare to change and believe that we are a normal good country. For some reasons, people here still think of themselves in negative ways. It’s not important if this point of view is motivated or not, but the majority of our citizens are too pessimistic towards their own country. The journey of thousand miles starts with the first step – this is what Lao Tzu said. We should also remember that this brand is not just for attracting tourists. It’s for ourselves, Lithuanian citizens, as well as foreign businessmen, that’s why it has to be universal. Do you believe in the brand’s universality? In general – yes. The brand is just one part of the communication, after all. If we manage to put those parts together in the right way, it will work. However, the brand itself doesn’t hold any magic power towards a tourist or a businessman. There are no such miracles. What are the plans of “Smart Solutions”? By the way, how many people are there in your company? There are 10 people. As for the future, I wish myself developing, working and growing in terms of quality. We have one of the most serious projects in our portfolio – Lithuanian brand. It shows our abilities. We will keep on moving, for sure.
As far as I know, you design websites, too. Maybe “Smart Solutions” were offered to create a portal of Lithuania, as well? Lots of people think that we have received all works associated with the creation of identity. In fact, we specialize in a rather narrow field – graphic communication. We design websites very rarely. PORTFOLIO 39
Who are the designers that created this logo? This logo is a product of the whole agency. Jurga Domereckaite, Agne Pauliukiene and Ignas Krupavicius made the creative core.
PART III BEHIND THE SCENES The interview with Laurynas Bucalis, the Director of the Communication Department of the Office of the Government of Republic of Lithuania.
Please, tell some words about the prehistory of developing the logotype of Lithuania? In the very beginning of the project (several years ago), we had no clear understanding how the contest for developing the logo should be bound with the general conception of forming the future image of the country. Although the research executed had not confirmed a poor image of our state, we, Lithuanians, are not satisfied with our image. There were abundant discussions on this subject and few works because our experience and the professional level were not sufficient for initiating a project of such a scale. So, first of all, the idea of developing an attractive logotype of the state appeared. In that period, it was still referred to as a trademark. However, this term causes a considerable misunderstanding in Lithuanian, because in our case the term "brand" is kept in the mind. Some later, a discussion on choosing the base for developing the logotype started. It was beginning of the search for the conception itself. Among the terms of the first contest, there was the following requirement: a participant of the contest should offer a conception of the national branding of Lithuania as the underlying idea of the selfpresentation of the state to the world and a logotype as a concentrated expression of the idea. Unfortunately, including the part of the task related to development of the conception appeared to be excessive: the participants concentrated their attention to the process of developing the logotype. What does the project mean for Lithuania? Before announcing the second contest, we had formulated the underlying idea "Lithuania is an audacious state”. So, participants of the second contest should form a concentrated graphical expression of the formulated conception of the national image (a solution of the logotype), without a necessity of developing the strategies. I’d like to assent to the idea of national branding expert Simon Anholt that a logotype itself cannot provide the image of the 40 PORTFOLIO
country. It is only one of the measures for formation of the image, if it conforms to the conception of the national branding. A single logotype is never able to form the image. It is usually supposed that an image of the state is something making foreigners to form the opinion about our country that conforms to our wishes. However, if we do not trust in our country, all the more foreigners will not trust in it. Philosopher Leonidas Donskis told that, first of all, we’d make our best for turning our country into a country attractive to live for Lithuanians and particularly – for the youth. The results of research show that the opinion of foreigners about Lithuania is not bad, to be more specific – there is no opin-
On the left: Laurynas Bucalis, the Director of the Communication Department of the Office of the Government of Republic of Lithuania. Photo by BFL/Redas Vilimas Below: A special laser show by a world-famous sound director Gert Hof (Germany) was presented in the opening ceremony of the business centre in Vilnius - “Vilniaus vartai”. Photo by BFL/Andrius Ufartas
By this project, we strive to form an opinion on Lithuania abroad as on audacious, creative, resolute and modern state and to increase its general notoriety. It will become a medium assisting us to pursue our economical, political and other objects.
On the left: Representational book “Lithuania: A Success Story”. Concept by “VRP/Hill & Knowlton”, designed by design studio “Fonografika” ion about Lithuania, because it is practically unknown in foreign states. In addition, we, Lithuanians, are too sensitive in respect of any negative information about our state, even in belles-lettres. However, if even we are depicted only positively, this fact hardly would impact the image of the country. Usually, small countries, in particular those from the post-Soviet territories, are too sensitive to any negative expression related to the image of the state (remember, for example, Borat from pseudo-Kazakhstan or the horror film „Hostel“ that caused a painful reaction in Slovakia); however, such complexes will disappear in the course of time; the young generation gets rid of them already. Formation of the image does not directly sell products or commodities to
foreign states and does not gain investors; however, it helps to form a positive informational and emotional space for future business contacts as well as solutions of investors and tourists. Because of this, we should not, for example, only sell a trip to Druskininkai to a tourist; we should tell a story about the interesting state and in this way impact the decision. It should be noted that politicians use rational reasons in theory; however, in practice a majority of them are impacted by emotional and irrational motivations. Thus, an offer of a Scandinavian state and a project of any post-Soviet state of East or Central Europe impacted by subconscious stereotypes will be assessed in different ways, because the latter still are associated with instability,
On whose initiative, the idea of necessity to develop the image of Lithuania was reactivated? Just some steps in this direction (nonsuccessful) were taken in the past as well. The technical executor of the project was Lithuanian Tourism Development Agency under the Ministry of Economy. However, on the certain moment we felt that the profile of the said institution is too narrowly specialized for developing the image of the state, so the project was taken over by the Department of Communication under the Government. Most probably, it was the most rational step, because no Ministry or a specialized agency of the Government is not capable to develop a global image of the state and developing of image programmes for individual spheres would be both inexpedient and too expensive. Please, identify the causes of the failure of the first contest (in the year 2007)? What lessons it provided? One of the key difficulties for participants of the first contest was their inability to perceive that a strategic conception of the national branding (not a development of a logotype) is the most important part of the project. Only few participants perceived the essence of the task. The idea of the winner was really the strongest. However, the winner failed because of insufficient analysis of the world database of trademarks and brands: a similar visual solution of brand that existed for a number of years was found. Probably, Lithuanian Tourism Development Agency ought to emphasize in the terms of the contest that participants should pay the most attention to the conception of idea, not to its graphical solution. We divided the second contest into several phases. In the first phase, the strategic conception of the national branding was developed, in the second phase – the conception was visualized. In the final brand book, one PORTFOLIO 41
changes and developing economy. In such a case, a purposeful formation of the image can help the country in pursuing its objects, in strengthening the reliance on the own forces.
key logotypes and several secondary logotypes, namely, "Visit Lithuania ", "Invest in Lithuania " and "Made in Lithuania " (for encouraging export) were singled out. And the concept of courage, for example, in the sphere of tourism provides the idea that, in this world with its frenzied speed of rotation, courage means a stop and a try to provide some more time for you and your family, i.e. to the key values. In many cases, a positive image of a state is formed by high-quality products of its industry (in Taiwan – computer industry, in Japan - electronics and vehicles, in Denmark – toys, audio devices, beers, housekeeping goods, in Finland – telephones and furnishing …). Should authorities interfere in this process? Usually, small or new states or states planning considerable changes (for example, South Africa or New Zealand) initiate formation of their image. Each small state can ensure a certain short-term notoriety thanks to victories in sports or a political trick; however, in the long-term perspective, most probably, only the internal attitudes of the population can form the image and the reputation of the state. So, our key task is making boast of the state by the population of Lithuania. The same was identified by famous expert in national branding Wally Olins to be engaged in developing the programme of image of Lithuania.
better the external stereotypes in respect of the state and the global view. The landmarks of the project are planned up to the year 2014. Coordination and management of a project of such size among ministries and department is particularly complicated task bound with high responsibility. Who will be engaged in it? Yes, it is really complicated task, in particular upon the recent changes of the authorities (note: after the elections-2008, a new political force came to power in Lithuania). Using of the logotype will be compulsory in each project of state institutions which is bound with the image of the state and for which money of tax payers is paid as well as in all visual communication means. We’ll not establish a controlling agency; however, monitoring will be carried out on a regular basis. The Communication Department under the Office of the Government will be engaged in it.
We’ve obtained abundant applications from private companies that ask to allow them to use the logotype of Lithuania and we encourage private business to use it; however, in each specific case, we’ll assess the conditions of its use, i.e. where and for what products it will be used.
Is there a risk of suspending this important project in the times of political and economical changes? The new authorities declare courageous changes, so we can expect that the idea of an audacious state reflects their spirit. In addition, I dare to state that crises more and more mobilize the nation. Upon comfortable conditions, abundant unnecessary and superficial decisions are frequently passed. Sometimes a certain stress is needed to assess the works in progress and their efficiency as well as to distribute the national funds in a more reasonable way. I do not believe a possible suspending of the project because it would be of no avail for Lithuania.
What tasks were set for “Saffron Consultants” led by Wally Olins? The above-mentioned worldwidely famous expert was hired by Lithuanian Economical Development Agency (LEDA) and the programme is financed by the European structural funds and funds of Lithuania. The task of the consultants is preparation for its development in the sphere of economy and developing a plan of communications for presenting the economical advantages of Lithuania to the world. Why Saffron Consultants? We strive for diversity and objectivization. Some projects are implemented by Lithuanians because they know better the internal national stereotypes; other projects are entrusted to foreigners because they see
On the right: Lithuanian feast of St. John. Photo by BFL/Gediminas Savickis
Photo by BFL/ Saulius Ziura
INSPIRED BY THE BALTIC SEA By Robertas Jucaitis
Design company “Klaipedos dizaino centras” is probably the first design studio established in Lithuania after regaining Independence in 1991. During 15 years of existing, “KDC” became one of the largest and most respectable design agencies in Lithuania Interview with one of the founders of the company, designer Vakaris Bernotas.
On the left: Founders and owners of “Klaipedos dizaino centras” (from the left): designers Vakaris Bernotas, Valdas Mickevicius and Alvydas Klimas.
What was the beginning of KDC? Everything started from the National Art Institute (at present – Vilnius Art Academy) where the first large group of fellows from Klaipeda (Martinkus, Mickevicius, brothers Klimas) was admitted to studies in the middle 80s. Prof. F. Daukantas, the first head and founder of the Department of Design even created the myth about those students from Klaipeda, saying that "they are not spoilt, they are diligent…in a word, they are different ". After some years, I and Valdas, the brother of Kestutis Mickevicius were admitted to studies at the National Art Institute. After the graduation, we came back to Klaipeda and were the first diplomaed professional designers on the Western seaside. It was the beginning of our professional career. In those times, the word “design” was not known. For 10 years, our pentad worked upon the conditions of "mature socialism" at Klaipeda group of enterprise where a special design department was established. After restoration of independence of Lithuania, A.Klimas, V.Mickevicius and I were among the first persons having applied for registering the own company. By the way, its some strange legal form remained the same up to now: KDC is a limited partnership, i.e. its owners are liable for the activities of the Company by all their assets. So, it may be stated that we are highly self-confident :) KDC withstood several national economical crises: “Vakaru bankas” (The Western Bank”) and some later “Akcinis inovacinis bankas” (“The Joint-stock Innovative Bank”) where accounts of our Company 44 PORTFOLIO
SECTURA were held went bankrupt; in the year 1999, we suffered the consequences of the crisis in Russia. According to Jewish proverb, “The worst life is the life in an epoch of changes” – thus, we felt the whole “charm” of the transition from socialism to capitalism. And we withstood everything. How many persons are employed in KDC? In a certain period, 50 persons were employed in the Company. Later, we optimized our activities and now about 30 persons are employed. We found that managing the process became more difficult, if this number of employees is exceeded. We, three owners of the Company, became universal businessmen: in addition to designer’s works, we are engaged in creative, marketing and administering activities as well. Even our Market-
ing director has an education of designer, in addition to education of economist :) By the way, we closely co-operate with Vilnius Art Academy Klaipeda Visual Design Department (KVDD). Its students improve their professional skills, work on probation and pass practice in our Company. A part of the graduates remain at the Company as its employees. For a majority of graduates of KVDD, KDC becomes the first take-off for professional career. KDC includes a manufacturing (to be more specific – assembling) subdivision as well. In course of further specialization of the market, concentration of all works under the same roof became meaningless (earlier, we had silk-screen workshop and even were among the first enterprises having acquired a large-format printer and so on). At present, we are engaged in the creative activities only; after completion of the products under projects, we find subcontractors for their production. I’d like to identify KDC more as a creator of things than a classical designing company. Maybe, this way is not the easiest one; however, it is our way. What spheres of the activities KDC is involved in? The life just forced us to become creators of things. We develop and make them. In the past, there was a period when clients needed no projects! Together with capitalism, the trend of outdoor advertising came to Lithuania. In a majority of cases, we are engaged in complex designing and manufacturing: we involve ourselves in the be-
ginning of designing the object for which the outdoor advertisement will be used. Only in such a way the best result can be achieved. If you develop a part of the totality, the integrity is hardly achievable and the part remains a part only. In addition to the above-mentioned spheres of activities, we are engaged in developing interiors, corporate identity and packing, in a word, a large spectrum of designing works. Why KDC has no branches in other cities of Lithuania? It is meaningless. Lithuania is too small country: 300 km – is it a distance at all? Establishment of representative offices is not purposeful.
Above: Informational stand on the entrance to Klaipeda, identity of a hotel in Palanga “Vila Ramybe”. On the left & above: Identity of Belorussian brewery “Rechinskoye”. PORTFOLIO 45
Because you are the owners of KDC, you are engaged in administering and marketing activities; do you have time for the creative activities? At KDC, the creative activities take place as process in a team, i.e. we can replace each other. It is a principle of a kind of relay-race. Each project moves through many hands (and heads:), so in a majority of cases, the author hardly can be specified. On the other hand (as we got used), we cannot imagine our Company led by an employed director without designer’s education :)
and to impact the environmental changes. KDC has no competitors in West Lithuania. How you can explain this phenomenon? I put this question to me as well and cannot answer it! Annually, a number of professional designers (having passed probation at KDC) graduates from KVDD. Maybe, the answer is bound with the culture of our everyday life and the need to form it? After joining of Lithuania to the European Union, the Scandinavian attitude – our pole-star – should come to the culture of everyday life of Lithuania and its implementation will cause a need in designers that travel, observe and are ready for implementing the best ideas in our country. In the meanwhile, this dissonance of cultures is striking. I am surprised by the permanent ability
What are the sources of your inspiration? Such sources surround us, and you should find them only. They can include history of cultures, travels, communication with other persons. Never a single source of inspira-
tion – as if a pole-star – exists. There is the chosen way. And you find abundant interesting things while going. You meet various persons, communicate with them and they impact you unavoidably. Has KDC the own style or philosophy of creation? I think any company differs from other companies. We are not an exception as well. Even our name is predetermining. KDC
means "Klaipeda Design Center": Klaipeda is a city on the seaside and this fact tells much. Although we never represent us as a “marine” design company, all our projects are shot through with the spirit of the sea. The sea is the elemental force, the spontaneous movement, the majesty, and it penetrates all our works. Maybe, the myth about “other” students from Klaipeda created by prof. F.Daukantas was reasonable? If you start everything from the beginning, what should you make otherwise? Ahem...What can I say? Our way was not easy; however, the difficulties hardened us. On the start of our creative activities, we practically ought to form a need for design: few potential clients perceived what does design mean and what benefit can be provided by it. Probably, in Soviet period this task was some easier, because the dependence on political changes was not so strong. If you could prove that such works are carried out worldwidely and are beneficial, you acquired a client and could implement your ideas. For example, on arranging the International marine passing, we proved to its initiators a necessity of the corporate identity and communication system. We started our activities in the period when it was possible to be involved in the process
of good design countries (such as Holland, Germany, Scandinavian States) to improve it. When we were involved in forming the corporate identity of "Lietuvos gelezinkeliai" (“Lithuanian Railways”) and visited Danish design company "Kontrapunkt" for sharing the experience from the corporate identity of Danish Railways ("DSB") developed by the said Company, I was surprised by its initiative on a radical alteration of the design work that – in my opinion, a per-
SECTURA fect and successfully existing one – already became as if a cult among designers. After going deep into the problem, I understood that after joining of Denmark to European Economic Community (at present – “The European Union”) in the year 1973, "DSB" was integrated in the European railway network and the Dane met into collision with a necessity to emphasize this change and the new values. Design is one of the spheres where this task can be implemented in the most successful way. In this respect, there are favourable perspectives for the creative activities in Lithuania, so I have no doubts that a need in good designers will appear. Correcting is always more complicated than formation. How KDC attracts new clients? As I mentioned above, there was a period when there were no clients, because nobody knew what does design mean. So, we formed our clients. And those clients – the nucleus of the totality of our clients – grew together with us. In our times, we were the standardbearers in our profession: we convinced a necessity of design by articles in press, TV and radio. Now this train is moving, so we should only to recall about us from time to time. Sometimes, clients choose other companies and after making sure that services of KDC are of the top quality come back to
us again :) Marketing policy of some clients such as "Svyturys", is dictated by their new owners (in the said case – by "Carlsberg" company). Our clients are aware that we’ll do our best to ensure the high-quality result. In my opinion, a designer, first of all, is a liquidator of problems. Does KDC take part in public sales? Although my attitude towards public sales is skeptical, in particular those where the price is of the predetermining importance, Above (and far left): Identity of the biggest Lithuanian brewery “„Svyturys“, based in Klaipeda. Extra large panel “Klaipeda” at the shopping centre “Senukai” in Klaipeda. Identity of shopping centre “NIC” On the left : Signboard of the “Takas” bar; Informational stand-column in Klaipeda.
we take part in public sales seeking to maintain the level of our creative activities and to avoid ossification. French graphic designer Alain Le Quernec once said: "If you are asked (by a client) to make a bicycle, do not be afraid to offer Rolls-Royce to the client". Do you assent to this attitude? Of course, I do, beyond any doubt. Sometimes a client does not know what he (she) really wishes. The designer – as a doctor – thoroughly examines the problem of the client and often can become an expert in the sphere of the activities of the client (sometimes even better than the client) and offer the most optimum settlement of the problem. Only in such a case you can expect a successful result. First, you should identify what is wrong and then offer the solution. What features of a designer are required for holding down and ensuring a success in this business? Quick eye, an ability to assess and compare. If there is light, a shadow should exist as well. It is required to be able to identify problems and to highlight the advantages. Of course, a vein of a businessman is important as well. Beyond any doubt, each designer strives to the maximum result at the minimum costs; however, only aces of aces achieve it. Not always you should immediately start working; first of all, you must think what and how should be done. What does today Lithuanian design lack? Maybe, it lacks some more of good designers capable to create good design? We are similar to Scandinavians; however, our environment differs from their environment. But we are able to alter the situation. Lithuanians are diligent and talent, they are capable to achieve excellent results. Sophistication in design is coming. I see it already as well.
On the left : Some logos created by “KDC” for Lithuanian companies
Above: “Vestaka” signboard; Architectural detail of the company “Krantas Travel”; Informational stand of “Carslberg” beer
SECTURA This page: During its long years of existing, “KDC” has created great number of identities for lots of Lithuanian companies
BLUE WITHOUT BLUE By Robertas Jucaitis
Photos by Paulius Mazuras & from “Zidra” archives
What are these magic “Zidra” materials? It’s difficult to explain. Lots of people get quite shocked when they see them. They often ask questions like: “how can you wear that?”, “can it melt or ravel out?”. In fact, this material is steady, resistant to light and attrition. It’s been confirmed by different tests and researches. After receiving versatile information, we can forecast the abilities and perspectives of the material. All these tests are the warranty of quality for the customer.
My material can be used for interior, upholstery, party clothes, etc. – there are very many ways to use it. The purpose of “Zidra” is not only selling the material itself, but also showing how they can be used. Aren’t you afraid that some competitors will copy your material? Let it be. If they copy it, it means it’s worth copying. Nobody is safe from plagiarism. Chanel, Rolex, Prada are constantly being copied. Of course, there are patents, etc. for hedging against copyists. Moreover, the material is improved each year anyway. Was the creation of your material the peak of “Zidra” laboratory or had you anything to be proud of before it? My laboratory with 5 people working has existed for 7 years. We paid most attention to creation of materials. We worked a lot until we created something we can really be proud of. Was this material created accidentally or did you plan it like this? I’ve been looking for exclusivity since the beginning of my work, and while looking for special ways I invented this material. Is your education related with your current activity? No, it’s not immediately concerned. I’ve got a degree in Economics and a diploma of Giedre Fledzinskiene’s Higher School of Arts (currently – Design College). When I was twenty years old, I established my first trade company of textile products which I sold later. I gained some commercial experience while working there. Sometimes I invite consultants to “Zidra“ (which now works in Western Europe) just because it‘s difficult for a creator to concentrate on both creation and commerce at the same time. After all, an artist should create, not administer. However, this is the period when I
“Zidra”, the trademark by designer Zydrune Grigonyte, presents a new collection of her unique material (its consist is kept in secret) every year. “Zidra” collaborates with fashion salons in Italy, France, Switzerland; contracts with the British “Harrods” and Swedish “Ikea” are currently being prepared. Find the interview with “Zidra” founder Zydrune Grigonyte.
SECTURA must take over the administration. For now it‘s inevitable (in fact, I must admit I like to be aware of the financial side of my company:) What does “Zidra” offer for the customer: only the material or complex solutions as well? It depends upon the customer: we can create a material of some totally individual design and ornaments, we can help him use it in interior, clothing, or we can create particular interior details according to his requirements Sometimes customers have very clear vision; then we co-operate and do our best to implement it. Do you feel any competition in this area? Of course I do. Everything is changing around, there are new and new things. Innovations mean competition. It’s very important not to stop and keep creating. You need to go on if you don’t want to be left behind; then you simply pass the competition and aren’t afraid of it. What is your main market and preserves? Western Europe is our major target. We spend much time on creating and taking part in different fairs and exhibitions. That’s why we had to drop (I hope just for some time) clothes design, which I’m really good at. We currently concentrate at the material creation.
On the left: Zydrone Grigonyte in her studio
SECTURA What is the target of “Zidra“ in Western Europe? I have my eyes on two points: Milan and Paris. These cities give most opportunities at the time. I have participated in lots of events, contests and exhibitions in Russia, Japan, brought lots of awards, but Russia pays most attention to countries with brands, i.e. Italy or France. Otherwise it’s very difficult to expect anything. This is the reality of that country. Meanwhile the Western professionals look at opportunities, not the country you come from. How did you start in the West? Everybody finds his/her own way: some believe that you can reach something only if you have acquaintances. Others believe in money power. We were trying to achieve something by taking part in exhibitions. You can see real evidence of our acknowledgement: we have been included into the Top 10 of companies that dictate the fashion trends, published by the “Collezioni Trends” magazine. I think that’s a real achievement which was resulted by 2 years of hard work in Italy. Everything began in Riga where I got acquainted with a journalist of the “Collezioni Trends”. She liked the usage of our material in the clothes collection we were demonstrating. By the way, in January 2009 I’m planning a presentation of my new collection. What impresses you most? Things that reflect the biggest soul, things which require putting most of my mind and searchings. I found Juozas Statkevicius’ newest collection very impressive. I found PORTFOLIO 53
lots of things to learn from it. It reflects power, persistence, searching, professionalism. Everything is of extremely high quality. In general, ideas can come anywhere and anytime: in the bath, in the streets while riding a bicycle, while listening to music or simply while being at home (I like creating in silence, alone, at night).
