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Leslie Leung Color I Aki Nurosi 2010


Color


table of contents Basic Principles Color Wheel Harmony Language & Emotions Simultaneous Contrast Color Interaction Nature


basic principles


basic principles What is color? Color is the unspoken language of the human eye. Yet, extends itself beyond a visual aid; it fills our environments, and sensitizes us to the things we touch, taste, smell and hear. The syntax of certain colors can form harmonious and complementary relationships. It is subjective and objective. Qualitative and quantitative. Poetic and rational. Expressive and emotive. All colors visible to the human eye are derived from the combination of three primary colors: red, yellow and blue. These basic colors are derived from a mixture of warm and cool neutral hues.


By taking neutral hues from observation, primary hues are created from warm and cool componenents (colors) and then created to form secondary and tertiary hues.


primary hues + Rose Tyrien (cool)

= Windsor Red (warm)

+

Red

= Ultramarine (warm)

Turquoise Blue (cool)

+ Spectrum Yellow (cool)

Blue

= Brilliant Yellow (warm)

Yellow

secondary hues + Rose Tyrien (cool)

= Ultramarine (warm)

+ Brilliant Yellow (warm)

= Windsor Red (warm)

+ Spectrum Yellow (cool)

Violet

Orange

= Turquoise (cool)

Green


tertiary hues + Green

= Spectrum Yellow

+ Green

= Blue Green

Turquoise Blue (cool)

+

= Red Orange

Windsor Red

Orange

+ Orange

= Brilliant Yellow

+ Violet

Yellow Orange

= Windsor Red

+ Violet

Yellow Green

Red Violet

= Ultramarine

Blue Violet


color wheel

c=0 m = 13 y = 100 k=0

c=0 m=0 y = 80 k=0 c = 20 m=0 y = 83 k=0

c=0 m = 65 y = 100 k=0

c = 67 m = 10 y = 100 k=0

c=0 m = 83 y = 100 k=0

c = 85 m = 20 y = 100 k = 15

c = 95 m = 70 y = 20 k = 15

c=0 m = 100 y = 95 k=0

c=1 m = 100 y = 20 k = 20

Complementary colors can be identified by looking at the opposite color found on the color wheel. The complement of each primary color are opposite a secondary color and the complement of tertiary colors are opposite a tertiary color. Gray will result when mixing complements together.

c = 60 m = 100 y = 30 k = 12

c = 90 m = 100 y = 14 k = 10


The primary, secondary and tertiary hues collectively form the twelve colors that represent the color wheel. This color family enables a wide range of groupings for harmonious color relationships.


color wheel

harmony


color wheel

harmony Harmonious interactions can be derived from geometric shapes (templates) placed over the color wheel. Rotating these shapes enable further exploration of color sets. When applied to compositions, color harmonies with light, warm and bright hues will emphasize colors and give the appearance that they are coming forward while dark, cool, and dull colors recede into the background. Contrast harmony occurs when complementary colors mix together. This physiological phenomenon, known as Goethe’s theory, occurs when the eye focuses on a primary color for a few seconds and notices the appearance of its complement on a white piece of paper. The same applies to tertiary pairs, though theories suggest this harmony is somewhat weaker.

Harmonious interactions shown in 3-4 color combinations. Attention to size and background colors as well as a clear hierarchy in spatial relationships plays an important part.


language &

emotions


VI XVII XVIII XIX X XXI XV X XXII XXI I moI XIV r

XI V II XII

III I X X VII V XI I V XIInin mo I II III IV V I V g rn X VI i X I I I V I I V I IV I II XII n X V V I V I I I I I V V V V II I I IV I IX X X VII III I II I I I I XII

I XI

XI II

I

II

I

X

II

XI

X

XX

XV

night

nig

ht

by Pablo Neruda

noon

night

I

Excerpts from One Hundred Love Sonnets/ Cien Sonetos de Amor

eve

even i ng

evening

VI VI I

I

II I

nin g

V

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II

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X X II X XI X on XIX

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af ter XIV II XIII XIIII X IVaftXerno III XI X XIII X IIII XIV XV XVI V aofnt II XI e X X I X X X X X X I I I II XVII XXII X VII rno X I II IX X X XV I XV III XIV X XIV XX VIII II XX

