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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

The first semester (Design + Research) project Supervisor: Dr-Ing. Mohannad Bayoumi The Department of Architecture (KAUARCH) Faculty of Architecture and Planning King Abdulaziz University

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Research problem 3. Research objective 4. Literature review 4.1 Peer reviewed research articles 4.1.1 Cost-Saving Impacts 4.1.2 Human Performance 4.2 Standerds 4.3 Research question 5. Research Methods 5.1 Research strategy and limitation 5.2 Study framework 6. Study cases 6.1 Measurement and Simulation tools

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6.2 Selected study cases 6.3 Measurement of study cases 6.4 Evaluation of study cases 7. Design alternatives 7.1 Design alternatives of window openings 7.2 Simulation of design alternatives 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices 7.4 Simulation of design alternatives 8. Results 8.1 Table of design proposals 8.2 Compare and analyze simulation results 8.3 Recommendations 9. References

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


1.INTRODUCTION This study focuses on the quality of natural lighting within educational spaces. Because they are disproportionate to the space function, the lighting is either low or much higher than the space requirement. After studying and evaluating the current situation, we will study one of the most important factors affecting improving the quality of natural lighting is the shading and reflection systems. Then, several proposals were made to design different windows and shading systems and simulate their impact on the quality of the intensity of natural lighting in the classroom and their impact on different facades of various types through simulation programs for natural lighting (Revit daylight analysis - DiaLux). Based on the simulation results, different proposals and their different effects were compared for each interface.

Keywords: Daylighting analysis - Visual comfort - Classrooms - Light shelves - Shading devices.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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2. RESEARCH PROBLEM Natural lighting has several benefits, especially in educational spaces and its impact on various aspects of its impact on the performance and productivity of students and their health and also on the other hand its impact on the provision of electricity consumption and many other different benefits, and after proving these benefits and prove their harm when neglected it is necessary to study design variables Effect on the quality of the intensity of natural lighting in the classroom, and although the lighting is sufficiently available at times, but it is difficult to take advantage of the lack of adequate form of space. Â Hence, one of the most important factors influencing the study and its impact was selected: window design and shading and reflection systems and how to improve the current situation once these systems are changed.

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

Design alternatives of window openings and shading systems to reduce direct sunlight while maintaining visual connection

Reducing direct sunlight penetration

Maintaining visual connection between inside and outside

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


Potential of facade integrated shading and reflection system to improving visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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4. LITERATURE REVIEW 4.1 Peer reviewed research articles 4.1.1 History of Lighting in Classroom 4.1.2 Cost-Saving Impacts 4.1.3 Human Performance 4.1.3 Effects of Orientation 4.2 Standerds 4.3 Research question

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


4. LITERATURE REVIEW 4.1 Peer reviewed research articles

Cost-Saving Impacts

Augmenting the use of natural light not only helps achieve sustainable solutions, it reduces energy costs. (Mohsenin, 2015). Daylighting could decrease electricity needs by %61 - %45. (Rosin, 2008). The most obvious benefit of natural lighting is the economic one that it is free and unlimited in supply. A 1952 report on office lighting in Great Britain found that offices with sufficient daylighting were significantly less costly to maintain. (Phillips, 1964)

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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4. LITERATURE REVIEW 4.1 Peer reviewed research articles

4.1.3 Human Performance

Productivity Increasing the size of windows does not just make a room feel bigger and more comfortable, the increase in exposure to natural light has been found to improve outcomes. And negligence regarding window control and shading was found to negatively affect student performance. (Atre, 2003). windowless spaces created a negative feeling and mental discomfort. (Atre, 2003). One such study surveyed 3,000 students in one school with both windowed and windowless classrooms. It found that %94 of the participants preferred classrooms with windows; only %4 specified a preference for windowless classrooms. In addition, the teachers at the school described the students in windowless classrooms as more timid and more likely to complain. (Wu & Ng, 2003).

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


4. LITERATURE REVIEW 4.1 Peer reviewed research articles

4.1.3 Human Performance

Improvement to learning ability

A separate study of 12,000 elementary school students found a %14 improvement in student performance for those in classrooms with operable windows. (Dudek, 2007). The study found that students in classrooms with the most daylight performed %20 better on math tests and %26 better on reading tests. Rooms with larger window areas correlated with a %23-15 overall improvement in academic outcomes. (White, 2009). The body’s internal clock depends on awareness of the daylight cycle in order to function properly. Without the exposure to daylight, the human body clock can get confused, this can lead to lack of memory and concentration. (White, 2009).

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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4. LITERATURE REVIEW 4.1 Peer reviewed research articles

4.1.3 Human Performance

Prevention of eye damage

Some studies have found a connection between artificial lighting and vision issues, including those related to glare. (Hobday, 2015). Adding daylighting to interior spaces through the use of proper windows and shading devices can reduce or prevent eye damage. Daylight is solar radiation visible to the human eye. (Hobday, 2015). Over the last 50 years, myopia, or shortsightedness, has increased among children, to the point where it must be considered a global health problem. Studies estimate that a lack of exposure to daylight may cause short-sightedness or myopia. (Hobday, 2015).

