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Leroy Kerry BA (Hons.) Architecture Ravensbourne November 2012

WHAT LIES BELOW ? AN

EXAMINATION OF DISUSED STATIONS ON THE LONDON UNDERGROUND , AND A

STUDY INTO WHY SOCIETY HAS NOT UTILISED THESE SPACES TO CREATE SUBTERRANEAN COMMUNITIES ?

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Acknowledgement Writing this dissertation has been the most stimulating challenge of my academic career to date. Many factors have influenced me in pursuing this particular path for my dissertation none more than my own curiosity on a subject that has fascinated me since childhood, the exploration of the world beneath our feet.

Ever since I can remember I have always been curious as to ‘Why do we not live underground?‘ Understanding and investigating this would not have been possible if it were not for certain individuals, firstly I would like to thank Jeremy my dissertation tutor who has been a great influence and directed me fully throughout this exciting period. Secondly I would like to thank friends, family and tutors Darren, Greg and Layton for their guiding wisdom, continuing support and patience, and for having had faith in what I do throughout my many years at Ravensbourne. Lastly I would like to thank everyone who participated in my dissertation, interviews, surveys, even the friendly discussion in the lift or over lunch for or against the idea of subterranean living, all assisted greatly. To everyone who took the time to be part of something important to me, I cannot thank you enough.

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Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction

Page 05

Chapter 2 Literature Review

Page 08

Social Misconceptions and Fear

Page 08

Psychological and Physical

Page 11

Living Underground in London

Page 18

Chapter 3 Methodology

Page 24

Format of gathering research

Page 24

Selection of Interview and Survey Participants

Page 26

Ethics and Analysis

Page 28

Chapter 4 Analysis and Discussion of Findings

Page 29

Preconceptions and Environment

Page 29

The Benefits

Page 33

The Limitations

Page 36

Iconography in underground architecture

Page 41

Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendations

Page 44

Appendices Appendix 1. Research interview example and questionnaire

Page 48

Appendix 2. Table of interview participants

Page 49

Appendix 3. Table of questionnaire participants

Page 51

Appendix 4. Evidence grid of interview

Page 53

Appendix 5. Evidence grid of questionnaire

Page 58

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Bibliography

Page 67

List of illustrations Figure 1. Depiction of underground network in Turkey

Page 06

Figure 2. Basement apartment

Page 08

Figure 3. The morlocks

Page 09

Figure 4. Eloi and morlocks

Page 10

Figure 5. Image of troglodyte dwelling

Page 13

Figure 6. Light lux reduction

Page 15

Figure 7. The Blitz

Page 18

Figure 8. Sentinels breaking into the fortress

Page 19

Figure 9. Lone man in the underground

Page 20

Figure 10. Underground garden

Page 23

Figure 11. Shopping complex

Page 23

Figure 12. Underground eco-friendly design

Page 33

Figure 13. Competition entry for redeveloping underground spaces Page 36 Figure 14. Section showing underground swimming pool

Page 39

Figure 15. Woman underground

Page 43

Figure 16. Light at the end of the tunnel

Page 47

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Chapter 1: Introduction It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the rising cost of living in densely populated areas and cities, with space at a premium, we are constantly building one upon another, immense high rises cutting prominent and often iconic shapes in the sky, sky scrapers reaching for the heavens and with new ground being broken regularly, we have seen an increase in planning permissions for tall buildings, based only on economic criteria many new structures are being erected. Foundations are set, and so often as in the past we see something resembling a seed which grows to become a blossoming plant, casting lasting shadows throughout our cities, engulfing the streets in darkness and causing the skyline to grow at an alarming rate. To challenge this on-going and somewhat seemingly never ending problem, to date there has been little agreement on what may be a solution, apart from similar proposals internationally which all keep coming up with the same answer to generate more space in cities, knock down what is already existing and build bigger, is there a limit to this as cities become more congested, and evolve coupled with the population ever increasing can underground living become a viable option?

The aim of this paper is to examine and thoroughly consider the possibility of utilising already existing underground spaces such as disused tube stations and underground networks for subterranean habitation.

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Figure 1, Depiction of underground network in Turkey, Derinkuyu, 19 November 2012

Due to practical constraints, this paper cannot provide a comprehensive review of how a large number of inhabitants will live underground in the modern day, and also to what limits this can be pushed. However throughout history when underground living has become a necessity, for example to stay alive during times of war or when people have been in hiding, the living conditions have been poor and as a result this has had a negative effect on people and their perceptions of subterranean living.

The topic may invoke a broad range of responses, but particularly create curiosity in many, whether right or wrong, it is an idea yet to be fully challenged, my inquiries in this subject matter have greatly increased my interest; films, science fiction, stories, tales of the underground and the stereotypical misconception of health worries are all to be challenged throughout my investigation. The view of living underground permanently in a utopian vision; working, socializing and all that may come with being alive is not what I am researching or proposing, as it potentially verges on a dystopian

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ideology. The main focus of this study is to look into reinhabitation of lost spaces, to explore the potential of utilising underground accommodation and some of the societal issues that may come with this, some people spend a few minutes to a few hours of their day underground, be it working, travelling, commuting or being sociable, can this not be expanded upon for accommodation?

With basement apartments being very popular in cities, due to the economical benefits those who choose to live in these semi submerged dwellings still go about their lives the same as someone who lives at ground level, in theory I am utilising this idea to an extent, but rather than a single person, a couple or a small family, my idea is looking into this for larger groups or communities. This carries the potential of hundreds of people who may possibly be able to live in union, with their accommodation underground and still go about their everyday life above ground. This could be a revolutionary way of creating housing, and not be wasteful of what is already available underneath us in many cities, it is up-cycling opposed to recycling but on a large scale.

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Figure 2, Basement apartment, Stairs and flat in Marylebone, 15 November 2012

Chapter 2: Literature Review This review will consider the broad issues related to the investigation of underground living in cities. My research addresses the possibility of utilizing subterranean living as a way to alleviate over population in cities.

Social misconception and fear In searching for reference to living underground, I came to understand that the misconceptions of subterranean living are not in the stories, or the ideas, but rather in society. In the book the time machine by H.G Wells, the story refers to a fictional species the Eloi, a race that become prey for the superior underground Morlock species. Initially it may seem that H.G Wells is merely

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entertaining an idea of fictional characters, but underneath the surface, I believe H.G Wells is referring to society: “ We should strive to welcome change and challenges, because they are what help us grow. With out them we grow weak like the Eloi in comfort and security. We need to constantly be challenging ourselves in order to strengthen our character and increase our intelligence.� (Wells, 1895) Seeing society as the Eloi species, you can begin to see similarities, fear and apprehension in challenging new ideas is rife in both cases, not embracing change, continually allowing society to grow and become entrapped in a never ending cycle of not welcoming or branching out to new methods, challenging these ideas can in theory help solve some ever growing problems society faces.

Figure 3, The morlocks, H.G Wells the time machine, 13 November 2012

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Figure 4, Eloi and Morlock, Timemachine, 12 October 2012

Similarly in Asimov’s caves of steel comparable analogies can be made, a story about an underground world, but with many subliminal meanings. Asimov states: “ We're forever teetering on the brink of the unknowable, and trying to understand what can't be understood.” (Asimov, 1954)

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Psychological and physical The generality of much published research on this issue is problematic. A large and growing body of literature has investigated the possibility of underground living, however in potentially a biased context, many publications look into the health and psychological disadvantages of subterranean living, Vitamin D withdrawal, quality of air, light lux levels and its direct correlation with psychological and physical effects on the human body and mind, these examples are among many other issues of living underground that have been studied in recent years, the majority have some similarity, they seek to find a problem, little has come to fruition in regards to the benefits or ways in which the problems people may face living underground can be reduced or eliminated.