XI XII XIII XIIII XIV IX X XV

IV X

V

I VII

IV

I II

VII VI


language &

emotions

All the colors on the wheel have many positive and negative associations that extend across cultural and geographical borders. A question thus arises, What associations can all different colors have on us? I explored the relationship of these connotations through the poetry of Pablo Neruda’s Cien Sonetos de Amor/100 Love Sonnets. In this collection of sonnets, Pablo Neruda divides his poems into four parts of the day: morning, afternoon, evening and night. The poems within each section are a reflection of Neruda’s internal and external wrestlings with his love for his wife Matilde Urrutia. The overall tone of the poems exhibit both positive and negative implications/moods as Neruda expresses his love for Matilde.


X

X

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XXII I X IV

XXII I X IV

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V IIIV VIX IIIIX IIIX IIX IX I II X VX IX III I XI IVX IVX VX IXVX X XIX IIXIIV IIIX IIX X X IX X II X IX XX XI VX IIV IXX II X IV X X VIX IIIX VX IV IVX VIX II X XI IIX

I

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X I I I XI V II X XX X X XXI XXII I XI XXIII XIV XX VIII XXI XXII

XXII I X IV

III

X

X

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IIIX IIIX I II X VIX I III X VX IX III I XI IVX IVX VX IXVX X XIX IIXIIV IIIX IIX X X IX X II X IX XX XI VX IIV IXX II X IV X X VIX IIIX VX IV IVX VIX II X XI IIX V X I

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VI II

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VI VI I

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XXII III IX X VII V XI I XIV XII I I I III I V V VI I II III IV XI VI VV I IV V II IV V VI VII VIII IX I VII

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XI XII XIII XIIII XIV IX X XV

XV I

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X I I I XI V II X XX X X XXI XXII I XI XXIII XIV XX VIII XXI XXII

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VI XVII XVIII XIX X XXI XV X XXII

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7 7

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X I I I XI V II X XX X X XXI XXII I XI XXIII XIV XX VIII XXI XXII

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X I I I XI V II X XX X X XXI XXII I XI XXIII XIV XX VIII XXI XXII

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X II X XXX X XXI XXII XXIII XI V I XIXXII XXIII XIV

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X XIII XI

XVII

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XX I VI V XIV

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XIII XIV II X XXIII X IV

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I II I II IV

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II XX

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XXIX X XXI XXII XI I X I XXIII XIV X XVII XXI XXI X I XI

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XXII I X IV

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I I I

I

Absent, your heart sails through dreams, but your body breathes, abandoned like this, searhing for me without seeing me, completing my sleep, like a plant that propagates in the dark.

XI

XV XVI XVII XV

II

X

II

VI VI I

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I XI

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II I I I X XII

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XI XII XIII XIIII XIV IX X XV

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XXI III I X X VII V XI II XIV XII I II III IV V VI I II III IV XI VI VV I IV VI II V V VI VII VIII IX III I I X

VI XVII XVIII XIX X XXI XV X XXI I

X

It’s good to feel you close in the night, Love, invisible in your sleep, earnestly nocturnal, while I untangle my confusions like bewildered nets.

X

II XX

I VI I II

XI II

I

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XI XII XIII XIIII XIV IX X XV

V XI

I VII

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XXII III IX X VII V XI I XIV XII I I I I II I V V VI I II III IV XI VI VV I IV VI II V V VI VII VIII IX III I I X

XV XVI XVII XV

V XVI XVII XV I V X

I

V XV

V XV

VI XVII XVIII XIX X XXI XV X XXII

VII

IX I

it wants freshness — fire — water — bread, for everyone: nothing should separate people but the sun or the night, the moon or the branches.