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


4. LITERATURE REVIEW 4.1 Peer reviewed research articles

4.1.3 Human Performance

Health benefits

Increasing the amount of daylighting in an environment could improve health by mitigating depression and sleep disorders. (Boubekri, 2014). Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and depression are triggered by a lack of daylight. Children in windowless classrooms were found to display symptoms of SAD including those of restlessness and irritability. (Dudek, 2007, p. 35). Poor lighting can cause stress and lead to a variety of problems such as eye discomfort, poor vision, and bad posture (Gifford, 2007, White, 2009).

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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4. LITERATURE REVIEW 4.3 Standards

Illuminance Classrooms :

300 - 500Lux Illuminance and visual tasks

300 Lux

500 Lux

750 1000 Lux

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Classrooms, tutorial rooms Music practice rooms Computer practice rooms Language laboratory Lecture hall Art rooms Practical rooms and laboratories Handicraft rooms Library: reading areas Technical drawing rooms Art rooms in art schools

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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4. RESEARCH QUESTION 4.3 Research question

What type of facade integrated shading and reflection device minimises daylight availability as well as visual connection and reduces direct sunlight penetration?

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


Potential of facade integrated shading and reflection system to improving visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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5. RESEARCH METHODS 5.1 Research strategy and limitation 5.2 Study framework

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


5. RESEARCH METHODS

The research has many different aspects and deals with several topics while going into this experiment, but at the same time it focuses on specific points to reach specific and clear results, the following structure clarifies the limits of the research and the issues affecting it.

5.1 Research strategy and limitation

Indoor Comfort Temperature

Air velocity

Lighting

Daylighting

Acoustics

Materials

Artificial lighting

Daylight is affected by:

Design variables Window openings

Shading devices

Space dimensions

Environmental variables Materials

date

Time

Orientations

Affect to:

Visual Communication

Direct Sunlight Reduction

Summer Solstice

8 AM

Winter Solstice

East

West

North

12 PM

3 PM

South

*The topics specified in the gray background are the topics that will be emphasized in this research

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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5. RESEARCH METHODS 5.2 Study framework The research goes through several main stages

Study Cases Case One - east

Case Two - west Measurements Matching with simulation software

First stage: evaluation of the current situation  Choose a research sample and make measurements of its lighting level and then compare it with the international standards for lighting level in the classroom. The second stage: design proposals Work on design proposals for window openings and measure their impact through simulation programs and then choose the best proposals, and then make design proposals for shading and reflection systems and simulate their effect on natural lighting within a space. The third stage: evaluation of proposals The last stage is to evaluate the proposals, write the advantages and disadvantages of each of the proposals, and give a guide for how to benefit from each type.

Proposals for window openings Type A

Type B

Type C

Type D

Simulation during different times and different dates Date Summer Solstice

Time Winter Solstice

8 AM

12 PM

3 PM

Simulation results Choose the type of window to work on Type 1 Type 2

Choose cases that need shading devices SHADING DEVICES proposals

Type 3 Type 4

SIMULATE the effect of shading devicess on selected cases Reduce direct sunlight

EVALUATE the performance of shading systems through their impact on:

Visual Communication

RECOMMENDATIONS: Advantages and disadvantages of the design proposal

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


Potential of facade integrated shading and reflection system to improving visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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6. STUDY CASES 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

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Measurement and Simulation tools Selected study cases Measurement of study cases Evaluation of study cases

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


6. STUDY CASES 6.1 Measurement and Simulation tools

MEASUREMENT

SIMULATION

Light Meter Light Meter :The instrument used to measure the illumination in the study cases

Building performance analysis The Light Analysis Revit (LA/R) software

Features:High precision, measurement range: 200,000-1Lux. Automatic measuring level selection.Max and min reading hold function.LUX/FC unit selection.Reading locked hold.Automatic data recording.Low battery indication.Specifications:Color: RedDisplay: 2/1-3 digit LCD with a maximum reading of 1999Measuring range: 200000 /20000 /2000LuxSpectral response: CIE Photopic.

The Light Analysis Revit (LA/R) plug-in uses the Autodesk 360 Rendering cloud service to perform very fast and physically accurate daylighting analyses from within Revit.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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6. STUDY CASES 6.2 Selected study cases Case one

Location: Building 535 - King Abdulaziz University. Measurement date: 2019/10/9 Measurement times: 8 am - 1 pm - 3 pm. Facade: West Facade

Case two

Location: Building 535 - King Abdulaziz University. Date of measurement: 2019/10/14 Measurement times: 8 am - 1 pm - 3 pm. Facade: East Facade

Classroom Plan

The selected classrooms have the same design specifications but only with a different orientation.

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Classroom Interior Elevation

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


6. STUDY CASES 6.4 Method of measurement The measurements were made by dividing the interior space into several areas to measure the illumination of each area and then grouping them into the plan floor. The measurements were made at several different times from day 8 am, 1 pm and 3 pm

Measurement grid

Pictures of the selected classroom

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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6. STUDY CASES

N

6.3 Measurement of study cases Case one 95

110

90

80

75

70

65

50

40

450

400

250

200

150

150

100

90

80

370

640

3080

540

360

205

180

160

140

265

160

120

95

90

80

75

70

60

850

450

300

250

200

150

100

90

90

4.350

3940

770

650

350

200

200

190

180

220

150

130

105

100

80

70

70

60

700

450

300

250

200

200

150

100

90

850

1050

1.740

370

220

200

180

180

200

270

160

150

100

95

75

70

65

65

850

500

350

300

200

200

100

100

90

5.850

4.650

870

690

320

220

200

180

190

190

120

130

115

105

80

65

65

60

800

600

300

250

200

150

100

90

90

640

960

1520

550

430

205

160

160

180

250

180

140

120

110

90

70

60

55

900

500

250

200

150

100

90

90

80

6.000

4.560

1.150

460

380

190

140

120

140

135

100

90

85

75

70

60

45

40

400

300

200

150

150

100

90

90

80

460

480

430

320

180

140

130

120

160

2019/10/9 8 a.m. West Elevation

2019/10/9

1 p.m.