Don’t you have the “home” complex? Don’t you ignore Lithuanian production? Absolutely no. For example, I’m amazed by J.Statkevicius’ creations at this time. Can we call your material as “cosmopolitan”, or does it hold any Lithuanian spirit inside? When I started creating, my friends and even some professionals kept saying that
my creations were very pagan. I still hear such feedbacks, though I don’t limit myself exceptionally to Lithuanian motives: you can see some African or Australian ornaments in my materials. Do you agree with a statement that “work makes 99% of talent”? Yes. The idea is only 1%, while 99% is growing it up, working with it, developing it through life. I don’t like talking about my abilities. The result is what matters. We are all travelling, but if I don’t achieve what I’ve planned, I won’t get sad.
Do you like the process of creation as much as you like the result? The process – yes. But of course, the result is what crowns the effort.
What future do you forecast for “Zidra”? My vision is a big Zydrune’s factory and lots of my companies in the whole world :) In the nearest future, we’re going to create materials for IKEA furniture.
Do you have any hobbies? Yes, more than one: I paint, I love jogging (it’s some kind of meditation for me), reading good books.
DO NOT TAKES “NO” FOR AN ANSWER CREATIVE & STRATEGIC AGENCY
Or the interview which could as well not happen... 58 PORTFOLIO
SECTURA IT: RIC creative agency, often conceptual as well AGE: 15 years WORK PLACE: Vilnius, Svitrigailos Str. 11A, also some dear places: N.Y., shower, poker table, scooter, bicycle, bar… PRIORITY: creation and giving a sense to brands MOTO: creativeness is a never-ending work HATES: when somebody asks what RIC is. Or if it's possible to create brands for teenagers being grown-ups LIKES: working with pleasure and for fun, meanwhile getting money for that. TENDENCY: constant looking for answers to the question "what makes us special?" PHILOSOPHY: employees must understand, come to reason and not to fool around. AMBITIONS: individual (poll needed, we will investigate this question really soon) WORKING STYLE: everything is important even a Christmas card :) IMAGE: creatively snobby culinary. (A short explanation of the term: it's a technology of making attractive, tasty and nutrient meals Some technologies are tried by time (15 years), others are born while improvising, some are tasty just for us…) HISTORY: still being written…
Above: Identity for vodka “Gera”; Project for “Double Coffee” contest On the left: Logo for the youth organization “Kitas variantas”
Above: Poster “2 ways of safe sex” On the left: Touch the eternal city (project for Syracuse city’s (Italy) identity contest) Below: Jazz improvisations that became symbols (poster for the jazz festival “Mama Vilnius”)
Above: Logo which hasn’t made the revolution at UNESCO (UNESCO organized an international competition for the creation of an emblem for the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage). Project for a contest.
Above: Cats-temptresses of the old-town (logo for “Le Chat” restaurant)
Above: Identity for the Danish company “Lidan” On the left: Cover design for composer Vytautas Laurusas’ album “Discorso Concitato”
Below: “The Country of Courage” by RIC (project for “Lithuanian brand” identity competition)
Above: Lion’s strength for sports (logo for the fitness club “Imperial palace” )
WITHOUT MUSIC, LIFE WOULD BE A MISTAKE
By Robertas Jucaitis
SECTURA Did the festival come to the designer or the designer to the festival? It chanced that we are “circulating” in the sphere of music for several years already. The organizers of the festival appealed to us just after completion of designing our website of Awards for Alternative Music A.LT 2006; the organizers of B2Gether festival were not satisfied with their website designers, so we started the work from the beginning. Should you single out visual images of some festivals (world or European) that you like best? We do not deliriously admire the style of any festival, because all of them are necessarily halfway, overloaded, eclectic and so on. Of course, some of them are better or worse Founded in 2001, design studio “Fonografika” specializes in complex projects of advanced communication: corporate identities, annual reports, periodicals and editorials, book design, web design, advertising, as well as any other demanding typography, text and photography related assignment. “Fonografika” was approached by the biggest music festival in Lithuania “B2Gether” to refresh their identity. We talk to the “Fonografika’s” art director Inga Pakstaite about this project.
Above /On the left: Norviliskes Castle Photo: B2Gether
than others. Probably, everything depends on the music that predominates on the festival. The visual style of a festival seems to be closer to us, if the predominating music is close to us. We observe the evolution of the design of festivals that are popular in Lithuania, such as Roskilde (Denmark) and Sziget (Hungary). We liked the original style of the festivals Kunigunda Lunaria and Menuo Juodaragis as well as the conceptual, simple, laconic and “ideologically right” style of Lithuanian punk festival “Darom“. Were the deadlines and budget pressing? Please, tell some words about the task, scope and topics of the project? The deadlines were pressing permanently. In the year 2007, the terms of the festival were hardly perceptible, because we took over the uncompleted works and a part of the period had passed; in addition, many works ought to be started from the beginning. Fortunately, the logotype of the festival was created already and we only used it, tried to make it “cultural” and directed to the required trend. However, the scope of works and the specificity of festivals where a part of information becomes clear at the eleventh hour predetermine inevitability of the “fire distinguishing” style of works. In the year 2008, we developed the logotype and the whole style from the beginning, so much time was taken by developing and cocoordinating the style. In the year 2008, a part of works was carried out by other executors; in our opinion, it was a wrong way, because different interpretations of the festival appeared.
On the right: One of the festival’s posters PORTFOLIO 63
Do you apply the methodology of Canadian designer Bruce Mau: "Put correct questions, understand the problem and look for many possible solutions ". Or maybe you have the own style of work? I have not heard about this Canadian designer and his methods; however, our style of work is somewhat similar. Usually, everything starts from a conversation with the client. It is important to get to know all problems, aims and visions as well as to perceive the expectations of the client. This task not always is implemented successfully, because a client sometimes is not aware of the own wishes. In such cases, we try taking initiative and offer our solutions or suggest possible conceptions. A success depends on reliance of the client on us.
Above: Festival’s website On the right: Poster for “Groove armada” show On the left: Band “Bloodhoud Gang” Photo: B2Gether 64 PORTFOLIO
What is the specificity of a project of similar design? This festival involves abundant music styles, its musical trend is not uniform, so the graphical style also is not clear, naturally understandable and dictated by the circumstances. We try tacking, involving several visual “codes”, and pleasing to fans of music style that often are incompatible. On the base of the experience gained in the year 2007, we developed easier and sooner applicable style in 2008. Please, describe the creative process and choosing of the ideas Searching for chromatic solution acceptable to the client took considerable time. A part of the versions was rejected for the only reason that we saw real colours in our
“manufacture-oriented” high quality precisely calibrated monitors that differed considerably from the colours seen by the client in the client’s monitors. I keep in mind not nuances; I even could not imagine that the developed “greenish” solution turned into a “bluish” one in telephone call of the client... We could not believe this until the both computers were put side by side. We were forced to choose more safe combination of open colours that seem to be similar in all computers.
On the right: Poster for “Tricky” performance Below: Press-conference during the 1st Festival in 2007 Photo: B2Gether
To what extent, knowledge of technologies is important for a designer? A designer should have excellent knowledge of technologies. Technologies of a painter include oil, tempera, aquarelle and some other things. While a designer should be aware of almost all manufacturing, publishing and programming technologies, otherwise he/she cannot work. Is the role of topography important? It should be more important. Of course, in all our projects we try to apply our knowledge and experience in topography to the maximum possible extent. However, the results of our attempts are rarely noticed and appreciated. Most frequently, persons feel a greater concern of the external effect than in the internal harmony and quality.
Where do you find your ideas? What is the source of your inspiration? From the experience and the media. And the inspiration is directly bound with a good mood. Is music important in creative activities of a designer? Music is of a great importance for us. It ensures more pleasant and creative environment. Creation of successful design is impossible under pressing, at a behest, as sometimes clients can imagine. And after talking about the deadlines, terms of payment and so on, creativity disappears for a certain period. What music inspires you, helps to work and to generate ideas? We listen to the classical jazz (a la Miles Davis, Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane), ECMstyle jazz (Keith Jarrett, Dave Holland), post punk, new wave, indie rock, dark wave, punk, grunge, trip-hop, alt metal, as well as music of the classical rock style. As a major-
ity of Lithuanians, we are fans of Depeche Mode, we like Sigur Ros, Radiohead, Portishead, Editors, Thom Yorke, Kate Bush, Morrissey, Pixies, The Cure, Placebo, Talk Talk, Talking Heads, Brian Eno, King Crimson... Sometimes we listen to free jazz (Cecil Taylor, Don Cherry, Ed Blackwell, Ornette Coleman, The Art Ensemble Of Chicago – although this music is not fit during the process of working). We like various good high-quality music. Did you visit the festival and what you liked mostly? We visit the festival annually. This year, we waited impatiently for the presentation of Tricky; however, we were disappointed: he was not subtle, too loudly “shouted”. But the “alternative” performers that presented themselves on small scenes pleasantly surprised us. Are you frequent visitors of music festival of foreign states? No, we are not. Only once we visited Roskilde festival in Denmark. However, we visit all Kaunas Jazz, Vilnius Jazz, Mama Jazz festivals :)
On the right: Band “Datarock” Photo: B2Gether 66 PORTFOLIO
Photo by Robertas Jucaitis
MONEY TALKS By “Lietuvos bankas” PR departament
he idea of printing 500 litas banknotes dates back to 1990. The layout of the banknote of this denomination was designed by the leader of the currency design team Miknevicius. The banknote was printed by the USBC, yet there was no need for such a high denomination at the time. As the security features incorporated in the banknote of the 1991 issue were insufficient, the banknote was not put into circulation. Designing this note became came up again in 2000. The 500 litas banknote was to honour Vincas Kudirka (1858 – 1899), one of the most prominent figures of the national rebirth movement of the Lithuanians, writer, public figure, editor and ideologist of the Varpas magazine. As a student, he be-
came involved in the national movement; from 1888 edited the Varpas magazine, in which he condemned the czarist regime, its policy of national oppression, raised social problems, and wakened national selfconsciousness. In 1898, he wrote the words and composed the music for the “National Song”, which in later years became the national song of independent Lithuania. The design of the banknote of 1991 issue was prepared in observance of a fixed scheme for the layout of the high denomination series: on the right side of the front is the portrait, in the centre Vytis of Juozas Zikaras’ design, on the left an oval-shaped space for the watermark, Vytis and Gediminas Columns. Horizontal bands link all the components, while the back features a land-
scape. As we look at the designer’s drawing and the printed banknote, we can compare their respective differences. The entire rectangle of the front and the edges of the back are covered with an elaborate guilloche pattern, the tint of which changes from light to dark, from colder to warmer. The lively landscape designed by Miknevicius was printed in offset, but both sides of the banknote contained elements printed in intaglio: on the front was the portrait, ornamental bands with texts and denomination numerals, and on the back ornamental bands with a bell. When nearly a decade had elapsed and the Bank made a decision on issuing a banknote of the so far highest 500 litas de-
Above & Below: Sketches for the banknote’s design by R. Miknevicius 68 PORTFOLIO
ARGENTUM nomination, the author of the banknote of the 1991 issue Miknevicius was not willing to continue the work and prepare a drawing for the new issue. Jonaitis was asked to do that. He inherited the layout scheme and the subject of the unrealised banknote, yet he had to adjust the banknote to the more stringent security requirements and to change its colouring solution. All Lithuanian banknotes of low denominations were subdued in colours, whereas the bright blue 200 litas banknote from the high denomination series was supplemented with the red 500 litas banknote of 2000 issue printed by Giesecke & Devrient GmbH. The front of Jonaitis’ design changed only slightly through adding only a vertical holographic strip. Now, upon the request
of Bank of Lithuania experts, the designer abandoned the horizontal ornamental bands on both sides of the banknote, arranged a highly compressed Vytis of Zikaras’ design, which is common to the series of all high denominations, into a horizontal ellipse to arrange the composition of the central part based on it. In the guilloche structure above the state emblem, stylised oulines of a violin and a book can be seen, which, in the author’s conception, were to characterise the personality of Kudirka and required a lot of effort in arranging them. Jonaitis remembers: “I took pains with the violin and the search for the motifs of the book on the front. Again, I went through a whole series of attempts from depicting in absolutely realistic manner to total abstraction and conditionality. I was unwilling
to leave just a blank space in that place; I needed a contents that was not to dominate visually and compete with the key accent, the enlarged portrait”. In the printed banknote, these practically appear as planes of the same tone yet formed by complicated and totally different ornamental structures, making the motifs that the artist took so great pains to design – a distinctly stylised violin and a book. This ornamented space is a security feature rather than an ideological component emphasizing the theme. The visual play of its intricate drawing is visible at studying the banknote carefully and the subject is totally dominated by the distinct outlines of the portrait and Vytis. This is right, of course: the violin and the book made distinct in such a small space would have interfered with more important
Above & Below: 500 litas banknote of 1991, never put into circulation. Design by R. Miknevicius PORTFOLIO 69
ARGENTUM Above: Valley of the river Merkys. Photo by Klaudijus Driskius
ARGENTUM Above: Detail from the banknote: valley of the river Merkys. Design by G. Jonaitis
On the right: Verso side of 500 Litas. Design by G. Jonaitis
ARGENTUM Above: Engraving of the portrait of V. Kudirka. Close-up.
On the right: Recto of 500 Litas. Design by G. Jonaitis
components of the banknote. The back, as it is due to a note of such a high denomination, has a pattern of guilloche structures. The banknote is loaded with other modern security features as well. These include: a wide metallic holographic strip with vertical and horizontal texts, a security thread with a microtext, a see-through feature, a recognition sign for the blind – three raised isosceles triangles, denomination numerals printed in invisible inks, some components fluorescent under ultraviolet light, and many others. The cutting of the portrait of Kudirka is professional; however, certain mistakes have not been avoided. The photograph, made in the early 20th century, registers only the upper part of the outline of the poet’s shoulders, which disappears in the white background. But the engraver cut the whole of the jacket in strict lines and narrowed it substantially; as a result, the head appeared too big for the torso. Like in the earlier banknote, Jonaitis preserved the same motif of the landscape, the confluence of the rivers Merkys and Nemunas, changing only the point of view. Miknevicius, in his design, focussed mainly on the Nemunas marking the Merkys as a narrow glittering strip of water, whereas Jonaitis chose the picturesque valley of the river Merkys as the centre of his composition. The similarity of taste of both designers is not surprising in the least as the valley represents one of the most magnificent panoramas of the Lithuanian landscape; however, each of them treated the possibili-
ties provided by the landscape with regard to the specifics of the note totally differently. Miknevicius arranged the wide valley of the river, lit romantically by the rays of the sun breaking through the rifts in the dark clouds, as a bird’s eye view, with the Mound of Merkine rising in the foreground. Above the dark hills and forests, the light curves of the Nemunas and the clouds disappearing in the distance, the Bell of Freedom hangs, the sound of which echoes across Lithuania. The masters of the company made the author’s tonal drawing raster (consisting of fine horizontal lines), but this did not in the least affect its idealistic spirit. Jonaitis designed the banknote when he already was well versed in the specifics of banknote composition, especially the requirements for banknote security and possibilities of printing technology. His approach to the landscape was totally different: for him, it was a space into which the banknote’s set of security features would be introduced. The author described his approach to the place of the landscape in the banknote’s composition remembering his work at the company: “As I designed the landscape for the banknote, I aimed at avoiding fidelity to ‘naked’ naturalism, tried to achieve some conditionality; I was unhappy with a solution applied in our previous banknotes, where the landscape was like a ‘picture’ – with clouds, grasses, etc. I abstained from a naturalistic view, considered the prospects of its graphic solution, modelled possible combinations of different printing techniques (e.g., part of the trees in the landscape printed in intaglio, others in offset, the spaces filled with ornamentation)”.
The cheerful landscape of the river twisting idly across the valley decorated with wide harvest fields and patches, meadows and bushes, appeared in the banknote as a vertical plane, divided strictly into irregular-shaped areas covered by ornamental patterns of varying character. The landscape suffered as a whole but the high-value banknote benefited in terms of security. It is another matter that some things could have been done better: the trees and bushes printed in intaglio in a much darker tone divide the whole plane into two stylistically different parts, which are separated only by the river winding away into the perspective. Even the totally identical drawing is unable of joining them into a whole. The definite outline of the bushes interferes with the calm, even dry modelling of the bell. A security strip in optically variable inks was printed for the first time in Lithuanian notes. Currently, this is a Lithuanian banknote of the highest denomination. As it does not get into everybody’s hands too often, it arouses interest by its bright red colouring and the mysterious gloss of the hologram.
MARKET OF THE MIRROR MIRROR OF THE MARKET
By Robertas Jucaitis
Photos by Robertas Jucaitis
uperbrands“, the independent international arbitrator of brands that provides the rating of the most important brands “ in 77 countries, selected the most valuable brands of Lithuania - "Superbrands".
“Superbrand“ title is provided to brands that distinguish themselves for their impact on the market, values, history of success and originality. In each country, the rating is formed on the base of the result of voting in the Expert Board; the Board consists of market experts and opinion leaders having valuable experience and knowledge. The object of the Project is identification of the brands with the activities and history worth of being examples provided in manuals. The Expert Board takes into account the importance of a brand in the market, the evoked emotions and the totality of the provided identity. It selects brands that distinguish themselves for their impact in the national market, history of success and originality. The Board is not engaged in rating of brands, it does not assess the economical value or the functional features of a brand. Voting for each of 200 brands is arranged according to a 10-score scale. Those 200 brands were selected from 500 brands after investigation on the focus group (330 persons). "Brand is not only a name or a product; it is a certain strategy and philosophy that enables achieving the top of success. Each country has abundant brands developed in the country or having come to its market from foreign states; however, not all brands are able to conquer the market ant to consolidate there. “Superbrands" title is provided to the brands tested by time and reliance of consumers only", Head of “Superbrands" Bill Colegrave says. The Expert Board consisting of 23 members (including heads of advertising agencies and well-known companies, business consultants, representatives of mass media) assessed 200 brands known in Lithuania. Among them, 28 brands were provided with “Superbrands“ title for a period of three years. The brands were assessed in Lithuania by an independent international arbitrator on the base of the competence of the experts for the first time. Lithuania became the first Baltic State having announced the list of the most important brands.
In the list, brands developed in Lithuania predominate. This fact shows that the small market of Lithuania can be interesting by its strong brands with the practice of their development that is now successfully transferred to other markets already.
Three “Superbrands“ titles were gained by the brands of VP group: “Akropolis“, “Eurovaistine“ and “Maxima“. One of the oldest Lithuanian brands “Alita“(developed in the year 1963) was listed among the best brands as well. The brands of the telecommunication companies “Bite“, “Labas“, and “Omnitel“ were paid an exclusive attention. The brand of the humoristic telecast “Dviracio sou“ /”The Bicycle Show”/ and the brand of the Park of Sculptures “Europos parkas“ were identified as most valuable as well. “Superbrands“ title was also provided to many worldwidely known brands, such as, “Audi“, "DHL", “Sony“, “MasterCard“, “Visa“, “Philips“, “Nokia“, “Microsoft“, “Gillette“, “Kodak“, ABBA and U2 groups and other well-known brands. “Lithuania Superbrands 2007“: Akropolis (Shopping mall) Alita (Alcoholic beverages) Bite (Telecommunications) BMS Megapolis (IT Retail) Dviracio sou (TV Show) Europos parkas (Open air museum) Eurovaistine (Pharmacies) Jacobs (Coffee) Karuna (Confectionery) Labas (Telecommunications) LNK (TV channel) M-1 (Radio station) 76 PORTFOLIO
Manija (Confectionery) Maxima (Retail) McDonalds (Restaurants) Nokia (Mobile phones) Omnitel (Telecommunications) Pieno zvaigzdes (Milk-processing ) SEB Bankas (Banking Services) Siemens (Engineering & Electronics) Siemens Arena (Universal arena) Svyturys (Beer) Teo LT (Telecommunications)
Topo centras (IT & Electronics Retail) Utenos alus (Beer) Verslo zinios (Business newspaper) Vichy (Bottled water) Vilnius University (Education)
Courtesy of “Svyturys”
Courtesy of “Grapple Studios”
WHOLE IS GR THE SUM OF
“Procesas 2007”, the project, initiated by the company "MAP/Antalis", has ended. The result is a catalogue with the best works of Lithuanian graphic designers of 2007. “Idea” company created the catalogue design and website. Members of the jury shares their thoughts regarding "Procesas 2007".
Darius Juodka (“MAP/Antalis” technical consultant, a member of the jury) “Young Lithuanian designers are creative enough, but the essential “filter” of ideas are customers. Project budgets mean a lot, so designers are often forced to look for optimal solutions to meet the clients’ (and consumer’s) expectations. I can wish the designers get rich educated customers who could let them implement the most original ideas.”
Migle Kruciute-Babickiene (“MAP/Antalis “ marketing director, a member of the jury): “We wanted to create something new and original, which would let potential clients Audrius Klimas (Professor of Design see all the best examples of Lithuanian Department in Vilnius Academy of Arts, a graphic design, while designer could show member of the jury) everything good they have created. “Procesas 2007” is a really interesting and successful project that interested LithuWe see beautiful and glamour works, but anian community of graphic design, that’s there never was a publication joining them why it received so many works. I hope all. This catalogue lets us see the tendencies, that the chosen works in this representastyle, face of the overall Lithuanian graphic tional catalogue will look even better: a lot design. The only condition to participate in depends upon the paper and press qualthis project was to have real works with real ity; often it adds extra value to the design. customers. After that, the authoritative jury There are some really special works in the chose the ones that were the best in their catalogue. Some of them could be gems in opinion. the majority of design catalogues over the world. On the other hand, a good design What could I say about the style trends? I doesn’t necessarily have to shine. It should notice that customers’ requirements to- reflect a certain idea and values; it is conwards Lithuanian designer have decreased. nected with branding. Graphic design is a For example, not long ago too much atten- powerful tool for increasing sales. tion was paid to the paper quality and design of annual reports. Now temperance In general, it’s possible to see what issues and modesty dominate, people spend less Lithuanian design is dealing with currently, money on such reports. I dare to say that what trends it includes. It’s clear that custoo strong thrift can have a negative effect tomers that have certain visions of design, on the company image. “ beauty and functionality, form the design style very often in Lithuania. Some customers give more freedom for designers, others are stricter. There are few projects
that really reflect the designer’s personality. But design is just like that: a subject where problems dictate solutions, not vice versa. The publication of this catalog is a great thing, because there are practically no publications covering works by Lithuanian designers. This is why we can only congratulate this initiative. Marius Kasperavicius ("Design Hotel" creative director, a member of the jury): “Process doesn’t carry any preconceptions, so there are many ways to develop. If this project is continued, I’d like to see more different “processes” of design in Lithuania, i.e. I’d like to see more design versatility. Design, carrying a perception of “process” means never-ending development and improvement. We need time to evaluate the results. Only after some time, when we look back, we’ll be able to say how good we are (or were) in fact.”