IX

VI

II XX

X

VI

Thirst of fire, scorch and multitudinousness of summer, which builds an eden with a few green leaves —: because the dark-faced earth does not want suffering;

XIV II XIII XIIII XIV X III X V X X XV I X XI I XIII XIIII IV XV XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II X XI II IX X X XVI XV II XIV XV VI XIV V XXI I

V

I

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XI II XIII XIIII XIV XV II X X X XV I X XI I XIII XIIII IV XV XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II X XI II IX X X XVI XV II XIV XV VI XIV V XXI I

IV

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XIII XIV II X XX X X XXI XXII I XI XXIII XIV XX VIII XXI XXII

XXII I X IV

I

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XIV II XIII XIIII XIV X III X V X X XV I X XI I XIII XIIII IV XV XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II X XI II IX X X XVI XV II XIV XV VI XIV V XXI I

VI II

X

X

Yes: the daylight crackles like a fire, or like bees, getting on with its green work, burying itself in leaves: till up at the top the foliage reaches a bright world that flickers and whispers.

III XI X

I

X

I

I

I IX

I

X

Radiant days rolling on the water, intense as the inside of a yellow rock, its splendor like honey; that wasn’t damaged by all the turmoil. That kept its four-square purity.

X

II

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XI

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VI VI I

I

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XIX X XX IX

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I XV XV XVII XV

II XX

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IX X X I

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XIIII XIV XV

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XIV IIII

X

And then your hand fluttered, it flew back again: it closed its wings, its feathers I had thought were lost, over my eyes the darkness had swallowed.

8 8

I

IV

III

I XVII XVIII XV XV

XX X VII V VI I II III IV V V I I II III IV V V VI

IV V VI VII VIII II III

I I XII XIII IX X X VIII VI I

I

X

V

XI

The afternoon . . . was. quietly the night slide over a man asleep, its celestial capsule. Honeysuckle set loose its sad savage odor.

Negative associations found in exerpts of the sonnets place colors behind a black background.

I

I II

II

V

I XIII XIIII XIV

XI II

I

II XI

I XI

XV II I

IV

I

XIX X XXI X VII XII XV XI X

XV II

II

II XVIII

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I

I II

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III XIIII XIV XV XVI XIII III X

9 I II

V V

IV

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X

Our nomadic kisses, wandered over all the world: Armenia, dollop of disinterred honey —: Ceyon, green dove —: and the yang-tse with its old old patience, dividing the day from the night.

I VI I II I

Love, we’re going home now, where the vines clamber over the trellis: even before you, the summer will arrive, on its honeysuckle feet, in your bedroom.

IV I X XXII

I

XI II

IX

X

XII

XIV II XIII XIIII XIV XV III X X X XV I X XI I XIII XIIII IV XV XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II XXI II IX X X XVI XV III XIV XV VI XIV V XX I

X

X

I XII XIII XIIII X X XI IV X I IX V XV VII I

III XI X

XI

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XX VIII XXI XXII XXIII XIV XI I XX X X XXI XXII II X X I I I XI V

I I I

V II VI

II

I XI

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X

V V

IX X I VIII IX X XXI XIIXV I XI X X V I

II I

II I

II

I II I II

I II

XI X

VI

I

I XV XV XVII XV

II XX

And now, dearest, we return, across the crackling sea like two blind birds to their wall, to their next in a distant spring:

because love cannot always fly without resting, our lives return to the wall, to the rocks of the sea: our kisses head back home where they belong.

IV I X XXII

V

III

I

X

IV

II

X

XX VIII XXI XXII XXIII XIV XI I XX X X XXI XXII II X XIII XIV

II V

I V I II

IIIIX IIIX IIX IX X X I II IV

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I

I

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II I

IVX

IV

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II

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IIV

XX

belonged to someone else — to no one: till your beauty and your poverty filled the autumn plentful with gifts.

IV

I

I VI I II

XI II

II V

X XIX IIIVX IIVX IVX VX IXX V IX

V II I

I

XI II

XV II I

IIIV

II I

XII

XV II

IIIIX IIIX IIX IX X X I

I

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I XII XIII XIIII X X XI IV X I IX V XV VII I

X

IX

II

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XIV II XIII XIIII XIV XV III X X X XV I X XI I XIII XIIII IV XV XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II XXI II I X X X X VI X V XV VI XIV V I

I

XI II

III XI X

I II III

I XV XV XVII XV

II XX

I

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VI VII I IV V I II I I

III IV XI VI VV I IV VI II V II I I X II X X I I X VI I II II XI I

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II I I X X VII V XI XII I II III IV V VI II

II

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inconceivably alien, it all VI XVII XVIII XIX X XXI XV X XXI I X XII I X IV

V

I XV XV XVII XV

II XX

X

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XXI II I I X X VII V XI II XIV XII I II III IV V VI I II III IV XI VI VV I IV VI II V VI VII VIII IX III I V I X I I I

I II

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I X XII

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XI

Everything was empty, dead, mute, fallen, abandoned, and decayed:

II I X XII

II

IX

I

X

I knew rooms full of ashes, tunnels where the moon lived, rough warehouses that growled Get lost, questions that insisted in the sand.

