(L E R A I N)
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN STUDIO
AIR SEMESTER 1 , 2014
Part A -- Conceptualization 8 A.1. Design Futuring 13 A.2. Design Computation 21 A.3. Composition / Generation 28 A.4. CONCLUSION 29 A.5 LEARNING OUTCOME
Part B -- CR
30 A.6. APPENDIX – ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES
39 B.1. RESEARCH
32 A.7. BIBLIOGRAPHY
47 B.2. CASE STUD
57 B.3. CASE STUD
69 B.4. TECHNIQUE
79 B.5 TECHNIQUE
95 B.6. TECHNIQUE
103 B.7. LEARNING O 105 B.8. APPENDIX
107 B.9. BIBLIOGRAP
RITERIA DESIGN FIELD
Part C -- DETAILED DESIGN
112 c.1. DESIGN CONCEPT
OBJECTIVES AND OUCOMES
136 c.2. TECTONIC ELEMENTS
156 c.3. FINAL MODEL 174 C.4. LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENT 194 C.5. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUCOMES 196 C.6. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Introduction My name is Siyu Lei (Lerian) and I came from the middle part of China named Henan Province where the â€˜mother riverâ€™ Huanghe River passes by. I have chosen architecture as my major because I am very curious about how to turn a paper designed figure to a real building when I was young. Now I am a third year Bachelor of Environment student, I feel that the more I learned and the more I will get into this subject, because architecture design is not just about simple diagram or figures but how designers connect their ideas with aesthetic, technologies and constructions.
Student Number: 590520 Studio 13, Semester 1, 2014 Tutors: Brad Elias and Philip Belesky University of Melbourne 2014 Architectural Design Studio: Air Journal
This idea comes form when I was watching the slow motion of water balloon explosion moment on the internet. What attracts me is when the balloon explode it looks like a firework within a very short term, it also shows the death of the balloon. When we keep pouring water into the balloon it will change the original shape of the balloon. The inside capacity remains the same but the pressure is keep increasing by the water , the inside wall of the balloon will be overwhelmed and eventually explode.
Digital techniques are very accurate and effective for fabrication and it always give us different materials to use in order to express different ideas. But I realÂŹsized that the digital model is not exactly the same as the actual physical model during construction. My model is quite different from others, because I used combined materials; 2D panelling for bottom part and 3D panelling for top parts to create the moment of water balloon explode which could give the feeling of how powerful the explosion is.
Design Futuring requires having a clear sense of what design needs to be mobilized for or against. Even more significantly, it means changing our thinking, then how and what we design. â€? By -- TONY FRY 
A.1. Design FUTURING
A.1. Design Futuring Land Art Generator - 2012 Fresh Kills Landfill, New York
Solar Pixels Artist Team : Ana Saiyed Location : Freshkills Park The aim of the Solar Pixels project is using the zero energy technology which absorbs the solar energy during the day and emits it during the night with certain colors in order to create a renewable energy generation and green advertising. 
Image 2 - Single Solar Pixel changes from day to night
How can a future actually be secured by design? Tony Fry has indicated in the text named design futuring that “design futuring actually means changing our thinking, then how and what we design”. These solar pixels project has expanded the future possibilities by using renewable solar energy which has been used in many ways around us. The designers combine their idea with sustainable energy in order to achieve a more livable environment for our generation. My opinion -- In contrary, this design covers gigantic land area causing the waste of land. Secondly, the maintenance of the dome will become very costly.
Image 3 - Section of Solar Pixels
1. Tony Fry, ‘Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethic and New Practice’, (Oxford: Berg, 2009), p.1-16 2. ‘Solar Pixels’, Land Art Generator Initiative Competition 2012, last modified 13 March 2014, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AS03AJ90/>
Image 1 - Solar Pixels
The original purpose is to create a green advertising billboard across the landscape for companies or services by using solar energy. The entire 100 acre land was covered by innumerable large domes that measure 30 feet in diameter. Each dome is absorbing solar energy during the day and emitting a certain color by night which can be experiences through two ways: at ground level when users visiting the site for a close up experience or from the air, to have an entire view creating by the patterns. This design initiated a new advertisement generation by using sustainable and renewable energy. They have changed the rigid television or magazine advertisement method with more energy cost and more damage to the nature into an energy saving and environment friendly way in the world. People will be more appreciated with this design due to the advantages and benefits of the renewable energy.
Advantages of solar energy • • • • • • • •
Saving money Saving energy Sustainable anAd renewable Environment friendly Less Pollutions Secure Clean Raise renewable energy efficiency
Image 4 - Light Experiences 1
Image 5 - Light Experiences 2
A.1.2 Energy Technology Research Solar Roadway A solar roadway is a road surface that generates electricity by solar power photovoltaics. 
Image 6 - Solar panel leads the way
The fundamental principle of this design is to create a safer night time driving and rigorous weather driving by using sustainable and renewable solar energy. “The idea is to replace all current petroleum-based asphalt roads, parking lots, and driveways with Solar Road Panels that collect energy to be used by our homes and businesses.” This renewable energy replaces the current fossil fuels used for the generation of electricity.
ADVANTAGES • • • • • • •
No more power shortages No more roaming power outages No more need to burn coal Less need for fossil fuels and less dependency upon foreign oil. Much less pollution. Safer for night time driving Safer for rigorous weather driving in northern climates
DISADVANTAGES • • •
A gigantic project Difficult for maintenance Costly Image 7 - Solar panel testing
3. ‘Solar Roadways: Crackpot Idea or Ingenious Concept?’, SingularityHUN, last modified 13 March 2014, <http://singularityhub.com/2010/08/08/solar-roadways-crackpot-idea-or-ingenious-concept-video/> 4. ‘Solar Roadway’, solar roadways a real solution, last modified 13 March 2014, <http://www.solarroadways.com/intro.shtml>
Image 8 - Solar Roadway structure layers
Image 9 - Solar Roadway structure layers
Existing prototype panels consist of three layers 1.
This design intent may lead people to a new generation of road and car designing in a more livable way and environment friendly.
Road surface layer - translucent and high-strength in material , it is rough enough to provide sufficient traction and still passes sunlight through to the solar collector cells at the mean time, along with LEDs and a heating element. This layer needs to be capable of handling todayâ€™s heaviest loads under the worst of conditions and to be weatherproof, to protect the electronics layer beneath it.
2. Electronics layer - Contains a microprocessor board with support circuitry for sensing loads on the surface and controlling a heating element with a view to reducing or eliminating snow and ice removal as well as school and business closings due to inclement weather. The microprocessor controls lighting, communications, monitoring, etc. With a communications device every 12 feet, a solar roadway can be an intelligent highway system. 3.
Base plate layer - While the electronics layer collects energy from the sun, it is the base plate layer that distributes that power as well as data signals down the line to all homes and businesses connected to the solar roadway. It needs to be weatherproof to protect the electronics layer above it. 