West Elevation

2019/10/9 3 p.m. West Elevation

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


6. STUDY CASES

N

6.3 Measurement of study cases Case one

Illuminance values at different distances from window

95

110

90

80

75

70

65

50

40

265

160

120

95

90

80

75

70

60

220

150

130

105

100

80

70

70

60

270

160

150

100

95

75

70

65

65

190

120

130

115

105

80

65

65

60

Illuminance level (Lux)

300 250 200 150 100 50 0

8 a.m. 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m)

250

180

140

120

110

90

70

60

55

135

100

90

85

75

70

60

45

40

2019/10/9 8 a.m. West Elevation

270

160

150

100

95

75

70

Maximum illumination : 270 Lux Minimum illumination : 65 Lux

0% more than 500Lux 0% between 300-500Lux 100% less than 300Lux

65

65

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

The level of natural lighting is below the level required in the classroom, but the contrast level of lighting is generally good. So natural lighting must be included in the space more.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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6. STUDY CASES

N

6.3 Measurement of study cases Case one

Illuminance values at different distances from window 900

400

250

200

150

150

100

90

850

450

300

250

200

150

100

90

90

700

450

300

250

200

200

150

100

90

850

500

350

300

200

200

100

100

90

800

600

300

250

200

150

100

90

90

900

500

250

200

150

100

90

90

80

400

300

200

150

150

100

90

90

80

2019/10/9 1 p.m. West Elevation

800

80

4.8% more than 500Lux 20.6% between 300-500Lux 74.6‏less than 300Lux

Illuminance level (Lux)

450

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

1 p.m. 1

2

850

500

3

4

5

6

Distance from window (m) 350 300 200 200

Maximum illumination : 850 Lux Minimum illumination : 90 Lux 300-500 Lux

7

100

8

9

100

90

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

The level of natural light inside the space is high in some areas and may be sufficient, but its presence in a poorly distributed manner limits the use of it.

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


6. STUDY CASES

N

6.3 Measurement of study cases Case one

Illuminance values at different distances from window 7000

640

3080

540

360

205

180

160

140

4.350

3940

770

650

350

200

200

190

180

850

1050

1.740

370

220

200

180

180

200

5.850 640

4.650 960

870 1520

690 550

320 430

220 205

200 160

180 160

190 180

6000 Illuminance level (Lux)

370

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

3 p.m. 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

200

180

190

Distance from window (m)

6.000

4.560

1.150

460

380

190

140

120

140

460

480

430

320

180

140

130

120

160

2019/10/9 3 p.m. West Elevation

33.3% more than 500Lux 20.6% between 300-500Lux 46.1% less than 300Lux

5.850 4.650

870

690

320

220

Maximum illumination : 5.850 Lux Minimum illumination : 190 Lux 300-500 Lux

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

The level of natural light inside space is very high in more than %30 of the space, so the lighting must be redistributed commensurate with the depth of the space and reduce illumination near the windows. Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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6. STUDY CASES 6.3 Measurement of study cases Case one

Illuminance level (Lux)

8000 Compare lighting values at different distances from the 7000 window at different times

8000

Illuminance level (Lux)

7000

31

6000 5000

6000 5000

2019/10/9 West Elevation

4000 3000 2000

3 p.m.

1000

1 p.m.

0

1

2

4000

3

4

5

6

7

Distance from window (m)

8

9

8 a.m.

300-500 Lux

3000 2000

3 p.m.

1000 0

The maximum 1 p.m.acceptable illumination in classrooms

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Distance from window (m)

8

9

8 a.m.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


6. STUDY CASES

N

6.3 Measurement of study cases Case two 230

480

375

260

195

170

150

105

120

320

230

175

140

125

110

100

90

95

95

100

75

60

50

40

35

30

30

5.405

4.805

1.630

420

220

160

130

115

115

740

360

190

125

115

110

105

100

95

340

165

85

55

40

40

45

35

35

2.180

3800

2.305

990

380

180

140

120

120

390

520

330

190

145

125

115

105

100

110

120

80

65

45

36

30

30

35

5.640

2.805

940

690

320

215

130

120

120

960

450

280

215

155

115

100

95

95

360

170

115

70

50

45

40

35

40

1.450

1.170

810

520

210

160

135

115

110

340

460

355

200

160

115

100

95

95

105

135

105

75

55

50

40

35

40

5.850

3.550

2.080

440

260

180

125

100

75

940

460

275

190

145

105

85

80

80

340

145

110

80

55

45

45

35

30

320

4.850

1.630

550

280

175

120

100

75

280

300

255

190

130

115

100

85

75

80

120

100

75

50

40

35

30

30

2019/10/14 8 a.m. East Elevation

2019/10/14 1 p.m. East Elevation

2019/10/14 3 p.m. East Elevation

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

32


6. STUDY CASES

N

6.3 Measurement of study cases Case two 6000

480

375

260

195

170

150

105

120

5.405

4.805

1.630

420

220

160

130

115

115

2.180

3800

2.305

990

380

180

140

120

120

5.640

2.805

940

690

320

215

130

120

120

1.450

1.170

810

520

210

160

135

115

110

5.850

3.550

2.080

440

260

180

125

100

75

320

4.850

1.630

550

280

175

120

100

75

2019/10/14 8 a.m. East Elevation

5000

Illuminance level (Lux)