I XI

X

XIV II XIII XIIII XIV XV III X X X XV I X XI I XIII XIIII IV XV XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II XXI II IX X X XVI XV III XIV XV VI XIV V XX I

I VI I II

XI II

VIX

III

I

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XV II I

VX

II

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XV II

I

IVX

VI

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I XII XIII XIIII X X XI IV X I IX V XV VII I

III XI X

V II

IX

VI

XIV II XIII XIIII XIV XV III X X X XV I X XI I XIII XIIII IV XV XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II XXI II IX X X XVI XV III XIV XV VI XIV V XX I

I II

V

III XI X

I I I

IV

Before I loved you, Love, nothing was my own: I wavered through the streets, among objects: nothing mattered or had a name: the world was made of air, which waited.

XXII I X XXIII XIV IV XXII

XI

7 8 7 II

II

Your wide eyes are the only light I know From extinguished constellations; Your skin throbs like a streak Of a meteor through rain.

X

VI XVII XVIII XIX X XXI XV X XXI I

X IIV

8

XXI II I I X X VII V XI II XIV XII I II I I I I V V VI I II III IV XI VI VV I IV VI II V V I VI I V I I I I X II I I V I X

XI V II I I

X IV II

IIX

I

VI XVII XVIII XIX X XXI XV X XXI I

I XV XV XVII XV

II XX

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IV

X III

X III

V

I

I love the handful of the earth you are. Because of its meadows, vast as a planet, I have no other star. You are my replica of the multiplying universe.

XIII XIV II X XXI XXII XX

X

I X XII

XI V II I I

V III

IV

XX

X

X

XI

X

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I XI

XI

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X

X XI X

I XX VIII I

X

XI II

V XI

II I

VI

I VI I II

XI II

I

XV

V

II

IX

XV

XV II I

XI

VI I

III IV V

VI VI VII VIII I VII X X I IV V I II XI I I XII XIII XIIII X XII X XI IV X I IX V XI XV VII II I

XI II

XI

I II I X X VII V XI XII I II III IV V VI II

VII

XIV II XIII XIIII XIV XV III X X X XV I X XI I XIII XIIII IV XV XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II X XI II IX X X XVI XV II XIV XV VI XIV V XXI I

VI

III XI X

III

V

VI II

XI II

I

VI XVII XVIII XIX X XXI XV X XXI I X XII I X IV

I

IV

XV II

II

IX

XI V

VI

XII XIII XIIII X X XI IV X I IX V XV VII I

X

II

V

V II

II

II I X XII

IV

I XV XV XVII XV

II XX

I XI

IV

VI

I

XIV II XIII XIIII XIV XV III X X X XV I X XI I XIII XIIII IV XV XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II XXI II IX X X XVI XV III XIV XV VI XIV V XX I

I

II

I

III XI X

XX

XI

I II

V

XI XII

IIXX

X IIIX X XI IIIV IIV IV IX IIIX I X VI IX V IX I X I XVII XVIII XIX X XX I III II I I XX V I X II I X I V X V X V IIX IV V V II X X X IIV V VI III II I IIXIII XX I I VII VIII IX X XI III XIV III IIV IIV IV X X XI IIIV IIV IV V VI III II I I V XII XI I II III IV V V I IV IIX I XI VI X I II III IV XI VI II IIIX IV X VV I X IV VI II V VI VII VIII IX III II I II I V I X

I II

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X XIX IIIVX IIVX IVX VX IXX V IX

IIV

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XI

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VI XVII XVIII XIX X XXI XV X XXI I

I

I

was that much ardent light, like honey in the shade. So I pass across your burning form, kissing you — compact and planetary, my dove, my globe.