Image 10 - New generation Solar Roadway
Digital design and its growing impact on design and production practices have resulted in the need for a re-examination of current design theories and methodologies in order to explain and guide future research and development. â€? By -- Rivka Oxman 
A.2. Design ComputatAion
A.2. Design Computation
The most remarkable technological
transformation is the invention of electronic computers in the mid 20th century. Computer design has become very popular and famous in recent years along with the innovation of 2D and 3D design software. Computer becomes a design tool to transform designing idea into a digital way that generates a new type of architectural knowledge. ‘Digital design technologies have been adopted almost universally as the predominant means of production in architectural practice.’ Moreover, computer technologies introduces a new method of design that is more precisely than human brain and leads to a regeneration of current design theories. Hence the significance of digital design is trying to achieve not only the unique form, but also a unique body of architecture concepts. 
Computer could transform the initial idea from the designer’s mind to a digital form and represents it graphically and numerically.  Designers use computer program as a platform where drawing quickly and precisely edited and it will never make silly arithmetical mistakes, known as computerization. In addition, computerization used to describe when an idea is already formed by designers, and then they are using computer program to transform the idea into a digital way.
Similar but different to computational design techniques, it is still relatively uncommon practice in architecture today. “Computation allows design to extend their abilities to deal with highly complex situations.” Basically, computation is a design method which still using the computer techniques but without any design ideas conceptualized by designers. It is the use of computer programs to aid in the creation of a structure that is designed through the limitations set by a framework. Hence the role of computational technique is beyond simply making digital models, but becomes integral to the design itself.  “Parametric design is a new form of the logic of digital design thinking.”  More design outcomes can be expressed by using computational simulation tools to manipulate the parameters.
5. Rivka Oxman, ‘Theories Of The Digital In Architecture’, Architectural reading (2014), p.1-10 6. Tony Fry, ‘Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethic and New Practice’, (Oxford: Berg, 2009), p.1-16 7. Rivka Oxman, ‘Theory and design in the first digital age,’ Design Studies (2006),p.1-37 8. Rivka Oxman, ‘Digital architecture as a challenge for design pedagogy: theory, knowledge, models and medium,’ Design Studies (2008), p.1-22 9. Kalay, ‘Architectures New Media’, Architectural reading (2004), p.1-25 10. Peter Brady, ‘computation works – the building of algorithmic thought’, Architectural reading (2014), p.8-13 11. Peter Brady, ‘computation works – the building of algorithmic thought’, Architectural reading (2014), p.8-13 12. Rivka Oxman, ‘Theories Of The Digital In Architecture’, Architectural reading (2014), p.1-10
A.2.1 ICD / ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2011 Project : RESEARCH PAVILION Architects : ICD / ITKE UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART Location: STUTTGART, GERMANY Surface: 72 sqm Volume: 200m³ Material: 275 sqm Birch plywood 6,5mm Sheet thickness Project Year: August 2011 Photographs: ICD / ITKE University of Stuttgart
Image 11- inside pavilion
The ICD / ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION led by the Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) together with students at the University of Stuttgart. This project is based on a bionic research which transfers of biological principles of the sea urchin’s plate skeleton morphology by using computer-based design and simulation methods, along with a range of different geometries through computational processes.
The design concept is inspired by the sea urchins skeleton morphology to form a multifunctional space for various users. The pavilion is a semi-open structure which allows sunlight penetrates through the top of the roof in order to achieve energy saving.  Lighting system is installed in the pavilion to maximize the usage during night time.
Image 12 - parametric process
The project demonstrates how a complex pavilion could be builds in order to achieve sustainability through the material, structure and dynamic forms. The whole form is covered by thin sheets of plywood which has very high uniform strength that is very strong to support the entire structure. Plywood could also reduce the possibility of shrinking, swelling and warping even efficient for relatively large size structure.  Moreover, the architect decided to use plywood in this case is because plywood is easy for fabrication of curved surface. The material can be reused, and the structure can be reform or reconnect quickly and easily. Image 13 - cutting edge
In contrary, Computation does lead a way of unique innovations by formulating ideas directly through computer without pre-conceived idea from designers. But this technique is not highly practiced and it is still relatively uncommon practice in architecture today. Many research projects on website are still a proposals, not yet been turn into reality.
The range of conceivable and achievable geometries can be impacted by computational designs through “exchange scheme to repeatedly read the complex geometry into a finite element program to analyze and modify the critical points of the model.” Thus the form conceptualizing is closely interlinked to the structural design during the computational design process. “Computational design is the practice of using programing to create and modify form, structure and ornamentation”.  By using computing program the form of the structure can be relatively easy to manipulate by adjusting the parameters of the design compare to traditional hand drawing which will reduce manpower as well as saving energy.
I found a very interesting point through the construction of the pavilion is that the major supporting structure is completely by using plywood, each pieces of the plywood has sawteeth at the four edges, and therefore the whole structure is automatically buckled up without any metal joints. From my point of view, the computing techniques affect the design process through several approaches. Firstly, computer technologies will enable designers to express their design intention without being set in a frame. Hence, designer could produce more creative designers by using computer techniques. Secondly, Kalay has indicated that “computers, by their nature, are superb analytical engines”.Computer techniques are far way accurate and convenient than human brains through editing, copying and modifying of the drawings.
Image 14 - connecting
13. ‘ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion 2011’, Archiable the platform for architecture students, last modified 21 March 2014, <http://www.archiable.com/2012/20120519_ICD_ITKE_Research_Pavilion_2011.html> 14. ‘ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion 2011’, Archiable the platform for architecture students, last modified 21 March 2014, <http://www.archiable.com/2012/20120519_ICD_ITKE_Research_Pavilion_2011.html> 15. ‘General advantages’, Panguaneta: plywood for life, last modified 21 March 2014, <http://www.panguaneta.com/en/plywood/key-advantages/general-advantages> 16. ‘ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion 2011’, Archiable the platform for architecture students, last modified 21 March 2014, <http://www.archiable.com/2012/20120519_ICD_ITKE_Research_Pavilion_2011.html> 17. ‘General advantages’, Panguaneta: plywood for life, last modified 21 March 2014, <http://www.panguaneta.com/en/plywood/key-advantages/general-advantages> 18. Kalay, ‘Architectures New Media’, Architectural reading (2004), p.1-25 19. ‘ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion 2011’, Archiable the platform for architecture students, last modified 21 March 2014, <http://www.archiable.com/2012/20120519_ICD_ITKE_Research_Pavilion_2011.html>
“The research pavilion offered the opportunity to investigate methods of modular bionic construction using freeform surfaces representing different geometric characteristics while developing two distinct spatial entities: one large interior space with a porous inner layer and a big opening, facing the public square between the University’s buildings, and a smaller interstitial space enveloped between the two layers that exhibits the constructive logic of the double layer shell.” 