REATER THAN ITS PARTS
IN CORPORE Christmas card Client: “Sergita: Design by “Tisena design”
IN CORPORE Christmas card Client: “Registru centras” Design by Gediminas Leonavicius
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS Gift set Client: Embassy of the Republic of Lithuania to Russia Design by Kristina Zalnierukynaite PORTFOLIO 83
IN CORPORE Set of postcards Client: “Vilnius - European Capital of Culture 2009” Design by Inga Pakstaite & Mindaugas Jokubauskas (Design studio “Fonografika”) CD with Cardboard Sleeve Client: “Vilnius - European Capital of Culture 2009” Design by Agne Dautartaite (Design studio “AD design”)
IN CORPORE Christmas card Client: “Not Perfect/Y&R” Design by Giedrius Grigonis, Irmantas Savulionis, Aleksandrs Betins (“Not Perfect/Y&R”) Promotional leaflet Client: “Effigy” Design by “Adell Taivas Ogilvy”
Photos by “Rasa”
By Robertas Jucaitis
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS How had you formulated the task for a designer and how the selection of designers/ agencies as well as their communication was organized? In fact, the process of renovating the trademark continued longer than it seems from the first sight. Step by step, employees inside the enterprise began to say that it is high time to make anything with "Rasa" line: its design was developed about 5-6 years ago and, of course, should be a subject of a new attitude. Simultaneously, several important circumstances took place. In the first, the designer involved in working with the former "Rasa" left our agency for another enterprise and provided her contact data to nobody, so we were forced to look for a new designer. For a certain period, we tried to develop adaptations and packThe biotech company BIOK was founded in 1988. Today, BIOK Laboratorija carries several skincare brands such as Margarita, Rasa, Organic Trends, Faustas and Thai. Consumers have a choice of nearly a hundred different products from face and body creams to cleansing milks and tonics, from shampoos to shower gels and deodorants. Through partnerships with universities, research centres, beauty and skincare centres as well as dermatologists, BIOK Laboratorija R&D staff strive to develop reliable and high-quality products that will fully meet the needs of consumers. Interview with Romualda Stragiene the Head of Marketing Dept. of “Rasa” brand.
Above: The very first proposition of a new identity
ages for new products with the same agency but other persons; however, the result was sad. Everything seemed to be very nice on a paper; however, the beauty was usually lost in the realty with its volumetric images and deviations or peculiarities of manufacturing. In the second, visits of employees of our enterprise to exhibitions of cosmetics of the world level “brought“ us innovations. It was decided that the new "Rasa" should be changed substantially. First of all, it was decided to develop an absolutely another package, i.e. a modern one with a dosing equipment. Such a package naturally dictates another style – modern, clean, sterile, i.e. being in fashion for products of higher categories. Search for designers was not formalized. For a certain period, we looked around, inquired various specialists about their contacts with good designers working in the sector of packages. We collected letters of recommendation, reviewed the works, compared them... Most intimidating were the prices of the agencies. Our budget was modest, so we could not address ourselves to famous agencies. Occasionally (or providentially) one familiar designer recommended us Valerija Zileniene, the designer experienced in packages. The meeting with her was de ciding: we liked her standpoint, her works and her strong motivation to “develop anything nice and competitive“ for us. Of course, the personal contact was of a great importance as well: we just came to an understanding. In addition, we were minded in secret to prefer a woman for the said position, because a woman, as a con-
sumer, seemed to be able empathizing into the state of a consumer and feel subtle peculiarities of the charm of cosmetics much better. For the designer, the following task was formulated: to renovate the trademark in a way that will make it more modern and similar to the “premium” category. Working with a freelance designer is both convenient and difficult. On the one hand, we can keep a closer personal contact and immediacy; there is no need in pushing your way through secretaries, project managers and other overseers. The price of works is better than at agencies, because it is not accreted with real and lathery working hours as well as taxes and profit norms. On the other hand, it is impossible to find a substituting person quickly for such a professional. For example, in case of sickness or wedding, such person falls out from the professional activities. And you must wait..... What purposes were set for the product? In addition to updating the trademark, we set the following marketing-related purposes: to change the positioning of the product, to move it away from our other trademark "Margarita" seeking to avoid cannibalization of products, to push the whole line closer to "premium" group. Talking of sales, it was strived to ensure at least avoiding of their reduction in the beginning: the appearance of the new image could cause losing the existing loyal buyers and an attraction of new buyers is a difficult task; in addition, the new package causes growing of the price of the products as well. PORTFOLIO 87
What marketing strategy have you chosen, what is the role of the new trademark in the portfolio of trademarks of "BIOK Laboratorija"? The chosen target consumer: an educated woman, residing in a town, with middle or higher income. In "BIOK Laboratorija" product basket, it ought to cover the segment of the middle prices and to compete with particularly strong trademarks (such as Nivea, L‘Oreal and so on). In this category, the competition is savage: abundant participants, few meaningful peculiarities, huge marketing expenses, rapid innovations. Our choice dictated: we’d look no worse and ensure high quality of the product; however, we’d maintain a lower level of prices and we’ll be competitive, if we offer a good price/quality ratio. Please, tell some words about the process of creation, i.e. search for the name, bottle, design of the label? Because the bottle and its supplier were known, the task was some easier. The name remained the same: it was a Lithuanian one,
Above on the right: The old packaging On the right: Examples of the new packaging 88 PORTFOLIO
well-known, bound with good associations, so its change was not reasonable. By the way, we were shocked when the designer presented us the creative solution of the logotype: it seemed to be quite otherwise, unrecognizable, in a word, unusual. In the beginning, we tried to press the designer: is such a radical change (as seemed to us) really required? would it be purposeful to remain some more recognizable element? However, the designer resisted our disquietude and stood firm. She insisted on keeping the original idea, because “it should be done well or not done at all". Some period of shaking down the new appearance passed. As our Director says, “you must sleep with any new idea for at least one night”. We discussed these radical changes with members of the Board of the enterprise and they assented to them. After adopting the decision on the new logo, the total appearance of the package was formed soon. Then there were some troubles related to orders of packages, because we ought to form all specifications with the new supplier from the beginning and to coordinate a majority of problems by ….e-mail that sometimes is not pleasant. How the desirable surface effect should be described? what tint of the foil is required? and so on. It should be noted that even a simple cream consists of different parts provided by different suppliers: one company supplies bottles, other company – labels, third company - cartons....and all these parts should be fit to each other. We even met into collision with a crazy problem of file preparation: when we tried to transfer development of other packages to another designer, it was found that PC and Macintosh computers prints are incompatible, so we were forced to give back everything to the author and refuse such distribution of works. What results were achieved? Sales increased and even surpassed the expectations. The opinions of consumers were excellent: everybody liked the new appearance. We attracted abundant young buyers that consider the appearance of a product to be of a great importance. Soon we plan to carry out an investigation of associations of the products: we’ll examine whether the image of the product altered or whether "Rasa" really moved away from "Margarita".
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS Above: The old packaging On the left: Examples of the new packaging
REBEARTH OF VOLFAS ENGELMAN 90 PORTFOLIO
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS SC “Ragutis” was established in 1853, it works since the middle of 19th century. Currently 99.56 percent of all company shares belong to “AS A. Le Coq”, an Estonian brewery which is managed by a Finnish brewery “Olvi Plc”. In 2007, the company turnover reached 94.7 million Lt. Products of SC „Ragutis“ take 10% of the beer market, 37%in the cider market, 21% of the alcoholic cocktails market and 13.8% of the energy drinks market. There are 200 people currently working at the company. The company is constantly investing into development of the production process; in 3 years 20 million Lt were given for the company modernization. Today SC “Ragutis” is one of the most modern breweries in Lithuania.
years of independent Lithuania, it became Above: “Volfas Engelman” brewery in the 30s. a stock company of I.B. Volfas-Engelmanas. During the first years of the Soviet Below: “Volfas Emgelman” vintage beer bottles. occupation it had the name of “Raudonoji pasvaiste” (“The Red Glow”) while Lithuania being occupied by Germany it carried the name of “Perkunas” (“Thunder”). It regained the name of “Raudonoji pasvaiste” during the Soviet re-occupation, and after another brewery from Kaunas joined it, this brewery became “Kauno alkoholiniu ir bealkoholiniu gerimu kombinato Gamykla Nr. 1” (“Factory of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages No. 1”. Later it became confederation of Kaunas beer “Ragutis”. After regaining independence, this brewery stayed “Ragutis”. This name stayed until now. How many people know that the current SC “Ragutis” can pretend to the name of the oldest Lithuanian industrial brewery?
agutis, a producer of alcoholic beverages which has been in the market for 155 years, has presented new beer of „Volfas Engelman“ for its anniversary. It was the most popular beer in Kaunas and the whole Lithuania. It‘s produced following traditions of more than 100 years and using the newest production technologies. The history of the current SC „Ragutis“ is really interesting. Few of us know that it begins with I.B Volfas and Engelmanas‘ breweries and that this company changed its name for many times.
„Few people know that „Ragutis“ can pretend to the name of the first Lithuanian industrial brewery. Having such a huge experience, the company decided to add something to Lithuanian brewery history and shop shelves“, Vytautas Meistas, the CEO of „Ragutis“ claims. „We are proud to presentthe history of our beer and the whole Lithuanian brewery in a unique book and a beer of special taste „Volfas Engelman“ that won peoples‘ hearts in Kaunas during the interwar“.
It's probably the only brewery with the history which reflets the pecularities of Lithuanian politics, too. I.B. Volfas' company which Engelmanas' brewery joined a bit later was established in 1853. During the
„Volfas Engelman“ – is the beer of the Temporal Capital and whole Lithuania. „Volfas Engelman“ is dedicated for beer lovers that like the perfect tried and tested taste. During the interwar, when Kaunas PORTFOLIO 91
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS Above: Volfas Engelman, the founder of the brewery. Below: “Volfas Engelman” beer labels of the 30s. Below on the right: “Volfas Engelman” ad in the newspaper of the 30s. Opposite page: Ad for the new “Volfas Engelman” beer.
became the Temporal Capital, this beer received on of the highest quality evaluations. Today it joined the newest production technologies and traditions of the old recipes. “Volfas Engelman” has been developed for years, it has an old technology of boiling and ripening, but it revived along with the current innovations of production process”, says the senior manager of “Ragutis”. Light resistant hops and select malt are used in “Volfas Engelman” production. This beer is bottled into limpid bottles with a mechanism of opening in the bottom. V. Meistas claims that this solution enables installing traditions into a modern shell and reflects the point of view of “Ragutis”: to move on and give joy to beer enthusiasts by using innovations and keeping the best
traditions. “Ragutis” is planning to trade the unique beer in Lithuania for unlimited time. “Beer has become a concurrent part in our folk, culture and social life. Our ancestors valued the tradition of beer consumption, so today “Ragutis” encourages to remember it and use it responsibly, nourishing the gourmet culture”, says the CEO of “Ragutis”.
Photo by BFL/ Kestutis Va nagas
URBI ET ORBI By Robertas Jucaitis Photos by “Urbico”
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS Interview with Milda Lisauskaite, the Marketing manager of “Urbico”, about the new “Urbico” identity. Why the enterprise passed the decision on the changes? Company “Eismas“ was established over thirty years ago and was privatized before several years. Within several years, the Company turned into an international one and extended the scope of its services and products. Some new groups of products (such as playgrounds for children, lighting systems and so on) appeared that had no link with the existing name, but conformed to the sphere of the activities of the Company – transport management and urban infrastructure. Is the competition in this segment of market severe? In some groups of products, the competition is severe; however, “Urbico“ is the only company providing complex solutions both in Lithuania and the Baltic States. Are the changes bound with the alteration of the legal status of the Company or their roots are deeper and the visual part is only the top of the internal changes? Visual changes are the top of all changes. The need for changes appeared internally, starting from new employees and ending by establishing bureaus in Latvia, Poland, and Great Britain. The changes started since the privatization of the Company and turned
into visual changes this summer. How the process of renovation ran, what spheres were involved, who managed the process? In the early 2008, the Management Team of the Company passed the final decision of the change of the trademark of the Company. After joining of the new Marketing director to the Team, the preparatory works were started. The Marketing director directly managed the process; the Head of the Company, heads of subdivisions and members of the Board of Directors were involved in making decisions as well.
ter the initial works, we transferred to more acceptable for us flexible co-operation with freelance creators from “OMG Studio” and the team of programmers from “Wisemonks“.
Please, describe the creative process (designing, choosing the name, search for a consulting agency)? We applied to creative agencies of the middle level inviting them to a contest on the vision of the change. The task was nontraditional because we provided no idea of a wished name or a trend of change of the trademark. The task included creation of the vision of the change of the Company’s trademark and its application (how we’ll implement it and on what base).
Is it already possible to make preliminary conclusions on the results of the renovation? We are much more noticeable, have representative means; the number of visitors of our website grew considerably – so, the re-
How much investments were invested by the enterprise in this process? A part of the process is in progress, so the investments are not final and clear. What results do you expect? We hope to distinguish among the competitors, be “warm“ and more known to public.
After presentations of the agencies, we choose the most acceptable and most sincerely working agency. In co-operation with employees of the agency, we settled the problems of positioning, searched for the most acceptable name and expression of the trademark. Af-
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS How much investments were invested by the enterprise in this process? A part of the process is in progress, so the investments are not final and clear. What results do you expect? We hope to distinguish among the competitors, be “warm“ and more known to public. Is it already possible to make preliminary conclusions on the results of the renovation? We are much more noticeable, have representative means; the number of visitors of our website grew considerably – so, the results are excellent! :) What ц plans of the enterprise for future? Although the experience of the Company is huge, the Company is growing; it explores markets and plans further extension. It is also planned to strengthen the trademark: to increase its notoriety and to “grow” its value.
Above & on the right: Company’s new identity was created by two agencies: BMG & OMG
Magdalena Abakanowicz “Space of Unknown Growth”
The open-air museum exhibits over 90 works created by by famous contemporary artists from all over the world. The exhibition spans an area of 55 hectares and is visited by over 60 000 people annually.
“europos parkas”: harmonious space of experience
O P E N
A I R
M U S E U M
T H E
C E N T R E
E U R O P E
Joneikiskes village • 15148 Vilnius District, Lithuania • Tel./fax: (+370 5) 2 377 077 www.europosparkas.lt
LAST BUT NOT LEAST 98 PORTFOLIO By Robertas Jucaitis Photos by Robertas Jucaitis
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS How the newcomer of the market feels in the encirclement of other banks – mostly Scandinavian? The Investment Bank “Finasta“ is not a newcomer of the market: it was established on the base of the know-how of the financial broker‘s enterprise operating since the year 1994. The trademark of “Finasta“ is known to public for 14 years already. Of course, the Bank started its activities in the period that is not easy both for our country and the world; however, we have the base of abundant clients for many years, a strong team of professionals and a clear strategical vision of our business.
Does the appearance of the new bank promise changes in the market of financial services? The appearance of a new national bank after the 10-year break is a change by itself in our financial market. We are not going to compete with commercial banks directly; we have occupied the specific business niche and shall further strengthen the positions of private banking in the sphere of welfare management and financial services to enterprises. We are comparatively small (niche-like) bank oriented towards servicing individual clients by rendering investing services. Up to now, no national bank of such a specialization existed; so, taking into account our experience and the world practice, we do not doubt that it already found its place in the national financial system.
“Finasta” is an investment bank. It was established in 2008 and is the only bank of Lithuanian capital, working with investment and private banking. “Finasta” offers complex services of investment, finance management and corporate financing for private and business clients.
What was the goal of transforming “Finasta” into a Bank? What tasks are set for the Bank? The Bank was established striving for more effective satisfaction of needs of clients in the category of services related to investment, financial management and finances of enterprises. On the base of the License issued to the Bank, we offered to our clients the products and services that cannot be rendered by a financial broker’s enterprise: deposits, loans, and an opportunity of ebanking services. Henceforth, our clients can use all usual bank services, and this circumstance facilitates and simplifies the investment managing process for the clients.
Interview with Lina Galatilte, Director of Marketing and Communication Dept. at “Finasta”
To what extent, the visual identity is important for the new Bank? The Bank is oriented towards well-off clients, so we set the top standards of quality and qualification for us. The visual identity of AB bank “Finasta“ was formed following the key values of the Company, its mission, vision and positioning of the trademark. We are pushing modern company oriented to the needs of a client, trying to get to know each client and to form (and implement) the strategy of investments that satisfy the needs and expectations of a client in the best way. These key attitudes of our business are reflected in the visual identity of the Company. What components of the trademark (product, environment, communication, staff) are mostly emphasized by “Finasta”? In each communication segment, another aspect becomes important; however, they are of the equal value in their combination for pursuing the goals of the organization. Can you disclose the amount of the investments in the development of the identity? Unfortunately, we cannot disclose this information. What companies were chosen as consultants for developing the trademark of Finasta? What standards you set for them? The visual identity was developed by two advertising agencies: "Euro RSCG MIA" renovated the trademark of “Finasta“ and the advertising agency “AD Couture“ was engaged in developing the visual identity and image advertising of the Bank. The
Interior design by Indre Miseikyte. Identity design by “Euro RSCG MIA”.
creative process was complicated and long: we set exclusive standards for quality and creativity, ignored any compromising with the agencies – set the same strict standards both for partners and ourselves, i.e. the maximum quality, maximum creativity and even loyalty towards our trademark. How the creative task was formulated? What goals were set for the agency? How long the creative activities lasted? The creative process (from the style book to the starting of the activities of the Bank) lasted some more than a half of year. The formed creative task was twofold. Agency "Euro RSCG MIA" was requested to renovate the logotype of “Finasta“ and to form the base for the style of the trademark. The task set for “AD Couture“ included singling
out the Bank’s communication among the abundance of trademarks, as well as finding the stylistics of the environment of the trademark and the communication itself based on the features of the business and oriented to the targeted audience. What values are disseminated by the image of “Finasta”? What are the features of culture of “Finasta” as a company? The key value of “Finasta“ Bank is individual (non-stereotypical) working with a client. We systematically strive to know better each client and then form the personal investment strategy taking into account the personal features, needs and expectations of the client (and assist to manage the strategy). This principle of the business forms the culture of the Company in the relevant way. As I mentioned above, our enterprise sets particularly high quality standards; however, still more important is the attitude of each employee. How the trademark will be developed? Our business is very dynamic, so the communication of its trademark is evolutional to the maximum possible extent. However, the strategic trend is clear: at present, we planned the strategy of the trademark development for about three years. Michelangelo told: "The greater danger for most of us lies not in setting our aim too high and falling short, but in setting our aim too low, and achieving our mark.". Will your Bank be a maximalist and strive for objects that seems to be impossible to implement today? The fact of establishment of a bank of Lithuanian capital in Lithuania after 10-year break and its services, such as welfare management, shows the Bank to be a maximalist from its first steps. We accept challenges, encourage changes and always search for new non-standard solutions. I can state firmly that we are maximalists in respect of the set goals and the quality standards.
Elements of corporate identity (Eros RSCG MIA) and communication (AD Couture)
Company’s website. Design by “Finasta’s” IT department and the web design company “Neosymetria”
BIG BOSS By Julija Seiko
Photos by “Kalnapilis”
“Kalnapilis” brewery can boast of having over a hundred years of experience. But even with its long history and traditions, the brewery has been able to remain one of the most modern and innovative breweries in the Baltic States.
“Kalnapilis” brewery offers beer lovers the widest assortment. The unique taste of “Kalnapilis” beer has brought the Panevezys brewers fame and honour in more than one year not only in Lithuania but also around the world. “Kalnapilis’” greatest success has been winning 2 gold awards at the World Beer Cup, the Olympics of beer competitions. No other Lithuanian brewery has received such high recognition yet.
econd biggest beer brewery in Lithuania “Kalnapilio-Tauro grupe“ renewed it‘s Premium product Kalnapilis GRAND, which is also brand speaker, in April, 2008. After several consumer researches, incremental changes in taste were implemented in taste. It became more smooth and soft, less sour. Also Premium product needs to look outstanding at point of sale and therefore have exclusive packaging. The main goal of product, taste and packaging renewal, was to keep growing the brand and build it as one of the most Premium beer brands in the market. One of the most famous design agencies in the world – “Classens International” – was chosen to implement packaging changes. “Classens International” created packaging for such famous brands as “Guinness”, “Campari”, “Bacardi”, “Chivas Regal”, “Johnie Walker”, etc. The task was formulated to the agency to create new bottle and label for Premium beer product “Kalnapilis GRAND”. It had to communicate long beer brewing history, though look modern and stylish, also include main brand attributes, like logo. The agency suggested to use embossments of logo icon (triangle), year of brewery (“Kalnapilis”) establishment and main beer ingredient (hops). It was also suggested to have outstanding new bottle shape. For making product look more Premium and outstanding, it was suggested to use combination of three types of gold for a front label: hot gold, usual light gold-
Above: Poster of the advertising campaign On the left: bottle design in the stage of development PORTFOLIO 105
and usual dark gold. It was also decided to leave the medals of product recognition for communicating it’s quality and worldwide recognition. The most important medal (World Beer Cup) stands out in front of the label. Neck label was improved slightly. It kept being foil, but the design was slightly updated by making background with set of small logo icons (triangles). It is very important that straight from the beginning Kalnapilis new bottle was included in DESA system, which means that the bottle was returnable. According to researches implemented before product launch, GRAND was perceived by consumers as the most Premium and stylish bottle in Lithuanian beer market. The sales of the product increased more than three times after relaunch and it keeps growing.
On the right: The new “Kalnapilis Grand” outdoor advertising campaign Photo by Arnoldas Rogozny
EXTRA– ORDINARY IS ORDINARY By Renata Jukniute
On the left & right: the examples of company’s new brand style implementation
n the end of the summer 2008, bureaus of the former real estate Company “ZIA valda Real Estate“ decorated themselves with this logotype. They decorated because the Company decided to change its name, trademark as well as its philosophy and image. In addition to the name and the signboard, the total style of the Company was changed, including, of course, the website and other attributes.
For this purpose, the Company applied to Vilnius branding Company “Have a Nice Day if You Had a Bad Day Before“ that offered it the concept of the today name and OREM logo. OREM is the abbreviation of English “Optimal Real Estate Management“. It reflects the principles of the activities of the enterprise and the objectives of its business. The name
The philosophy of the Company was changed as well; henceforth it declares that OREM has ambitious objectives, offers optimal creative solutions to its clients and strives for effective results. The Company provides the mostly fit solution for each individual situation or investment project. The necessity The Company felt the necessity to change its name and logotype when its extension towards foreign states started. In addition, a necessity to emphasize its forte and to provide clearness to the logo of the Company and its business philosophy appeared in Lithuania as well. The former name was not clear to foreign clients because foreigner do not know how the letter “Ž (Zh)“ is pronounced. And the whole construction “ZIA valda real estate“ was not easy to explain. For this reason, we had to develop a logotype that would be clear according to all canons of branding, easily memorizable and recognizable and would reflect the activities and philosophy of the Company.
The new name OREM emphasizes the priority trend of the services rendered by the Company – investments in real estate management. It is easily memorized and pronounced both by Lithuanians and foreigners. The name is supplemented by the slogan “Extraordinary is ordinary”. The Company strives to show to the clients that no extraordinary situations or objects exist for it. It means that the Company strives to show that extraordinary situations form a part of its daily activities: it meets into collision with them daily and is capable to settle such problems in a simple way. Thanks to the experience and creativity, it is possible to find unexpected and perspective solutions. Namely, creation and the insight of the market opportunities predetermine the successful results. The new name OREM substantiates the specificity of the activities of the Company. “Optimal”, the first word of the name, means that the Company tries to offer the optimal solution to each client. This word sends a signal about the excellent knowledge of the professionals of the Company in
the market, laws, competitive environment and so on usable for offering the optimal solution to the subconscious of a client. It means that real professionals having such knowledge are employed at the Company. In addition, this word includes a charge that covers the working media. It shows the attitude of the employees towards their activities, communication with their clients, and perception of the employees as a team. OREM unites the best professionals, strives to form favorable conditions for their activities and the friendly environment. The words “Real Estate“ in the name show the object of the Company’s business. So, there are no obstacles to get to know the sphere of the Company’s activities. The word “Management“ appeared in the name striving to emphasize the real essence of the Company’s business. The key business of the Company is bound with management of investments, not with a mediation on sales of real estate, as usually is thought about real estate agencies. In addition, OREM provides some other services related to real estate, such as making cadastral measurements, assessing the property and business and so on. In this respect, OREM differs from a majority of real estate agencies that are engaged in the abovementioned mediation activities only. The concept of “Management“ includes not only organizing of works or implementing the provided idea. By this concept, the Company stresses its individuality and
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS competencies as well as its ability to organize implementing of a project in a professional and creative way.
in the chosen colour of the Company’s logotype as well as its original font transferring into the red band. OREM is pushing, dynamic, innovative and creative compan.