XX

II

I

III

XI II

Your hips were that much of a moon for me; your deep mouth and its delights, that much sun; your heart, fiery with its long red rays,

that geysers flooding from deep in its vault: in my mouth I felt the taste of fire again of blood and carnations, of rock and scald.

I said it again: Come with me, as if I were dying, and no one saw the moon that bled in my mouth or the blood that rose into the silence. O love, now we can forget the star that has such thorns!

XV II I

IX

5

6

That is why, when I heard your voice repeat Come with me, it was as if you had let loose the grief, the love, the fury of a cork-trapped wine

Come with me, I said, and no one knew where, or how my pain throbbed, no carnations or baracoles for me, only a wound that love had opened.

VI I

XI V

XXI II I I X X VII V XI II XIV I VI XII XI I II III IV V V XI VI X I II III IV XI VI IV X VV I IV VI II V VI VII VIII IX II II I I V I X II I X XII

XIV II XIII XIIII XIV XV III X X X XV I X XI I XIII XIIII IV XV XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II XXI II IX X X XVI XV III XIV XV VI XIV V XX I

IV

VI

VI II V

III XI X

I II

V

XI II

VI I

III IV VV

XI V

I

IV VI VII VIII I X X I IV V II I II XI I I XII XIII XIIII X XII X XI IV X I IX V XI XV VII II I V II X

I

I II I X X VII V XI XII I II III IV V VI II

XX I VI V XIV

VI XVII XVIII XIX X XXI XV X XXI I X XII I X IV

XI V

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II

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II I X XII

I XI

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X

V II I

V V 66 6 66 X


z

Positive associations found in exerpts of the sonnets include colors placed behind a white background.

When you arise, alive, tomorrow, you’ll be someone else: but something is left from the lost frontiers of that night, from that being and nothing where we find ourselves,

y XX

I

I XV XV XVII XV

II XX

II

X

X

X

XXII I X IV

I

I

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X

X

XIII XIV II X XX X X XXI XXII I XI XXIII XIV XX VIII XXI XXII

IX

II

VI II

II

VV IV II

I

XXI II XIV

XII I II III IV V V I V I II III IV V II XII I VI VII VII I VII VIII IX IV V V X X I X VI I I II XII XIII XIIII XIV II XV XI X XI XV I X V

III

IV

I

I

VI II

VI VI I

II

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XXII I X IV

k

k

kk V

VIII IX X XI

IX

II

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XV

III

IX

XI III

XI X

Bring to that love, entombed by so much cold time, by snow and spring, by oblivion and autumn, the light of a new apple, light of a freshness opened by a new wound, like that ancient love that passes in silence through an eternity of buried mouths.

Whoever loved as we did? Let us hunt for the anscient cinders of a heart that burned and make our kisses fall one by one, till that empty flower rises again. Let us love the love that consumed its fruit and went down, its image and its power, into the earth: you and I are the light that endures, its irrevocable delicate thorn.

j

II

X

X

XI

VI II

I

II

I

X

V

XI

XI

X

VI VI I

I VI I II

XI II

XIII XIV II X XX X X XXI XXII I XI XXIII XIV XX VIII XXI XXII

V

I

XI II

XV II I

I VII

II

XIV

I

XII

XV II

I

I II I II IV

X

I XII XIII XIIII X X XI IV X I IX V XV VII I

VII

I

XXIII

I

X

IV

XXIII XIV

XI X

II

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I

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III XI V I XX XXI X XXI XXII XI III XIXI XXII XXIII XIV V XX

V II

I II III

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I

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I

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III

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I II I II

X

I V X X II

II XX X X XXI XXII XXIII XIV I XI XXIII XIV XX VIII XXI XXII X II XIX X V X I X X V I II VI

IX

V

XIV II XIII XIIII XIV X III X V X I XIV XV XV I X XI I XIII XIII XVI I XV I X VIII XIX X XXI XXII I X II X II XXI II IX X X XVI XV III XIV XV VI XIV V XX I

IV

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I I I

I II

VII XVIII XIX X XXI XXII X VI X

VII

VI

XVI XVII XV II

V

Absent, your heart sails through dreams, but your body breathes, abandoned like this, searhing for me without seeing me, completing my sleep, like a plant that propagates in the dark.