230

Illuminance values at different distances from window

4000 3000 2000 1000

31.7% more than 500Lux 12.7% between 300-500Lux 55.6% less than 300Lux

0

1

2

5.640 2.805

3

4

5

6

7

Distance from window (m) 940 690 320 215 130

Maximum illumination : 5.640 Lux Minimum illumination : 120 Lux 300-500 Lux

8

9

120

120

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

The level of natural light inside space is very high in more than %30 of the space, so the lighting must be redistributed commensurate with the depth of the space and reduce illumination near the windows.

33

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


6. STUDY CASES

N

6.3 Measurement of study cases Case two

Illuminance values at different distances from window 1200

230

175

140

125

110

100

90

95

740

360

190

125

115

110

105

100

95

390

520

330

190

145

125

115

105

100

960

450

280

215

155

115

100

95

95

340

460

355

200

160

115

100

95

95

940

460

275

190

145

105

85

80

80

280

300

255

190

130

115

100

85

75

1000

Illuminance level (Lux)

320

800 600 400 200 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

4.8% more than 500Lux 20.6% between 300-500Lux 74.6‏less than 300Lux

9

Distance from window (m)

960

450

280

215

155

115

100

Maximum illumination : 960 Lux Minimum illumination : 95 Lux 2019/10/14 1 p.m. East Elevation

8

300-500 Lux

95

95

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

The level of natural light inside the space is high in some areas and may be sufficient, but its presence in a poorly distributed manner limits the use of it.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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6. STUDY CASES

N

6.3 Measurement of study cases Case two

Illuminance values at different distances from window 6000

100

75

60

50

40

35

30

30

340

165

85

55

40

40

45

35

35

110

120

80

65

45

36

30

30

35

360

170

115

70

50

45

40

35

40

105

135

105

75

55

50

40

35

40

340

145

110

80

55

45

45

35

30

80

120

100

75

50

40

35

30

30

5000

Illuminance level (Lux)

95

4000 3000 2000 1000 0

1

2

3

4

5

0% more than 500Lux 4.8% between 300-500Lux 95.2% less than 300Lux

7

8

9

Distance from window (m)

360

170

115

70

50

Maximum illumination : 360 Lux Minimum illumination : 40 Lux 2019/10/14 8 a.m. East Elevation

6

300-500 Lux

45

40

35

40

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

The level of natural lighting is below the level required in the classroom, but the contrast level of lighting is generally good. So natural lighting must be included in the space more.

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Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


6. STUDY CASES 6.3 Measurement of study cases Case two

Illuminance level (Lux)

8000 from the Compare lighting values at different distances window at different times 7000

Illuminance level (Lux) Illuminance level (Lux)

8000 8000 7000 7000 6000 6000 5000 5000

6000 5000

2019/10/9 West Elevation

4000 3000 2000

3 p.m.

1000

1 p.m.

0

1

2

4000 4000

3

4

5

6

7

Distance from window (m)

8

9

8 a.m.

3000 3000

2000

3 p.m.

1000 0

The maximum acceptable 1 p.m. illumination in classrooms

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Distance window Distancefrom from window (m)(m)

8

9

8 a.m.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

36


6. STUDY CASES 6.4 Evaluation of study casesdesign proposals

8000

Compare lighting values at different distances from the window at different times

Case one

Case two

2019/10/9 West Elevation

2019/10/14 East Elevation

8000

Illumunanace level (Lux) Illuminance level (Lux)

7000

7

(m)

8

5000 8000

4000

7000

3000 2000 1000 0

9

1

Illuminance level (Lux)

Illuminance level (Lux)

6000

2

6000 5000 4000 30003

3 p.m.

2000

1 p.m.

1000

8 a.m.

0

4

5

6

7

8

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

9

Distance from window (m)

1 illumination 2 3 classrooms 4 The maximum acceptable in

1

2 3 p.m.

Distance from window (m)

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m)

Distance from window (m)

1 p.m. 5

6

7

Distance from window (m) The contrast in the natural light of the eastern facade is clearly increased at 8 am and gradually decreases over time and becomes less completely at 3 pm.Unlike the western facade in the morning, the contrast is slight and increases in the afternoon until it is at its highest level at 3 pm.

37

7000

8

9

8 a.m.