Image 15 -- ICD / ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2011
A.2.2 CHANGSHA MEIXIHU INTERNATIONAL CUL
LTURE & ARTS
Image 16 - Bird eye view of the Chengshang Art Center
A.2.2 CHANGSHA MEIXIHU INTERNATIONAL CUL
Image 17 - genrating idea for the Art Center
“The International Culture & Art Centre embodies a unique variety of civic nodes and spaces: A grand theatre, a contemporary art museum, a multipurpose hall and supporting facilities.” Each individual building is related to the central and open space. The design of the pathway around the three buildings is firstly matching the exterior appearance of sinuous curves. Secondly, it leads the way to reaching each buildings from different viewing angles such as city view and river views. Most importantly, the flows of pedestrian visitors that come from all sides of the site intersect and meet.
Image 18 - interior 1 of the Art Center
The design intention of Changsha Meixihu International Culture & Arts Center creates a harmonious relationship between the building and the landscape. This building is very significant of its dynamic and extreme sinuous curves form that reflects on the urban experience and flows of the Meixi Lake. The concept idea for this particular design will be achieved much more easily by using computational design compare to the traditional way. The ability of applying the computational techniques will accelerate the communication with designers, because computational technique is the continuation from a different aspect of designer’s mind and stimulation their imaginations.
Each building is planned as a grouping of petal-shaped volumes that curve around one another to create a central plaza and a series of connecting lawns, terraces and pathways. Computational design technique is a better way of creating a very dynamic and sinuous shape than traditional design. Different outcomes will be presented in a very unique way whenever the parameters have been manipulated. Parametric design as a facility for the control of topological relationships enables the creation and modulation of the differentiation of the elements o f a design. 
21. ‘Changsha Meixihu International Culture & Arts Center’. Zaha hadid architect, last modified 14 March 2014, <http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/changsha-meixihu-international-culture-art-centre/> 22.‘Changsha Meixihu International Culture & Arts Center’. Zaha hadid architect, last modified 14 March 2014, <http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/changsha-meixihu-international-culture-art-centre/> 23. Rivka Oxman, ‘Theory and design in the first digital age,’ Design Studies (2006),p.1-37
LTURE & ARTS
ge 19 - interior 2 of the Art Center
The impact from computational techniques for this project is achievable by using parametric design. Zaha Hadid is one of the most famous modern architects, known by having a good ability for utilizing computer programming to conceptualize the project. She has indicated that, even she will never know the final outcome of the design, it is all control by parametric program, and people can feel motivation of the building while manipulating the parameters during the design process. In my opinion, when we experiment with some new technologies, it is easy to think it has no basis, similar to computational design which presents no pre-conceived idea in designerâ€™s mind.
Location: Changsha, China Architect: Zaha Hadid architects Area: 115000m^2
Image 20 - interior 3 of the Art Center
The smooth and fluid surface is perforated with windows on top of the Grand Theater, where sunlight could penetrates through the glazed skylight in order to reduce the usage of artificial light, hence to achieve energy saving. Ventilation will also be improved due to this material.
From my point of view, I think this design way too dynamic and exaggerated of the interior space. If the interior plan is too flexible, people will lost their direction and would be able to visit very internal part of the building. More signs will be produces either on the wall or free-standing for leading direction, which kind of destroy the harmonious environment internal space. In addition, both stability and flexibility should be distributed equally in order to express more convenient environment for different users.
“ We are moving from an era where architects use software to one where they create software. ” By -- Peters Brady 
A.3. COMPOSITO gENERATIO
Architects are now taking advantage of the computer in new ways through experimentation with algorithmic and simulation-driven design. Computing program becomes a basic method for designing recently. It is faster and more accurate than human brains, also it has less constrains than traditional design theory. For example, thousands of outcomes may produce by using computational techniques from a simple shape to dynamic and unimaginable shapes by control the ratio of it.
A.3. COMPOSITON / GENERATION Architects start to bring the forms of the design to the computer and coded as algorithms, rather than doing by hand. “Algorithmic thinking means taking on an interpretive role to understand the result of the generating code, knowing how to modify the code to explore new options, and speculation on further design potentials.” Algorithms creates a loop consists four main steps namely design, analyze, implement and experiment. It operates from the initial design to analyze the concept by using implement of computing programs and experiment the outcomes then back to the starting point of design thinks.
24. Peter Brady, ‘computation works – the building of algorithmic thought’, Architectural reading (2014), p.8-13 25. Peter Brady, ‘computation works – the building of algorithmic thought’, Architectural reading (2014), p.8-13
Large amount of drawing can be simply done by following the algorithms which may take very long time when doing them by hand. Most important aspect is, through the traditional architecture design, the final form can be produced in a certain way which has already been designed by designers known as composition. Whilst, no one knows what will be the final outcome of a certain project, because the outcomes of a project are unimaginable by using parametric design techniques in computing program known as generation. Architects are now facing a digital period that shift from composition to generation. There are many constrains and limitations when design a model physically. For example, architect will spend much more time and energy when building a large scale model by hand. But the computer may calculate all the processes for architects in a very short of time and less cost. Therefore computing program are free from physical constrains.
A.3.1 Slipstream Installation
Image 21 - colored plywood
Image 22 - plywood cuves of the structure
Image 23 - dyn
Image 24 -- left view of the structure
26. ‘Slipstream Installation Translates 2d Drawing into 3d Structure’, EVOLO, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/slipstream-installation-translates-2d-drawing-into-3d-structure/> 27. Wison, ‘Algorithm definition’, MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciebces (2000), p.1-2 28. ‘Slipstream Installation’, Free Land Buck, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.freelandbuck.com/Projects/SlipstreamInstallation> 29. ‘General advantages’, Panguaneta: plywood for life, last modified 21 March 2014, <http://www.panguaneta.com/en/plywood/key-advantages/general-advantages> 30. ‘Slipstream Installation’, Free Land Buck, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.freelandbuck.com/Projects/SlipstreamInstallation> 31. Peter Brady, ‘computation works – the building of algorithmic thought’, Architectural reading (2014), p.8-13
namic form of the structure
This design is inspired by the eddying motion of surface of the water. Architects used computing software to generate the form of the structure from a 2D drawing to a 3D model. Before the innovation of computing programs, it was very hard and wasting energy for formulating a large scale of model. After the invention of computational design techniques, software enables architects to create new, modern and dynamic forms digitally. “Architects have used digital software to imbue structures and spaces with some of the same qualities as Da Vinci’s meticulous drawings: fluidity, undulation, instability and temporality.”  Algorithm is an unambiguous, precise, list of simple operations applied mechanically and systematically to a set object.[27 ] It is now commonly used in computational design, in order to create various outcomes. The invention of parametric design technique turns the 2D drawing into 3D structure in an easier and creative way compare to ancient times. For this particular design, each pieces of plywood are either interlocking or overlapping each other, to create a visual performance of turbulence and flows of water. “The linear extrusion acts as structure and dynamic visual filter, shifting views through the installation and between the spaces it defines.” The function of this installation is to form set of interconnected spaces through a gallery, express a feeling of standing on the surface of water from my point of view. Moreover, from the material perspective, plywood presets a very high uniform strength that is very strong to support the entire structure. Plywood could also reduce the possibility of shrinking, swelling and warping even efficient for relatively large size structure. Architect decided to use plywood in this case is because plywood is easy for fabrication of fluid surface. The material can be reused, and the structure can be reform or reconnect quickly and easily. In addition, colored plywood emphasizes the undulating lines, establishing cross currents that intensify as visual eddies. In order to enable the fabrication of this design is to control the appearances during the digital design process. The advantages of using computational design technology are through several approaches. Firstly, computation has a potential to stimulate designers imagination.  There is nothing special of a 2D water motion, whilst when bring the 2D drawing to the computer more creative outcomes may produce by using parametric design techniques.Secondly, the shape of the structure can be manipulated through elements configuration, elements placement and relationships between elements. In addition, varieties of outcomes may produce from a simple design to dynamic and unimaginable shapes controlled by algorithmic program. Hence, computing program aids the conceptualization of the final outcomes of this project. In country, if more and more designs are produced by using parametric technique, the world will be full of abstract and dynamic buildings; therefore, it will lose the initial and original idea of simple geometries from my point of view. The beauty of simplicity of architecture will be replaced or deprived by complex and abstract designing concept. 25
A.2.2 fibrous tower hong kong Hong Kong, China, 2008 Project Team: Roland Snooks (Design Director), Robert Stuart-Smith (Design Director), Juan De Marco.