Tales of the underground, often depict an underworld overflowing with fictional creatures and mythical beings frequently referred to in literature by the likes of H.G Wells and Isaac Asimov amongst many other authors. Popular media entertains similar concepts, in films such as Fritz Laing’s Metropolis, a mammoth steam powered machine that resembles the heart of the new world, a dark colossal engine that is depicted similarly in Logan’s Run and other media associated with an underground vision. There is a stigma associated with this matter even though untrue, misconceptions of what lies beneath is still ingrained in the thoughts of many. It is questionable whether or not societies fears limit any role that may play a future in the idea, however

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underground spaces will continually be seen as ideas that are futurist and fanciful or impossible: “ Many of the problems associated with living in subterranean habitats are not technological ones, but rather are related to the degree of social acceptance of the concept and to the individual’s perception of the space.” (Golany, 1996) Apart from the misconceptions society may have about living underground, the fundamental reason the idea is yet to be realised is due to the adverse effects on health. Subterranean living presents a series of possible problems including; lack of light, claustrophobia, dust, humidity, increased radon exposure, fatigue, and asthma among many others. On the other hand several positive benefits can be noted according to Dr. Isaac Jamieson (2011) including, a safe environment (protected from disasters & extreme weather); constant temperatures; tranquil & unique work environment, Jamieson goes on to say: “ Negative psychological & physiological effects are more critical when individuals spend prolonged periods underground. Short-term exposures usually cause fewer complaints.” (Jamieson, 2011) Valid points that are unchallengeable, however long term; subterranean living cannot have any benefit to the inhabitant, in comparison to living above ground, biology and physics reaffirms this, the need for sun, nature and natural air all has unprecedented benefits for humans, this goes on to further explain why mankind has evolved from living in caves to living above ground. Historically stories of the Troglodyte people as referred to during the ancient Roman and Greek era, depicted a society whereby living underground and in caves was a normal activity.

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Figure 5, Image of Troglodyte dwelling, Troglodyte pit, 11 November 2012

Similar concepts can be found in comparable schemes historic and recent, a transformation in people’s opinion whilst living underground could be seen as evolution, possibly those who adopt this idea are evolving? Those who live

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underground in Canada, Iceland and Finland share an interesting challenge when it comes to living in darkness for the majority of the day during some of the year, the lack of sun and the fatigue that may come with this are elements that are problematic, but should have a minimal effect, seeing as the accommodation will seldom be used during the day, the majority of the time it will be used during the night to sleep, when the sun is not present above ground, similar to those countries mentioned that are situated in the northern hemisphere and suffer from perpetual darkness.

In the TV series The secret life of buildings (2011) light lux levels and the direct psychological effects on human behaviour are investigated, Professor Russell Howard, tests this theory by reducing lux levels for a week on a subject, he reduces the typical outdoor lux levels of 10,000 – 20,000 and limits it 200 – 300 whilst the test is carried out indoors for a full week, an extreme reduction in illumination levels. The results show a massive decline in well being and happiness, almost causing a borderline state of depression, the investigation was thorough and well executed, and gave an accurate depiction as to the negative effects of not having enough access to light. Conversely this experiment and others alike do not provide realistic figures for the proposal of non-permanent subterranean living, the experiment from the start is prejudiced. Not only is it impractical to stay indoors for a whole week, but also during the experiment the windows in the test house are made smaller by a board, reducing the size by 500 percent, in addition the coverings are dark, therefore reducing light reflection.

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Figure 6, Light lux reduction, The secret life of buildings, 11 November 2012

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A series of other risk factors including increased illnesses brought on by higher levels of Radon being underground then at ground level have been suggested. History provides a direct correlation between poor health and being underground in uncontrolled environments, especially seen in miners and excavators. As reported by cancer research: “ Studies of miners show that high levels of cumulative exposure to radon progeny can cause lung cancer and that the increase in the relative risk.” (Cancer Research, 2011) This is often in an uncontrolled environment without any protection or separation between those in contact with the radon and the radon itself, therefore greatly increasing the probability of being exposed to radon in soil and earth, there are many ways to manage this problem, in underground buildings and structures risk is minimal, due to having controlled measures in place, necessities such as, walls, insulation, waterproof membranes and others create a clear barrier between any dangers embedded in the earth and the inhabitants of underground spaces. Research has even opposed the idea and suggests the correlation between the two is minimal: “ The increases in mortality from stomach and liver cancers and leukaemia are unlikely to have been caused by radon, since they are unrelated to cumulative exposure.” (Darby, 1995) With new research emerging contradicting older previous held views, we are now in a position to make appropriate comparisons, societies naivety in history regarding underground spaces is evident in many publications, and with the majority of cases this was down to little research in this field. 35 years ago, Birger Jansson et al reported in Planning of Subsurface Use that:

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“...There has hardly been any research carried out directly aimed at plotting the implications for human beings of spending time and working underground... ...It can be stated that the physiological effect on the human organism of time spent underground has been investigated to a very incomplete extent.� (Jansson, 1977) Showing an evident interest many of years ago in regards to introducing subterranean living to society, still to date with advancements made in research and data, and with a wider breadth of knowledge when it comes to understanding the underground, much of the information associated is based upon assumptions, due to little in the way of real experimental data and research being conducted in this area, this is partially down to having to subject people to extreme periods of withdrawal from the outside world.

Many of the problems facing humans living above ground can be expected underground, albeit to a greater and more severe level, external natural problems are reduced by being underground however the impact of other effects

are

multiplied

underground.

Light

issues,

fatigue,

insomnia,

disconnection with the outside world and claustrophobia are among many ailments that can be expected to be exaggerated whilst living underground for extended periods of time. With the absence of scientific statistics and data to address these matters, Society is left with the only option of using already existing information and knowledge from factual above ground experiences to solve fictional subterranean issues in regards to living and working, research conducted by Dr. Nick Poulios into this subject matter suggests: “ Important consideration should be given towards the fact that, when living underground in a space-limiting facility people interact in groups,

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hence they can very easily become “victims of group-thinking”. In such cases they follow the group’s mentality, which can be both beneficial and/or detrimental towards finding reasonable solutions to complex problems.” (Poulios, 2009)

Living underground in London Subterranean living is something that historically London is familiar with. The city is rich with roman ruins, where you can find old remains, and what used to be city walls, although some are dilapidated there are many cases still preserved to this day creating a second city underground London. In more recent times it is well documented during The Blitz that 177,000 people sought refuge in 80 stations across London (Bard, 2010) as a way to protect themselves from the bombing that was taking place above ground, evidentially the living conditions that were experienced during these times were not reasonable, even though there is little in the way of scientific research regarding the feasibility of underground living, statistics show many people survived The Blitz due to this revolutionary concept for keeping masses of people underground.

Figure 7, The Blitz, Aldwych underground station, 12 November 2012

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This concept of people living underground in then the modern era, was only one associated with underground bunkers, and strongholds which were popular during times of war, for example the war rooms in Whitehall, these structures were man made fortresses which were created with the sole purpose of protecting those inside from those on the outside. They were usually produced with the intention of the inhabitants being in hiding inside the bunkers, for long periods of time.

Contrasts to this notion can be found in movies such as Andy and Larry Wachowski’s The Matrix, the concept of underground being a place to avoid war and conflict is challenged, whereby the story depicts a raging war underground between the sentinels and the humans in a post apocalyptic nightmare. This in theory reverses the notion that underground spaces are in fact safe. Bearing this in mind, surely it is safer to live underground in a controlled environment opposed to above ground with out any control?

Figure 6, Sentinels breaking into the fortress, Matrix rev, 29 November 2012

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Across London 54 tube stations throughout the city are disused, some being used as storage facilities for organisations such as the Victoria and Albert museum and document storage companies, the other disused tube stations are owned by the Ministry of Defence. We have to ask is it not viable to look into reopening and reusing these spaces, if the concept worked for 177,000 people during the 40’s why would it not work for keeping 10% or even 1% of this number underground? Novella describes London having a vast underground network and system of spaces intertwining and spanning across the city, in London Under, Ackroyd describes the spaces: “ The vastness of the space, a second earth, elicits sensations of wonder and of terror. It partakes of myth and dream in equal measure.� (Ackroyd, 2011)

Figure 9, Lone man in the underground, 1953 London underground, 22 October 2012

Cities such as Paris and Rome, hold great importance along with London in understanding how underground spaces have been used and adapted throughout history. Vast catacombs beneath the cities serving as burial

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grounds, it is an interesting notion that much of society does not understand the depth of knowledge right beneath their feet, the history that these spaces hold is important. The benefits of subterranean living to cities like London may be great, this proposal could give a chance and help many potential homeowners looking to get on to property ladder but cannot afford to due to financial constraints, other benefits may include cheaper commercial space in the heart of London. However one of the key benefactors could be the homeless population of London, according to CHAIN, 5,678 people slept rough at some point in London during 2011/12, this figure could be dramatically reduced even eliminated, offering safe housing to those who are in need of help, potentially helping many turn their lives around, according to Ylinen: “ Safety and a pleasant environment are paramount” (Ylinen, 1989) This can be achieved in a cost effective way to alleviate the issue of rough sleepers in cities especially London. The design and environment of these potential spaces are critical to the success of these schemes, cold dark spaces are in theory no better than living in poor conditions above ground, however with little input and great output these spaces can be utilised efficiently, with the design a recent report on the psychological factors of subterranean living Dr. Isaac Jamieson states: “ As subterranean environments are more intensely experienced than those above ground it is very important to get their design right. Good specification & well laid out design benefit subterranean developments even more than structures above ground.” (Jamieson, 2011)