According to this study, the level of illumination of natural lighting in the classroom is generally lower than the required level with the standards, where the highest percentage of lighting recorded in a classroom measured is %25 of the area.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


6. STUDY CASES Illumination: current space measurements and simulation by Revit

Measure the actual design by Light Meter

3 PM

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

Simulations the actual design by Revit Analysis

Component

Reflectance

Internal walls Floor Ceiling

0.70 0.40 0.80

Windows

Transmittance

0.55

Others

Double glasing

Specifications

simulation hours 8am–1pm–3pm Surroundings No obstruction from adjacent buildings simulation plane hight 0.75m

8 AM

glazing

White Polished granite Flat

12 PM

Optical parameters for lighting simulations.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

38


39

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


Potential of facade integrated shading and reflection system to improving visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

40


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

41

Design alternatives of window openings Simulation of design alternatives Design alternatives of shading devices Simulation of design alternatives

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.1 Design alternatives of window openings

Type A

Type B

Type C

Type D

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

42


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

N

7.2 Simulation of design alternatives 21 June 2019 - East Facade Types

8 AM

12 PM

3 PM

Notes - High contrast of natural lighting at 8 am in the space. - Lighting illuminates the space well at noon, but solutions must be found to move it deep into the classroom.

- High contrast of natural lighting at 8 am in the space. - Lighting illuminates the space well at noon, but solutions must be found to move it deep into the classroom. - The contrast in light levels decreases at 3 pm.

- The daylighting in the space is very high, specifically at 8 am. - Natural lighting should be minimized within the space in general.

- The daylighting in the space is very high, specifically at 8 am. - Natural lighting should be minimized within the space in general.

43

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

N

7.2 Simulation of design alternatives 22 December 2019 - East Facade Types

8 AM

12 PM

3 PM

Notes - Lighting illuminates the space well at noon, but solutions must be found to move it deep into the classroom. - High contrast of daylighting at 8 am in the space.

- Lighting illuminates the space well at noon, but solutions must be found to move it deep into the classroom. - High contrast of daylighting at 8 am in the space.

.- High contrast of daylighting in the space. - Natural lighting should be minimized within the space in general at 8 am and 12 pm. And redistributed in space at 3 pm.

.- High contrast of daylighting in the space. - Natural lighting should be minimized within the space in general at 8 am and 12 pm. And redistributed in space at 3 pm.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

44


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

N

7.2 Simulation of design alternatives 21 June 2019 - West Facade Types

8 AM

12 PM

3 PM

Notes - The lighting must be redistributed within the classroom to reach the depth of the space. - Lighting at 8am is low in the space in general and we get better in the afternoon. - Natural light does not reach the depth of the classroom sufficient. - Lighting at 8am is low in the space in general and we get better in the afternoon. - The lighting must be redistributed within the classroom to reach the depth of the space.

- The daylighting in the space is very high, specifically at 3 pm. - Natural lighting should be minimized within the space in general. - At 8 am, lighting increases near the windows, but lighting is appropriate in the inner half of the class. - The daylighting in the space is very high, specifically at 3 pm. - Natural lighting should be minimized within the space in general. - At 8 am, lighting increases near the windows, but lighting is appropriate in the inner half of the class.

45

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

N

7.2 Simulation of design alternatives 22 December 2019 - West Facade Types

8 AM

12 PM

3 PM

Notes - Lighting at 8am is low in the space in general - Lighting illuminates the space well at noon, but solutions must be found to move it deep into the classroom. - High contrast of daylighting at 3 pm in the space.

- Lighting at 8am is low in the space in general - Lighting illuminates the space well at noon, but solutions must be found to move it deep into the classroom. - High contrast of daylighting at 3 pm in the space.

- Lighting at 8am is low in the space in general - The daylighting in the space is very high at 3 pm. - Natural lighting should be minimized within the space in general at 12 and 3 pm.

- Lighting at 8am is low in the space in general - The daylighting in the space is very high at 3 pm. - Natural lighting should be minimized within the space in general at 12 and 3 pm.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

46


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

A

7.2 Simulation of design alternatives

B

Types of windows that will be focused on in the upcoming experiences

Choose a sample to compare the effect of design alternatives (21 June 2019 - East Facade)

C

The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

D

Accepted zone

Types

3 PM

(Lux) 6000 3000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 0

6000 5000

B

Illuminance level (Lux)

A 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m)

C

4.850

670

540

390

280

240

180

95

90

5.105

960

645

570

410

380

335

305

260

990

845

590

430

390

340

300

960

690

620

5.250 3.450

D 5.840 5.200 4.650 3.300 2.230 1.100

47

Type A

%22

Type B

%55

Type C

%44

Type D

%0

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

N

7.2 Simulation of design alternatives Choosing the cases most exposed to sunlight from the results of the previous simulations, to study them later and design proposals for shading and reflection systems in order to improve these cases

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

Summer Solstice

Winter Solstice

Summer Solstice

Winter Solstice

East Facade

East Facade

West Facade

West Facade

8 AM

8 AM

3 PM

3 PM

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

48


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

N

7.2 Simulation of design alternatives Choosing the cases most exposed to sunlight from the results of the previous simulations, to study them later and design proposals for shading and reflection systems in order to improve these cases

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

49

Summer Solstice

Winter Solstice

Summer Solstice

Winter Solstice

East Facade

East Facade

West Facade

West Facade

8 AM

8 AM

3 PM

3 PM

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

50


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices How to name types of design alternatives:

B2.1

Orientation of elevation Shading device type Window type

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

1.1 East Facade

1.2 West Facade

2.1 East Facade

2.2 West Facade

3.1 East Facade

3.2 West Facade

B1.1

B1.2

B2.1

B2.2

B3.1

B3.2

C1.1

C1.2

C2.1

C2.2

C3.1

C3.2

Type B

Type C

51

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices

Lux 6000 2000 800 400 100 0

Summer Solstice

Type B

East Facade

8 AM

Type C

Summer Solstice Winter Solstice

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

52


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B1.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Type B1.1 East Facade Curved ends for increased light diffusion

Double glasing Transmittance 70%

Aluminum, highly polished Reflection Factor 87%

Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Movable shelf To benefit from it in different times

Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

53

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B1.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Summer Solstice Winter Solstice

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

54


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B1.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

Accepted zone

6000

The existing window

Illuminance level (Lux)

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Distance from window (m) Current status

Proposed status

260

395

430

510

680

120

210

215

245

320

1.450 4.200 5.450 3.950

360

435

480

495

The Proposed window with shading devices

55

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B1.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

56


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C1.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Type C1.1 East Facade Curved ends for increased light diffusion

Double glasing Transmittance 70%

Aluminum, highly polished Reflection Factor 87%

Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Movable shelf To benefit from it in different times

Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

57

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C1.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

Accepted zone

6000 5000

8 AM

The existing window

Illuminance level (Lux)

Type

4000 3000 2000 1000 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Distance from window (m) Current status

435

520

610

290

310

360

Proposed status

1.150 1.620 4.560 5.780 5.900 5.250

420

450

480

515

645

1.050

The Proposed window with shading devices

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

58


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C1.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

59

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices

Type B2.1 East Facade

Double glasing Transmittance 70%

Aluminum, highly polished Reflection Factor 87%

Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

60


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B2.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Summer Solstice Winter Solstice

61

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B2.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

8 AM

Accepted zone

6000

The existing window

Illuminance level (Lux)

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Distance from window (m) Current status

Proposed status

260

395

430

510

680

190

210

215

230

360

1.450 4.200 5.450 3.950

380

470

585

620

The Proposed window with shading devices

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

62


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B2.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

63

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices

Type C2.1 East Facade

Double glasing Transmittance 70%

Aluminum, highly polished Reflection Factor 87%

Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

64


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C2.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

Accepted zone

6000 5000

8 AM Illuminance level (Lux)

Type

The existing window

4000 3000 2000 1000 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Distance from window (m) Current status

435

520

610

210

245

370

Proposed status

1.150 1.620 4.560 5.780 5.900 5.250

390

440

510

645

940

1.520

The Proposed window with shading devices

65

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C2.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

66


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B3.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Type B3.1 East Facade Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Oak, light polished Reflection Factor 35%

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

67

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B3.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Summer Solstice Winter Solstice

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

68


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B3.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Type

The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

8 AM

Accepted zone

6000

The existing window

Illuminance level (Lux)

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Distance from window (m) Current status

Proposed status

260

395

430

510

680

175

190

235

305

380

1.450 4.200 5.450 3.950

490

655

950

1.350

The proposed window with shading devices

69

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B3.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

70


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C3.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Type C3.1 East Facade Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Oak, light polished Reflection Factor 35%

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

71

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C3.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

Accepted zone

6000 5000

8 AM Illuminance level (Lux)

Type

The existing window

4000 3000 2000 1000 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Distance from window (m) Current status

435

520

610

90

110

125

Proposed status

1.150 1.620 4.560 5.780 5.900 5.250

240

340

380

445

565

825

The Proposed window with shading devices

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

72


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C3.1

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

73

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices

Lux 6000 2000 800 400 100 0

Summer Solstice

Type B

West Facade

3 PM

Type C

Summer Solstice Winter Solstice

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

74


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices

Type B1.2 East Facade Curved ends for increased light diffusion

Double glasing Transmittance 70%

Aluminum, highly polished Reflection Factor 87%

Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60% folding louvers

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

75

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B1.2

3D Section

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Winter Solstice

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

76


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B1.2

3D Section

77

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Summer Solstice

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B1.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

3 PM

Accepted zone

6000

The existing window

Illuminance level (Lux)

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m) Current status

Proposed status

5.150

920

660

540

430

340

290

180

140

550

475

440

360

320

305

310

205

180

The Proposed window with shading devices

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

78


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B1.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

79

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices

Type C1.2 East Facade Curved ends for increased light diffusion

Double glasing Transmittance 70%

Aluminum, highly polished Reflection Factor 87%

Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60% folding louvers

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

80


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C1.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

Accepted zone

6000 5000

3 PM Illuminance level (Lux)

Type

The existing window

4000 3000 2000 1000 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m) Current status

Proposed status

5.450 3.950 1550

850

590

430

340

290

210

720

495

460

345

310

250

190

565

540

The Proposed window with shading devices

81

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C1.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

82


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices

Type B2.2 East Facade

Double glasing Transmittance 70%

Aluminum, highly polished Reflection Factor 87%

Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

83

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B2.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade

Summer Solstice Winter Solstice

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

84


7. DESIGN RESULTSALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B2.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

3 PM

Accepted zone

6000

The existing window

Illuminance level (Lux)

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m) Current status

Proposed status

5.150

920

660

540

430

340

290

180

140

740

590

420

340

310

280

230

115

120

The Proposed window with shading devices

85

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B2.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