V

XV

IV

XXI II I I X X VII V XI II XIV XII I II III IV V VI I II III IV XI VI V V I IV VI II V VI VII VIII IX II I I V I X

XV

I I II I I

IV

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something that brings us close in the light of life, as if the seal of the darkness branded its secret creatures with a fire.

V

XX

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V

V I

w

I

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II XXXI XXII XXI II XI X V XIV

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It’s good to feel you close in the night, Love, invisible in your sleep, earnestly nocturnal, while I untangle my confusions like bewildered nets.

II XII

X

X

X

X

I XI

Night travel: black flame of sleep that snips the threads of earth’s grapes, punctual as a headlong train that would haul shadows and cold rocks, endlessly.

II XI

IV

X

X I

II

X

so that our sleep might answer all the sky’s starry questions with a single key, with a single door the shadows had closed.

z

When you arise, alive, tomorrow, you’ll be someone else: but something is left from the lost frontiers of that night, from that being and nothing where we find ourselves,

I

V

II XX

X I

X I

II

X

It wept, the house — wept, day and night; it whimpered with the spiders, ajar, it fell apart, with its darkened eyes —

and now, abruptly we return it to life, we settle in, and it does not recognize us: it has to bloom and has forgotten how.

By night, Love, tie your heart to mine, and the two together in their sleep will defeat the darkness like a double drum in the forest, pounding against the thick wall of wet leaves.

I XI

XI

XI

I

X

X I

X I

At last the house opens its silence, we enter, step over abandoned stuff, dead rats, empty farewells, the water that wept in the pipes.

Because of this, Love, tie me to a purer motion, to the constancy that beats in your chest with the wings of a swan underwater,

X

I X I III X XIV XII XIII II XIV X IV XV X XIX V XV XII I X VI XI II XIII VII X X IX X XXI XXII V III X X XXI II X II XV VII I XIV X X X XVI XV II XIV III XXI V

XX

Here are the house, the sea, the flag. We wander past other long fences. We couldn’t find the gate nor the sound of our absence — as if dead.

X

XI II

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I

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its wet destiny. In your kisses, my soul, give me the water, salty from these months, the honey of the fields, fragrance dampened by the sky’s thousand lips, the sacred patience of the sea in winter.

I X X III IX X VII V XI III XIV XII I I I I II I V V V I II III IV V I VII VI V VI II

XV

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so they day weaves and unweaves its heavenly net, with time, salt, whispers, growth, roads, a woman, a man, and winter on the earth.

The great rain from the South falls on Isla Negra like a single drop, lucid and heavy, the sea opens its cool leaves and receives it, the earth learns how a wine glass fulfills

I XII

XII

II XI

IV

XII XIII XIIII IIII X I I V

X

IX

X XI II

XV

I see the sun brings its bud to your face; looking up at the heavens I recognize your steps. O matilde, my dearest, crown of glory: welcome!

X

I XI

IV I X XIII

I

I VII

XI X

Something calls to us, all the doors turn open by themselves, the rain repeats its rumor to the windows, the sky growns downard till it touches the roots:

Then there you are — in bloom, my heart, my dearest: over my eyes like the leaves of the sky, there you are. I look at you, lying on the earth.

w w

Envy suffers, expires, my songs exhaust it; one by one its sad captains agonize and die. I say love, and the world fill swith doves. Each syllable of mine makes the spring arrive.

XVIII XIX X X XI XX II

III IX

XII

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Get used to seeing the shadow behind me, accept that your hands will emerge clean from the rancor as if they were made in the morning of the river. My love, the salt gave you its crystalline proportions.

I VII

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something that brings us close in the light of life, as if the seal of the darkness branded its secret creatures with a fire.

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X

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simultaneous contrast


simultaneous contrast

light

medium

dark

light

medium

dark

light

medium

dark

Grayscale, monochromatic and analogous colors with matching values served as the “designated grays” to demonstrate this phenomena.

A color’s hue can be altered by placing it within another colored background. In doing so, a color can appear to look like a different color by absorbing or subtracting from its color ground; this is known as simultaneous contrast. I studied the effects of changing a color’s hue by exploring various color grounds. By changing the appearance of a color’s value (the darkness or lightness of a color), a color can give the illusion of having the same value as another, when in reality it does not. For example, a middle gray can appear to look like a light gray or a dark gray if placed behind a black and white background. To achieve this successful simultaneous contrast effect, “designated grays” need to be placed with a white and black field, independently and simultaneously.