Image 25 -- fibrous tower down view
Computational design technique is a better way of creating something that no one knows the final outcome of it due to the changing of parameters. Different outcomes of the facade will be presented in a very unique way than traditional design whenever the parameters have been manipulated in order to achieve more alternative solutions. The building shows a significant outcome of the façade which creates a very interesting reflection when light penetrates through it. The innovation express through exploring ornamental, structural and spatial order based on algorithmic design.
Image 26 - fibrous tower concept
The ability of applying the computational techniques will accelerate the communication with designers, because computational technique is the continuation from a different aspect of designer’s mind and stimulation their imaginations. The impact from computational techniques for this project is achievable by using parametric design. Without the using of computing program, this project may not be achievable, because it will become very hard and wasting time if the design is drawn by hand. In my opinion, when we experiment with some new technologies, it is easy to think it has no basis, similar to computational design which presents no pre-conceived idea in designer’s mind.
The advantages of computation are not only applying new computational methods to their problems, but also reformulated those problems to be amenable to computational strategies. It has become a useful tool to enable architects to design and construct innovative buildings with more exacting qualitative and quantitative conditions. In addition, glazed window allows sunlight to penetrate through in order to reduce the usage of artificial light, hence to achieve energy saving. Ventilation will also be improved due to this material. The exterior façade also act as a shading element. But on the other hand, the pattern of the façade may block the views from inside out. It may also harder the excavation when fire breaking out.
32. ‘Fibrous Tower’, Designboom architecture, last modified 21 March 2014, < http://www.designboom.com/architecture/kokkugia-fibrous-tower/> 33. Jeannette M. Wing, ‘Computational Thinking: What and Why?’, Architectural reading (2014), p.1-6 34. ‘Parametric Design: a brief history’, AIACC, last modified 21 March 2014, < http://www.aiacc.org/2012/06/25/parametric-design-a-brief-history/> 35. ‘Fibrous Tower’, Studio Roland Snooks, last modified 21 March 2014, < http://www.rolandsnooks.com/#/fibrous-tower/>
â€œThis cast in situ concrete shell provides the structure, sun-shading, and a series of enclosed balconies within a fibrous bundle of strands. The project compresses the structural and tectonic hierarchies of contemporary tower design into a single shell whose articulation selforganizes in response to an often conflicting set of criteria. The shell alleviates the need for internal columns providing clear span office space, while the varied pattern of the shell creates distinctive characteristics for each space.â€? 
Image 27 -entire view of fibrous tower
A.3.2 Mobile Pavilion
Image 28 - parametric process 1
Image 29 - parametric process 2
‘“Project Distortion” is a parametric installation that mixes light, sound, space and infinitely altered reflections into fantastic reality.’ The concept of mobile pavilion integrated with natural element such as light, sound and the environment around as Hansmeyer has indicated that “Nature has been called the greatest architectural forms; we can borrow ideas from nature process to create something new. ” It started with a simple shape and generated within a defined matrix through folding and crumbing based on the behavior of textiles. Algorithmic techniques have taken a great roll of simulate the appearance of the structure underlying hinged triangles.  Designers are trying to create a harmonious relationship between the space, acoustic effect and social interaction driven by parameters in order to express a feeling of humanity in architecture. The function of using parametric design is not only enable transforming a 2D drawing to a 3D structure from previous precedent, but also generate an object from a very single “cell” to a massive and complex model by manipulating the manipulating parameters and experiment it repeatedly to find the best outcome. Parametric design provides an inseparable relation between each element and joint them together precisely which may not be achieved by using traditional compositional method. Elements follow a certain infinite set of rules to emerge their forms coded as algorithm during the generation process. It shows a great shift from a traditional design approach to more precise way of thinking.
36. ‘Project Distortion – Reality Altering Parametric Installation’, EVOLO, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/project-distortion-reality-altering-parametric-installation/> 37. Michael Hansmeyer, ‘Building unimaginable shapes’, TED, last modified 27 March 2014,< http://www.ted.com/talks/michael_hansmeyer_building_unimaginable_shapes> 38. ‘Project Distortion – Reality Altering Parametric Installation’, EVOLO, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/project-distortion-reality-altering-parametric-installation/> 39. ‘Project Distortion – Reality Altering Parametric Installation’, EVOLO, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/project-distortion-reality-altering-parametric-installation/>
Image 30 - interior of the pavilion
Image 31 - pavilion under construction
Image 32 - front view of the pavilion
Image 33 -- side view of the pavilion
With the use of computational techniques, designers start entering a new era of digital design. Computer technologies introduces a new method of design that is more precisely than human brain and leads to a regeneration of current design theories. It breaks out from traditional way of thinking that has an obvious intent of being aesthetic of the architecture. Whilst, along with the innovation of generation, even the designers will not know how the final outcome looks like, it jumps form the rigid framework by manipulating the parameters and trying to formulate the best result of the design. There are advantages and disadvantages towards computational techniques, as there is a tight connection between art and technology. But the most important rule that designers need to follow is that we should not lose the basic mental thinking during the digital designing age. Computer programs can deal with very complex works and calculate the design outcome in a fast way than human brain very could, but back to the original, hand drawing is the initial way of record what comes to the top of designerâ€™s mind. My intended design approach is to follow the principle of practical, aesthetic and economical. A good design is not only about the magnificent of the exterior appearance unlike the traditional composition way of design. The architecture should be designed to meet humanâ€™s need and achieve environment friendly through the use of material or the concept of project in order to achieve sustainable and energy efficient, that is main goal for long-term design. The innovative parametric design and algorithmic thinking could experiment the best way for fabrication by follow set of rules.
Through the whole project of part A I have learnt many very interesting
design technologies that I never touched before for example grasshopper. I realized that a design can be done either by already conceptualized or by no pre-conceived from designers through the document research. I have also gain the understanding of applying parametric design to produce more unimaginable outcomes which is free from physical constrains compare to traditional design. I may improve my past design by using these techniques to jump out of the rigid framework.