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With issues of design in mind, problems on cost and the subsequent effectiveness of subterranean spaces are all yet to be realised, however already existing research suggests that living underground is more energy efficient opposed to living above ground, some of the possible benefits include easier access to geothermal energy, when put in context this statement makes more sense due to the lack of change in the environment, therefore reducing energy usage, according to Harvey W. Parker: “ Underground space is inherently energy efficient. Severe fluctuations of temperature are non- existent allowing more efficient control of temperature and energy… … Underground space requires little maintenance.” (Parker, 2006) The evident cost benefits that come with living in a subterranean setting, may create some intrigue amongst society, and could possibly be the catalyst for making some want to live underground, however at the rate the population is growing this may become a necessity in the near future: “ In 1950, only about 1/3 of the world’s population lived in the city. By October 1999, about 1⁄2 of the 6 Billion people lived in urban areas. By 2030, it is estimated that 4.9 Billion people will live in cities, which is 60% of the estimated 8.1 Billion-world population.” (Parker, 2006) With the ever-growing increase in population coupled with lack of space in London, underground living could in fact be realised sooner than expected. Research conducted so far has indicated that this is an idea which is being investigated around the globe and one which evidentially has been done before, history has unearthed several similar schemes around the world, including a hotbed of underground cities in Greece and Turkey, when in the 8th Century Christians would hide in underground tunnels to flee from

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persecution. Vietnam and Canada have similar schemes, with Iceland, America and Amsterdam paving the way for modern day subterranean urbanization.

Figure 10, Underground garden, NY (New York) low line, 19 November 2012

Figure 11, Shopping complex, underground city in Montreal, 12 August 2012.

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Chapter 3: Methodology This chapter explains the underlying rationale for the choice of using a methodological approach in regards to my research, and the means of collection and analysis of the data. My long term interest in constantly challenging what we know and think led me into my question, with a theoretical question comes theoretical answers and ideologies, this alerted my interest to the need to find evidence to support my inquiry. I believe it will be best to take a holistic approach, taking into consideration people’s psychological, physiological and social needs.

Format of gathering research It will be crucial to take a subjectivist approach in regards to gathering the research, considering all the options taken into account my intention is to use some epistemological and phenomenological inquiry, to gather facts and knowledge but also look into the logic of what I propose. I therefore decided to use face to face interviews, coupled with online interviews and surveys, this qualitative research technique should help evoke a broad range of responses in different formats to assist in gathering my findings.

A semi-structured interview format I felt was necessary to gather the correct information, four to five questions dependent on who was being interviewed, would keep the interview to the point but allow for enough personal input on the subject in question: “ This kind of interview seeks to obtain descriptions of the interviewees’

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lived world with respect to interpretation of the meaning of the described phenomena. It comes close to an everyday conversation, but as a professional interview it has a purpose and involves a specific approach and technique; it is semi-structured – it is neither an open everyday conversation nor a closed questionnaire.” (Kvale and Brinkmann, 2009). Further to this point Folkestad goes on to say: “ Interviews allow the respondents to reflect and reason on a variety of subjects in a different way than say opinion polls or party manifestos.” (Folkestad, 2008) To ensure I achieve accurate responses and answers that relate to my investigation I devised a test pilot interview for different groups. The results I received made me reconsider using different questions for the two groups I planned to interview, as many of my questions where based on opinion and theory, this caused me to adjust the questions for the final questionnaire (Appendix 1) Through my past experience conducting or taking part in interviews it can be a challenge getting the responses you are actually seeking, understanding this I decided to include a second form of qualitative research, something whereby the results are more controlled and to the point, hence the use of an online survey, whereby people could answer in their own time, anonymously without the need to exaggerate their points of view, which may hopefully lead to completely honest opinions, opposed to focus groups which could potentially create biased responses from the interviewees.

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Selection of interview and survey participants I selected a range of applicants, ranging from Architects, Designers, Thinkers, Students and Teachers, all from different backgrounds, sectors and education, which should ensure diversification in the answers given. Although I gave some consideration to invite people to answer my questions who are based outside of Britain, I decided against this as I felt it was necessary to have had some interaction with life in London in particular those who have experienced the underground system. In total 20 Architects and Designers were contacted, asking to participate in a face-to-face interview or an email interview, 7 responded. The 7 include experienced Architects who have created underground spaces and underground tube stations, and one who has been shortlisted for RIBA awards, won the Sterling Prize and has been honoured OBE’s for their services to the profession, in addition young Architects who recently won a competition to redesign underground spaces in London and Architects who have qualified as medical Doctors, specialising in how Architecture affects people mentally and physically, more specifically the affects of subterranean living. The extent of their expertise and knowledge covers a wide range of topics that look into underground spaces.

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Table of interview participants Professional  Background  

Code  

Count  

Architect  

P15, P16, P17, P20, P21

5

Designer  

P19

1

Doctor  

P18

1

Architectural  Thinker  

P22

1

(Full data see Appendix 2) Once the initial 7 interviewees had been contacted and interviews set up, a further 48 potential interviewees spanning across all design sectors, including up and coming Students to established Designers were contacted and asked to participate in the online survey, 14 responded. The ranges of the 14 participants include 6 students and recent graduates who attend Architecture and Design universities in and around London, 2 Teachers and Thinkers and 6 Designers and Architects in practices in London. Furthermore 2 of the survey participants currently live in underground basement dwellings.

Table of survey participants Professional  Background  

Code  

Count  

Architect  

P3, P8, P12, P13

4

Designer  

P1, P14

2

Student  

P2, P4, P5, P9, P10, P11

6

Lecturer  

P6, P7

2

(Full data see Appendix 3)

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I initially created two interview schedules, but changed the idea soon after testing it due to the disparity between the two lots of answers and responses that were received. The varied answers did not offer enough comparison to create a fair judgement; I then devised one universal interview schedule split into four or five questions dependent upon the interviewee. Whilst devising my questionnaire and interview structure (Appendix 1) I created an additional row to each question for sub questions, or questions asked in return should they need to be used.

All the Information and Data was collected during the months of September, October and November 2012. Of the 7 interviewees who intended to meet with me for a face-to-face interview, 2 let me know previously they could only answer questions via email or over the phone, unfortunately as time went by only 2 out of the initial 5 face-to-face interviewees could take place. Of the 7 interviews 5 were conducted over email, and 2 were in person at the interviewees respective practices’. The 14 survey questionnaires were conducted over the Internet.

Ethics and Analysis The data of all interviews will be stored for a maximum of a year in agreement with the conditions of ethical approval. After collecting all my research I transferred and transcribed parts of the findings to evidence grids (Appendix 4 and Appendix 5)

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Chapter 4: Analysis and Discussion of Findings This chapter will report on the investigation and some of the suggestions made by the data gathered. The discussion will examine the key findings as set out throughout this thesis thus far. It is important to take note and understand that all the participants and interviewees have more design knowledge than your average person, they either have an interest in design and architecture, have studied, work or have worked in the design sector, so their opinion will be based upon logical possibilities rather than complete theory. Furthermore they have all experienced the London underground network, more importantly they have explored the spaces underground, subconsciously or consciously they have all made an informed decision about the spaces and their potential.