The Logotype OREM consists of four ruby majuscules where one of them transfers into a flat red band that ends with a strict rectangle as if embodying the object of the activities of the Company – real estate. The logotype is extended (to be more specific, “goes” downward) by the slogan where the assonance of two conjugate English words “Extraordinary is ordinary“ is used. There is an interesting solution uniting all three words into one where only the short word “is“ is singled out by red colour. It is really conspicuous. By the way, the abbreviation OREM forces to prick up one’s ears: it sounds compulsively; however, what does it mean? Because of appearance of such question, it can be stated that the name and its abbreviation carry out their roles properly: a person will pay attention, take an interest and then will get to know.... In the logotype of OREM, it was tried to reflect the specificity of the activities of the enterprise: quickness, activity, flexibility, and mastership. The Company tries to be stirring and dynamic. It accumulates recent information and applies updated technologies, thus ensuring its successful activities in the real estate market. The dynamism and resolution of the Company are reflected
The original and easily memorizable name provides the excellent opportunity to create an interesting domain in internet. In this way, the notoriety of the enterprise is increased and the precondition for visiting the website of the Company (and maybe even its office) by a potential client becomes more real. Probably, not only for drinking coffee…By the way, nobody will steal your original domain, buy it priorly and then require from you paying the tenfold price only for the reason that the thief could foresee your need in the domain...
clients, openness to strong and interesting persons as well as to unexpected ideas, respect to another person or another opinion. Sharing the accumulated knowledge and experience as well as search for the optimal solution form the meaning of the new name and logotype of the Company.
The values By the new logo, the creators and the Company itself strive to embody their cherished values, such as resolution, professionalism, respect and confidence. The determination of the Company to go forward in spite of difficulties and risk factors is embodied, too. The resolution to be not afraid being the first, the strong feeling of responsibility and the professional attitude that allows to see perspective trends of the activities, to implement quickly the most incredible ideas and to provide new services to the market are covered by it as well. The logotype gave a sense to the attitude of OREM towards communication with PORTFOLIO 109
* S A B LA By Ruta Latinyte
*LABAS means HELLO in Lithuanian 110 PORTFOLIO
On the left: LABAS logo before the facelift. Above: The new LABAS logo.
ers who value freedom, who want to pay no show a young self confident and broadmore than they use. This lead LABAS to be- minded person” – Gary says. come a product for young people who wish to live without limits and obligations. The new LABAS’ identity was created by “The Farm” - an advertising agency from Ambitions Great Britain which knows the strategy of Facelifting of LABAS brand was started “Bite” very well and has great experience in in order to spread and strenghten its ap- graphic design. peal towards young people. Investigation showed that LABAS was aimed to a very The new logo acquired a broader form narrow circle of the youth. The yellow-black and became much more colorful than the style of the old LABAS only sharpened its previous yellow-black one. Additionally, extremeness. the most important advantages of LABAS were presented to the market, i.e.: accumu While creating the new portrait of LA- lative bonus of 10ct for every minute of inBAS, it was important to reveal the face coming call, the first and the only free SOS Prehistory LABAS is a rather old and well-known and advantages of the brand. LABAS raised SMS, when you can send a free SMS or call brand of BITE. It was the first mobile pre- an ambitious purpose to become the most even when your account is empty, as well payment service in Lithuanian and the impressive brand that encourages to renew, as the “Mobile remittance” which is a new possibility for LABAS clients to fill their Eastern Europe. It was created for consum- become original and independent. account from any other LABAS or “Bite” After a competitive research and investi- phone number by sending an SMS. gating the things that are important for the objective group, a new logo was created. It Changes – it’s just the beginning concentrated everything to new discoveries, After these changes, research showed self-expression, self-confidence and im- that the youth paid attention to the changes pression to achieve what you want. This is and were positive towards them, identifyhow the “Be who you want to be” idea was ing the main values which were tried to be born. Courage, curiosity and colors became highlighted. the main features of the brand. However, these changes are not the last. New form, new colors and new offers for the According to Gary, “Bite” is about going on clients challenging the market and offering new “While creating the communication impressive experiences for the clients. The strategy and brand presentations we were hottest novelty will be offered for business trying to impersonate the main idea – to clients – it’s presenting the new “BlackBerry Bold” solution in Lithuania. LABAS became what it wanted to be brand identity is formed by lots of factors: the philosophy of the brand, its prehistory, a particular picture, graphic, slogan, pecularities of using the brand, colors, etc. “Bite Lietuva“ presented some changes in the brand LABAS in the beginning of this year: the new architecture and philosophy of the brand, together with some new offers for the clients. Gary McGuire, the Vice President for image and communication was responsible for the facelifting of LABAS. He agreed to tell some interesting things about the backstage of rebranding.
On the left: Gary McGuire, the Vice President for image and communication of “Bite Lietuva” PORTFOLIO 111
Telco “Bite Lietuva” has operated in Lithuania since 1995 (the company belongs to “Mid Europa Partners” investment fund). The prepayment service of the company is registered under “Labas” trademark.
LITHUANIAN SNOW WHITE 112 PORTFOLIO
On the left: Billboard with “Snaige” ad
efore 1963, when a factory of refrigerators was being built in Alytus, only 5% of Baltic citizens had fridges, and the existing refrigerator factories in the Soviet Union couldn’t fulfill the Soviet people’s rising needs for household appliances. That was the reason to build a refrigerator factory in one of the Baltic States. Two countries took part in the competition: Latvia offered a fridge with metal case and Lithuania offered one with wooden case. The Lithuanian fridge was created in Vilnius Bureau of Special Constructions under the “Elfa” factory and called “Snaige”. This name is still famous. After Lithuania won the competition, the factory was rapidly built in Alytus. In the same 1963, 25 refrigerators called “Snaige-1” were made manually. However, constant development and automation of production process, in 1975 there were already more than 1million fridges of 6 different models. Soon the Lithuanian ““Snaige”” became well-known to the major part of the Soviet Union. The fridges with that strange name were famous for their quality, durability and endurance. It is well known and valued in Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Belorussia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekia (Uzbekistan), Tadzhikia (Tadzhikistan), Kirghizia, Turkmenia (Turkmenistan), Kazakhstan, Moldavia. For a long time, representatives of nomenclature were awarded with “Snaige” for special merits of the party. In 1979, a
National Sign of Quality was given to “Snaige” production. In 1983, “Snaige” fridges were started to be exported to foreign countries: Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, even Cuba. Refrigerator factory in Alytus was one of the few large factories which, although after a small shock, managed not only to survive but also become a successful company. The most important reasons of “Snaige’s” success are modernity and flexibility. At all times, the Chief Executives o “Snaige” paid attention to modernizing the processes of production and innovations in the newest refrigerator technologies, as well as applying ecological standards. Specialists from “Snaige” always took part in the most famous international exhibitions of household appliances, visited other factories of refrigerators. They tried to apply their gained experience in “Snaige”. This way “Snaige” fridges were constantly changing, developing, there were more and more models and modifications. SC “Snaige”w produces refrigerators and freezers of 6 kinds: RF – fridges with freezers below; FR – fridges with freezers above; F – deep-freezes; C – fridges without freezers; CD – fridges-window-cases; R – single-door fridges with freezers, minibars.
During the 9 months of 2008 “Snaige” sold most fridges with freezers below: more than 132,000. It sold more than 93,000 fridges with freezers above, deep-freezes – almost 58,000, other appliances – almost 37,000. In 2007 SC ““Snaige”” modernized its production and released “Snaige” Ice Loic – the branch of fridges of a new design. The new models are special not only because of their modern design but also a unique freezing system which allows reaching a higher effectiveness class without extra input. This is due to a special inner construction of the fridges. The only producer of household fridges in the Baltic States creates and produces fridges that always meet the international standards, stand out for their modern design and innovative technical solutions. “AE srl – Appliance Engineering”, one of the world-famous Italian engineering centre has confirmed the quality and design of ““Snaige” Ice Logic” branch. “AE srl – Appliance Engineering” experts tested the new ““Snaige” Ice Logic“ and evaluated it as the future model which will gain a long-term appreciation. The Italian engineering centre which is famous for its ideas of household appliances has worked with the most famous producers of household appliances, such as “Electrolux”, “Whirpool”, “Candy”, etc.
On the right: New line of “Snaige”fridges
Below: Point-of-sale equipment
In Lithuania, the new branch of fridges became the winner of the Lithuanian National Prize of Innovations 2007 in the category of Innovative Product. Meanwhile, one of the models of the newest branch – RF 34 was rewarded the gold medal in the “Lithuanian Product of the Year 2007” contest. The sales results of the new-design fridges are delightful, too. 4 months after presenting ““Snaige” Ice Logic” to the market, one model from the new series took the second place in the list of the best sold fridges in Lithuania. At the end of last year ““Snaige” Ice Logic” models made almost 50 percent of all SC ““Snaige”” sales. The renewed trademark of “Snaige” was presented along with the new branch o
models of “Snaige” Ice Logic. The current trademark symbolizes a new period of the company’s work. The “Snaige” Ice Logic fridges were not the only things released. The machinery of the new branch production were installed and the organizational structure of the company, as well as managing and business planning systems, were renewed. Ice Logic is not just a title of the new model series. With this name, we are trying to stress the workability and briefness of the new fridge. “Snaige” Ice logic not only reflects controlled cold, but also its most effective use. Today “Snaige” products successfully compete with production of other companies in more than 40 countries. The company exports almost 97 percent of the production. The main markets of the company are Ukraine, Russia, Germany, France, the Baltic States. In most of the markets “Snaige” takes positions in the Top 5 sellers despite big competition (Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Bulgaria, Croatia, and Kazakhstan). More than 60 percent of all production is presented under the “Snaige” trademark. The other part of “Snaige” is produced for such famous brands as Whirpool, Fagor Brandt and other biggest producers in Western Europe. The company also produces fridges for the biggest European retail networks of household appliances “Metro” and “Tesco”, the biggest French retail net-
work of household appliances “Conforama”, the biggest Belgian retail network of household appliances “Eldi”, “Quelle” which takes 30 percent of household appliances market in the whole Germany, also such retail networks of household appliance as “Exquisit“ (Netherlands), “Elon“ (Sweden), “Casino“ (France), “Punkt One“ (Denmark), “Expert“ (Norway), etc. This year ““Snaige”“ signed a contract with an Italian producer of kitchen appliances and produced 5,000 fridges under SMEG trademark that were exported to Italy, Spain and Portugal. SMEG is famous as a producer of household appliances of high technology and special design, chosen by consumers who value harmony between aesthetics and quality. It’s expensive appliances of “premium” category. Lithuanian consumers know the
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS non-traditional shaped SMEG fridges with rounded corners of 1950’s style, but SMEG dishwashers and kitchen-ranges are very popular in Europe. Style and design plays a very important role in this producer’s philosophy. The fact of SMEG choosing “Snaige” is the appreciation of Ice Logic design and quality. It’s not just style what SMEG appreciates. Italian constructors guarantee the highest quality of the product using this brand: large amount of attention is paid to technologic innovations and design solutions. The quality of production materials, modern technology, constant checking of quality and development of every detail – these are the values of SMEG which are very important to “Snaige”, too. It’s been 60 years as the stylish producer of household appliances has been presenting its products to the international market. Every branch of SMEG products is made in cooperation with famous designers and architects (i.e. Guido Canali). You can find everything you need in SMEG’s product series of special design: ovens, heating surfaces, vapor hoods, fridges, dish-washers, sinks, faucets, washing machines, various accessories.
ated according to the newest tendencies of the fridge fashion; it stands out for straight lines, angular forms, sharp edges. The interior design is special for its new and more convenient placement of shelves, ware and other interior elements. It was determined that women usually pay more attention to design and functionality while men are more interested in technologies and quality. All fridges made in SC “Snaige” factory are created by local constructors and designers. That’s a complicated process: it takes at least two years to create a fridge, so it’s important to forecast what fridges will be fashionable in a few years.
The marketing actions within Lithuania aren’t very active, as only 3 percent of the whole production is sold here. These actions are limited to certain promotions, different loyalty programs, expositions, advertising and communicational messages in the press and the Internet (there are a few examples for presentation). The company is much more active in the big markets of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. There are more advertising campaigns in TV, conferences for customers, etc. Competition in all markets is very big, so it’s natural that market fragmentation is becoming stronger. But the philosophy of “Snaige” isn‘t changing: its products should help creating a good and pleasant life.
Above : Presentation of new fridge On the right: Some experimental models
Design of freezing appliances is as important as functional and technical features. The design trends have impact on color, technologic features, interior complexity, etc, though it may be a bit weaker than, let’s say, in the car industry. We are glad that the exterior fridge design was cre PORTFOLIO 115
Photo by Rokas Medonis
GOOD DESIGN IS (STILL)GOOD BUSINESS
CENTRUM GRAVITATIS What winds brought you to study in Great Britain? A simple curiosity attracted me to live in a foreign state, to get to know studies there and their difference from the ones in Lithuania. The perspectives for the career seemed to be better in England. After getting to know about Bedfordshire University, I decided to try entering it, although I intended to enter Vilnius Art Academy as well. When I received the answer on the enrollment from Britain, I choose Bedfordshire. What the studies at Bedfordshire University distinguished for? I think they distinguish themselves for abundance of practical works: often famous or successfully working designers were invited to teach us; we were provided an opportunity of working with new “apple” computers and using professional cameras, if necessary. The tasks were original, no of them was tedious. Some projects were developed for contests: if the lecturer assesses your project positively, you can take part in D&AD or YCN contests. Implementation of projects was well organized; we learned correctly criticize other works. What induced you to come back to Lithuania? It was a job: while developing my Diploma Project (the design of “Kauno diena” daily), I got to know that I‘ll be engaged as the head designer. In the period of my studies in England, I understood that the problem of career is very complicated in this country. The competition is severe; in addition, it is not a secret that the British unwillingly recognize foreigners, in particular Lithuanians
Was the distant communication with the client successful? Please, describe your creative brief? There were some difficulties bound with communication by internet. On discussing by e-mail, sometimes misunderstanding Please, describe the start and the goals of the took place, for example, we wrongly interrenovation of “Kauno diena”? Was there a preted the emotions of each other; somecontest? times we were involved in a stormy quarrel It was not a contest. I came to Lithuania for and then understood that we were going to Christmas holiday and fell seriously ill be- say the same. After dispatching the comfore flying back, so was forced to postpone pleted works, I hoped to receive an immethe flying. When I was recovered and only diate answer and to follow the task; howseveral days remained before the departure, ever, I often waited for an answer for a long I occasionally got acquainted with the new time and worried. The long distant caused Managing director of “Diena Media News” a considerable stress. We communicated (DMN). At that time, he looked for a new by “Skype”, the communication often broke, designer for an alteration of the existing the editors with the Director were together design of “Kauno diena” and I was thinking and I was alone, everybody was speaking about a subject of my Diploma Project. So, simultaneously... Sometimes the situation we agreed that I should try to develop a cou- was really complicated. ple of draft versions after coming back to England and – if they satisfy the customer What impacted the development of the new – I‘d turn to the work. First of all, I collected conception of the daily? How the process of examples of the existing “Kauno diena”, de- creation ran? veloped the plan of works (in co-operation The editors and the Director provided the with my lecturer) and implemented each concept of the newspaper, its target audiitem of the plan for one or more weeks, ence and so on. In course of the creative showing the results to the lecturers and fu- process, I had to yield a point to the “jury” ture colleagues and discussing them upon. of DMN, because it was my first real serious The first stage included research of designs work and I ought to be thankful for the proof other newspapers. Then development of vided opportunity of doing it. I sent several layout, search for fonts, formation of styles, versions of each phase of the project’s plan designing of the front and other pages fol- for reviewing and then disputed whether lowed. The most important task was turn- the version chosen by them was really the ing the daily into a modern one that is mostly fit. It was excellent that I discussed adapted for more conservative persons. upon the same with my lecturers weekly and their opinion often helped to conciliate the client as well. I was fully devoted to with our “good reputation“. Sometimes I dream about master studies abroad; however, I know that I‘ll come back to Lithuania after completion of the studies, because I understood that here I feel best.
-JFUVWBQ -JFUVWB M.Rinau buvusiai Ĺžmonai neliko skolingas.
6ySJCJTQ Q Poetui â€“ treji metai nelaisvÄ—s. DukterÄŻ suĹžalojÄ™s Ĺžinomas poetas Sigitas Geda teismo skirtÄ… bausmÄ™ turÄ—s atlikti atvirojoje kolonijoje.
On the left: The newspaper after the facelift.
1BTBVMJTQ Q EkonominÄ— pasaulio krizÄ— siautÄ—ja, tad asmeniniĹł tragedijĹł bus daugiau, ir ne tik JAV.
On the right: The newspaper before the facelift. New supplements of the newspaper
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ianâ€? and they were very useful. I got to know some landmarks of the creative process. Later I got acquainted with him and sometimes asked about his opinion or his advice. At the University, I also communicated with our lecturers â€“ female designers from â€œKapitzaâ€? (www.kapitza.com), engaged in fonts, illustration, book design and so on. It was interesting to listen to history of their career and their advices related to a job at a company and establishing the own business.
What difficulties were met in the creative process? How long the work lasted? The work lasted for about 4 months. The Prenumerata most serious difficulty was a restriction of 2009 metams the creative process by the creative brief and the imaginable reader for whom the Q gPLPMBEBT design of the daily should be acceptable. The reader of â€œKauno dienaâ€? was supposed this work and desired only creating, noth- by emotions, I waited for finish of the proj- to be of conservative attitude, so the daily ing else. The process of creation ran in the ect and return to Lithuania. should not look too challenging. The reader following way: I lied in the bed with a comis used to the existing design and is not inputer on my stomach surrounded with piles Did you communicate with other designclined to too striking changes. Such changof printed patterns of newspapers, books ers or ask their advice during the process of es can estrange the reader. The maximum and records and developed abundant ver- creation? volume of materials for reading should be sions until I found anything fit for me; af- First of all, my lecturers were authoritative remained. The first page (where I could to ter dark, I put the computer next to the bed designers. Iâ€™d like to single out Noel Doug- express myself to the maximum extent) and made a fresh start in the morning again las (www.noeldouglas.net) who consulted was particularly strictly controlled. Somefor a whole day. I did not think about any me most frequently. I highly respect him times I was forced to recognize that my verentertainment; it seemed to me that even for excellent advices and the ability to show sions looked too challenging as compared eating takes too much time. Sometimes I a proper direction to a student having lost to the target and to refuse them. In addition, visited â€œBritish Libraryâ€? for searching for his/her way; beyond any doubts, his works I was not inclined to publishing abundant innovations in layout development and so speak for themselves. advertisements on the first page; however, on in books. I knew that an opportunity to it was required. develop such important and serious first The second success was the fact that his project (and to pretend for a position of the friend was the artistic director of â€œThe However, it was my Diploma project and head designer) is rarely provided to a stu- Guardianâ€? daily. He was invited to deliver the lecturers expected something exclusive dent, so it was a difficult period: overcome several lectures on redesign of â€œThe Guard- and modern from my side. They told: â€œWe "NFSJLBJUÄ?TUBTFJMÄ‰ EÄ‰MMJFUVWJĹ‚NFSHJOĹ‚
expect you introduce anything innovative into the world of design after graduation from the studies instead of making works that are already carried out“. I mostly wished to express myself in layout; however, it was mostly restricted by DMN. It was the key difficulty – the contradiction between my wish, the expectations of the lecturers and the provisions of the creative brief and the target group. However, I was almost absolutely free in choosing details of the style and fonts, so I successfully developed an intermediate version. One more difficulty was suffered when I got to know that Lithuanian company “Brandscape“ (not me) was engaged for making the logotype of “Kauno diena”, although I had submitted my offer already. After long disputes, a questioning was arranged and my logotype won. The fonts of the daily are really successfully chosen – please, tell some words about their search and choosing? I looked for fonts in internet. It was the most pleasant part of the work. The key font of the text (“Qiuosco”) was found at the American shop “Fontbureau” (www.fontbureau.com) where a majority of American newspapers order fonts. It appeared to be modern and interesting; in addition, the bold font could be fit for more gutter-press supplement not looking too cheap and tawdry. At present, I use it for headings of the supplement “Sokoladas“ (“Chocolate”). I chose the other family of fonts ( “Taz”) for its elegance and simple nicety. I wished to combine the key serific with the sans serific
How would you assess the general level of the design of printed production in Lithuania? In my opinion, a majority of publications look too conservative and lack modernity; it seems that some publishers are not aware of innovations of design in foreign states or are not concerned about them. There is a lack of variety of fonts and a perception of the fact that they are no less important part of design than other parts. Both the contents and the appearance of a publication represent it.
one, and the said font was particularly fit. It is very convenient that “Taz” has 7 styles What can you advice to designers of our and it is possible to manipulate with them. publications? More freedom and subtlety in developing The last font was being chosen for head- layouts, more space and thoroughness in ings and its search was the longest because choosing fonts for publications and taking I could not find a fit one: it ought to be sav- interest in innovations. ing the space, not too rough, but modern. “Georgia” (free of charge font) seemed to What technology and softwares do you use? be fit for me. Although it is compared with I use “Adobe CS” softwares “InDesign”, “Pho“Times New Roman”, in fact “Georgia” as- toshop” and “Illustrator”, “Apple” computer; cenders and descenders are sufficiently unfortunately, drawing is some forgot :) modern. Nevertheless, I’d like to replace this font, but I had not found a font that To what extent, updating of the technical and would fully satisfy me, like “Taz” or “Qiu- creative knowledge is important for you? osco”. It is very important. I always think about progressing. Mostly I’d like progressing in Is it known whether the new design of softwares; in any case, taking an interest in “Kauno diena” impacted the financial indica- design innovations is unavoidable. At prestors of the daily? ent, I have no time for making anything in It is impossible stating this directly; how- addition to those works that are being carever, the new design was an important ried out; however, it is not a justification. I part of the transformation of the news- must study, develop projects, discuss, visit paper that provided positive results exhibitions… Yes, I dream to be involved in shown by the investigations completed. studies only, but it would be a luxury. What do you mostly like in the today European (world) design? At present, I take a greatest interest in newspapers, so I can say that their design in Europe becomes more and more similar to design of magazines; large details and expressive fonts predominate; almost all
Does music help you in creation and work? Generally, music is very important in my life: loved good music inspires new ideas. However, when the time for working with a computer comes and I should be concentrated, I prefer working in silence. What plans for future? The question without an answer. At present, I am concentrated to the existing work and have no time to plan anything else; however, I always am open to interesting offers. PORTFOLIO 119
newspapers bold important details in texts. However, quite different and nice newspapers are abundant. Almost every country has the own style. As my authority the artistic director of “The Guardian” told, he never cares about the trends and chooses the own way.