A.5 LEARNING OUTCOME
A.6. APPENDIX â€“ ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES
The tutorials of using grasshopper so far from week1 to week 3 are very interesting and helpful. Grasshopper is very strange to me because I never learnt this technology before. But after some quick tutorial, the more you learnt the tutorial the more you will get into the computing program. It is very interesting that the shape of object will change when manipulating the parameters of changing statistics of it. I have some particular interests in formulating curves. Before touching this area, I feel itâ€™s so unreal by using parametric design program, but after getting to know rhino and grasshopper, I think that this kind of technique is actually very convenient compare to traditional hand drawing. It not only saves energy from draw the drawings, but so you can play this the parameters to test different outcomes.
A.7.1 REFERENCES LIST ‘Changsha Meixihu International Culture & Arts Center’. Zaha hadid architect, last modified 14 March 2014, <http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/changshameixihu-international-culture-art-centre/> ‘Fibrous Tower’, Designboom architecture, last modified 21 March 2014, < http://www.designboom.com/architecture/kokkugia-fibrous-tower/> ‘Fibrous Tower’, Studio Roland Snooks, last modified 21 March 2014, < http://www.rolandsnooks.com/#/fibrous-tower/> ‘General advantages’, Panguaneta: plywood for life, last modified 21 March 2014, <http://www.panguaneta.com/en/plywood/key-advantages/general-advantages> ‘ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion 2011’, Archiable the platform for architecture students, last modified 21 March 2014, <http://www.archiable.com/2012/20120519_ ICD_ITKE_Research_Pavilion_2011.html> Jeannette M. Wing, ‘Computational Thinking: What and Why?’, Architectural reading (2014), p.1-6 Jennifer Jacobs, and Leah Buechley, ‘Computational Design and Digital Fabrication for Novice Programmers’, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2014), p.1-10 Kalay, ‘Architectures New Media’, Architectural reading (2004), p.1-25 Michael Hansmeyer, ‘Building unimaginable shapes’, TED, last modified 27 March 2014,< http://www.ted.com/talks/michael_hansmeyer_building_unimaginable_shapes> ‘Parametric Design: a brief history’, AIACC, last modified 21 March 2014, < http://www.aiacc.org/2012/06/25/parametric-design-a-brief-history/> Peter Brady, ‘computation works – the building of algorithmic thought’, Architectural reading (2014), p.8-13 ‘Project Distortion – Reality Altering Parametric Installation’, EVOLO, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/project-distortionreality-altering-parametric-installation/> Rivka Oxman, ‘Digital architecture as a challenge for design pedagogy: theory, knowledge, models and medium,’ Design Studies (2008), p.1-22 Rivka Oxman, ‘Theory and design in the first digital age,’ Design Studies (2006),p.1-37 Rivka Oxman, ‘Theories Of The Digital In Architecture’, Architectural reading (2014), p.1-10 Tony Fry, ‘Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethic and New Practice’, (Oxford: Berg, 2009), p.1-16 Toni Kotnik, ‘Digital architectural design as exploration of computable functions’, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (2014), p.1-16 ‘Slipstream Installation’, Free Land Buck, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.freelandbuck.com/Projects/SlipstreamInstallation> ‘Slipstream Installation Translates 2d Drawing into 3d Structure’, EVOLO, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/slipstream-installation-translates-2d-drawing-into-3d-structure/> ‘Solar Pixels’, Land Art Generator Initiative Competition 2012, last modified 13 March 2014, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AS03AJ90/> ‘Solar Roadway’, solar roadways a real solution, last modified 13 March 2014, <http://www.solarroadways.com/intro.shtml> ‘Solar Roadways: Crackpot Idea or Ingenious Concept?’, SingularityHUN, last modified 13 March 2014, <http://singularityhub.com/2010/08/08/solar-roadwayscrackpot-idea-or-ingenious-concept-video/> Wison, ‘Algorithm definition’, MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciebces (2000), p.1-2
A.7.2 IMAGE REFERENCES LIST
A.7.2 IMAGE REFERENCES LIST Image 1-5: ‘Solar Pixels’, Land Art Generator Initiative Competition 2012, last modified 13 March 2014, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AS03AJ90/> Image 6-10: Solar Roadway’, solar roadways a real solution, last modified 13 March 2014, <http://www.solarroadways.com/intro.shtml> Image 11-15: ‘ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion 2011’, Archiable the platform for architecture students, last modified 21 March 2014, <http://www.archiable. com/2012/20120519_ICD_ITKE_Research_Pavilion_2011.html> Image 16-20: ‘Changsha Meixihu International Culture & Arts Center’. Zaha hadid architect, last modified 14 March 2014, <http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/ changsha-meixihu-international-culture-art-centre/> Image 21-24: ‘Slipstream Installation Translates 2d Drawing into 3d Structure’, EVOLO, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/slipstreaminstallation-translates-2d-drawing-into-3d-structure/> Image 25- 27: ‘Fibrous Tower’, Designboom architecture, last modified 21 March 2014, < http://www.designboom.com/architecture/kokkugia-fibrous-tower/> Image 28-33: ‘Project Distortion – Reality Altering Parametric Installation’, EVOLO, last modified 27 March 2014, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/project-distortionreality-altering-parametric-installation/>
“ Innovation inspired by nature. ”
B.1. RSEARCH FIELD
B.1. RESEARCH FIELD
B.1.1 MATERIAL SYSTERM -- BIOMIMICRY
Figure 1 -- all season tower 40
Biomimicry architecture is to learn the function delivered from nature. It could be the way the nature forms the pattern for instance, generic formation of organisms or beehives or spider’s web pattern. Biomimicry also refers the natural techniques what some organisms use. So, there is mimicking technology from mussels that strongly attach their body to rock using innate adhesive glue or strong fabric inspired by spider web. For the current architectural issue, which aims for environmental sustainability and reducing pollution, development of architecture that is not harmful to nature. Biomimicry could be the best solution for resolving these problems. Buildings have no long been consider as a “machine for living”. architects are trying to design a very harmonious relationship between the building and nature. The process of mimic the nature will bring more organic forms and a metabolic balance of the ecology. “It considers architecture as a form of artificial life.”1
Biomimicry design is not only adapting the design from the nature but also considering how to use nature’s effective functions such as heating and cooling system, protecting natural light and ventilating.2 The example on the right -- All Seasons Tent Tower in Armenia expresses the idea mimicking from nature known as the biomimicry technology. “People thought cities deriving from nature in the past, but they have evolved that nature is coming inside cities central. The city space is a live organism.” 3 The concept of this buidling is designed to survive form earthquake and it has been placed near the main river. Therefore the structure resists gravity load and forces resulting from earthquake action. Solar panels have been embedded on the external mesh shin that filters sunlight for temperature regulation. Cooling system will be designed through the slab system during summer, and it can be heated then spread in the room using the displacement ventilation principle.4
B.1.2 BIOMIMICRY design
Figure 2 -- Benze cars
Nowadays, more and more designs are inspired by nature biomimicry itself means using a ‘special technique’ that not only imitates from organisms’ form and structure, but also the functional theory of the organisms, thus these special techniques have been applied to man-made project in order to solve series of human problems and create new inventions.5
“Nature is not a place to visit. It is h
We are now imitates nature’s genius through forms, systems and its process. Human are now using biomimicry as a model and a design tool to deal with those building details that can be enriched and consummated. The rationality of the building structure, function and the configuration of the whole design have also been advanced. “Biomimicry uses an ecological standard to judge the sustainability of our innovation”. 6 The investigation about biomimicry architecture has been considered as a target of improve ecological environment which provides a ‘healthy’ lifestyle for human beings from nature’s perspective.