Analogous backgrounds are important because subtraction comes into play. One can also shift foreground colors to achieve the desired effect of a color looking similar to another.


Changing the size or scale of the gray elements and the black and white fields can alter the visual effect.


The designated monochromatic grays are placed within a white and black field, independently and simultaneously.

The middle gray value is pushed to the extreme by appearing to be darker against a white background than its actual value.


An example of a successful monochromatic application of Simultaneous Contrast.


color

interaction


i

ii

iii

iv

The red side of the symbol in quadrant one appears to be brighter and more intense than the red in quadrant three.


color

interaction When certain colors, known specifically as continguous colors, interact with one another they create an optical illusion known as the “afterimage effect”. This phenomena occurs when a continguous color effects a given color of the same value but of a different temperature (warm, cool) to influence that given color’s appearance in direction (yellower, bluer, redder), in value (lighter, darker) and in its intensity (brighter, duller). By experimenting with continguous colors in different ways (light, dark, warm, cool, bright, dull and complementary) behind an object of a different given color of the same value, afterimage relationships can be observed.

Application of a warm color to one side of a chosen symbol and a cool color to the other; both colors of the same value.


In additive color models such as RGB, white is the “additive� combination of all primary colored lights, while black is the absence of light. In the CMYK model, it is the opposite: white is the natural color of the paper or other background, while black results from a full combination of colored inks.

r subtractive model = cmyk

m

b

y c

g

additive model = rgb

For off-press color printing, four color separation plates are utilized to determine CMYK printing.


When obtaining the background color gray of this plate, the CMYK system is applied. This system is different from the pigment or gouache mixing because it utilizes the values derived from taking the complement values of the symbol. The complementary values for these plates come from taking the highest value within the CMYK system (C is the highest value in the red swatch example shown below) of one of the two colors and setting it to zero. The remaining values are calculated by subtracting the highest initial value from the other color’s initial value.

initial

C = 78 M= 64 Y = 35

comp.

C = 0 (C – M = 78-64) M= 14 Y = 43 (C – Y = 78-35)

(8,100,64,0) (78,64,35,0)

CMYK

(8,100,64,0)

(78,64,35,0)

(0,16,8,0)

(12,0,43,0)

(80,100,20,20)

(44,88,88,5)

(23,0,27,13)

(8,5,81,0)

PANTONE

DS 107-1C

DS 202-4C

DS 107-9C

C = 78 + 0 = 78 M= 64 +14 = 78 Y = 35+ 43 = 78

DS 294-6C

DS 174-1C

DS 84-2C

DS 278-7C

DS 2-4C

(100,0,40,35)

DS 253-2C

(17,20,81,65,)

DS 315-1C

(78,72,72,0)

The formula for obtaining a neutral gray through the CMYK system is to take highest % of the symbol’s initial color and apply that percentage to its C,M and Y values.

DS 325-2C

CMYK process system matched to Pantone (spot) color matching systems.


nature


nature Objects from nature provide a rich and broad range of colors. The colors found inside and outside speckled Quail egg shells helped produce a broad color palette. From this set, I edited my color palette down to produce three compositional postage stamps that incorporated the three color harmonies in nature (monochromatic, analogous and complementary color palettes). Transparent overlappings of a quail silhouette aided in adding a spatial effect to the piece.


color palette DS 18-8

DS 37-8

DS 37-7

DS 3-8C

DS 10-6C

DS 8-3

DS 4-1

DS 315-1c

DS 318-1c

DS 318-7c

DS 328-3c

DS 321-1c

DS 275-8c

DS 277-9c

DS 243-9c


C USA


2

C

USA


C USA

2

C

USA

monochromatic

analogous

complementary


2

C

USA

Complementary color set


Color is life, a world without color seems dead. As a flame produces light, light produces color. As intonation lends color to the spoken word, color lends spirtually realized sound to form. —Johannes Itten, The Art of Color


happy

life

smooth

loud

heavy

soft

noble

sweet

love

bitter

rough

sad

loud

loud

heavy



Color Process