Photo by Robertas Jucaitis
MOTYVUOTI IR SUTARTINIAI ŽENKLAI
žuvis, žymi jūros gėrybių parduotuvę – tai motyvuotas ženklas. Kita vertus,
iškaba, kurioje pavaizduota pelėda, On the left: SovietIš esmės advertisement of “Vaiva” audio gali priklausyti knygynui. Nėra tiesiovisi ženklai yra sutartiniai, ginio ryšio tarp pelėdos ir knygų, todėl tik susitarimo laipsniai, kurie nusako tape recorder with a radio set. The 70s turime žinoti, kad pelėda šiuo atveju prasmę, atskiruose ženkluose gali būti simbolizuoja išmintį, kuri įgaunama skirtingi. Susitarimai gali būti daugiau Signboard of “Kalnapilis” beer . The 40s. skaitant knygas. Tai sutartinis ženklas, ir mažiau apibrėžti. Aiškų sąlygiškumą 1950–1970
udrius Klimas’ (professor of Design department in Vilnius Art Academy) book “Lithuanian Trademarks” is the first publication of this kind in Lithuania. In fact, there are two books in one. The first one covers a short analysis of trademarks history, their functions, theories of communication, the impact of graphic design on the creation of trademarks. The second part includes history of Lithuanian trademarks with lots of illustrations from the four historical periods from the interwar to nowadays. Trademarks (or logos) reflect the historical and economical development of Lithuania; at the same time, they tell us a lot about art streams and social expectations of a period. The interwar trademarks were very illustrative, with lots of motives of sun, dawn which objectified hopes for better life after surviving the losses during the World War One. The economy of socialistic system didn't care about people, production of everyday goods wasn't developed well. Neither was there any competition nor open market, so trademarks became a part of primitive utensils, made by military industry. But we shouldn't underestimate designers' talent of that period. Pathetic instruments for creation, poor press technology determined extremely simple but functional flexible solutions.
63 135 Magnetolos „Vaiva“ naudojimo instrukcija. Eksperimentinis taros ir
simbolizuojanti daryklos pa-
Alaus daryklos i‰kaboje
vadinimà (sutartinis Ïenklas).
pavaizduotas Ïenklas, su-
sidedantis i‰ dviej˜ dali˜ –
Metalas, emalò, XX a. 3 de‰.
alaus butelis (motyvuotas
Ïenklas) ir trikampò forma,
After gaining independence, private business took off, the sector of production and services blossomed out. Some radical economic changes brought a huge need for graphic design, marketing and advertising. Creation of a trademark became an issue not just for a designer and his client - specialists of market research, advertising and marketing joined them, too. Today a trademark is more and more often understood as a tool for generating extra value for a product or service, and for organizations and producers it has become a concurrent part of their business face. There are 416 trademarks published in the book. They were gathered from designers, collectors, personal archives, libraries and museums. The authors of all trademarks are famous Lithuanian designers, so it'll be interesting for a reader identify a trademark with the authors' personality. The book was published using the wherewithal of European Union Structural Funds and European Social Fund Agency. In the introduction of prof. A.Klimas' book we can find some thoughts about the purpose of a trademark: "A trademark is a sign for telling the word who you are, become famous, be different than the others. Most often it is the producer, service presenter of a service or simply a message sender that are identified by a trademark.
Despite the large distribution of trademarks, there is comparatively little literature about them. It's very important to know that trademarks are comprehended visually, that is they have form and content which is brought into the light by some coded meaning through colors, forms, symbols, etc. Such things make them conspicuous. We will understand the "Coca - Cola" lettering if it's written in the famous style than in any other. Also trademarks have one more mission: to join the nature of the trademark with the product, add some features of the trademark to the product with that trademark. For example, cars with a stylized jaguar sign associate with such animal features like speed, energy and aggressiveness. In fact, trademarks have many more functions than identifying and distinguishing producers and goods. In most cases the trademark itself carries particular value which increases the importance of the company, service or product. Companies use advertising and marketing means to create reputation for their trademarks, stimulating a positive opinion about that service or product. This opinion is the attitude to buy the product. In any case, a product with a good trademark means more than without it. Identification, marking, value creation these are just a few possible functions of a trademark. There is no discipline which
kuris suprantamas žinant jo reikšmę arba daug kartų užsukant į knygyną. Moksle, kur visi ženklai yra sutartiniai, jų prasmė vienareikšmė ir aiški, pavyzdžiui, „+“ reiškia sudėtį, „x“ – daugybą. Abejonių nėra. Reklamoje, kur daugelis ženklų natūraliai suprantami, reikšmė taip pat tampa aiški, tarkim, „Marlboro“ reklamoje kaubojus reiškia vyrišką jėgą.
Socialistinės ekonomikos pagrindas – sunkioji pramonė, kuri daugiausia dirbo karinėms reikmėms, vadovaulemia susitarimai, neaiškų – vartojimo damasi Komunistų partijos nutarimais gerinti piliečių buitį, kartais gamindavo įpročiai. ir plataus vartojimo prekes. AtskirosSusitarimo klausimas tiesiogiai prekės nebuvo identifikuojamos prekių susijęs su tuo, ar ženklas yra motyženklais – juos atstojo gamintojo vuotas, t. y. primenantis objektą ar ženklas. Prekės turėjo pavadinimus, Semiotikos prasme motytačiau vartotojai dažniausiai jas sąlyginis. siejo su gamintojo vardu (Šiaulių televizorius) ar ženklas yra toks, kai nereikia vuotas tiesiog – pienas, batai, šaldytuvas. ypatingo susitarimo norint jį suprasti. Spaudos technologija ir dizaino Jums nereikia daug žinoti siekiant instrumentai buvo primityvūs – gumos suprasti, kad iškaba, kurioje nupiešta klijai, tušas, reisfederis, skriestuvas. Jeigu prekės ženklas buvo skirtas gamyklai – jis dažniausiai braižytas, kietų, konstruktyvių formų, jeigu kultūros leidiniui – pieštas ar rašytas ranka. Socialistinė ekonomika transformavo prekių ženklų funkcijas, jas susiaurino iki informacinės žymos, o konkurencijos nebuvimas reklamą ir pardavimo technologijas tiesiog panaikino. Prekė tapo savaimine verte, be logotipų, prekių vardų, pakuotės.
Kazlų Rūdos medienos
Kartono dirbini˜ ∞monò
Gargždų metalo apdirbimo
Klaipėdos aklųjų gamybinis
Diz. Kęstutis Šveikauskas
Diz. Kęstutis Šveikauskas
Diz. M. Urmanavičiūtė
Diz. Gediminas Žilys
Diz. Astrida Žilinskaitė
Diz. Romualdas Svaškevičius
Diz. Teresò Ivanauskaitė
Diz. P. Šarkūnas
Diz. Kęstutis Šveikauskas
Diz. Gediminas Žilys
Klaipėdos bald˜ fabrikas.
Kauno aklųjų gamybinis
Savaitra‰tis „Literatra ir
Kauno pieno kombinatas.
AB „Anykščių vynas”
Diz. Romualdas Svaškevičius
Diz. Kęstutis Ramonas
Diz. Elena Lisauskienė
Diz. R. Dočkutė
Diz. Jurgis Raslanas,
172 Kauno gumos gaminių
Diz. Gediminas Žilys
could outline or analyze them. We face such things as anthropology, heraldy, history, psychology, marketing, branding, communication theory and, of course, graphic design. Trademarks were born when industry and economics were developing rapidly, when due to market conditions it became important for producers to differ from their competitors and help consumers to make sense in the plenty of similar goods. Economics and market started developing rapidly after the World War Two, when consumers were offered products and services of basically new quality, based on the most modern technology of the time and on the need of major society to compensate the temporarily lost comfort. In Lithuania, it
Diz. Telesforas Kulakauskas
was different from the Western Europe: socialistic economy conditioned commercial relationships and in general declined the need of identifying competition (also products and services). During the "lack period", when it was difficult to get even simple household products, the industry of design and advertising became totally unnecessary. We cannot say that during that period trademarks didn't exist: just their functions were narrowed. The need of identification became a simple need to have a different sign, not just verbal name of the producer, but also some decorative and aesthetic sign that in fact didn't formulate any opinion about a product or producer in consumers' minds. So trademarks lost their main function - to be the connection between the producer and the consumer, highlight advantages and encourage buying. Socialistic economy was poor in terms of consumer goods production, i.e. industry was not orientated into everyday needs. Therefore the trademarks which denoted that industry were doomed to stay just decorative additions. A trademark had no chances to become a brand,
unless some Sputnik, Russkaya Vodka or Chyornaya ikra (Black caviar) which were being thrust into the Western world by the Soviet ideology. The purpose of this publication is to review the origin, nature, kinds of meaning transfer, classification possibilities of trademarks, also overlook the historical and qualitative development of Lithuanian trademarks.
Saldainių fabrikas „Birutė“,
Leidykla „Švyturys“, Kaunas.
Kojinių fabrikas „Silva“,
Leidykla „Dirva“, Kaunas.
Spaustuvė „Rytas“, Klaipėda.
Leidykla „Kultūros bendrovė“,
„Lietuvos Loidas“, Kaunas.
Kojinių fabrikas „Cotton“.
Leidykla „Vaiva“, Kaunas.
Draudimo draugija „Lietuva“,
Akcinė bendrovė „Nemunas“,
Kojinių fabrikas „Ulkas“,
Verpalų įmonė, Kaunas.
Švietimo ministerija, Kaunas.
Leidykla „Sakalas“, Kaunas.
Prekės ženklas gali turėti keliolika savybi˜, kuriomis j∞ galime apibdinti: Unikalumas Pagrindinis prekės ženklo tikslas – išryškinti kompanijos komunikacijos, nuosavybės ir gaminių skirtumus: tai esame mes, o ne kas nors kitas; mes esame savininkas, ne kas nors kitas; tai pagaminome mes, o ne kas nors kitas. Taigi ir grafinė prekės ženklo išraiška turi būti kitokia, skirtis nuo kitų savininkų ir gamintojų, kitaip tariant, skirtis nuo konkurentų prekių ženklų.
Dėmesio išlaikymas Kai kurie ženklai vartotojo dėmesį gali išlaikyti daugiau nei sekundės dalį – galbūt dėl to, kad turi tam tikrų grafinių savybių, kurios padeda ne tik atkreipti, bet ir išlaikyti dėmesį. Neįprastos formos ir prasmės, iliuzijos, mįslės, deformuoti vaizdai – tai priemonės, kurios išlaiko dėmesį ir skatina identifikacijos procesą.
Grafinė kokybė Prekės ženklas, būdamas meniškas ar turintis tam tikrą simbolinę reikšmę, gali labai prisidėti prie gaminių ar paslaugų kokybės. Grafinė kokybė byloja apie gaminio kokybę. Tokiu būdu prekės ženklas, būdamas tik verslo dalelė, atstovauja visam verslui. 66
„Balso tembras“ Per „balso tembrą“ prekės ženklas gali daug pasakyti apie kompaniją ar jos gaminius. Bendrą efektą galima pasiekti pasitelkiant opozicijų poras: elegantiškas – bukas, agresyvus – subtilus, humaniškas – technologiškas, natūralus – pagamintas, tradicinis – modernus, bendras – išskirtinis, brangus – pigus.
Nuolatinis kartojimas Visų minėtų savybių efektas gali būti daug kartų sustiprintas nuolat eksponuojant prekės ženklą. Siekti būti atpažintam nuolat kartojant – teisingas dizaino programų tikslo siekimo metodas. 69
Santūrumas Dizaino programų tikslas – bendrauti. Kai kurios kompanijos to nori nuolat, kai kurios – ne. Kai kurios bendrauja agresyviai, kai kurios – subtiliai.
Vertė Būdamas daugiau ar mažiau unikalus, prekės ženklas gali patraukti dėmesį, kas garantuoja, kad jis bus lengvai atpažįstamas. Tai sukuria prekės ženklo vertę. Atpažinimo metu mes niekaip negalime „padėti“ prekės ženklui, todėl dėmesį patraukiantys ženklai turi savybę tapti įsimenamais.
Asociacija Kai kurie prekių ženklai nurodo kompanijos ar gaminių prigimtį.
Atvaizdas Daugelis prekių ženklų atspindi tikslią informaciją apie kompaniją ar jos gaminius.
Reputacija Prekės ženklas gali įgyti didesnę vertę, jeigu gaminys ar kompanija turi gerą reputaciją. Ši vertė gali būti perkelta ir į gaminius ar paslaugas. Tokios kompanijos kaip „Cartier“ ar „Yves Saint Laurent“ savo kompanijų vardus naudoja daugybei sričių, tiesiogiai nesusijusių su pirmine šių kompanijų veikla, plėtoti.
Laiki‰kumas Prekòs Ïenklas naudojamas sukurti patikimos, laiko i‰bandytos prekòs ar paslaugos nuojautà. 68
Kai kurios identifikacijos rūšys funkcionuoja visiškai priešingai nei kitos. Pavyzdžiui, „dėmesio išlaikymo“ ir „santrumo“ savybės veikia visiškai priešingai. Taigi vienas ženklas gali turėti kelias savybes.
PREKIˆ ŽENKLŲ SAVYBĖS
Alytaus vyno gamykla.
TrikotaÏo gamykla „Utenos
Îuvies produktai „Zigmas“.
J. Karoso vardo vaik˜
„Rotary“ klubo ženklelis –
Vie‰butis „Navalis“. Klaipòda.
Naftos produktų prekybos
Diz. Raisa Šmuriginaitė
Diz. Giedrò Lisauskaitò
muzikos mokykla, Klaipòda.
mažas, bet labai gerai
Diz. Aidas Urbelis
Diz. Sigitas Gužauskas
Diz. Jratò Bizauskienò
Diz. Alvydas Klimas
Diz. Jurginas Îilys 61 Prekybos tinklas „Maxima”. Dizaino firma „MAP”
On the left & this page: Spreads from the book PORTFOLIO 123
Photo by Robertas Jucaitis
MODERN HERALDRY OF LITHUANIA By Edmundas Rimsa
2 1. Blazon of Druskininkai Designer: A.Tarabilda 2. Blazon of Vilnius Designer: A.Kazdailis 3. Blazon of Vyzuonos Designer: A.Kazdailis 4. Blazon of Dusetos Designer: A.Kazdailis 5. Blazon of Ylakiai Designer: A.Kazdailis
Unfortunately, the revivification of the historical heraldry was not favoured by everybody. Sometimes an opportunity of abrogating blazons of certain towns was used. In July 1970, the 30-year anniversary of the Soviet regime was celebrated in Lithuania. On this occasion, the Republic Song Festival took place in Vilnius and its constituent part – the cortege – became one of the most impressive and colourful events in Lithuania. Delegations of towns came to the Festival with their historical and new blazons, carried outspread armorial flags and other banners. For the first time in the Soviet period, the formerly prohibited values of the past were made public. After the Song Festival, the Communist authorities recognized blazons to be an expression of nationalism of Lithuanians. The towns were ordered to
he year 1966 should be considered the year of renaissance of heraldry of Lithuanian towns, when the Republic Heraldry Commission (probably, the first institution of such a kind within the total period of the existence of the Lithuanian state) was established under the Ministry of Culture. Vice-minister Vytautas Jakelaitis was the Head of the Commission. Within about four years of its activities, the Commission approved blazons of 46 towns and boroughs. In that period, a reestablishment of historical blazons based on religious motives was particularly complicated. For example, in the blazon standing on Anyksciai bridge, a girl with a book in her one hand and a lily in her second hand appeared instead of St. Johann Nepomuk. In the blazons of Plunge and Siauliai, the Divine Eye is turned into a stylized sun. Because of insufficient investigation, some inaccuracies were not avoided as well. In the blazon of Ariogala, swords appeared instead of the crossed slashers; in the blazon of Jurbarkas, the position of the armorial lilies was altered; in the blazon of Birzai, the colours were permuted and so on. However, all these facts do not reduce the importance of the initiated activities. Namely in the said period, new principles of formation of blazons appeared. In addition, the extraordinary talented personality of artist Arunas Tarabilda showed up in the same period. His blazons for Druskininkai, Kaisiadorys, Neringa and other towns should decorate heraldry of any state. There would be an uncertainty about today blazons of our towns in absence of the foundation for their renaissance in the said period.
5 PORTFOLIO 125
6. Blazon of Girkalnis Designer: R .Rimkunas 7. Blazon of Islauzas Designer: R.Rimkunas 8. Blazon of Marcinkonys Designer: A.Kazdailis 9. Blazon of Lekeciai Designer: R.Miknevicius 10. Blazon of Merkine Designer: A.Kazdailis 11. Blazon of Pandelys Designer: A.Kazdailis 12. Blazon of Pakruojis Designer: J.Galkus
6 remove the created blazons from their entries and other landmarks; using of blazons was prohibited even in souvenirs. In the late 1987, the Republic Heraldry Commission under the Ministry of Culture was reestablished; in 1990, it was named Lithuanian Heraldry Commission, and since the year 1995 it is subordinated to the President of Republic of Lithuania. Just in the beginning of its activities, all blazons approved before the year 1970 were examined and it was decided to correct 21 blazons â€“ a part of them ought to be altered and the other part ought to be made anew. It was caused by the following circumstances: within the period of the standstill of the Commission, a number of important sources of heraldry and the results of
7 126â€ƒ PORTFOLIO
8 new examinations were published; finally, starting of the disintegration of the Soviet Union caused an appearance of quite other opportunities for revivification of historical heraldry. Recently, abundant works related to restoration of old blazons of towns and creation new ones were completed. These results were achieved not only thanks to the merits of Lithuanian Heraldry Commission. Often the population, the self-government and the local administration provide original and meaningful ideas for new blazons of a town or a borough. In such a case, the remained task for Heraldry Commission is dressing of the idea with the heraldry-related outfit. The Heads of Akmene, Pakruojis, Siauliai self-governments and the local administrations that created and approved almost all possible blazons are worth of honour; self-governments of Alytus, Sakiai, Utena, Vilkaviskis are not behind with their works; however, self-governments of Ignalina, Jonava, Kedainiai, Kupiskis, Mazeikiai, Pasvalys, Taurage had legalized blazons of their district centers only. Although the creative activities related to new blazons distinguish themselves for great enthusiasm and goodwill, frequently lack of the rudiments takes place. Local population would like to see in their blazon everything that is important for it and already possessed by other towns. If these processes are uncontrolled, weâ€™d find abundant oaks, folk crosses, suns, castles and hunting-grounds of Grand Duke Vytautas, crowns of kings and dukes, helmets of knights, tens of Polish blazons and many other strange things that never were used in
the past in blazons of Lithuanian boroughs. It is understandable because the knowledge of the community related to the standards of heraldry and strict regulations of it as well as on the achievements of the state in this sector is poor; finally, Lithuanian heraldry takes its first steps only. At present, it is tried to reproduce old blazons of Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda, Merkine and other towns on the base of original written and iconographic sources, such as designs of blazons in muniments, urban stamps and other materials, not later interpretations of artists. However, original sources differ. In the 15th-17th centuries, depiction of blazons was of a high professional level; however, in the late 18th century, blazons often were drawn by clerks and
Working with new blazons is simpler. However, there are some things worth to be known. The best blazons are those where one or several figures of the same type are depicted. For example, there is a stork in the blazon of Ramygala and there are three vendaces (the species of fishes) one over another in the blazon of Sudeikiai. Both blazons are clear and easily memorizable. Of course, a reconciliation of the principles of heraldry with wishes of the local population is not always successful. If such reconciliation is unsuccessful, it is usually tried to divide the shield into sectors with different
10 figures. For example, the shield of the blazon of Kursenai consists of the blue and silver parts. There are golden stars on the front part and there is a jar on the rear part. Although this blazon is more complicated, such composition of figures does not contradict the standards of heraldry and historical traditions of Lithuania. As we know from practice, it is frequently wished to show the sainthood, churches and other constructions of sacral and laic architecture as well as the nobility and other heraldry in the blazon of a borough. In fact, it is not a new phenomenon; it is met in old blazons as well. However, in each case, it should be cleared up whether the offered things are so important and their remaining value makes them worthy of being included in the blazon. Sometimes it would be reasonable to think how the offered symbol will seem after 100 years. Finally, a blazon is created not only for the local population. It represents our country, its culture and heraldry in other countries, so the idea given a sense in it should be irreproachable. Some examples of creating such blazons are provided below. In the year 1993, the blazon of Kraziai, one of the first ones based on religious symbols, was approved. The locality was mostly famed for the events dated to the late 19th century when the local population made a stand against Russian authorities that strived to destroy the Benedictine church and the abbey. In the clash with policemen, gendarmes and Cossacks from the Don River, 9 persons were killed, about 50
were injured, some hundred persons were on remand and 35 persons were sentenced to imprisonment. The contemporaries referred the said events to as “massacre of Kraziai”; the actions of Russia were denounced worldwidely. This circumstance encouraged depiction of Archangel Michael, the fighter against evil, trampling underfoot a devil redolent of a Cossack in the blazon of Kraziai. The more so, as the parochial St. Michel church stood formerly there, and the picture of Archangel Michael remained. The other example is the blazon of Siluva. The locality is well-known in the Christian world for the revelation of Blessed Virgin Mary (herdsboys saw Her standing on a stone with the Baby in the hands), the Miraculous image of Mother of God and especially famous feast days of Siline. The Holy Father did not bypass this locality on his visit to Lithuania in the year 1993. So, depicting the revelation of Blessed Virgin Mary in the blazon of the locality was really reasonable. Sometimes, symbols usable in blazons can be of less importance for the whole country but very important for a specific locality, such as St. Florian for Raguva or St. Raquel for Gruzdziai. They are as if visiting-cards of the said localities for a long period already. There are hundreds constructions of sacral architecture in Lithuania. However, for the population of a small (and not ancient) borough, an unpresentable church sometimes can be the only object worth of attention. The heraldic approach to the problem states that sacral architecture can pretend to the blazon of the locality only in
this fact impacted the results. Some blazons are similar to ecclesiastic pictures, other blazons arise an association with realistic subject-oriented pictures rather than real blazons. They are often overloaded with inessentials, varicoloured trees, grass, clouds and so on; in addition, the rules of compatibility of metals and colours are frequently violated. Because of this, some things should be rejected and some other things should be altered. Nevertheless, on the restoration of blazons dated to the said period, it was tried to preserve their principal figures, composition and colours in spite of some inconsistency with the standards of heraldry. A similar behavior in respect to late blazons is observed in Czech heraldry. In other words, it is strived to preserve the spirit of the epoch, its conception of blazons. Because of this, St. Anthony with brown outfit on the black background is depicted in the blazon of Maisiagala and St. George being astride the brown horse on the blue background is depicted in the blazon of Prienai.
a case when it has a clear historical and architectural value and is presented as indisputable urbanistic monuments. Namely, for this reason, the set of the church and abbey appeared in the blazon of Tytuvenai and the church (visible at a distance) is depicted in the blazon of Linkuva. Other constructions of sacral architecture of a less importance can pretend to the blazon of the locality only in a case when they are clear attributes of the locality. For example, the blazon of Zemaiciu Kalvarija with the chapel on the hill depicted on it should be mentioned. Gardai (later named Zemaiciu Kalvarija) were famed by the image of Mother of God and the Calvaries as well as the chapels built in the locality in the first half of the 17th century, not solid architecture of churches. The same should be said about laic architecture. Probably, nobody in Lithuania can image Raudone without its Castle. So, there is no need in searching for any new symbols, if the Castle represents the locality since ancient times. In the blazon of Pakruojis, we find the bridge for horses (the only bridge of this type remained in Lithuania) and windmill, the adornment of the local landscape. In new blazons, symbolic constructions are admissible if they are historically justified and do not repeat. In the blazon of Kartena, the wooden Samogitian castle on three hills is depicted (supposedly, it was destroyed in the second half of the 18th century by German Order). The issues related to heraldry of knights and the nobility are much more complicated. It consists of various groups that include Lithuanian blazons, Polish blazons and blazons brought from other countries. The simplest issue is related to old blazons of Lithuanian knights. A majority of their owners are dead for a long time. So, their blazons are usable as blazons of towns in remembrance of them. In the blazon of knights of Giedraitis kin, the owners of Giedraiciai, a rose was depicted since the 15th century. According to the later legend, this symbol was brought to Lithuania from Italy by comrades-in-arms of Palemonas. So, one of the figures in the blazon of Giedraiciai borough is silver rose on the red background. A hippocentaur is particularly important for old heraldry. According to the legendary part of Lithuanian annals, this fantastic being was the first Lithuanian blazon, later replaced with the horseman. In the early 15th century, a hippocentaur was already used by knights of Alseniskis kin, in the 16th century – by knights of Giedraitis 128 PORTFOLIO
kin, and some later - by knights of Daumantas Siesickis kin and others. Seeking to give a sense to the old blazon in the today life, a hippocentaur was included in the blazon of Siesikai, the borough owned aforetime by Siesickis kin. Gediminaiciu stulpai / Gediminaiciai Columns/, the symbol of Kestutaiciai dynasty, found their place in the blazon of Senieji Trakai. By the way, a figure with broken corners (not known to everybody but widely used by state and public authorities), remained from Flemish heraldry dated to the first half of the 15th century was used in the said case. There are much more forgotten Lithuanian symbols that can be used in new blazons of Lithuanian boroughs.