86


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices

Type C2.2 East Facade

Double glasing Transmittance 70%

Aluminum, highly polished Reflection Factor 87%

Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

87

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C2.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

Accepted zone

6000 5000

3 PM Illuminance level (Lux)

Type

The existing window

4000 3000 2000 1000 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m) Current status

Proposed status

5.450 3.950 1550

850

590

430

340

290

210

1360

485

390

365

320

240

215

930

720

The Proposed window with shading devices

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

88


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C2.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

89

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B3.2

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Type B3.2 East Facade Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Double glasing Transmittance 70%

Wood, light polished Reflection Factor 35%

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

90


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B2.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade

Summer Solstice Winter Solstice

91

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN RESULTSALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B3.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

3 PM

Accepted zone

6000

The existing window

Illuminance level (Lux)

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m) Current status

Proposed status

5.150

920

660

540

430

340

290

180

140

490

435

350

215

130

95

90

80

80

The Proposed window with shading devices

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

92


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type B3.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

93

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C3.2

21 June 2019 - East Facade

Type C3.2 East Facade Aluminum, matt Reflection Factor 60%

Double glasing Transmittance 70%

Wood, light polished Reflection Factor 35%

Double glasing Transmittance 55%

3D Section

Design proposal specifications

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

94


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C3.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

Accepted zone

6000 5000

3 PM

The existing window

Illuminance level (Lux)

Type

4000 3000 2000 1000 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m) Current status

Proposed status

5.450 3.950 1550

850

590

430

340

290

210

1250

460

430

340

230

190

140

850

560

The Proposed window with shading devices

95

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


7. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 7.3 Design alternatives of shading devices Type C3.2

21 June 2019 - West Facade

Interior perspective for existing design of windows

Interior perspective for proposed design of windows

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

96


97

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


Potential of facade integrated shading and reflection system to improving visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

98


8. RESULTS 8.1 Table of design proposals 8.2 Compare and analyze simulation results 8.3 Recommendations

99

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


8. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES 8.1 Table of design proposals

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

1.1 East Facade

1.2 West Facade

2.1 East Facade

2.2 West Facade

3.1 East Facade

3.2 West Facade

B1.1

B1.2

B2.1

B2.2

B3.1

B3.2

C1.1

C1.2

C2.1

C2.2

C3.1

C3.2

Type B

Type C

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

100


8. RESULTS 8.2 Compare and analyze simulation results

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

101

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

1.1 East Facade

1.2 West Facade

2.1 East Facade

2.2 West Facade

3.1 East Facade

3.2 West Facade

B1.1

B1.2

B2.1

B2.2

B3.1

B3.2

C1.1

C1.2

C2.1

C2.2

C3.1

C3.2

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


8. RESULTS

Simulation results compared to design alternatives for shading and reflection systems. By studying the lighting level at the window to the depth of the space

8.2 Compare and analyze simulation results East Facade - 8 am

West Facade - 3 pm 1600

1600

1400

1200

1200

1000

1000

Illuminance level (Lux)

Type B

Illuminance level (Lux)

1400

800 600 400 200 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

800 600 400 200 0

1

2

3

B2.1

B3.1

B1.2

1600

1600

1400

1400

1200

1200

1000

1000

Illuminance level (Lux)

Type C

Illuminance level (Lux)

B1.1

800 600 400 200 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

C2.1

5

6

7

8

9

3

2

1

B2.2

B3.2

800 600 400 200 0

1

Distance from window (m)

C1.1

4

Distance from window (m)

Distance from window (m)

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m)

C3.1

the acceptable illumination standard in classrooms

C1.2

C2.2

C3.2

The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

102


8. RESULTS 8.2 Compare and analyze simulation results

%

Simulation results compared to design alternatives for shading and reflection systems. By studying the lighting level at the window to the depth of the space

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

Average ratio of acceptable illumination level in area (from window to depth of space) The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms the acceptable illumination standard in classrooms

1600 1400 1200

Illuminance level (Lux)

21 JUNE 2019 - 8 AM EAST FACADE

1000 800 600 400 200 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Distance from window (m)

B1.1

B2.1

B3.1

TYPE

B1.1

TYPE

B2.1

TYPE

B3.1

103

120

210

215

245

320

360

435

480

495

%55

190

210

215

230

360

380

470

585

620

%33

175

190

235

305

380

490

655

950

1.350

%33

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


8. RESULTS 8.2 Compare and analyze simulation results

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

Average ratio of acceptable illumination level in area (from window to depth of space)

%

Simulation results compared to design alternatives for shading and reflection systems. By studying the lighting level at the window to the depth of the space

The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms the acceptable illumination standard in classrooms 1600 1400 1200

Illuminance level (Lux)

21 JUNE 2019 - 3 PM WEST FACADE

1000 800 600 400 200 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m)

B1.1

B2.2

B3.2

TYPE

B1.2

TYPE

B2.2

TYPE

B3.2

550

475

440

360

320

305

310

205

180

%66

740

590

420

340

310

280

230

115

120

%33

490

435

350

215

130

95

90

80

80

%33

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

104


8. RESULTS 8.2 Compare and analyze simulation results

%

Simulation results compared to design alternatives for shading and reflection systems. By studying the lighting level at the window to the depth of the space