In the future, the houses we live in will be designed to function like liv adapted to place and able to draw a energy and water from the surroun The architecture of the future will d the machines of the 20th century, b that grow in the landscape that sur aspects that inspired by the applica biomimicry of landscape, function ture, organization and structure. H colour and patterns of the natural nature. Every building will be desig another by using the idea of biomi
Proceeding design to nature and going from nature to design are the two ways apply biomimicry to design. Frist one works in a way after identifying the design problems of one building then seeks the solution imitated or inspired from nature. Second one works reversly, instead of finding answers from nature, biomimicry can be used directly and imaging human applications for nature’s designs. 7
Figure 3 -- Benze cars
The evolution of architecture. “The best way to predict the future Fuller 9
Figure 4 -- Benze cars
Figure 5 -- Benze cars
home.” -- Gary Snyder.8
Example – Mercedes biome concept shown above 10
e is to design it” -- Buckminister
The Biome: ‘The Mercedes-Benz Biome is an ultralight vehicle that utilizes technologies from nature to achieve unparalleled efficiency and seamless integration into the ecosystem.’
n and the offices we work in ving organisms, specifically all of their requirements for nding sun, wind and rain. draw inspiration, not from but from the beautiful flowers rrounds them’. There are four ation of biomimicry, namely nality, forms and of architecHuman connects the texture, because we are all come from gned as a building cell among imicry.
This design also integrated with the energy generation that most of the energy used to run the car comes from the sun that means the energy has been generated from sun in order to achieve sustainability and has been stored in BioFibre which is an organic material and much lighter than other metals. This design releases pure oxygen into the air which is very echo friendly.
Other examples from nature-- From the form, structure perspective, for instance, humans are using the similar shape of the fish fin to create the paddle. Another one is using the streamlined shape of shark to create swimming suit and use the figure of bird to create airplane. From the functional theory perspective, for example, bat has a very high ability of distinguish sounds during night by receiving the echo from other objects. Radar is using the similar theory known as echolocation imitates from bat. Another one is vibrating gyroscope is inspired by the flying characteristics of the fly.
B.1.3 PRESIDENT -- times EUREKA PAVILION Architects: Nex Architecture / Alan Dempsey, Paul Loh, Michal Piasecki, Tomasz Starczewski, James Chung Location: London, United Kingdom Project Year: 2011
Figure 6 -- times eurek pavilion cells “The design development of the pavilion focused on the ‘bio-mimicry’ of leaf capillaries being embedded in the walls.” 11 The structure of the Eureka pavilion is based on the cellular structure of plants and mimics the process of growth to inform the design development. Materials have been used in the design are timber, glass panelled roof and recycled plastic which in order to achieve sustainability. Timber is light in weight and has less malleable and it is easier to form the connection between each pieces, and walls are cladded with recycled plastic. ‘Using computational genetic algorithms the plan of the pavilion is grown by capillary branching and subsequent cellular division.’ 12
Figure 7-- times eurek pavilion It basically uses the pattern of Voronoi which has been highly used in Biomimicry concept. It starts with points and connects the points that are perpendicular to the midpoints. The process of the design starts with planar figure of cube covers the pavilion. Then attach Voronoi patterns and divide those lines refer to the vein of leaves. Secondary structure has been created inside one polygon with Voronoi pattern called cells of leaves. Through this mimicking design of nature, which emphasis that we cannot live without nature and reflects back to the theme of Biomimicry generated for environmental sustainability. Fabrication concern about this project is mainly how those timber pieces are going to connect to each other, for instance how the super connector will be designed to incorporate the design in a best way.
Figure 8 -- times eurek pavilion
â€œ Ornament is the figure that emerges from the material substtrated. The expression of embedded forces through process of construction, assembly and growth. it is through ornament that material transmits affects, therefore it is necessary and inseparable from the object. â€?13 -- Farshid Moussavi
B.2. CASE STUDY 1.0
B.2. CASE STUDY 1.0
B.2.1 DEFINITION -- tHE MORNING LINE
Figure 9 -- Morning Line concept
The morning line project is designed by architects Aranda/Lasch collaborated with artist Matthew Ritchie and Arup Advanced geometry. 14 The design of this project integrated various ideas from many different fields such as art, architecture, engineering, physics and music. It can be consider as a crystallization of design, because the new form has a “mutable structure with multiple expressions and narratives intertwining in its physical structure”.15
Designer is trying to avoid creating a ‘dead’ public sculpture that is everywhere around us, instead of creating a pure sculpture standing on the ground, they have fused it perfectly with the nature that bring the whole design alive by installing more than fifty speakers inside the pavilion in order to create innovative spatialized sound environments. 16 Humans could not only visiting the great design structure while enjoy the music at the same time.
Figure 10 -- Morning Line concept
Figure 10 -- Morning Line
The project started with a very simple shape and assembled with many smaller shapes to from the shape. The structure is simultaneously generating itself and falling apart, enclosing an interactive environment inside which a possible future can be seen and changed. 17 The design is not only about the geometry about also about the expression reflected form Matthew Ritchie’s picture language.18 In my opinion, no one will ever know the final outcome of the form of this project; it is controlled by the algorithmic techniques by adjusting the parameters. The biomimicry concept is not shown on the appearance of the form of the project, instead of showing the direct biomimetic form, the design has been merged through the flexible structure composition, the sound materials, the processes mimic from nature.
Figure12 -- Morning Line 49
B.2.2 MATRIX TABLE 1 The four species for case study 1.0 are size of the polygon, number of sides, scale of creating tetrahedron, pattern drawn on each face of the polygon. Matrix 1 â€“ step 1 starts defining with the size of the polygon. The size will be rearranged by adjusting the radius number slider in grasshopper and bake them to see the various outcomes. Step 2 exploring the scale that crates the tetrahedron by changing the cluster slider and the limit is 0.65 according to the test.
MORE EXAMPLES TESTED WITH FRAGMENTS
B.2.3 MATRIX TABLE 2
Matrix 2 â€“ is focusing on creating the tetrahedron. With the original morning line project function, the number of sides is very limit about five sides maximum when only changing the polygon segment slider. More sides will be produced when reform the function of the tetrahedron as shown in the matrix combines with different scales.