Preconceptions and Environment When participants initially reported their feelings toward subterranean living a number or common matters appeared. These topics seemed to regard people’s preconceptions of what it would be like to live underground, issues surrounding sun, light, natural ventilation are among the biggest factors. From the 14 surveyed 10 believed that people could easily adapt to living underground if the conditions were correct, 3 believed it would be challenging as there are several problems which would not allow us to adapt well to underground living, and 1 of the participants was unsure and would require further information. Out of those who participated in the survey 12 had never lived below ground or in basement apartments, so little first hand

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understanding of subterranean living had been experienced, so when asked about the topic many expressed their shock and anguish when deliberating on the idea, they spoke on why they feel society has not challenged and pushed for the notion of subterranean living. People’s preconception of light or lack there of, was a key topic: “ I think underground living has been thought about a lot. However the constant question of daylight/constructional viability etc. come into question. Do people really want to live underground, and would they actually like it.” (P5) “ One reason could be down to psychological issues of the individual, little natural sunlight, being constantly lit by artificial lighting could become an issue as we need a daily amount of natural sunlight for living. And also a fear of living below a city above.” (P4) “ The common realisation that people require Vitamin D that comes from the sun, which is substantial for mental wellness.” (P8) “ I think it becomes a natural feeling of living like a badger, also lack of light / vitamin D.” (P6) “ People suffer from Vitamin D deficiency if they are deprived of sunlight for long periods, so solariums will be required with artificial lighting rather like a football pitch system.” (P15) Some participants expressed similar concerns regarding light and ventilation but were open to the idea, should the conditions be correct: “ As a concept there is no reason why the use of subterranean space couldn’t be pursued on a grand scale, provided the parameters required for positive human existence could be maintained – Light / Air / Ventilation / etc.” (P19) “ As long as natural light and ventilation can be channelled in sufficient quantities.” (P12) “ Temperature control would be quite easy underground.” (P21) The responses acknowledge Parker’s (2006) views regarding the benefits of underground living as a way to control the environment therefore being an

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economical solution to energy consumption. On the other hand, some may argue, the point that, even though less environmental factors can keep a constant environment therefore reducing fluctuation in energy usage, is it really beneficial to keeping energy consumption low: “ Your biggest problem is ventilation and light, I’m sure that anything can be planned, I’m sure one way or another in tube stations you could find sufficient space to plan living accommodation’s, but you have got to remember that we will then all have to rely on artificial ventilation and light that is very energy consumptive.” (P22) On the other hand this idea opposes Parker’s (2006) view on economical advantage over environmental benefits. Furthermore once I opened up the question and explained further, likening the situation of subterranean living to what it is like to live in a basement flat, where you would sleep underground, but continue your day-to-day life above ground the participants opinion changed: “ I think buildings underground of all types can work extremely well provided there is a means of introducing sufficient natural light and ventilation.” (P16) “ If you look at basement apartments, their function and what it is they do, this idea of underground living especially the concepts are very similar if not the same.” (P1) The topic of environment was raised many times, some participants especially the established architects and designers who have worked on underground schemes before, expressed their views in a interesting way finding similarities in above ground living and happiness: “ I find it difficult to imagine life without natural daylight and the warmth of the sun. Daylight is our umbilical cord to sanity, joy and the cycle of life. Below ground there is no sense of night and day, nor much nature, wind or fauna. The effect could be slowly depressing.” (P17) These views back up Jamieson’s (2011) opinion, regarding underground living

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and mental health, the discussion of lack of sun and artificial lighting on one’s mental state is a real challenge, in an interview with Dr. Jamieson he mentioned: “ One of the most important things in architecture, whether it is above or below ground, is to restore/mimic links with nature to create healthy, bio-sustainable environments.” (P18) I firmly believe once these boundaries and challenges are dealt with people could adapt easily to temporary underground living. Two participants, leaders in the field of architecture went on to raise an interesting topic, the topic of views and the need to have a choice, something that I may have not focused on enough before, or given enough consideration to: “ Another component of being above ground is you can also get a view of some sort, views underground are… restricted, again you could digitally enhance views, you can do a lot of things with creating an artificial environment… …Richard Branson entertained the idea of, could he persuade people to go into a plane with no windows… of course in reality when you go on long hauls as you well know, people these days tend to put the blinds down so they can see the entertainment, but at least you always have that choice, there is that need to sort of know where you are, know what the time of day is.” (P21) “ Health risks to do with ventilation, the psychology of being unable to have a landscape view looking outside, underground living has been tried and all have failed. Subterranean living needs to be more innovative and technology efficient.” (P3)

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Figure 12, Underground eco-friendly design, Mushroom tunnel, 28 November 2012

Bearing this in mind the choices we make are what separate us as people, the freedom to choose is what defines us, without the choice of how to control your own environment, being indoors or outdoors we lose one of our privileges as a human being, this is an interesting point which has been raised and maybe another question to look at, it is something we can adapt to potentially.

The Benefits Whilst conducting the interviews, in person and online I came to realise containing the answers was a struggle, some participants tend to go off topic therefore varying my findings greatly, this was not so much an issue but rather something which caused me to go off track in regards to my own research, however the benefit included many new questions being raised:

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“ I think there is something in it, but I think you have to be under severe pressure to live underground… …My question back to you is, if its to alleviate a housing crisis in London, why not make working spaces underground, and take the office space and turn it into residential.” (P21) This new challenge as previously mentioned, was something I had not expected, the questions facing me I had little or no response for, after more responses from participants, backing up the discussion and looking deeper into the possibilities, this reaffirmed once again the debate regarding the benefits of subterranean living discussed in the literature review, some participants went on to share their own opinion and the validity of underground living and the many benefits it may bring: “ In fact if thought about rationally it is a great idea, it would require less buildings and services would require less maintenance, heating etc.” (P14) “ Spending most of my time travelling on the underground it has very much become the norm. So naturally the next step would be to use the somewhat forgotten spaces in London, to live, and work. If the scheme allowed for a cheaper way of living, perhaps due to its eco capabilities.” (P11) “ There are some benefits to below ground spatial inhabitation: i.e. insulation / protection / shelter etc. In many parts of the world this kind of living or spatial inhabitation is expressed through reasons of protection against negative external environments… …Urban spaces have little connection to light and the ‘external’ environment and have developed historically through an act against strong environmental temperatures, protecting against the elements etc. Historic defensive settlements around the world also do this to protect against some form of external offensive forces.” (P19) One of the participants discussed a recent conceptual competition, he and his colleagues won, on how to redevelop underground spaces in London, where they propose to redevelop London’s disused spaces and create landscaped

34


green spaces and spaces for people to socialise, when asked on his thoughts on the matter he went on to further discuss some of the challenges he faced and possibly the necessity in the future to look into the need for underground living, and to develop the concept through more research, well documented by Jansson (1977) when he expresses the lack of research in this area of study: “ The exploration of the underground realm as a place of inhabitation brings more challenges and for it to be viable needs to be more than just ‘interesting’. It needs to work with the existing contextual conditions to produce a positive space to live, otherwise no one will do it, nor should they. But as environmental conditions get worse worldwide due to global climate change we may be forced to explore this more ‘protected’ zone as a space to develop and defend ourselves against intense climatic conditions (Hurricanes/Flooding/Monsoon etc)…. …It’s a sobering and scary thought, but one which is not necessarily uninteresting, and one we may be forced as a species to explore further.” (P19)

Figure 13, Competition entry for redeveloping underground spaces, Mailen design of Old Street underground garden, 27 November 2012

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The views expressed are similar to Asimov’s (1954) in regards to humans as a species always teetering on the brink of exploration but lack of curiosity holds us back, until it becomes a necessity we do not pursue and challenge these ideas. Through my research I can now understand the challenges that face exploring this matter, the benefits in my opinion far outweigh the negatives, my research and the subsequent responses, goes on to demonstrate this, throughout history the idea of subterranean living is a tried and tested method, reaffirming what we know through history one of the participants goes on to mention: “ What were the first dwellings and there’s all sorts of evidence everywhere in the world that shows people have lived in caves, there’s no doubt about that, but in small groupings but sometimes there have been towns and villages made which have been quite extensive.” (P22)

The Limitations When asked about the challenges and limitations faced, the participants experiences varied from the research collected, there seems to be two outcomes you can either have good underground spaces, that are light and airy, which has instilled a sense of confidence in the participant when it comes to underground spaces, or you get the shady obscure and dingy spaces which the participant may of experienced and driven a sense of fear into them: “ Misconceptions and fear most of all.” (P9) “ Primal fear in the form of disgust as well as status anxiety.” (P12) “ As you know with some of the older stations you feel the spaces is really quite small, usually because they’re tunnelled.” (P21)