The heraldry of the former landlords was used only in the blazon of Rokiskis as early as in the year 1970. We can find figures from the blazons of knights of Kroszinski kin, counts of Tyzenhauzas kin and Przedziecki kin. A majority of blazons offered to towns came to Lithuania from Poland. Recently even Polish historians contradict to using these symbols for urban heraldry. On the other hand, Polish blazons are not dead, they have their owners. Same as a trademark, a blazon is a property. It cannot be appropriated at one’s will. Finally, why should we use anything that does not belong to our culture? As early as in the year 1843, S. Daukantas immediately refused decorating the book “Lithuanian Acts” with the blazon of Ausros Vartai /Gate of the Dawn/, when he got to know that the horseman was connected with the eagle; in his letter to T. Narbutas, he clearly declared: ,,We do not need strange gods; we have enough the own ones". We should not forget the words of this respectable historian. Modern blazons of Lithuanian towns were supplemented with animalistic and floral symbols. Some of them represent the excellent landscape of the locality, others – its values or vanishing animals fixed in the Red Book. In the blazon of Betygala, we find an oak, in the blazon of Leipalingis — a lime, in the blazon of Bubiai — a woodgrouse, in the blazon of Kruopiai – a blackcock, in the blazon of Kuktiskes – a hoopoe; Ignalina, the region of lakes, is represented by waterlilies, Kacergine surrounded by pine forests – by pine cones, Seirijai — by vanishing pond turtles, the pure nature of Svencioneliai — by a crayfish, Varena – by a bee, Visaginas, the town of nuclear power, – by a crane and so on. A majority of the
16 listed symbols have more meanings: for example, the oak reflects the tenacity and resolution of the population of Betygala in the past battle for freedom and independence of Lithuania; a crane is a symbol of carefulness, and a bee, referred to as the queen of insects, is the symbol of diligence and concord. Ships in the blazons of Balbieriskis, Kriukai and Seredzius situated on the bank of the Nemunas River continue the ancient traditions of symbols of business and trade. In the blazon of Grigiskes (widely known for paper production), a water-mark of paper known in Lithuania since the early 15th century is presented, and in the blazon of Vievis where the printing-house known in the whole region was situated – an ancient
13. Blazon of Naujoji Uta Designer: L.Ramoniene 14. Blazon of Panevezys County Designer: R.Rimkunas 15. Blazon of Raudone Designer: R.Miknevicius 16. Blazon of Rietavas Designer: A.Kazdailis 17. Blazon of Rudiskiai Designer: J.Galkus 18. Blazon of Rusne Designer: E.Brazas
Some blazons with fantastic beings were created as well. As early as in the year 1969, the blazon of Zarasai was made (approved once more in the year 1996) where the values of the nature of the region were very successfully reflected by a combination of a roe and a fish. The literary traditions of Uzventis were fixed by the winged horse Pegasus, the symbol of inspiration for poets and other creators. To the said category, the fantastic fish-whale with water springing from its back in Birstonas should be attributed as well. Birstonas is famous for its mineral water springs. That water, as if a whale, is a support for the life and the future of the spa. In the times of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, there were few “speaking” blazons. At present, this meaningful trend in formation of blazons is widely spread. We’ll mention some examples only. The name of Papile (literally “the base of a mound) is reflected by the mound and the ancient settlement at its base in the blazon of the borough; the name of Taurage (literally “the horn of auroch”) — by a horn of auroch ragas, and Tauragnai – by an auroch on a mound. The name of Kairiai (“the left”) is reflected by the ribbon in the left of the blazon and the name of Linkuva (“settlement at a meander”) is reflected by he meander of the river in the lower part of the blazon. The footbridge in the blazon of Antaliepte (“on the foot-bridge”), the roebuck (referred to as “a goat” - . koziol in Russian) in the blazon of Kazlu Ruda (“the goat’s ore”) and blossoms of apple-tree in the blazon of Obeliai (‘the apple-tree settlement”) are bound with names of towns and boroughs as well.
printing press is presented. After construction of Elektrenai Electric Power Plant and Akmene Cement Enterprise, new towns appeared; they are symbolized by stylized lightning and pickaxes as well as a flaming cement-producing furnace. The local businesses were reflected in the blazon of Pasvitinis by a hoe, the ancient agricultural implement, and hop used by brewers. Very interesting is the blazon of Lekeciai where the traditions of resin collection trade in this locality were perpetuated. Here scores of wood are depicted in a stylized manner and a drop of resin oozing between them recalls the tradition of Lithuanian linear heraldry.
17 In some blazons, the resistance of Lithuanian nation to their subjugators is reflected by military and other symbols. Swords in the above-mentioned blazons of Zarasai and Vandziogala memorize the struggle against the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword and the Teutonic Order in the past. Two swords in the blazon of Vandziogala symbolize the first letter of its name as well. In the blazon of Giedraiciai, the struggle against the Poles is reflected by the rasp and the sword adopted from the monument of battle for independence erected in the borough. The rosebush in the blazon of Domeikava memorizes the suffers of the population in its struggle against the Russian and Soviet power, and two red pinions of a hawk (the symbol of a defending fighter) in the blazon of Pandelis emphasize the sanguinary battle for freedom.
18 PORTFOLIO 129
Other ideas were dictated by science, education, and sports. In the blazon of Barzdai, the kerosene lamp over books recalls the period of Lithuanian press ban and the feats of book-hawkers. The hand disseminating grain into the soil symbolizes science and education in he blazon of Ginkunai. Three running horses in the blazon of Dusetos recall the traditional horseracing on the ice of the lake, and the steeplechase horseman in the blazon of Priekule symbolizes the favourite branch of sports in the region.
20 19. Blazon of Zarasai Designer: R.Miknevicius 20. Blazon of Siesikai Designer: A.Kazdailis 21. Blazon of Salantai Designer: A.Kazdailis 22. Blazon of Taurage County Designer: A.Kazdailis 23. Blazon of Upyte Designer: A.Kazdailis
On restoring historical blazons of Lithuanian towns and boroughs and creating new ones, pomp and external splendour are avoided; the attention is focused to professional depiction of the figure in a blazon. Because of this, large blazons with abundant decoration around the shield, crowns of ranks, decorated helmets of knights, stags, slogans and so on are rarely met in our country. In this sense, we are cherishers of the armorial traditions of the Nordic and Central Europe. Even the reserved decoration of the blazons of Anyksciai, Birzai, Kalvarija, Siauliai and some other towns, except of only Vilnius probably, that is based on the provisions of historical sources, does not distinguish itself in the joint regional context. Herein, we have mentioned only the most important issues and the most popular subjects of the modern heraldry of towns and boroughs. It can be stated that some of them present a direct continuation of the old traditions of heraldry. Other issues, such as religious symbols, sacral and laic architecture, heraldry of dukes, were provided with new meanings. Heraldry was supplemented with new symbols of trade and business, fantastic beings; in addition,. “speaking” blazons appeared. Events of last centuries dictated new themes for blazons, such as the ones related to science, education, sports, struggle of Lithuanians for freedom and independence. This attests that modern Lithuanian heraldry meaningfully supplements the cultural and public life of the country.
23 130 PORTFOLIO
By Rolandas Rimkunas and Danute Zoviene Photos by Kestutis Stoskus
BEAUTIFUL BOOKS ARE RARELY DUSTY
his, year 29 Lithuanian publishers have presented 90 new titles to compete at the book art competition Vilnius 2007. Based on new regulations drafted by the Ministry of Culture, they fall into six categories. The number of books awarded also changed compared with previous years. The jury had to select one book from all the candidates as the most beautiful Lithuanian book of 2007, also, one premium and two diplomas were awarded within each category. For some reason (one might be the fact that the competition takes place at the start of 2008), publishers showed more sluggish participation and presented fewer books than in previous years. This event is organized since 1993, and a similar number of publications, below a hundred, was registered in 1997 and 2003. Only 63 books competed in 2001, the smallest number in the history of the event. The number of participating publishers over 15 years has stayed more or less stable, fluctuating from 20 (1997) to 35 (1998). Such participation does not provide for an accurate statistical picture of publishing in Lithuania, which is better reflected by the key event in book publishing, Vilnius Book Fair, held in the end of February and featuring new titles published during the last year. It shows a much higher number of publishers and new titles. The winners of the competition of the art of the book organized by the Ministry of Culture, the Lithuanian Artists’ Association and Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts are announced at the fair. The goal of the competition is to select the best artistically designed and best printed books produced by Lithuanian publishers and encourage book artists, publishers and printers to seek better results. The jury faced quite a complex task in selecting the winners. The books were judged based on the criteria established by the rules of the competition (unity of the book and effectiveness of the concept, quality and unity of artistic design, quality of page spread and structure of page layout, graphics, graphic design and illustrations, quality of printing and binding, selection of paper and binding materials) and not only. The selection was done with the understanding that book-laureate was going to represent Lithuania at the international book forums. The next year it will also represent Vilnius as European Capital of Culture. Based on such reasoning, the jury 132 PORTFOLIO
Award (category: fiction and essayistic literature ) “Paskutines dienos Itakeje“ (“Last days in Itake”) by Antanas A. Jonynas & Mikalojus Vilutis Design & illustrations by Mikalojus Vilutis Printed by “Sapnu sala” Edited by “Tyto alba”
unanimously voted for “My Nights” by Jonas Mekas, designed and illustrated by Eugenijus Varkulevicius, published by the Baltos lankos. “My Nights” together with the “Words and Letters” by the same team, from the same publisher, have been recognized to represent an indivisible whole and meet the said requirements and expectations. Of the six categories of books, fiction and essays were most numerously represented (25 books), close to that – 20 books competed in art category. Among them, quite a few contestants – art books and catalogues – were worthy of recognition. Quite the opposite situation was in the category of bibliophilic and experimental books, represented by the sole candidate. For this reason, no laureates were selected within this category. The situation with books for children and young adults also leaves much to be desired. For some time, publishers tend to spare efforts or finances for commissioning from artists original illustrations for children’s books. To improve the situation, alongside with two books awarded premiums in this category, the best designed children’s book received the premium of Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts. Candidates in the category of scholarly and specialized literature and textbooks were not numerous either. Books of this category usually are quite tricky to design. The rules of the competition introduced, for the first time, the category of travel literature and pocket paperbacks. With regard of the fact that the number of tourists in Lithuania is increasing yearly, and in 2009 Vil-
nius becomes European Capital of Culture, publishing of such books is encouraged and promoted. The tendency still prevails in Lithuania to consider paperback books inferior to hardbound ones. The general impression is that quality of printing was in the focus of this year’s jury. Speaking of printing and binding, most contestants still have plenty room to improve. Another tendency that emerged from the competition is shortage of young specialists in the art of the book. The annual competition is an equally serious test to those at the start of their career and experienced book creators: book artists, publishers and printers. We wish them aspire for more and succeed!
LEGE ARTIS GRAND PRIX “Mano Naktys “ by Jonas Mekas Design by Eugenijus Varkulevicius Printed by “Sapnu sala” Edited by “Baltos lankos”
Above on the left: Award (category: scientific, subject-books and textbooks) “Feliksas Jakubauskas” Design by Eugenijus Karpavicius Printed by “Sapnu sala” Edited by “Artseria” Above: Award (category: art publications and catalogues) “XV–XVI a. knygos Kauno bibliotekose” (“XVth-XVIth c. books in Kaunas libraries”) by Sigitas Luzys, Rita Urbaityte & Irena Vitkauskiene Design by Elona Marija Lozyte Printed by “Sapnu sala” Edited by “Lietuviu literaturos ir tautosakos institutas” On the left: “Zmoniu salis” (“Human land”)by Kerry Shawn Keys & Ann James Costello Illustrations by K.Sh.Keys & A.J.Costello Printed by “Sapnu sala” Edited by “Kronta” 134 PORTFOLIO
By Laima Ignataviciute
Photos by Paulius Mazuras
WE NEED REVOLUTION. NOW.
PRO/CONTRA Dr. Per Mollerup
ollerup Designlab A/S (Denmark) which is a foreign company of experts, performed the first research “Design possibilities in Lithuania“ in the context of a project by Vilnius Arts Academy called “VAA innovations and design centre“ which is partially funded by the European Union structural funds. The purpose of this research is to analyze design opportunities in Lithuania, strengthening competition and the country image internationally, as well as suggest guidelines of national design policy. Mollerup Designlab A/S held analogue researches in the neighbor countries: in 2003, there was an initial research of Estonian design policies, ordered by Board 136 PORTFOLIO
of Economy of Estonia. At the end of 2004, the guidelines of national strategy and the “Latvian design” research were presented. The program of Denmark business sector, dedicated to the Eastern Europe funded the research of Latvian design. It was supervised by the Board of Economy of Latvia. According to the conclusions and recommendations of the research, Estonia declared 2006/2007 as the Design year. It was decided to establish the Estonian Design Centre in 2008. Prof. Dr. Per Mollerup, the professor of National Academy of Arts in Oslo, CEO of Mollerup Design laboratory in Copenhagen, famous author of international design workshops and publications, publisher and editor of magazines “Mobilia Design Maga-
zine” and “Tools Design Journal”. During the research, he co-operated with Prof. Dr. Ken Friedman, the dean of Swindburn University of Technologies, Department of Design in Melbourn, the professor of Leadership and Strategic Design in Norwegian School of Management, as well as Dr. Thomas Rasmussen who has been the Research department manager in Danmarks Designskole in Copenhagen for many years. There are three major areas covered in the research: education, social opinion and industry organizations. The analysis of the Education system covered research of the Design program studies in universities and government institutions: their regulation values, aims,
the structure of the subjects, technological base of the studies, partners. Experts note that some changes are needed in the current system of education. Vilnius Academy of Arts was advised to co-operate more with industrial organizations, the faculty of Humanitarian and Social Science and design companies. This will broaden students’ knowledge base and their enterprise skills.
tions to become a real design city” , including, as Prof. Per Mollerup says, “the Lithuanian parliament must adopt a national design policy“ . You will find more information on the research in Vilnius Academy of Arts, in the website of the Design Innovation centre www.dic.lt.
“VAA should develop practice-based research in collaboration between Lithuanian industry (...)” , the conclusions of the research claim. Internationality is stressed as an extremely important factor, so it’s recommended to create long-term collaboration relationship with a small number of international design schools. Social opinion research shows that design doesn’t play any role in choosing a product in Lithuania. Often the price determines the choice. In order to reveal the potential of design in Lithuanian industrial companies, managers and workers from different companies (furniture, household appliances, textile, fashion and glider industries) were questioned. The conclusions say that all companies would like to get more information about design and design services. Unfortunately, not all companies use design purposely. It’s difficult to find out how many companies work with professional designers. Though most companies understand the importance of design and use design services, their managers still don’t want to admit the extreme impact of design on their products.
Above: Designer Darius Cekanauskas (Owner of design company “AD grupe”) Below: Designer Gediminas Lasas (Owner of design studio “GLS” )
The part which covers the international reputation of Lithuanian design says: “Lithuania is not internationally recognized as design nation, a nation with great accomplishments and high level of design” . Before facing year 2009 when Vilnius will become the capital city of European culture, we must accept and react to the experts’ conclusion: “Vilnius meets several condi-
From left: Rimas Varkulevicius (Lithuanian Confederation of Industrialists), dr. Per Mollerup (Mollerup Designlab) & prof. Audrius Klimas (Vilnius Academy of Arts, Design Dept.) PORTFOLIO 137
DEPARTMENT WITH THE AMBER SOUL By Robertas Jucaitis Photos by KDVD
On the left: Klaipeda Department of visual design
laipeda Department of visual design (KDVD) was founded in 1974 (1974 1982 it was called Klaipeda Department of visual agitation) near the National Conservatory Klaipeda faculty. You’d be wrong to think the department was preparing specialists for political agitation. It concentrated to preparing specialists of environment organization. The department philosophy was something like “communicate through things you see”, i.e. students are taught to communicate via design. In a few years the department joined Vilnius Academy of Arts (former National Institute of Art) and corrected the initial mistake of establishment. Alfonsas Zalys (1929-1990 signatory of the Independence Act of Lithuania), the chairman of the executive committee of the city (now he would be called the city mayor), who was a farsighted and insightful governor of the city. He understood that Klaipeda lacked intellectual potential – colleges and universities. A. Zalys invited artists to Klaipeda, initiated the establishment of Klaipeda Children’s School of Arts (currently Adomas Brakas school of arts) and the National Conservatory (currently – Academy of Music and Theatre of Lithuania) Klaipeda subsidiary, also founded the Sea museum (1979) and the Klaipeda Museum of Clocks (1984). KDVD has remained a popular school among those who want to study design: last year, the number of entrants was twice bigger than the number of vacancies. “Open days” are organized for everybody who would like to study there. Future students
can get acquainted with the life of the Department and the specifics of studies. This school attracts lots of capable design students from the Western Lithuania. Probably the sea factor is not the last here, either. Lots of students are impressed by the elemental beauty of the sea. Complexity should be distinguished in the teaching methodology of the Department. KDVD teaches lots of disciplines of the line: not long ago students’ loads were really huge. Now the strategy is changing in the way of offering the students only creative guidelines: they choose the study-load according to their capability. The school is doing its best to give the students the best possible conditions so that they could learn to make their own decisions.
This year KDVD published all teaching methodology of the Department as a separate book. This methodology seems to have become an example for other faculties of Vilnius Academy of Arts. Its main idea is to show an undivided one-way pattern of methodology where the most important thing is to use all disciplines for a common purpose. For example, last year students are given a task of “Co-ordinated style” which is taught by 5 teachers: designer, architect, sculptor, painter and a teacher of graphics. In this way, 30 students receive 30 different tasks, but all of them are unified by one type of task: creation of graphic style. Every student takes part in the process of task formulation, which involves him/her into the process of creation where the first mandatory stage is the visual audit of the task and problem research. In KDVD, much of attention is paid for joining theory and practice: nearly all of the teachers have some creative job in their own companies or are hired as artists, so students have the opportunity to see the realia of their future profession. Often students start working in advertising or design companies; this lets them understand the need of certain professional knowledge. During summer technological practice workshops, students visit furniture production or timber conversion companies where they get acquainted with the technological and marketing processes of production. The fact that KDVD is 300 km away from the centre (Vilnius Academy of Arts) gives PORTFOLIO 139
On the right: Maintaining BA works. 2008
some advantages and disadvantages at the same time. On one hand, it means less rest and perturbations. The Department staff is known for their monolithic point of view: all teachers are trying to achieve the same goals, though there are lots of representatives of very different areas: arts and crafts, art theorists, specialists of humanitarian sciences, etc. On the other hand, National sponsorship and support from European structural funds reach Klaipeda later than Vilnius. After Lithuania joined the EU, KVKD found new opportunities: now it’s possible to exchange students and teachers with other Design schools that are members of the Erasmus or Socrates networks. The members of the Department’s student exchange program like Scandinavia and the Great Britain. After spending a semester abroad, the Department students gain new knowledge and are capable to give useful advice to their course-mates. Learning through co-operation is very positive useful experience for students; moreover, it encourages a more rapid development for students. All in all, the Department is growing and developing. And as for the problems that are actual for all universities and academies in Lithuania - they just make both the students and the teachers stronger and don’t let them become too relaxed.
On the right: Detail of BA graduation exposition. 2008
Below : Maintaining BA works. 2008
“ Ad Unguem”
Above & on the right: Roman Klemencov, a student of KDVD, studied at Lahti Institute of Design (part of Lahti University of Applied Sciences) for one semester. During that time he won two competitions: the first award for “Tesco” packing and creating a poster for Lahti Sinfonia; the second reward was for the social poster “Taking Tree”.
“ Ad Unguem”
On the right : Academic project of perfume packing by Roman Klemencov for “Grankulla” (Finland). PORTFOLIO 141
Photo by Robertas Jucaitis
INFALLIBLE TECHNIQUE AND THE MERCY OF INSPIRATION
Prof. Rimvydas Kepezinskas is a prominent Lithuanian graphic artist and book-illustrator who also works in graphic design and calligraphy fields. This artist has organized more than 10 personal exhibitions since 1987, participated in group exhibitions of graphic, illustrations of books for children in Poland, Italy, Sweden, Spain, Germany, etc. He was awarded with a UNESCO prize in the exhibition of illustrations of books for children in Bologna in 1992. In 2001, he received a reward in European illustration biennale in Japan, also won a few prizes in contests of small-form graphics. He received an award of Lithuanian National Culture and Art.
The tricky question: when the creative process was easier – in Independent Lithuania or in Soviet Lithuania? In respect of the creative process, the changes are inconsiderable. At least privately I think so. At present, there are some more opportunities and freedom for creation; however, I felt almost no bans or censorship in respect of my creation activities upon the former regime. Probably, more evident differences take place in the relations between a client and a designer: in the Soviet period, we obtained orders via intermediates, such as the Group of Enterprises “Daile” and the Artists‘ Union; now, a client finds a freelance artist or designer directly. However, I felt a lack of clients neither now nor in those times – they found me themselves. Please, tell some words about the start of the career of Professor Rimvydas Kepezinskas, the Laureate of National Award? It started from illustrations for books. The subject of my Diploma Project were illustrations for the poetry book “Vilniaus etiudai" (”Vilnius etudes”/ by V.Mozuriunas (1980; the Supervisor - Antanas Kucas). After graduation from the studies, I often developed logotypes and book covers. Looking from the today level, the working methods of those times cause a smile. We enlarged the illustrations by a photographic enlarger and then cut them by scissors, assembled the retaken fonts by resin adhesive – today one can hardly imagine that the creative process upon such conditions is possible. Namely such works provided me the means of subsistence. For a period of 15 years, I was not
a member of any staff: I joined the Artists’ Union immediately after graduation from the Institute and the membership in it was considered the work experience. By the way, after graduation from National Art Institute (at present – Vilnius Art Academy) I was employed at Mokslas Publishing-house for one year. In addition, I worked on nights at Vilnius A. Mickevicius Library – filled various labels for catalogues. There I developed my calligraphic skills :)
Above: Iliustrations for a publisher “Grimm Press” (Taiwan)
However, illustrations for books were the key source of my income. In the Soviet period (in the 80s), the fee amounted to 20003000 roubles per book (taking into account the today prices, it corresponds to about 20’000–30’000 Litas; by the way, the average salary in the said period amounted to PORTFOLIO 143
about 150 roubles). In addition, the clients never interfered into the creative process. I illustrated two or three books annually. By the way, the creative process itself lasted for about a half of year. Of course, such fees remained in the past (except of case when you are awarded with the National Award :) You are glad, if receive 300-400 Litas for such a work. If you took part in an exposition, the Soviet authorities buyed at least one work of each artist (it was only unclear where those works were later kept...). Can you single out the most important works of that period? Probably not. In fact, from the first days of my professional activities, I was an animalist: my specialization was bound with whelps, kittens, and various signs :) So, most frequent were orders for children books, such as Fables by A. Krylov, “Adventures of Cipollino” and so on. In addition, I created posters as well as covers for gramophone disks (of jazz-players and the opera “Love and Death in Verona” by K.Antanelis"). I even was awarded with the Soviet Union award for design of the disk of S.Sondeckis Chamber Orchestra! For a majority of persons, the name of Rimvydas Kepezinskas is bound with posters for Birstonas Jazz Festivals. How your creative co-operation with this popular Lithuanian Festival started? In the year 1982, one girl from our course at the Institute, offered me to create a poster for the Art Palace in Sereikiskes Park. Somebody found them good and then I was provided an offer (by phone) to create a poster for Birstonas Jazz Festival. Cooperation with the festival takes places to present time. Both organizers of Birstonas Jazz Festival and the Theatre Festival "Life" (arranged in the years 1993-2000) provided me an absolute creative freedom. Unfortunately, the quality of printing was an absolutely uncontrollable aspect in the Soviet period. In Lithuania, posters were printed at two printing-houses, situated in Kaunas and Vilnius (A.Strazdelis Printing-house). I saw the printed and retouched work. Because the intaglio or relief printing technologies were used, I often could not recognize my works :) Who formed your style? First of all, Finnish and Polish masters of poster (in particular, Jan Lenica) and graphical art. In addition, Japan graphical art. 144 PORTFOLIO
How much time you used for the creative activities in that period? The terms were not too pressing. Clients were disciplined like soldiers: they delivered their orders a half of year before the date of completion, so I had enough time for working. On the other hand, there were few entertainments and temptations in the Soviet period, as compared to today, all of us lived upon the conditions of the censorship, so creation was the only pleasure. Probably, for this reason I became a homebody? :) Maybe, I am too conservative; however, I think a rapidity being not a positive phenomenon. In such a case, a creator sets lower standards and works of low value appear.