B.2.4 SELECTION CRITERIA
This selected example express the beauty of the symmetrical pattern for the top view, four sides has been generated by adjusting the sideâ€™s number slider from the pieces of scale of creating tetrahedron.
Iâ€™m trying to achieve a regular and symmetrical pattern at four ends, and test how the pattern will be changed when adjusting the scale. The larger the scale, the patterns at the vertices of the tetrahedron will be increased as well. The final version that I chosen with 0.4 scale which brings up the best aesthetic quality. (Limitation for scale is 0.6 according to the test.)
This example is chosen from the side spices i order to explore more sides have been tested changing the algorithmic function.
The original shape is a triangle that only has three sides, but this example ends up with te sides therefore the sharpness of the vertices o the shape has been softened and it is more lo like a circular shape.
This one is very interesting because more pat terns have been generated and overlapping w each other to create the density as shown in top view. and i noticed that when the sides in creased, the height of the shape will be reduc The final outcome ends up with ten sides wit scale of 0.6.
in d by
en of ooks
atwith the nced th
Example 3 is more identifying with the abstract form in order to test the limit of fragments organized with the different sides of the shape. In my opinion this example will be a good resource when corporating with natural elements such as sunlight for further development. For example to control the amount of light penetrates through the surface. It is very interesting when increase the sidesâ€™ number of the basic shape, there will be more fragments pieces produced in a much well-ordered way, for example the pattern is more clear than the shape with less sides. The final outcome chosen for this example has five sides which contains fewer fragments.
Example 4 is trying to test how a â€˜crazyâ€™ the shape will be crated from a regular original triangle shape by re-parameterize the patterns. This tested outcome will be harder to apply on to other surfaces for further development than previous example due to the uncertainty of the statistics. The aim for this example was trying to achieve an irregular forms with vertices extrude outside of the shape boundary line. But after re-parameterize, the form looks like it has been somehow exploded. It seems like there is no limitation after re-parameterize the form and scale of the shape by changing parameters. 55
B.3. CASE STUDY 2.0
B.3. CASE STUDY 2.0
B.3.1 SELECTED PROJECT -- ZA11 PAVILION
Figure14 -- ZA 11 Pavilion
Figure15 -- ZA 11 Pavilion
Figure16 -- ZA 11 Pavilion coonector
Figure13 -- ZA 11 Pavilion
ZA11 PAVILION Designers: Dimitrie Stefanescu, Patrick Bedarf, Bogdan Hambasan Location: Cluj, Romania Project Year: 2011
The free-form ring shape pavilion inspired by the site 19 with hexagon cells attached on the external and the internal surfaces by using computational technologies Rhino and grasshopper. The design intend is to create a flexible and multi-functional pavilion or shelter for social gathering and different architecture festival. (Shown above)20
Many things need to be counted in consideration, for instance, the thickness of the material, how each piece will connect to each other, making sure the joints are stiff enough to hold up the whole project and how the pavilion will be protected or covered under very bad weather if the whole is made of wood. (Shown on the right)
What posed the project challenge is that the designers are not only facing the restrict requirement for example limitation of the materials and tools, but also it has to be fitted inside a certain budget. Therefore, the materials and fabrication techniques have been constrained to suit the requirement, and it ends up with 746 unique pieces.21
It is a good experience for students start the design from the very beginning by using the computational techniques and tested it over and over again with different materials and fabrication methods finally enjoy the design from a digital model to a real sculpture.
The reason why our group chose ZA11 Pavilion as reverse energy is because it is inspired from nature. This project is very interesting with the flexible shape that suited for various events, for example an openair cinema. In additional, the wood material can be reused and it is eco-friendly which meets our deign brief, and the sculpture can also be demolished easily with no ruin of the surrounding environment.
B.3.2 REVERSE ENGINEERING Curve Move/Scale Curve
Apply Outer Surface U Value V Value T Parameter
Hexagon cells Scale
Scale/Solid difference Patterned surface
B.3.3 REVERSE ENGINEERING STEP 2
Curve Move/Scale Curve
Apply Outer Surface
Step 1 â€“This step is creating h the very basic shape according to the original project. Start with a single curve in Rhino and set one curve in grasshopper. Using the move and scale comment to create three curves and loft them together to create the surface in grasshopper.
Step 2 â€“ apply the h surface. Lunch-box in for creating hexa hexagon panel com will be equally distr of drawing the hexa using voronoi comm
The size of the hexa changing the numb 62
hexagon cells on the outer x will be a very useful plugagon cells by using a simple mmend and the hexagon cells ributed on the surface instead agon shapes on the surface or ments.
agon cells can be adjusted by ber sliders
Hexagon cells Scale
Step 3 â€“ scale and move the hexagon cell surface obtained in stage 2 to make the inner surface of the model. Create two curves for the outer and inner surface respectively for further development. The distance apart from the external surface can be adjust through number slider.
B.3.4 REVERSE ENGINEERING STEP 4
Loft Curves Scale
Expl Construct Brep
Step 4 -- After scaling the outer surface to create a smaller inner surface, each of the hexagon cells will be connected correspondingly. Then loft the two curves in order to create surfaces. Construct a Brep of the lofted surface to obtain individual surfaces.
Step 5 â€“ creatin patterns from th create a single s individual item mends to create them together. pattern accordi Finally, differen order to trim th the pattern on t the two scrips t
Scale/Solid difference Patterned surface Triangles Line
ng a separate script for the he original project. Firstly surface then explode it to six ms. Secondly using line come the triangle shape and join Thirdly, scale each triangle ing to the original project. nce the duplicated surface in he triangle off. Then apply the surface by connecting together.
Step 6 â€“ this step where we found hard to do because we donâ€™t know how to delete the duplicated poly-surfaces in grasshopper. Alternatively, we can only Delete the duplicated surfaces on the model manually in Rhino, and refine the model make it looks like the original ZA11 Pavilion project.
B.3.5 REVERSE ENGINEERING
Challenge â€“ we were stuck when we trying to attach pattern onto the surface we create for reverse engineering, aftter series of test we finally solve the problem by creating two curves for the external ring and the inter ring respectively and loft them together instead of creating surfaces for each rings. Then we can connect the pattern script we created in grasshopper with the basic shape scrip by construct a Brep.
But we are still having the problem of how to delete the duplicated poly-surfaces in grasshopper, because each hexagon panel has four sides and when two hexagon panels connects together from any direction will from a superfluous surfaces. We tried using cullpattern to delete the duplicated surfaces but seem not working very well.
The similarity between reverse the overall basic shape as well The size of the triangle pattern mend in grasshopper.