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“ It’s generally a nasty place to be if it is not kept tidy or clean. Rooms, which lack fresh air, are horrendously dirty, stuffy and hot. If you don't already know this, just use the underground.” (P2) Fear played a big role in discouraging people in regards to this idea, this reiterates Ackroyd’s (2011) point of view when discussing the spaces under London, which can be an intimidating place if society allows it to be. When asked the same question a participant gave their own experiences with underground spaces, giving an honest account: “ People have a preconception about living underground which is only now just beginning to be eroded, projects like future systems wars house, have shown that not only are such homes ecologically sound but they can also be light and airy.” (P13) Participant 20 an Architect who designs solely underground spaces and semi underground architecture, goes as far to say: “ When the context requires it, I make architecture disappear by partially or totally burying my buildings, melting them within the territory. Underground architecture allows me to create new emotions through the experience of absence, of void, seeing architecture from the inside of it, beyond its form, beyond design.” (P20) When other participants were asked about the limitations facing underground spaces, an interesting point I had previously mentioned was raised: “ Currently it feels like the extreme ends of the economic spectrum are increasingly searching for inhabitation below the surface, there are established & well documented communities living in the subterranean networks below Paris & New York.” (P7) This suggests that whilst those who can afford to dig underground, do so in search of more space and to add wealth to their property resale prices, in contrast those who cannot afford to live in a home may seek refuge underground, as a last resort, the same participant goes on to say: “ If you check the planning applications in Chelsea & Westminster you will find a significant number of proposals from footballers & celebs 37


excavating below their Georgian terraces.� (P7) This brought about an interesting suggestion, this display of wealth found often in homes in West London is seen as an act of flamboyancy, to be able to afford to excavate underground is seen as lavish making it a desirable option,

where

some

Georgian

terraces

are

being

excavated

deep

underground to accommodate underground cinemas, parking, swimming pools amongst many other extravagant additions, the new luxury is space.

Figure 14, Section showing underground swimming pool, Belgravia extension, 25 November 2012

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When all the participants were asked as to why we have not challenged the idea of underground living, given the open nature of this question it is interesting how only the experienced Architects gave any consideration to the cost of digging and tunnelling spaces underground: “ In terms of cost. Research the costs of building a basement vs. building above ground – it’s usually min 25% more costly to develop below ground due to all the structural and waterproofing work required.” (P19) “ Somehow the British in particular are not good diggers. In Germany every building starts with an underground parking facility. In the UK our developers away shy away from the cost of digging.” (P17) “ It is very expensive, you have to remember it is extremely expensive to put things underground, it is incredibly expensive, tunnelling is the most expensive thing you can do.” (P22) It is interesting, that potentially the issue of money may play a bigger part in this then first thought, it is not hard to see why developers and land owners may be discouraged, one the cost of building underground is normally 25%40% more expensive then building above ground, and the fact that when someone builds or designs a building, they want the whole world to know about it, by hiding it underground they in theory do not get to show their creation off. Some may argue, on one hand when building on Land the challenges you face are great but reasonable, whereas when building underground, the challenges are great, and there are a lot more factors to worry about. During the interviews the topic of scarceness of land was brought up once: “ A number of the conceptions and concerns that many people have about underground living are covered in the presentation. Psychological and biological factors that should are also addressed. Where/when land becomes scarcer, or consideration is given to living in otherwise hostile areas, underground living starts being seen as

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more viable.” (P18) On the other hand the suggestion that circulation may be an issue was mentioned; in addition a participant also raised the subject of the awkwardness of the space. “ The other one (problem) will be circulation, in order to get living accommodations, on virtually longitudinal passages would be very difficult, so you will probably be forced to use things like, where there’s enough space.” (P22) When discussing some of the other limitations and reasons society has not decided to push this idea forward in the past, the same participant suggested that popular media and science fiction might play a role: “ There is plenty of evidence in science fiction of people living underground, and that is required because either the world has been destroyed and people live underground, or generally speaking, in science fiction works where living underground is being forced upon people, by people who want to dominate them and push them under.” (P22) Another participant mentioned this point, as documented earlier in the literature review, I discuss popular media playing a role, movies such as Metropolis and Logan’s Run, could potentially have played a role in the misconceptions people face in regards to the underground: “ Underground cities have been used as a Hollywood prop on many occasions to over come some sort of natural or man made world changing disaster. So there might be misconceptions by the general public in having an underground city.” (P14) Even though it was only suggested twice that the concept of fear being instilled in society through popular media and science fiction, I see this as an interesting topic raised and one which may need to be investigated further.

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Iconography in underground architecture A further development of the limitations of underground spaces, led me to ask can architecture be architecture, but underground, can it be iconic and have the same effect as above ground. When participants initially reported their opinions regarding, whether or not Architecture can be iconic underground or not? From the 14 surveyed 7 believed that iconic architecture could easily be adapted for underground spaces, 2 believed for architecture to truly remain as architecture it needs to be above ground, and a large number of 5 participants were unsure as to whether it is viable for architecture to iconic without a façade, this is a thought-provoking notion, and one that requires further information. When asked about the topic those who were unsure offered some intriguing responses: “ It's difficult to create a coherent image of something from the inside, especially when it doesn’t have an outside; compare iconic interiors with exteriors/ objects.” (P7) “ It doesn’t have the same influence, you can see an entire underground building from afar and admire like the gherkin/shard etc. Its iconicness will be purely based on its location/how well it works and peoples reactions.” (P5) This idea lends similarities to what other great architects have said in the past, it is one purely based on opinion, on the other hand some may argue that architecture does not need to have an exterior, some of the participants went on to say: “ There is some iconic underground architecture.” (P17) “ With all spaces underground there is no external side to this piece of architecture, and your question is it a piece of architecture, well the answer is yes.” (P21)

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On being questioned further into the matter, some participants took a subjective approach and felt that the matter is something which they should look into alleviating as a profession: “ I believe it is our responsibility as Architects, Urbanists and Designers to bring an enhanced quality of life through the spaces and places we create.” (P19) “ Architecture is not just an exterior it is also an interior.” (P22) I believe that this point can be furthered through more investigation, if architecture and design in underground spaces is the future, can designers and architects as a profession be the catalyst for making this idea a reality. Out of the 14 surveyed 11 agreed that they would want to design spaces underground, and challenge what they may have not explored before, 2 believed there was little point in embracing this idea, and it was something they more than likely would not pursue in there professional careers, and a 1 was unsure, as they maybe were not knowledgeable in dealing with underground architecture as opposed to above ground architecture: “ I'm enthusiastic about pure lighting spaces from above (as opposed to Corb & Mies modernist doctrine about glazed facades) but I'm not informed enough about recreating daylight conditions below ground to suggest this to a client as an alternative to daylight.” (P7) Whilst the lack of understanding regarding underground architecture is possibly an issue for some, there is potential to educate Designers and Architects in the benefits by broadening the already existing research. Those who have experience in the matter are passionate about pursuing the idea: “ Certainly looking at CJ Lim’s, ground scraper projects and a series of visionary projects, around the world, one can see the attraction of underground living.” (P13)

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“ I would do (pursue the idea), but would want easy access to the outside world.” (P5) On the other hand looking at both challenges a participant described the situation well, going on to say: “ This is a very difficult one actually, because on one hand you’ve got this sort of idealistic science fiction sort of notion that this could be done and then on the other hand you’ve got practicalities of it, and the way that people aspire to live, its natural for people to live above ground and breath air, and get the light from the sun, basically it is unhealthy to live underground and not get the light.” (P22) I believe this point summarises the topic well, whilst there are those who are passionate to see this happen, there are the problems which we face as a society, with our needs, it is instilled in us as humans to live in conditions we are comfortable in, and over time as we have evolved we have ultimately adapted to living above ground.

Figure 15, Woman underground, Living underground in China, 13 October 2012

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Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations The purpose of this study has been to investigate the possibilities of underground spaces, particularly those in London as a way to create homes and spaces for socialising, and for the general public. I have focused on disused tube stations, which are spaces that proved structurally secure and once frequently used by the public in their masses so evidentially the spaces are justifiable for my argument.

I have come to realise that the problem with underground living is not that people are not open to the idea, however there are many other variables that play a factor. Throughout my research reoccurring themes of environment or lack there of, and health implications all are brought up on numerous occasions, confirming Ylinen (1989) point of view. The discussion that we as humans need nature, light and natural ventilation is a good indicator as to whether or not the idea of underground living can be a success or a failure. An idea I had not considered enough before hand which was highlighted in my findings, was the notion of money being part of the issue, the cost of excavation and all the stresses that may come with such challenges can be off putting to land owners and the developers, it is easy to highlight the initial problems associated with underground spaces but the secondary problems, ones which do not affect society directly are potentially the key issues that need to be addressed.