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

Average ratio of acceptable illumination level in area (from window to depth of space) The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms the acceptable illumination standard in classrooms

1600 1400 1200

Illuminance level (Lux)

21 JUNE 2019 - 8 AM EAST FACADE

1000 800 600 400 200 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Distance from window (m)

C1.1

C2.1

C3.1

TYPE

C1.1

TYPE

C2.1

TYPE

C3.1

105

290

310

360

420

450

480

515

645

1.050

%55

210

245

370

390

440

510

645

940

1.520

%33

90

110

125

240

340

380

445

565

825

%33

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


8. RESULTS 8.2 Compare and analyze simulation results

Lux 6000 4000 2000 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 0

Average ratio of acceptable illumination level in area (from window to depth of space)

%

Simulation results compared to design alternatives for shading and reflection systems. By studying the lighting level at the window to the depth of the space

The maximum acceptable illumination in classrooms the acceptable illumination standard in classrooms 1600 1400 1200

Illuminance level (Lux)

21 JUNE 2019 - 3 PM WEST FACADE

1000 800 600 400 200 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from window (m)

C1.1

C2.2

C3.2

TYPE

C1.2

TYPE

C2.2

TYPE

C3.2

720

565

540

495

460

345

310

250

190

%55

1360

930

720

485

390

365

320

240

215

%44

1250

850

560

460

430

340

230

190

140

%33

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

106


8. RESULTS 8.3 Recommendations

Each type of design alternative to shading and reflection systems has advantages and disadvantages, and each can be used according to need and according to the designer’s vision.

Characteristics of design alternatives (advantages and disadvantages): TYPE 1

TYPE 2

TYPE 3

%57.75

%35.75

%33.33

The acceptable illumination rate in the space (according to previous analyzes)

The acceptable illumination rate in the space (according to previous analyzes)

The acceptable illumination rate in the space (according to previous analyzes)

This type of shading and reflection systems helps reduce direct sunlight, and clearly reduces high levels of illumination in all previous cases, especially in type B 1.1 and 1.2.

In general, this type of shading and reflection systems helps reduce direct sunlight, but the amount of lighting limitation is more effective in window type B than window C

This type of shading and reflection system reduces the level of illumination in the area sufficiently in Type B 3.2, but not sufficiently in other cases such as C3.1 and C3.2.

Reflection systems in this type help to enter daylighting well to reach the depth of space, especially in the type S 1.1 and 1.2.

The reflection systems in this proposal help bring lighting to the depth of space, but not enough in all cases.

Illumination levels decrease significantly and not well in the depth of the area, so it is less than the acceptable level in this proposal.

This type of shading and reflection systems gives the flexibility to fold and move the shading elements, so that they can be better utilized and to increase the visual connection between inside and outside at times.

This design proposal is better in the summer period than in the winter period in terms of reducing direct sunlight.

This design proposal is better in the summer period than in the winter period in terms of reducing direct sunlight.

This design is equally effective in the summer and winter periods and is flexible to suit different times.

107

This design proposal allows good visual connection between the interior and exterior.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


Potential of facade integrated shading and reflection system to improving visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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9. REFERENCES Robson, E. R., (1972). School architecture (Original work published 1874). New York, NY: Leicester University Press.

lished master›s thesis). Texas A & M University, College Station, TX. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/2293

Hobday, R. (2015). Myopia and daylight in schools: A neglected aspect of public health?.Perspectives in Public Health, 136(1), 50-55. doi:10.1177/1757913915576679

Lechner, N. (2014). Heating, cooling, lighting: Sustainable design methods for architects (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Mohsenin, S. M. (2015). Assessing daylight performance in atrium buildings by using climatebased daylight modeling (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest.

Wu, W., & Ng, E. (2003). A review of the development of daylighting in schools. Lighting Research & Technology, 35(2), 111125. doi:10.1191/1477153503li072oa

Mohsenin, M., & Hu, J. (2015). Assessing daylight performance in atrium buildings by using climate based daylight modeling. Solar Energy, 119(September), 553-560. doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2015.05.011

White, J. R. (2009). Didactic daylight design for education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest.

Rosin, B., Bodart, M., Deneyer, A., & Herdt, P. D. (2008). Lighting energy savings in offices using different control systems and their real consumption. Energy and Buildings, 40(4), 514-523. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.04.006 Phillips, D. (1997). Lighting Historic Buildings: A Prospectus. Boston, MA: Butterworth- Heinemann. Phillips, D. (1964). Lighting in Architectural Design. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Atre, U. V. (2003). Effect of daylighting on energy consumption and daylight quality in an existing elementary school (Unpub-

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Dudek, M. (2007). Schools and kindergartens: A design manual. Boston, MA: Birkhauser. Heschong Mahone Group. (1999). Daylighting in schools: An investigation into the relationship between daylighting and human performance. Retrieved from http://h-mg.com/ downloads/Daylighting/schoolc.pdf Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental psychology: Principles and practice (4th ed.). Colville: WA: Optimal Books. CIBSE (2002) Code for Lighting, Oxford: Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah


Potential of facade integrated shading and reflection system to improving visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection

Potential of facade integrated shading and light reflection devices to improve visual comfort in classrooms considering daylight availability and visual connection Siraj Mahmoud Mandourah

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