When did you move to Vilnius? You are from Kaunas, aren’t you? Yes, I am from Kaunas. I moved to Vilnius when was admitted to studies in National Art Institute in 1974. You are a lecturer (and Professor) of Vilnius Art Academy ( former National Art Institute) Graphic Art Department for 15 years – how did you become a pedagogue? It was predetermined by the economic motives. In the year 1993, prof. Juozas Galkus offered me to join the staff of lecturers of the Graphic Art lecturers. I agreed. Such offers took place earlier as well; however, I refused them because I had abundant orders and was inclined to freedom in my leisure. After restoration of the Independence, a hard economic period started, so I accepted
In the beginning of my pedagogical career, I could not decide how to conduct with my students – whether to be their friend or be democratic or strict. At first, I was as if a teacher standing behind a student’s back. However, in a course of time, I understood that a conduct with students should be individual. However, I keep a certain distance; otherwise an objectivity of assessment will disappear. In the year 2002 when I became the Head of the Department, abundant administering activities appeared that negatively impacted my creative and pedagogical activities. Nevertheless, I am glad to have an opportunity of communication with youth, it “aerates the brain” and prevents of too early “ossification”. However, sometimes I find myself to be too conservative. In spite of this, I do my best to transfer them my experience, to provide advices how to conduct in certain situation. I permanently repeat them that each solution (not only in the creative activities) should be substantiated, not made under impact of abstract emotions only :) Is the Department of Graphic Art popular among applicants for studies at Vilnius Art Academy? We are third after architects and interior designers. The competition is 2.5 applicants for 1 place. There is not lack of applicants. In what respect, joining to European Union was beneficial for the Academy? First of all, the students and lecturers of the network of European higher schools exchange programmes are of a great benefit. Even I, the arrant homebody, was rousted. In fact, I go abroad annually. On the other hand, an excessive idolatry of art of West Europe and the training system of it becomes too jug-handled. Somehow, we forget Poland, former Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. Formerly, Poles were as if gods for us; however, even today they remain leaders in graphical art and graphical design. Their training system does not flounce or seek for extremities; in it, both the traditional and modern attitudes are successfully combined; there the craft of execution and the professional character of performance are highly appreciated up to now.
the offer. And thank God! Because it would be really very difficult to survive without an official job.
Above: Valdas Adamkus, President of the Republic of Lithuania presents to Rimvydas Kepezinskas the National Award of Lithuania (2007) Photo by BFL/A.Ufartas On the right: Experimental typographical work in wood On the left: Design of some book covers Poster for a jazz festival “Birstonas 2006”
Have you a formula of success? It seems that in this specialty almost everything depends on the originality of the author. In our times, everybody strives for anything unseen. However, on the other hand, our publishing-houses do not rely on the new generation of designers and prefer “the old guard” tested by the time, because the latter causes less risk. Other important factor is universal character of the activities. You cannot know beforehand your future means of subsistence. How do you assess the professional level of today Lithuanian graphical designers? Conclusions can be made while thumbing through the book "Lietuvos prekiu zenklai" (”Lithuanian trademarks”) by prof. A.Klimas, In my opinion, before the 90s,
the form of logotypes more conformed to their contents. In the nowadays, an excessive superficiality takes place, it is a consequence of the computer-based democracy; in addition, the clients too actively interfere into the creative process. In the Soviet period, they relied on the professional to a larger extent and interference into the creative process took place for political reasons only. In the meanwhile, the poster art is “frozen” – probably, because of appearance of the new media and omnipotent internet with the animated form of information. In my opinion, advertising posters lack of originality: everywhere, the same formula is dominated: a photo plus a text and 30% of the area of the lower part of the poster tra PORTFOLIO 145
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On the opposite page: Poster for opera “Carmen” On the left: R.Kepezinskas’ studio Design of some vinyl discs covers. The 80s Below: Promotional material for the jazz festival “Birstonas 2008” Logo for “K.Buga Foundation”
Logo for a company “Golf Development”
ditionally presenting logotypes of all sponsors. It is tedious. By the way, Birstonas Jazz Festival never provided any logotype of its sponsors on the posters!
fonts, I hardly can imagine the criteria followed by designers in their choosing. Probably, they are affected by stereotypes or lack of time?
What trends of the modern Lithuanian design can you single out? In my opinion, the total typographic culture became worse. But it is the European trend as well. Composition of works is too overloaded. I miss a purity of an idea.
What achievements in your career were, in your opinion, the more important? Nevertheless, illustrations remain closest to my heart. I was “disclosed” on the international scale in the Soviet period when visited as a guest the International Fair of Illustrators in Bologna (Italy) with the USSR delegation. Later, I was chosen for participation in the said Fair for many times. In the year 1993, I was awarded with UNICEF award; for two years, I was provided with the National fellowship for creative activities and two years ago (in 2006) – with the National Award of Lithuania. By the way,
How do you assess ascetic minimalism? For example, famous designer Massimo Vignelli used 5 fonts only and Dutch design studio "Experimental Jetset" uses "Helvetica" only. It maybe a disciplining factor. Generally, restrictions encourage active thinking and looking for original solutions. Talking of 148 PORTFOLIO
On the left: Calligraphic work
there were very interesting contacts with "Green Press" (Taiwan), one of the first foreign clients: they required to acquire a fax and send them my drafts :) In the year 1987, at the Center of Modern Art (in the Soviet period – the Palace of Expositions), the first exposition of my works was arranged – I exposed graphical engravings only. I arranged my last exposition on occasion of my 50-year jubilee at “Akademija” Gallery under Vilnius Art Academy two years ago. And among them, there were exhibitions in the Soviet Union, Lithuania and foreign states... Please, tell some words about your plans for future? At present, I go deep into the calligraphic art; in addition, I cherish an idea of a book with my text and illustration for children. However, creation of a text appeared to be a hard work :) In addition, I’d like to revivify engraving; I wish painting and find time for piano-playing. However, I am afraid to become Jack of all trades, i.e. find myself in the situation when “too many trades make one hungry" :)
MAS T MIKE ER
On the left: Project for “The Walt Disney Company” Below: Project for “Carolina Speed Shop” (“International Paper Co.”)
Project for “PepsiCo, Inc.”
ikas Malkovas was born on 11 August 1955 in Biysk (Altai Region), the former large empire of the Soviet Union. In the year 1961, when his parents were “rehabilitated” and provided a permission to return home after the exile, he came to Lithuania, the native land of his grandmother (she was from Virbalis) and mother (from Jurgionys Village near Aukstadvaris). In Kaunas, encouraged by the father (by the way, his great-grandfather was a painter having graduated from Sankt Peterburg Art Academy in the times of Tsar Aleksandr), M.Malkovas started taking an interest in arts and entered the Evening Department of Kaunas Four-year Art School. "I’ll never forget my wonderful first teachers Ceslovas Kontrimas and Algirdas Lukstas: they made hopeless attempts to teach me
the rudiments and principles of Lithuanian painting art; however, I choose another direction of the activities instead of painting, although I do not lose a hope to find time for painting in the declension of years as well,” M.Malkovas quips. In the year 1973, the idea of trying to enter the State Art Institute (today – Vilnius Art Academy) appeared in the mind of the future designer almost naturally, because it was the only training institution of Lithuania with a department of „artistic construction“ (to be understood as industrial design). In that time, this specialty was neither „prestigious“, as it is said in Lithuania today, nor fashionable; however, this choice seemed to be logical to Mikas Malkovas. Both his parents were designing engineers with artis-
tic inclination, so the magic word „design“ seemed to be sweet and attractive for him and he could not imagine any other object of his studies. The first try of admitting to studies at the Institute of his dreams was unsuccessful: he failed to pass the examination in history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the compulsory subject at all national higher schools. After the failure, the future designer ate the unpalatable soldier’s bread on darksome training grounds of Kaliningrad region. However, after two years, the return to „freedom“ provided him new forces and in the year 1976 the State Art Institute admitted the persistent young man to join its glorious student company. M.Malkovas: "Ho, those 5 years of studies were unforgettable! I understood very soon that studying design, the more devel-
PERSONA oping anything real, is a hard work bound with permanent creative tension and even stress. I’d like to mention my teachers who influenced me considerably by providing the concept and knowledge of design. They were professors Feliksas Daukantas, Juozas Burneika, Tadas Baginskas and Albertas Gurskas – all these artists were pathfinders of Lithuanian design, a part of history of Lithuanian culture, eminent pedagogues and top-level professionals; it was a real honour to be their disciple." In the year 1981, M.Malkovas graduated from the Institute and after maintaining his Diploma Project „The Design of Sport Motorcycle“ was awarded with the qualification of an „artist-designer“. On the fifth year of the studies, the future designer suddenly re152 PORTFOLIO
ceived an offer of graphic artist Algimantas Švažas to work at Lithuanian Film-studio in the feature film „The Honeymoon in America“ produced by young film director Jonas Vaitkus. Thus he opened the new page of his creative life that was far from the real design in the idealistic sense of the word, because in the beginning it was a work of an artist’s assistant, then a work of a decorator and finally – a work of an artist-producer close to a work of a scenographist or theatre artist. M.Malkovas was involved in a number of Lithuanian films, such as “I Beg Your Pardon”, ”The Flight over the Atlantic”, “The Woman and Four Her Men”, “The Collision”, “The Night Riders” and “The Traces of the Werewolf”.
Above: Project for “Kazan Helicopters” Project for “Pharmacia” (“Arthrotec”) On the right (above): Project for “Texas Instruments” On the right (below): Project for “Toyota”
PERSONA In addition, he contributed to formation of Lithuanian animated cinema: he was involved in the film “Bermudian Ring” and several animated break bumpers for Lithuanian TV. Within almost nine-year period of his activities at Lithuanian Film-studio, the desiner communicated and worked with eminent cinema masters of Lithuania and Russia; of course, it was a good school of life; however, it is another history. In the years 1982-90, in addition to his activities at the Film-studio, between endless expeditions with shooting groups in spanless territories of the USSR and various exoric regions, M.Malkovas was involved in abundant works related to graphical design as well as projects related to scene design and decoration (the style of several “Vil-
nius Rock” concerts, “The Rock March over Lithuania”, New Year decoration of Vilnius City in the year 1989), several projects on disk design ("Antis", A.Jagelevičius and so on); he also was involved in decoration of shop-windows and in book graphics. In the year 1990, the wind of change brought M.Malkovas to the opposite part of the „matrix“ where another system of measuring and values predominated. For over 18 years, he developed his creative activities in USA, mostly as a senior designer of "Structural Graphics", probably, the most famous company of lenticular (three-dimensional) advertisments worldwidely. Within the said period, he created for abundant firms, companies and agencies well-known in USA and worldwidely such as
(please, draw a deep breath!) A&E, Adidas, Amex, Astra Zeneca, Bates, BBDO, Bell Helicopters, BMW(Mini), Brown Williamson, Chase Manhattan, Chrysler, Coca-Cola, Condé Nast, Ford, FCB, GlaxoSmithKline, GMC, HBO, Hearst, Heineken, Honda, Leo Burnett, Lorillard Tobacco, Mars, Mazda, Maybelline, McDonald's, Mercedes, Merck, Microsoft, MTV, Nikon, Nokia, Pfizer, Pharmacia, PopShots, Proctor & Gamble, R.J.Reynolds, Roche Labs, Saatchi & Saatchi, Sanofi Aventis, Smirnoff, Sony, Sun Systems, Target, Time, Torre Lazur McCann, Toyota, Unilever, Volvo, Young & Rubicam, Walmart, Walt Disney, Warner Bros, Wittnauer and many others. "Structural Graphics" is specialized in lenticular paper and multimedia advertisments for 30 years already. The sphere of the activities of
PERSONA M.Malkovas is development of advertising objects in accordance with the wishes of a client or offering an own solution to a client (if the client is not aware of the technological opportunities), starting from the conceptual ideas, draft and digital models of the objects, sometimes – from illustrations and decoration as well as making prototypes, prints and so on – up to making “alive” specimen and its testing. M.Malkovas: "It is namely the sphere of the activities I prefer to be involved: direct working with the material is the most pleasant in striving for specific results." Lenticular advertising production designed and produced by the company occupies the narrow niche of „premium“ advertisments that are not affordable to all
clients; a majority of the clients are largest and richest companies. The required property of all objects produced and designed by "Structural Graphics": they should be unbent and packed again into absolutely plane position. Upon the severe competition and the struggle for a leadership in the market with two worldwidely known companies (one in USA and one in Europe), the company should permanently care about new, preferably unique, solutions, introduce achievements of updated technologies, such as sound, light and movement detection modules, use lenticular printing and "e-ink" technology; in addition, a strict following of the material recycling rules was required to ensure no danger to the environment caused by the object of advertising after performing its functions and its safe disposal.
Above: Project for “Mini”. Project for “Lindenmeyer Munroe”. Below: Project for “Fruit of the Loom”. Project for “Harrah’s casino”. On the right (above): Project for Vilnius University. On the right (below): Project for “Hoboken Hotel & Residence”. Project for “PopShots Studios”.
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Project for “Lexus” 2008 Hermes Platinum Creative Award for “SG”
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On the right: Project for Harvard University Library
Below” Project for “Canon”
A majority of the operating mechanisms of the objects of advertising developed at the company are protected by patents and provided with the copyright mark. M.Malkovas is the author of three patents registered in the name of "Structural Graphics". The designer works with various techniques; within recent 14 years, he usually uses computer techniques applying both three-dimensional and two-dimensional softwares, plane-surface cutting plotters, wide-format printers and other digital techniques. However, a simple handiwork, and sometimes a pencil with a rule, a drill, a foam rubber cutting machine, an aerograph or an ordinary soldering-iron (while working with prototypes of electronic modules) form an inseparable part of designing when single models for presentations are made. In addition to his job at „Structural Graphics“, the designer has the own business in graphical design and illustrations. M.Malkovas: "It is known that the permanent pixel “chasing” on the monitor causes an atrophy of the earlier acquired skills, losing of the vein of humour and early marasmus. I’d not like to offend anybody by this statement – it is my own opinion only.“ In the years 1990-1992, the designer actively co-operated with well-known "Weekly Reader" Publishing-house that was owned by "Xerox" company and developed several hundred objects of graphical designs of various kinds, posters and illustrations of periodicals for it. In the years 1995-1997, in co-operation with the international agency "S.I.International", M.Malkovas made over 400 various illustrations for publications and several small books for publishinghouses, such as "Golden Books", “Landoll Publishing”, "Walt Disney" and "Warner Brothers", illustrated several books of poetry and prose by Lithuanian emigrants in USA (the books by J.Zdanys and Juzas Aleskovskis). 158 PORTFOLIO
In the year 1996, the designer was provided an offer for illustrating "Oxford University Press" dictionaries and in the years 1996-2000 he illustrated three dictionaries issued by the said publishing-house (he illustrated two volumes individually and the third volume – in co-operation with other illustrators). For each dictionary, several hundreds realistic illustration ought to be made.
At present, M.Malkovas assists to "Structural Graphics" company in its integration in the market of the European Union and develops works for the company at his bureau in Vilnius.
Above: Illustrations for “S.I. International” On the right: Sketches of “Doge Viper” watch for “Dodge” Below: Illustrations for Oxford Dictionaries Below (on the right): Illustrations for “Weekly Reader”
By Prof. Dr. Vytautas Kibildis 160 PORTFOLIO
Photo by Dalia Birske
VISION OF LITHUANIAN INTERIOR
PERSONA Vytautas Kibildis is a designer, professor at the Vilnius Academy of Art design department and has a doctorate arts degree. V. Kibildis graduated from the State Art Institute of the Estonian SSR in 1978. In 1991, he worked on probation in the Rietveld Academy of Arts in Amsterdam. From 1987 until 1992, he furthered his studies in Moscow. In 1993, in the Vilnius Academy of Art he defended a thesis for his doctorate arts degree (“Design problems in playground modelling in the old town of Vilnius”). From 1993 until 2000 he worked as the Dean of the Applied Arts Faculty at the Vilnius Academy of Art. Vytautas Kibildis takes part in international design exhibitions and competitions. He creates designs for furniture and public, private home interiors. He also created the modern office interiors for the “Maxima”, “ Vakaru skirstomieji tinklai” and “Roche Pharmaceuticals” companies.
On the left: Interior of a private apartment Photo by Jonas Staselis Above: Interior details in private apartments Photosц by Jonas Staselis
t’s a paradox, but the first Lithuanian interior exhibition called “Apartment FitOut” was held in 1909, in former Franciscan monastery. The aims of the exhibition were clear and actual: to make the idea of accommodation popular, develop taste of the society and introduce people to the production of the manufactory, from projects to furniture.
Lithuanian style as we do about English or French ones, with lots of interior details and royal elegance of styles.
J. Monkiewicz, the reviewer of the exhibition wrote in his article “Apartment Aesthetics”: “The form, scale, material of a thing must fit its destination, so that looking for so-called beauty doesn’t conflict with functionality”. I think this proposition is still relevant.
Somebody could argue that we had the Lithuanian “Neringa café style”. Yes, it was really beautiful and stylish professional interior. However, it was created using not Lithuanian style traditions – it was based on the European “new look” style of 1950’s. It came to our interior history as an example of stylish interior of that time. By the way, for more than 10 years furniture shops had the “new look” style furniture: anybody could buy triangular or trapezium-shaped tables, elegant armchairs, made “lighter” by peg-top conical legs.
Does Lithuanian interior exist at all?
What is Lithuanian interior?
When we talk about interior, we have to determine what exactly we talk about: residential or social. Their purposes and requirements differ. A professional designer is usually invited to create social interior (or it’s created by an architect him/herself), while living interior is usually left for the owner’s taste, often formed by supply or a neighbor’s more original interior.
Interior made in Lithuania? Interior that has some Lithuanian ethnographic features? If it’s made-in-Lithuania interior, no more than twenty years ago it looked like wallpapers with flowers ornaments (not Lithuanian, for sure), a settee bed with a Polish coverlet or in some better cases – a soft Lithuanian set of furniture “Aitvaras”. Huge unit furniture “Vilnius” or “Kaunas”, Lentvaris carpet, brown Latvian paint on the floor or even better – linoleum with natural parquet imitation. The kitchen would be half painted with oil paint (in better cases – Belorussian tiles on the walls) and “Silute” kitchen furniture that sometimes even covered windows.
I can dare to say that there are no traditions of living interior in Lithuania. Just a hundred years ago, there was either a grey timbered cottage in the village, or a little manor of Western style, including inherited furniture of different styles, or a typical suburban interior, formed by respective times. That’s why I think we can’t talk about
PERSONA If Lithuanian interior is the one with ethnographic features, it probably doesn’t exist anymore, unless some folk artist has made furniture himself or bought some embossed crosses. Ethnographic interiors have all been taken to Rumsiskes, none of them left even in the countryside where lacquer sets of furniture and plush armchairs rule these days. It’s different with social interior. Various barns and inns are so fashionable that they are adjusted even to Chinese restaurants. If we see waiters in red silk under a thatch, we can say: this is the Lithuanian style that can be called eclectic today.
Most of you can hardly imagine your apartment in a blockhouse with wooden walls and ceilings and a traditional stove in the kitchen. It’s even more difficult to imagine an office of “Lithuanian style” or an embassy with ethnographic furniture, etc. So what traditions and development of Lithuanian interior are we talking about? Will it be contemporary interior with some ethnographic tunes in furniture? Or will we leave the Lithuanian interior to the countryside where it actually suits? Functionality and aesthetics of interior Style Conception Decor is connected with a wider conception of fashion design which can be popular
at a particular time and reflects the way artists understood society at that time. A welldesigned building joins all exterior and interior features. Victorian style building contains not only individual exterior forms but also a unique plan of interior spaces, that is a special way of dividing and joining interior spaces and “guiding“ people through them. Unique dimensions and forms control décor and the look of furniture in these spaces. It’s useful to understand the fashion and design ideas of particular period when choosing furniture for a modern or epochal building. This can be done by analyzing lots of forms of art and the exterior architecture of that time Above and on the left: Interiors of private apartments Photos by Jonas Staselis
PERSONA This page: Author’s furniture projects Photos by Dalia Birske
PERSONA Reception furniture for the company “Roche” 164 PORTFOLIO Photo by Gintaras Cesonis
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Decor can be used to join and complement the original style of the building. Another method of décor which is popular today is a free mix of interior and exterior styles.
Nowadays a consumer faces a wide choice of furniture. Furniture of lots of different styles and types can be used to create the desired environment. On the other hand, such a wide market can be paradox, for it makes it difficult to choose. Terminology of furniture has become a bit confusing. Not long ago in the West you could simply ask: “should I use period or modern style?” These days we should probably use “traditional” or “contemporary”. “Modern” is usually used with some extra defining word, e.x. “Danish” or “organic”. It’s difficult to define these terms because their extra meaning partially is the same: individuals give different interpretations and there is no institution which could define the features that makes them different. Styles suit contemporary life and popular methods of creating. Changes can be made in color and ornaments, but without collapsing characteristics of the style. Modern adaptation. The majority of contemporary furniture cannot be identified with any previous projects, neither can it be associated with new ideas of modern style. Interior designers have created lots of hybrid styles that seem to have attraction and popularity. Some are disgusted by imitations of older styles using new technologies, others see it like a challenge – adjusting new technologies and methods and building bridges between the past and the present. Classic examples of contemporary style have reached a high level of artistic finesse and have admitted the link between modern technologies, line, aesthetics, form, color and texture. The first thing to cover is probably home atmosphere. Features like elegance, comfort, general mood and simplicity can be reached easier using one style than another. Of course, nobody can be sure that his/her taste won’t change in some years. A person who likes traditional style today, can become bored of it in some years and sudden166 PORTFOLIO
PERSONA ly ultra modern furniture style can look very suitable for him/her. Factors responsible for this kind of choice are simplicity and simple care. Ideal interior doesn’t declare itself as interior. It’s free from all fashionable styles and trends and seems to be telling you: “it’s comfortable and pleasant to live”. Interior and furniture shouldn’t make a person feel uncomfortable nor should look like a jumble of fashionable trends; it should positively impress in frames of functionality.