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Jamieson (2011) states that the psychological and physiological affects of subterranean living could be detrimental to a person, there are clear links between the spaces we inhabit and our happiness, this is discussed in The secret life of buildings (2011), the participants responses reiterate this, however in general it was not off putting to some participants whereby if situations were correct and there were benefits whether it be costs, or ecological benefits people would be interested in pursuing this idea.

My research raised many new questions that are supplementary, valid points were raised which may have been discovered too late in my findings, points of view I recommend further investigation into, or possibly in another written thesis these points may be elaborated upon. Firstly the question regarding who in fact owns the land beneath us, and could that be a potential hindrance to the success of this idea, is there a certain depth or cut off point whereby we stop owning our land underneath us? I found that according to Latin law, followed by several countries including France: “ The private ownership of a land lot extends to a cone or pyramid volume, beginning from the centre of the Earth and infinite towards the heaven.� (Duffaut, 2006) Secondly the question as to why do we not move companies and their offices underground, freeing up great sums of space in our cities for housing was raised, it is difficult to give a definitive answer, I have to ask myself why, and what would really be the point, there would be great cost implications involved in creating spaces adequate for office space, in addition when you move a problem from once place to another, you will not solve the initial issue.

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Unfortunately some of the matters I found through my research proved challenging in regards to my argument and defied a lot of my points, one of the key topics raised, which I found thought-provoking was, why does society not just continue to build upwards, this brings me back to what was said in the introduction and my initial argument, when does this become too much? Surely we cannot continue to build upon one another forever.

Given the evidence, it is clear that subterranean living is a viable option for extending the provision of accommodation in the city. I believe it is important to push the boundaries regarding this topic, it should not only be considered as a last resort which society will only investigate when there is a need or in extreme circumstances, as Parker (2006) suggests by 2030 60% of the world population will live in cities and in urban areas. There is potential that the longer society waits the less chance there is of truly studying and understanding this issue. An economical and ecological method in further exploration and research in to this topic, is to redevelop some existing spaces underground that can be adapted and reused in different ways.

Experimental and research led residential projects for society in subterranean facilities could offer many benefits, in regards to looking further into a topic that has not yet fully been tried or tested, not only new examples of living and potentially survival, but also a much needed move forward in understanding and realising the fear, psyche and physical response of humans in this space. This could serve to potentially further broaden and enrich the relationship of

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underground design concepts, whilst understanding our sometimes complex responses towards subterranean living.

Figure 16, Light at the end of the tunnel, inside the train tunnel, 29 November 2012

Word Count: 8,998

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Appendix: 1 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Yes No Maybe Other (please specify)

* 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.?

* 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Yes No Maybe Other (please specify)

* 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Yes No Maybe Other (please specify)

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Appendix: 2 Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Professional  History  

P15 Male 40-50 White Caucasian Director of the largest sports stadium architectural practice in the world.

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Professional  History  

P16 Female 40-50 White Caucasian First lady to start an architectural practice in the UK, and winner of the recent AJ Woman of the year award.

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Professional  History  

P17 Male 40-50 Mixed Race Director of a creative architectural company.

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Professional  History  

P18 Male N/A N/A Trained Architect and Doctor specifically looking into how architecture affects humans.

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Professional  History  

P19 Male N/A N/A Director of a practice that recently won a competition on how to redesign London’s underground spaces.

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Professional  History  

P20 Male 50-60 N/A Architect who specialised in creating 49


underground structures Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Professional  History  

P21 Male 60-70 White Caucasian Winner of numerous awards, including the coveted Stirling Prize, awarded an OBE for his services to Architecture, and a member of the RA

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Professional  History  

P22 Male 60-70 White Caucasian A former architect who led the biggest architectural practice in Liverpool, now an architectural thinker and teacher.

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Appendix: 3 Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P1 Female 20-30 White Caucasian Designer

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P2 Female 18-20 Asian Student

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P3 Male 30-40 Black African Architect

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P4 Male 20-30 Mixed Raced Student

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P5 Female 20-30 Black Caribbean Student

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P6 Male 50-60 Black Caribbean Lecturer

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P7 Male 30-40 White Caucasian Lecturer

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Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P8 Male 30-40 White Caucasian Architect

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P9 Male 20-30 White Caucasian Student

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P10 Female 20-30 Asian Student

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P11 Male 20-30 Black African Student

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P12 Male 20-30 White Caucasian Architect

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P13 Male 30-40 White Caucasian Architect

Code   Gender   Age  Range   Ethnicity   Profession  

P14 Male 40-50 Asian Designer

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Appendix: 4 Evidence grid of interviews Participant 15 (P15) People have lived in caves for 15,000 years (Rocque St. Christophe France) and where there is a security or density incentive, people will return to that way of living. Typically the underground temperature is around a constant 13 degrees, which is adequate in a cool climate, or luxurious if you are living in Coober Pedy Australia, where people choose to still live underground to avoid 50 degrees heat outside. These days, many people are preparing (preppers) for a doomsday scenario: underground shelters were seriously discussed during the Cold War and are becoming a new discussion point again. Countries like Switzerland and Sweden have mandatory legislation for the incorporation of nuclear- resistant bunkers in any new-build development. There are good examples of architect-designed underground houses in Spain and California.

Participant 16 (P16) Your thesis sounds interesting. Yes we have designed underground spaces; an occupational health facility at the Bank of England and a spa and health club at Canary Wharf. Both can be seen on our website.

Participant 17 (P17) I think that your thesis is very interesting. I find it difficult to imagine life without natural daylight and the warmth of the sun. Daylight is our umbilical cord to sanity, joy and the cycle of life. Below ground there is no sense of night and day, nor much nature, wind or fauna. The effect could be slowly depressing. Artificial sun, wind and rain would be...artificial. There are some iconic underground architecture. The Louvre pyramid underground complex is pretty interesting (I M Pei) and Jean Nouvel designed in his competition for the Nimes art centre an underground structure (to avoid affecting the views of the Maison Carre.) it was open to the sky though. Foster won the competition. There is a wonderful well in India that is iconic. 53


I could imagine galleries, sports halls, transport systems. (plus mushroom, asparagus and rhubarb farms!) But somehow the British in particular are not good diggers. In Germany every building starts with an underground parking facility. In the UK our developers always shy away from the cost of digging... Strange.

Participant 18 (P18) Subterranean living can be viable for areas with high populations. For areas of cities that are already have considerable underground infrastructure, such as London, this may prove problematic. There are already areas abroad where underground living is being developed on a large scale. A number of the conceptions and concerns that many people have about underground living are covered in the presentation. Psychological and biological factors that should are also addressed. Where/when land becomes scarcer, or consideration is given to living in otherwise hostile areas, underground living starts being seen as more viable. There are some really interesting examples about. One of the most important things in architecture, whether it is above or below ground, is to restore/mimic links with nature to create healthy, bio-sustainable environments. You have picked a very interesting topic.

Participant 19 (P19) This is obviously a greater challenge below ground, as you need fight to provide these elements. However there are some benefits to below ground spatial inhabitation: i.e. insulation / protection / shelter etc. In many parts of the world this kind of living or spatial inhabitation is expressed through reasons of protection against negative external environments – e.g. North African settlements, Morocco, Cadiz in Spain, the Central Bazaar in Istanbul, parts of Jerusalem’s Old Town. Many of these urban spaces have little connection to light and the ‘external’ environment and have developed historically through acting against strong environmental temperatures, protecting against the elements etc. Historic defensive settlements around the world also do this to protect against some form of external offensive forces. Going underground is naturally more challenging than building above both by making it harder to provide light and air (natural elements required for positive living) but also in terms of cost. Research the costs of building a basement vs. 54


building above ground – it’s usually min 25% more costly to develop below ground due to all the structural and waterproofing work required. Furthermore the natural human psyche has a need for connection to outside space, light air and nature. They’re things, which help us orient ourselves as people and contribute to health and wellbeing. However it does bring greater challenges. I believe it is our responsibility as Architects, Urbanists and Designers to bring an enhanced quality of life through the spaces and places we create. It was the main driver of our proposal for the High Line competition to actually take a semi-underground space (the subway leading in and out of Old Street Underground station) and make it a more positive urban space much less disorientating than it currently is through its lack of connection to the world above. Our thoughts were that if we could connect this underground space to the environment above it would make it a real underground ‘street’ which allowed light, air, landscape and planting to bleed deeper into the subterranean zone making it more legible and enjoyable. A final thought: The exploration of the underground realm as a place of inhabitation brings more challenges and for it to be viable needs to be more than just ‘interesting’. It needs to work with the existing contextual conditions to produce a positive space to live, otherwise no one will do it, nor should they. But as environmental conditions get worse worldwide due to global climate change we may be forced to explore this more ‘protected’ zone as a space to develop and defend ourselves against intense climatic conditions (Hurricanes/Flooding/Monsoon etc). Just as the North African/Asian/South European places noted above act against detrimental external forces (Heat/Glare). It’s a sobering and scary thought, but one, which is not necessarily uninteresting, and one we may be forced as a species to explore further.

Participant 20 (P20) Architecture must disappear. Behind the radicalism of this statement lies something crucial for the future of architecture. Architecture as a discipline should no longer think in terms of objects. Walls, facades, structures, are only modalities of architecture, but never its finality. Design comes after. After what? After situations. Architects deal with situations. Architecture should be conceived as an integral part of the landscape. Glass, concrete or metal would in this case no longer be the elements that build architecture, but the territory, as it exists, as we relate to it. As an architect my commitment is to overwhelm the observable escalation in the production of contemporary architecture by introducing new situations, 55


dialectic situations and experiences, between inside and outside, free and available spaces in-between what is public and what is private. When the context requires it, I make architecture disappear by partially or totally burying my buildings, melting them within the territory. Underground architecture allows me to create new emotions through the experience of absence, of void, seeing architecture from the inside of it, beyond its form, beyond design.

Participant 21 (P21), the full interview can be found at https://vimeo.com/54405439 1:03 - 1:10 I think there is something in it, but I think you have to be under severe pressure to live underground. 2:36 – 2:42 My question back to you is, if its to alleviate a housing crisis in London, why not make working spaces underground, and take the office space and turn it into residential 3: 19 – 3:33 Another component of being above ground is you can also get a view of some sort, views underground are… restricted, again you could digitally enhance views, you can do a lot of things with creating an artificial environment 3: 54 – 4:28 Richard Branson entertained the idea of, could he persuade people to go into a plane with no windows… of course in reality when you go on long hauls as you well know, people these days tend to put the blinds down so they can see the entertainment, but at least you always have that choice… There is that need to sort of know where you are, know what the time of day is. 6:10 – 6:12 Temperature control would be quite easy underground 7:25 – 7:36 With all spaces underground there is no external side to this piece of architecture, and your question is it a piece of architecture, well the answer is yes. 8:50 - 8:58 as you know with some of the older stations you feel the spaces is really quite small, usually because they’re tunnelled 10:45 – 10:56 Then the idea of doing it (North Greenwich Tube Station) rather principally in a dark blue was that it would tend to feel bigger because you couldn’t define the edges so easily.

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Participant 22 (P22), the full interview can be found at https://vimeo.com/54406753 1:43 – 2:09 your biggest problem is ventilation and light, I’m sure that anything can be planned, I’m sure one way or another in tube stations you could find sufficient space to plan living accommodation’s, but you have got to remember that we will then all have rely on artificial ventilation and light that is very energy consumptive 2:11 – 2:36 the other one (problem) will be circulation, in order to get living accommodations, on virtually longitudinal passages would be very difficult, so you will probably be forced to use things like, where there’s enough space. 4:18 – 4:45 There is plenty of evidence in science fiction of people living underground, and that is required because either the world has been destroyed and people live underground, or generally speaking, in science fiction works where living underground is being forced upon people, by people who want to dominate them and push them under. 5:00 – 5:16 what were the first dwellings and there’s all sorts of evidence everywhere in the world that shows people have lived in caves, there’s no doubt about that, but in small groupings but sometimes there have been towns and villages made which have been quite extensive. 5:47 - 6:23 this is a very difficult one actually, because on one hand you’ve got this sort of idealistic science fiction sort of notion that this could be done and then on the other hand you’ve got practicalities of it, and the way that people aspire to live, its natural for people to live above ground and breath air, and get the light from the sun, basically it is unhealthy to live underground and not get the light. 9:46 – 9:48 Architecture is not just an exterior it is also an interior. 10:11 – 10:28 It is very expensive, you have to remember it is extremely expensive to put things underground, it is incredibly expensive, like tunnelling is the most expensive thing you can do. 18:26 – 18:32 a kind of idealised city, is a fantastic notion, integrating landscape.

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Appendix: 5 Evidence grid of questionnaire Participant 1 (P1) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Yes 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? If you look at basement apartments, their function and what it is they do, this idea of underground living especially the concepts are very similar if not the same 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Maybe 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Yes, I currently live underground.

Participant 2 (P2) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? No 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? It’s generally a nasty place to be if it is not kept tidy or clean. Rooms, which lack fresh air, are horrendously dirty, stuffy and hot. If you don't already know this, just use the underground or visit any basement level in an Oxford Street Store. 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground?

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Maybe 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Yes, I work in a store where the staff room is located in the basement, which unfortunately provides the only access route to the toilets...no fresh air and hot environment= disgusting smelly place to eat food.

Participant 3 (P3) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? No 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? Health risks to do with ventilation, the psychology of being unable to have a landscape view looking outside, underground living has been tried and all have failed. Subterranean living needs to be more innovative and technology efficient. like anything in architecture, economy not necessity will be the driving force to subterranean living, unfortunately high-rise living will dominate our lifetime. Subterranean living could become popular in extreme environment such as north/south pole, deserts or even mars etc. you get the point.

3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Yes 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Yes

Participant 4 (P4) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Yes

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2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? One reason could be down to psychological issues of the individual, little natural sunlight, being constantly lit by artificial lighting could become an issue, as we need a daily amount of natural sunlight for living. And also a fear of living below a city above. 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Yes 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? No

Participant 5 (P5) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? No 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? I think underground living has been thought about a lot. However the constant question of daylight/constructional viability etc. come into question. Do people really want to live underground, and would they actually like it. 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Maybe, It doesn’t have the same influence, you can see an entire underground building from afar and admire like the gherkin/shard etc. Its iconicness will be purely based on its location/how well it works and peoples reactions 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Maybe, I could do, but would want easy access to the outside world.

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Participant (P6) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Yes 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? I think it becomes a natural feeling of living like a badger, also lack of light / vitamin D 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Maybe, Underground bungalows with Glass shining to let light through the top could be nice? 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Yes, I will build an underground basement extension in my house however It'll only house a cinema / mens room. I wouldn't intend to spend long periods of time there

Participant 7 (P7) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Yes, Currently it feels like the extreme ends of the economic spectrum are increasingly searching for inhabitation below the surface; there are established & well documented communities living in the subterranean networks below Paris & New York. If you check the planning applications in Chelsea & Westminster you will find a significant number of proposals from footballers & celebs excavating below their Georgian terraces looking for gold!

2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? In Barnes, West London people are buying up quite compact, lower middle class houses & excavating to basement level & beyond to extend space/ meet

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the demands of a more affluent family. Necessity is driving aesthetics. Improved 'tanking', environmental & critically lighting technology is changing perceptions. If a property is too small but next to an OFSTED excellent school & tube station, if planning determines max. Heights & widths then the only way is down! Look at how estate agents sell sub-level dwelling. 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? No, In terms of it's representation in the media- maybe but it's difficult to create a coherent image of something from the inside, especially when it doesn’t have an outside; compare iconic interiors with exteriors/ objects. 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Yes, I work in a studio in Dalston, which is half submerged- open on one side to an internal courtyard. Good for focus/ minimising distractions (like light & air) but bad for your skin. I'm enthusiastic about pure lighting spaces from above (as opposed to Corb & Mies modernist doctrine about glazed facades) but I'm not informed enough about recreating daylight conditions below ground to suggest this to a client as an alternative to daylight. Look into Swiss bunkers & their standards.

Participant 8 (P8) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Yes 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? It could be the combination of the above possibilities, as well as the common realisation that people require Vitamin C that comes from the sun, which is substantial for mental wellness. However, a project that has come close to challenging the idea of underground living is the Lowline Project in New York. 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Yes 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past?

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Yes

Participant 9 (P9) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Yes 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? Misconceptions and fear most of all 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? No 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Yes

Participant 10 (P10) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Yes 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? Yes 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Maybe 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past?