Above: Reception interior for the company “VST” Photo by Gintaras Cesonis On the left: Detail of the interior Below: Reception furniture and the exposition equipment for the company “El Greco” Photo by Jonas Staselis On the opposite page: Reception interior for the company “VST” Photo by Gintaras Cesonis
Interior should be logical, functional and moderate, with total harmony between the idea and function. The emotional factor between things, person and environment is very important. Psychological comfort is reached when everyone can incarnate his or her wishes and needs in the created environment.
PERSONA By Robertas Jucaitis
CREATIVITY: A SHORTCUT TO THE TOP 168 PORTFOLIO
Photo by BFL/K.Vanagas
Photos by Karlas
Vytautas Puzeras-Puzero is one of the most famous, productive and universal young Lithuanian designers who has already managed to create some special projects in interior, furniture, naming, advertising and graphic design areas.
You graduated from Vilnius Art Academy in 2000. If you revert the eyes, can you say what you mostly lacked as a young designer on the start of the own career in that time? I put this question to me very early: I started living on my own when I was 18 years old, I worked before entering the Academy and since the second year of studies I started to co-operate with "Narbutas ir Ko", one of leaders of furnishing industry in Lithuania. So, I had an opportunity of immediate testing the knowledge acquired at the Academy in real projects. Because of this, I came into collision with no surprises after the graduation from Vilnius Art Academy. What I lacked? After the Academy, probably I lacked an experience of working in a team. Because in a team, you can disclose your
Read the interview with this special creator who lives not just in the world of design, but also likes windsurfing, kitesurfing and ginger juice in the “Guru” café in Vilnius :)
forte. Generally, at present I lack emotions and tempers that took place at the Academy :) I remember that period with nostalgia, although only eight years passed. Has Vytautas Puzeras the own creative style? I treat each project individually. For me, the base of the style and creation is the idea. The function and the pure idea inspire the “face” of a product or interior forming the personal style. I make everything as if for myself – care about cosiness and comfort for me. In each project, I try answer the question: what is the purpose of its development? All my projects have their names – as the children. Because they present a kind of creative birth. The name describes a project and provides it with a meaning. For example, the bureau system "Plantis" is bound with the own philosophy: it is the bureau atmosphere, not only a bureau table. In this way, I transfer my thoughts to other persons. In developing interiors, I am involved in all phases of the process. In such a case, my work takes very much time; however, only in such a case I can say that I made my best and even more. And only in such a case, good results are ensured. A project is alive: it evolves, changes, grows. You must get used with it, to feel its internal spirit. I always communicate with all persons involved in a project – from managers to barmen. Because I am provided abundant useful information from them. Thus I provide some more reality and perfection to a project.
Do you work alone? Yes, usually I create alone. Undoubtedly, I hire professionals and consultants for specific tasks. I try to obtain the maximum possible pleasure from the creative activities. Because of this, I am free. Implementing of my ideas is the most important goal for me, Is it easy to work alone? In near future, I plan establishing of my designing bureau where about 10 employees should be engaged to ensure its normal functioning. However, establishing of an enterprise with a certain legal status requires much time and much more responsibility. It should appear in a natural way. For pursuing the set objects, there is no need in establishing an enterprise in the meanwhile and it is not reasonable upon the conditions
Above: Kitchen chairs family “Vaba Vabara Bara” Below: “Re Sy” easy chair from recycling materials On the left: Chaise longue “Idea of 3 powers” PORTFOLIO 169
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PERSONA Office furniture system “Plantis”
of our market. However, communication and sharing ideas are pleasant for me; while discussing, I discover many new ideas. I need brainstorming with other professionals to test my ideas and solutions. Although I work alone, I am able to work in a team as well. The post-idea implementing of a project takes place in a team. How many projects do you work with simultaneously? Several years ago, I worked simultaneously for three markets. It was as if a whirligig: Lithuania–Russia–Spain-Lithuania-Russia-Spain. And I completed all works welltimely. Talking of the volumes of projects, I can mention my last work – the interiors of "Lietuvos rytas TV" bureau: 6-storey building, the total space - 2000 sq. m, including 1500 m2 of useful space. The project – from
On the right: Inerior & furniture of the magazine of children’s clothing “Mada vaikams’ Below: Inerior & furniture of the magazine of teens clothing “X-teen’
the ideas to implementation – lasted only for 4 (!) months. What countries your clients are from? I created in Moscow. In Spain, I created interior for a shop and a villa. However, I cannot provide a precise list of the countries where the manufacturers sell the furnishing designed by me – on this matter, the manufacturers themselves should be inquired. Do you take part in design exhibitions? Since the year 1996, I almost annually provide my works to exhibitions held in Lithuania and abroad. In the last ORGATEC exhibition (where I took pat as a visitor), I spent 5 days that elapsed as if a single day or a single talk. There was intensive “internal” communication with companies.
Can you identify the project that was the most important for your career? I fully devote myself for each project. One of the long-incubated and finally implemented projects was the one on bureau furnishing "Plantis" (the Manufacturer – "Ergoline"); a project of an impressive scope was the one on interiors of the bureau for "Lietuvos rytas TV"; the technical challenge was the project on interiors of premises of the company "Oro navigacija"; by the way, the most popular bureau chairs produced by "Narbutas ir Ko" were designed by me. In fact, each project is a creative victory. To achieve the optimal result, I thoroughly study each task.
PERSONA What do you prefer – furnishing or interior designing? I prefer to develop a totality as a system. I look for the optimal solution both in small details and large spaces. A project is not the visible image and the name only; behind it, huge technological works, logistics, transporting and screening of manufacturers conceal. Development of any good system takes at least a half of year. It is a result of precise activities of a team. With many clients, you work for many years – what is the secret of such long co-operation? There is no secret. Everything runs in a natural way. If you fully devote yourself to the work, you ensure a good result and a satisfaction of the client.
What is your source of inspiration? Whom do you consider your teachers to be followed? I find sources of inspiration everywhere – in cultures of various countries, in various persons. I prefer non-overloaded, rational, functional, light, humanly warm and conceptual style.
Above: Sofa “Jamm”
What plans do you cherish for future? I have sufficient skills for working in Lithuanian market; however, for future activities, I need many works on probation for improving my skills; in addition, I’ll get to know abundant practical and technical information. Such are my tasks for the nearest ten years.
PERSONA 174 PORTFOLIO
PERSONA Interior of CEO’s office of the company “Agrokoncernas” PORTFOLIO 175
PERSONA Can Lithuania be proud of its achievements in the spheres of furnishing or interior design? There is no lack of good examples. I’d like to state that identity is finding the own zest in every idea. What leisure Vytautas Puzeras prefers? I sail, I like kitesurfing, I spend much time (if find it) in the open country. And I come back with pure thoughts. Is the logo “Puzero” of Vytautas Puzeras bound in any way with zero? It is a logo – permanently rotating wheel :) What would you like to wish to today design students? The period of studies is a period of fantasies; however, each fantasy includes at least a little share of realty. The head is in the clouds; however, at least one foot should stand on the earth.
Above : Interiors of the newspaper “Lietuvos rytas” On the left & below: Interiors of the company “Oro navigacija”
PERSONA This page: Interiors of the office of TV channel “Lietuvos ryto TV”
ARTIFEX By Virginija Vitkiene
n September, simultaneously with the programme “Art in Unexpected Spaces“ of Vilnius – the European Capital of Culture 2009, the new modern Art Gallery “ARTIFEX“ was opened. Severija Incirauskaite – Kriauneviciene, the Head of the Textile Gallery-workshop under Vilnius Art Academy (that operated under Anastazija Tamosaitiene and Antanas Tamosaitis Gallery “Zidinys“ up to now), describes it as the conceptual textile design studio. All the highlighted words present meaningful landmarks of the vision of the Gallery. Let‘s start from the last word – design promising that expositions of the Gallery-workshop and the processes in it will be oriented towards innovative design with considerably stronger aspect of applicability as compared to pieces of art. The word textile indicates to wide using modern textile techniques, materials and applications that include both solutions related to interior design or elements of costume design and experimental examples bound with the art process. The word conceptual is a key one: it discloses the ambitions of the founders of “ARTIFEX“: to turn it into a discursive space (not a commercial stock of easily reproducible artefacts) where original works of exclusive quality that distinguish themselves for high aesthetic value are born; in addition, they transmit ideas, arise questions and sometimes (probably) intervene into the routine of the daily round by tiresome misdemeanor or unbecoming indifference. The name of the Gallery unites all three above-described links into a single node. In the Middle Ages, the Latin word artifex was used to describe profes-
sionals in handicrafts related to fine arts (such as builders of cathedral churches and other architectural pearls and decorators of them, i.e. makers of stained glass, sculptors, wall-painters). Its status differed from the status of an artist (that appeared in the epoch of humanistic Renaissance and was given a particular prominence in the modern art of the 20th century) in the requirement of rigorous technological perfection. So, keeping in mind the primary meaning of the word, “Artifex“ Gallery will strive to revivify the tradition of an artist & producer of the work: to disclose the process to visitors of the Gallery, in addition to exposing original hand-made pieces.
Severija Incirauskaite-Kriauneviciene, one of the founders of the Gallery, a participant of prestigious modern art and textile exhibitions, Lithuanian artist of the young generation who does not lack an original self-expression and ambitions, is going to be involved in the creative activities at the Gallery as well (together with Egle Ganda Bogdaniene, Jolanta Tubutyte, and Dzina Jasiuniene). She was one of the first persons conferred a degree of a licentiate of arts at Vilnius Art Academy (2006) uniting the artistic activities with scientific research work, analytical studies and cultural reflection. However, even in the first public presentations of Severija in exhibitions (2000), her works did not lack a conceptual use of the material. The materials used by her are not standard, such as white sheet of paper in
On the opposite page: “Way of roses”. Honda Civic car, cotton, Cross-stitch, wring. Above: “Between city and village“. Metal pail, watering-can, the pail, cross-stitch, wring.
ARS graphic art or a block of stone in sculpture. In her creative activities, S.Incirauskaite– Kriauneviciene uses materials that circulate as texts with references and information in the cultural medium. A lacy pillow with its feather outwards; a cap for sports made of the granny’s warps, embroidered covers of pots or housekeeping items removed by the artist from their everyday context and provided for a criticism of a viewer in form of a postproduct / product of processing defined by modern art critic Nicolas Bourriaud as an active agent, as a provisional terminal of interdependent elements of network, as a narrative that extends and reinterprets earlier narratives, as arts that forces functioning the cultural objects and forms of our everyday life. “ Above: “Way of roses”. Car details, cotton, Cross-stitch, wring. Detail number 6. On left: “Way of roses”. Car details, cotton, Cross-stitch, wring. Detail number 1. On the left: “Autumn Collection “. Old rusted metal things, cotton, Cross-stitch, wring.
Objects chosen by Severija are archetypical signs of our culture. Huge covers of pots for potatoes steaming (“The Life is Fine “, 2005) were the first metal things with criss-cross pattern of flowers usually usable by Lithuanian women in their needleworks (such as roses, lilies of the valley, and forget-me-not). Such sophisticated romanticizing the countryside life and subsistence from the side of the woman (in spite of absolutely non-romantic and unfeminine metal drilling process before the object embroidering), in the solutions by Severija grew out into savouring the rusting housekeeping items of the Soviet design (such as buckets, ladles, churns, and graters) and subtle conservation of them with the bandage of needlework pattern (“The Autumn Collection“, 2008). In course of processing
Above: “Way of roses”. Volkswagen Golf car, cotton, Cross-stitch, wring. In the centre: “Good morning composition”. Metal, cotton, Cross-stitch, wring.
Above: “Way of roses”. Detail of car, cotton, Cross-stitch, wring, Coment
an object, Severija makes no attempt on its improving. She chooses an object for its beauty (not for its imperfection) that in the world-outlook of the artist is felt as a factor of identity, not aesthetics. The signs of the national and cultural identification are permanently presented in thing-related contemplations of S. Incirauskaite. However, they are not doleful or lamentable as is typical to romanticized/derealized self-perception of a Lithuanian in the 20th century; most likely they are forthright. In addition, they are charming and tastefully self-critical. For example, since the year 2007, the collection “The Rose-covered Way” consisting of vehicle details after accidents with criss-cross rose patterns – the cycle on the driving culture of Lithuanians and its tragic consequences – is being created. Earlier this work exposed as an installation of separate vehicle parts, and on opening “Artifex“ Gallery it was “improved” by fixing the embroidered covers of vehicles on real vehicles. One of the embroidered vehicles even became a provisional “door” of the new Gallery that scarcely allows visitors wedging inside the Gallery and jeering in the existential manner at the etymology of “opening” (as widely open door). In such a way, the parallel between Severija and artifex can be briefly described.
Has the Studio the own creative style? Each designer has the own creative style. It is unavoidable. Because of this, we try to form a colourful team that sumultaneously would keep the predominating line of the values of “Studio Libre“ – creation of high-quality professional design having a residual value. We try to combine commercial and information goals with an attractive visual expression.
Where do you find ideas? First of all, we listen attentively the formulation of the object pursued by a client and the vision of the client. In addition, we pay a considerable attention to observing the “environment”: we try to analyze each situation of the task, every possible version of the solution, to look at the problem from a non-traditional angle of vision. We permanently observe development of graphical design and watch events in the design world.
How did you find your first clients? The truth is that the first clients found us prior to establishing the Studio. We had no necessity for looking for new clients as well. So, up to now, we spent no money for advertising (is laughing). Speaking seriously, our services are specific. Our Studio offers very specific service – graphical design, not the total package of advertising and communication services, as advertising agencies do. So, clients with a need in a certain advertising and visual communication apply to us for providing a professional visual image to it.
Were you not afraid to join the market where competitors are abundant and to establish the own business? On establishing our business, we were not beginners in graphical design: we worked in the sphere of graphical design for 10 years already. We are friends since the period of the studies, so we are bound by the long-year friendship, the same attitudes and goals, not only graphical design. So, once upon a time, we decided that we have ideas implementable in the best way at own design Studio; in addition, we perceived that working together will enable us to achieve better results than individual activities. Thus “Studio libre“ appeared.
dio of stu w e i Do you spend much time with a pensil in your hand? v all Wh Over ite page: : More frequently, we use a mobile telephone (is laughing). A e v a We t is, Abo e oppos s i a good old pensil is the starting-point of everything. Using it, h t t n t If y hink you On as Oran s) o r d initial ideas are fixed and first drafts are drawn. However, e i r u i s d o im Alg out glas nka pos have eas a pinio u i h l frequently we switch on a computer at once. t i n n K n sib (w as le t o ide d tech , mor onat es) D D a e o im , th ni o & glass i Fro you f ple e te cal s mpor eel (with m c k m age th ent hnic ills a tant – a la e n c you al s re t tec v c k age y. ery of r id kills wo hnic sid ncies Our c begi any s eas wi sid al s in a ll no es o kills gra erabl with lients nning kills ( bse t en f the or e ide des mme exte their are c , we for ex nce sur s n s p a o o i p g t of g e a g ame as? bus n f f th . O eci mp osit mpl e o a f ood ood shee for iness r adv Art A cour fic ad nies ioned e, ma tec resu t an r v m s h , e k e o hn of r ed; we rtis cade e, m rtis avin urs etin ica lt. On d can w i esp how er ng my arke ing g a elve g sk n l sk e v i ; on ills the o ot ex sib ever, force ariou how ting w deas, seriou s as a ills)? t . h le b the so s p ever as dt er h ist ap s d usi pro o fo rod , ou not we mar esig and art. n d nes ces rm uc k i r , it s. s is bu ts a expe nclud o not eting studi is stil sine nd s rien ed ent sub o, n l in ss erv ce as a rud div ot pro adm ice in v stu e in isio an s a to a gre d n i d ss. niste is ver rious y sub mar or a dvert e a m i d k r It i lo s ve ing s y use work ject in eting verti sing d dip n a s f s k s u ry i t t i atas itiou o mp ills. S l. Aft relate he st o a co ng amb and Don his studi u o o d e o n d w m r t r s to y t an e ago, ucre”. T anta t to e of th stabl grap proears irdas Or udio Lib rks prod ted y h i w f e s t e i o g ic ollo m h w “S Al Af vis w t are ing t al f ners . We g and ished he alr he desig ka establ evelopin ic design to some o pri ead d h nci Kliun essfully a of grap answers ple y c e e c v s is su in the ar to recei y io tivel ice stud n their estions. u q r ou
Are marketing and business plans necessary in this type of business? Of course, planning and calculation are required; however, in the meanwhile, our Studio is not large, so serious oficial business plans are not required; they are clear enough and are simply formed in discussions while drinking coffee or having a dinner.
Do you make further investment in your professional improvement? Yes, of course. We permanently update our library of professional references, try take part in various design-related conferences and creative seminars. We often visit world design portals as well. We must be dynamic.
184 PORTFOLIO What can you advice to your ezisting and future clients? Come to us. Be firm sticklers for your ideas. Only you know what is the best for your enterprise. If your ideas do not answer the purpose, it means that we were wrong. Both parties, i.e. clients and our Studio, should work at one, synchronuously and sincerely. It is the only way that ensures the best result.
What is your vision of the future of “Studio Libre“? Once Albert Einstein said: “I never think of the future. It comes soon enough.” We do not think much about future as well. We have our vision that is partially implemented – and we are satisfied by our works.
Is the Pareto principle stating that 20% of clients ensures 80% of the comppany’s profit right? It is absolutely right; however, we do not follow this principle while paying attention to our clients.
What statement do you support: a) design is art, or b) design is science? Design is unique and very interesting specialty. It combines both art and science. It would be difficult to identify immediately any other sphere where a combination of art and science is so productive.
Have you the self-promotion and client-loyalty strategies? We try turning our clients into our friends. A good result can be ensured by abundant communication and discussion (not related to the project only). If we know each other better, we are able to form a serious team. If we communicate not only in sphere of the business, the work turns into a pleasant occupation. On establishing our Studio, we set four goals borrowed from one TV serial: “Fun, fun, money, fun“.
Is the education of a designer an imperdimental or helpful factor in your activities? It is helpful. The establishing of the Studio would be impossible without the eduction of a designer. Sometimes, we lack of economical education; however, as I mentioned above, our new skills appear in practice when we met into collision with real problems.
At the centre: Poutpourri of various projects Identity for “Vero Cafe”
On the left (from the top): Project for Giedrius Sarkauskas Project for IDW Project for “Adrem” Identity for “Vero Cafe”
NOTA BENE Below: Packaging of “Vivitpro” vitamins (Client: “Eurovaistines”) Packaging of shoe-laces “Go & Go” (Client: “Zarasaitis”) Packaging of cheese “Musu” (Client: “Pieno zvaigzdes”) Website design for “24Open”
NOTA BENE PORTFOLIO 185
By Angelina Zalatoriene
CENTRE OF DECISIONMAKING 186 PORTFOLIO
hamans who know and see (shamaan: a person who knows, a person of knowledge) claim that there is a spot in a human body which is responsible for decision making. This is the V area, V-shaped pit. It is in the neck base, in the top of the chest, where the collarbones meet.
Shamans say this centre to be a rather weird and mysterious place, holding a special energy which is difficult to describe. Maybe that‘s because the energy itself is resisting. Despite this fact, they feel and see its existence and work. Shamans claim that this specific energy is pushed away from a man‘s centre shortly after his/her birth and never come back there. This way a person loses one of the most important things: all other centers cannot give him energy. For centuries, shamans have been seeing that human‘s inability to make decisions. Homo sapiens have created huge social institutes which took responsibilities for decision making. That‘s why a person can‘t decide himself/herself: social organizations do that for him, and a person just acts like those organizations tell him. Today we see so many assemblies, presidiums, congresses, councils, even unions (EU...). Collective solution goes under collective responsibility. Collective responsibility equals no responsibility. But after all, long ago there were some LEADERS who were ABLE to make decisions. Even if sometimes had to put their heads together with magi, oracles... According to shamans, the V-zone in the neck area is so incredibly important that old generation shamans used to touch it very rarely, and if they had to touch, it was only during rituals and... not with a hand: they used some special instruments for that. Most often these instruments were sticks of hard wood, polished to shining, or animal (sometimes even human) bones. The part of a stick which touches the pit must be round and precisely fit the size of the pit. Shamans used to impact the stick into the pit. However, even these instruments were used very rarely for this purpose. Energy in every body centre is concentrated and looks like a whirlwind spinning counterclockwise from the viewer‘s point. The power of spinning determines the strength of the centre. If spinning is weak, it means the centre is wasted and almost doesn‘t contain energy.
Shamans claim that there are 6 powerful whirlwinds in our bodies, that can be reached and manipulated. The first one is in the area of liver and bile, the second one – around pancreas and spleen, the third one – kidneys and adrenal; the fourth one is in the area of V-form pit of neck. How is it different from others? It contains special energy. The seeing ones see it transparent as water, it flows like a liquid. Moving of energy as if it was water shows that this centre works as a filter and serves as a reflecting screen that transmits only liquid-like energy. Flow of this kind of energy is typical just for this centre. Though...
Men stifle themselves with neckties: no decisions, no responsibility. Only artists have always resisted using this strangler.
The fifth centre is only in women‘s area of uterus. In some women, it flows just like liquid. In such case, the centre is a natural filter too, reflecting energy excess. However, not every uterus has this feature. The sixth centre is in the pate. The old shamans used to think of it as a kind of anomaly. They were avoiding to have anything in common with it. They saw that this energy flows not like a spiral as in other centers, but like a pendulum: forwardbackward, which is similar to heart beating. There even is a version that this centre doesn‘t belong to humans at all, that people are attacked by some invisible rivals and the only way to withstand these attacks is to strengthen all centers. Sounds paranoid, doesn‘t it? It does for an ordinary person, but not for the seeing ones. These see the energy of pate doesn‘t pulse as in other centers: it keeps swinging forward and backward, and this view is very unpleasant, strange and even disgusting. As for a shaman who managed to win against his own mind (human‘s mind is of some strange origin, too) and to master it, has his pate energy pulsing in all centers, too. There is a theory that some powers exist in the Universe that have no sentiments and prevent humans from evolution. We are victims of some Universe predators: they made us passive on purpose. The Nature and the Universe have no moral.
Let’s return to the fourth centre. The energy moving in the Decision-making centre is the weakest of all –that’s why a person decides something himself very rarely. Some exercises are necessary to activate it, then a person can make decisions about things he could never imagine he could. It’s possible to reduce indecision using special exercises, pasu. Fatigue and worries distract and spread energy, that‘s where indecision and hesitations come from. Old shamans were panic about touching the neck pit. This is the whole story of a necktie…
A human body is a conglomerate of energy fields, just as the Universe is. We are some energetic sphere or egg-shaped energetic creatures. But a human body is a sealed energy ball that doesn’t let any energy out. The feeling of energy loss (we tend to blame energy vampires, etc.) it’s just simple wasting and spreading of energy, when it comes out of the five energy centers we have talked about already. Energy is pushed from the centers; it spreads, but goes no further than the limits of our entity. Energy accumulation is nothing more than concentrating the energy we spread and returning it to the life centers. So you cannot give or take energy. You have what you have. The amount of energy depends upon the moment of embarkation, the quality of parents’ intercourse, later – upon person’s behavior. It’s important for energy to be in its place, in the centers. When it’s pushed away, it concentrates at the line of the sphere, where sometimes “energetic bark”, just like an orange peel or a tree bark. A person looks really bad if this happens. With some exercises, it’s possible to kick and move the “bark” and try to return the energy to the centers. This way the spread energy is being reallocated, and a person can exist actively in the world again…