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Yes

Participant 11 (P11) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Yes 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? As a student living in London spending most of my time travelling on the underground it has very much become the norm. So naturally the next step would be to use the somewhat forgotten spaces in London, to live, and work. If the scheme allowed for a cheaper way of living, perhaps due to its eco capabilities. 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Yes 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Yes

Participant 12 (P12) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Yes, As long as natural light and ventilation can be channelled in sufficient quantities

2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? Primal fear in the form of disgust as well as status anxiety, excretia is also referred to as soil for a reason. 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as

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opposed to above ground? Yes, as with most things it would probably be down to marketing (smoking, drinking, arms, drugs and food industries). However there's nowhere to escape to when you're in a box in the ground, however large it is. Watch THX 1138 and Logan's Run. The argument that the containment of an entire society in the ground would make it easier to control makes sense. 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? No

Participant 13 (P13) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities? Maybe 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? People have a preconception about living underground which is only now just beginning to be eroded, projects like future systems wars house, have shown that not only are such homes ecologically sound but they can also be light and airy. 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Yes 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Yes, certainly looking at CJ Lims, ground scraper projects and a series of visionary projects, around the world, one can see the attraction of underground living

Participant 14 (P14) 1. Do you think subterranean living could ever become viable in over populated cities?

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Yes 2. Why do you think people haven't challenged the idea of underground living if it seems viable or not, could it be down to fear, health worries, social misconceptions of the underground etc.? Underground cities have been used as a Hollywood prop on many occasions to over come some sort of natural or man made world changing disaster. So there might be misconceptions by the general public in having an underground city. Whereas in fact if thought about rationally it is a great idea, it would require less buildings and services would require less maintenance, heating etc. lighting and recycling carbon dioxide would require a bit of though however. 3. Do you think iconic architecture can be successful underground as opposed to above ground? Yes 4. Could you see yourself designing or even living/working in underground spaces or have you done so in the past? Yes

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Bibliography Books Ackroyd, P., 2011. London under: London. Asimov, I., 1954. The caves of steel, United States: Doubleday. Bard, M.G., 2010. The complete idiots guide to world war 2, London: Alpha. Golany, G. S., 1996. Urban design, morphology and thermal performance, Atmospheric Environment. Jansson, B., 1977. Planning of subsurface use, Stockholm: Staatens rรฅd fรถr byggnadsforskning. Kvale, S. & Brinkmann, S. (2009) Interviews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing, Los Angeles, Calif., Sage. Wells, H.G., 1895. The time machine. London: William Heinemann. Films Metropolis, 1927. Film. Directed by Fritz Lang. Germany: UFA. The Matrix, 1999. Film. Directed by Andy and Larry Wachowski. United States: Warner Bros Pictures. Television The secret life of buildings, Episode 1, The Ministerial Broadcast, 2011. TV, Channel 4. 2011 Oct 16. 2100 hrs. Journals Cancer Research., 2011. Radon exposed underground miners and inverse dose rate effects, Available from: http://www3.cancer.gov/intra/dceold/pdfs/reumid.pdf [Accessed 18 October 2012]. Darby, S.C., 1995. Radon and cancers other than lung cancer in underground miners: a collaborative analysis of 11 studies, Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7853419 [Accessed 21 October 2012]. Duffaut, P., 2006. Underground city-planning, a French born concept for cities of tomorrow, Available from: http://uww.itaaites.org/fileadmin/filemounts/UWW_10/use_07_underground_planning/under ground_city_planning.pdf [Accessed 24 November 2012]

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Folkestad, B., 2008. Analysing interview data, possibilities and challenges, Available from: http://eurospheres.org/files/2010/08/Eurosphere_Working_Paper_13_Folkest ad.pdf [Accessed 19 November 2012] Jamieson, I., 2011. Designing for intelligent underground buildings, Available from: http://www.cibse.org/content/AAA_Julie_Uploads/revised%20Jamieson%20fo r%20web.pdf [Accessed 18 October 2012]. Parker, H.W., 2006. ITA work and experiences on the urban environment, Available from: http://www.itaaites.org/fileadmin/filemounts/general/pdf/ItaAssociation/Organisation/Membe rs/MemberNations/Thailand/I-1-Parker.pdf [Accessed 21 October 2012]. Poulios, N., 2009. Surviving the next earth changing catastrophe, Available from: http://www.terravivos.com/images/livingunderground.pdf [Accessed 20 October 2012]. Interviews Barrow, John (2012) Participant 15 (P15) Director and Architect, Email interview, 1st November 2012. Walters, Cindy (2012) Participant 16 (P16) Director and Architect, Email interview, 3rd November 2012. Egret, Christophe (2012) Participant 17 (P17) Director and Architect, Email interview, 29th October 2012. Jamieson, Isaac (2012) Participant 18 (P18) Medical Doctor and Architect, Email interview, 6th November 2012. Mailen, Ben (2012) Participant 19 (P19) Director, Architect and Designer, Email interview, 3rd November 2012. Alsop, Will (2012) Participant 21 (P21) Director and Architect, Face to face interview, London, 30th October 2012. King, Dave (2012) Participant 22 (P22) Lecturer and Architectural thinker, Face to face interview, London 15th November 2012. Lectures Perrault, Dominique (2012) Participant 20 (P20), The disappearance of architecture: between presence and absence. London, The Bartlett, 21st November 2012.

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Illustrations Figure 1, [Depiction of underground network in Turkey], Derinkuyu, [Image online] Available at <http://undergroundliving.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/derinkuyu.jpg> [Accessed 19 November 2012] Figure 2, [Basement apartment], Stairs and flat in Marylebone, [Image online] Available at <http://www.mccullagh.org/photo/1ds-4/troglodyte-pit-homeinterior> [Accessed 15 November 2012] Figure 3, [The morlocks], H.G Wells the time machine, [Image online] Available at <http://cdn.mos.totalfilm.com/images/h/h-g-wells-the-timemachine-01-800-75.jpg> [Accessed 13 November 2012] Figure 4, [Eloi and morlocks], Timemachine, [Image online] Available at <http://www.allurelibre.ch/files/blog/timemachine.jpg> [Accessed 12 October 2012] Figure 5, [Image of troglodyte dwelling], Troglodyte pit, [Image online] Available at <http://www.mccullagh.org/photo/1ds-4/troglodyte-pit-homeinterior> [Accessed 11 November 2012] Figure 6, [Light lux reduction], The secret life of buildings, [Image online] Available at <http://homesdesign.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/the-secret-lifeof-buildings.jpg?w=640> [Accessed 11 November 2012] Figure 7, [The Blitz], Aldwych underground station, [Image online] Available at <http://www.asisbiz.com/Battles/Battle-of-Britain/images/24-AldwychUnderground-Station-London-during-the-Blitz-Oct-8-1940-01October-8-194001.jpg> [Accessed 12 November 2012] Figure 8, [Sentinels breaking into the fortress], Matrix rev, [Image online] Available at <http://www.matrixfans.net/wpcontent/uploads/2012/03/esc04_matrixRev.jpg> [Accessed 29 November 2012] Figure 9, [Lone man in the underground], 1953 London underground, [Image online] Available at <http://trenomag.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/1953-alondon-undergrou-004.jpg> [Accessed 22 October 2012] Figure 10, [Underground garden], NY (New York) low line, [Image online] Available at < http://assets.inhabitat.com/wpcontent/blogs.dir/1/files/2011/09/NY-LES-Low-Line-Park-4-537x351.jpg> [Accessed 19 November 2012] Figure 11, [Shopping complex], underground city in Montreal, [Image online] Available at < http://travelincanada.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/05/tvhd_05_g.jpg > [Accessed 12 August 2012]

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Figure 12, [Underground eco-friendly design], Mushroom tunnel, [Image online] Available at <http://i.bnet.com/blogs/mushroomtunnel.png> [Accessed 28 November 2012] Figure 13, [Competition entry for redeveloping underground spaces], Mailen design of Old Street underground garden, [Image online] Available at < http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/image/LondonHL/MAILEN-DESIGN_OLDSTREET-GARDEN-Image-2-CutawayConcourseView.jpg> [Accessed 27 November 2012] Figure 14, [Section showing underground swimming pool], Belgravia extension, [Image online] Available at <http://www.mmarchitecturestudio.com/acatalog/belgravia.gif> [Accessed 25 November 2012] Figure 15, [Woman underground], Living Underground in China, [Image online] Available at <http://www.impactlab.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/7living-underground-in-china-546.jpg> [Accessed 13 October 2012] Figure 16, [Light at the end of the tunnel], Inside the train tunnel, [Image online] Available at <http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4044/4396634378_b87032889c_z.jpg> [Accessed 29 November 2012]

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Leroy Kerry Dissertation