The difference is that we are us the inner surface by scale and original project may using the for a certain distance instead o did.
ed model and the original piece is as the hexagonal cells on the surface. n can be adjusted by using scale com-
In addition, the pieces have to be in the correct order as generated by the computer system. Each piece of the element has a different shape and size thus creating a wide variety of shapes. Therefore this system relies greatly on the parametric design technique.
sing an area central point to create move the external surface, but the e process of extrude the hexagon cells of scaling the extern al surface as we
B.4. TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT
B.4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT
B.4.1 matrix table 1
The basic shapes that created for matrix table 1 are inspired by the form and the structure of a specific animal or insect, for example the caterpillar, peacock, tree trunk, beehive, two more patterns generated by the direction of winds which will be discussed later in B4. The loft panels are tested by using the Lunch Box plug-in, with basically the hexagon, triangle, rectangle and diamond shapes. The vertical and horizontal layers can be reformed by adjusting on the number slider of the u and v value.
B.4.2 matrix table 2
Six best iterations have been chosen from table 1 then attach the patterns on it. In this matrix table, we are trying to generate more outcomes after attach various patterns on the surface. In my opinion, the shape of the pattern can be useful for further development, for example, when creating a semi-closed pavilion, the larger the openings are on patterns more lights can be penetrates through the opening.
B.4.3 matrix table 3
This matrix table is more playing with number sliders to test the limits of the shape.
B.4.4 SLECTED ITERATIONS
The selected iterations from the matrix tables have been considered through various aspects. Firstly, the design intent is important which will not only inspired from the site for example the surrounding environment and the historical aspects of the site, but also how it will attract peopleâ€™s attentions to visit the sculpture we created. This can be achieved through mimicking from nature in order to bring the sculpture alive. Moreover, another selection criteria considered is the pattern attached on the surface. The reason is that, if we creating a semi-closed pavilion on site, we need to consider how much wind or sunlight can be penetrating through the openings on the pattern. It is important when incorporate with the energy integration of how much energy can be produced. The structure of the pavilion is also very important; it needs to be stiff enough to stand during very strict weathers. It also should be able to carry the energy generators. Furthermore, we need to make sure the selected iterations can be cooperated with the energy generator in future experiment, for example, where the energy generator will be installed, how will it catches wind form different direction, and how will it store the eletricy generated by it.
â€œ Fabric is both a traditional and a high-tech materials whose form is directly relayed to forces applied to it â€“ creating beautiful geometries that are never arbitrary. I find this very exciting â€? -- Zaha Hadid 22
B.5. TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES
B.5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES
How to connect each pieces together â€“ we are trying to create a super connector which is similar to the connector used for the ZA11 Pavilion as shown in the figure. But we found it hard to connect several pieces together at the same time; it means the number of indentations on the connectors according to how many pieces will be connected together simultaneously that what challenges us. The similarity between the connector we created in grasshopper compare to the original one used in ZA11 Pavilion is the idea of how to create and how does the connector works on the real pavilion.
The prototype will be held up by several braces to prevent the pavilion from collapsing. It also can be bolted to the ground but it will become harder when the pavilion being removed and it may cause some damages to the ground. This will be very important and has to be designed very careful in order to prevent the structure from collapsing during strict weather.
The orientation of the prototype will be place facing south-west where most of the winds come from known as the windward direction. The reason is, more wind the energy generator catches the more electricity will be generated by wind energy. It is also depends on what kind of wind generator we are going to use for the prototype.
B.5.2 Prototype 1
PROTOTYPE 1 The basic overall shape created for this physical model is inspired by the wind movement around the LAGI 23 site where the model will be placing as shown above. The site is a small island near Denmark, and the wind mainly comes from the south-west direction according to the research. Our design is to create a shape based on the wind pressure by tracing down the wind direction first, then adjust the points by using moving commend according to where the windward side of the shape will be curvier than the leeward side; hence the whole shape is shifted towards to the leeward direction under wind pressure. We chose the windward side of the model to forming the prototype.
The material chosen for this prototype is Perspex, the reason why using this kind of material is because we firstly want to using a material that is good in tensile and very flexible, so that the model could not only create a movement mimicking the process of wind, but also generate kinetic energy when wind passes by. But after serious testing, it is not easy to connect each assembly together and hard to prevent the structure from collapsing. Therefore we chose Perspex instead which is echo friendly and reusable. It is also resilient and very effective at withstanding rough handling. This material is transparent in color that can be harmonized into nature in a better way according to the relationship between the Perspex material and the structure performance. The patterns chosen attach on the surface has a rectangular hollow shape which will maximize the amount of wind passes through in order to generate more energy for further development.
Now we are preparing for the fabrication of a selected part of the overall model. The reason for chosen this part to form a prototype is because this part is facing where the wind comes from and will catch much more winds than the leeward side. Each piece will be unrolled in Rhino and set different line types whether the line needs to be completely cut off or set as a seal strip.
Then we reach the last step of how to connect each assembly together by using a super connector that we created in grasshopper which is similar to the one used for ZA11 Pavilion. For the prototype according the scale we just use iron wire to tie each piece up. Our group want to use piezoelectricity as the energy generator for this prototype which can be installed on the hollow surface of the external facade facing the south-west direction, because piezoelectricity is much smaller in size compare to other wind turbine. We will further developing our prototype of how the piezoelectricity panel can be attach on the hollow surface and how where it is going to store the electricity after been generated by wind.
B.5.2 Prototype 1
B.5.3 Prototype 2
PROTOTYPE 2 The design concept of this prototype is inspired by the wind movement as well, but different form the first prototype, the form of this one is creating an arch with two opening that allows wind passes through under the arch. Therefore energy can be generated when the wind flows through the hole. The hollow pattern on the surface is going to achieve a semi-closed shelter or pavilion for people to visit. Lights can be penetrates through the hollow patterns in order to achieve energy saving. It also can covers rain as a shelter when during very bad weather. The material used for this one is plywood which is light in weight compare to metals and has less malleable, and it is easier to form the connection between each pieces. In additional, the wood material can be reused and it is eco-friendly which meets our deign brief, and the sculpture can also be demolished easily with no ruin of the surrounding environment. Then we reach the last step of how to connect each assembly together by using a super connector that we created in grasshopper which is similar to the one used for ZA11 Pavilion. Where we need to create many connector according to how many pieces we want to connect at the same time, two examples are shown above.
B.5.3 Prototype 2
B.5.4 Prototype 3
PROTOTYPE 3 The shape of the third prototype is inspired by the height of the surrounding buildings on LAGI site starting from a single curve in Rhino in order to create a link with the site. The altitude of the curve will be adjusted by lifting the control points on the curve according to the height of the surrounding building. We are trying to achieve a pavilion that integrated with both nature and the LAGI site, as well as create a night park if people visit the site during night. We found this one is very hard of integrating with energy integration. Our original idea is placing some light tubes inside each column that can be used during night for illumination that supplied by the electricity generated form the wind generator. But still not very clear of how the generator will work and where to install which will be develop in part c. In my opinion, I think the overall design concept inspired by site is quite ok, but seems that we have not got a very good model to represent this concept. It will be further develop in part c when we introducing the energy generator in this project. The material we are using is also plywood, as mentioned before wood material can be reused and it is eco-friendly which meets our deign brief, and the sculpture can also be demolished easily with no ruin of the surrounding environment. But shrinkage and swelling of wood due to moisture.
B.5.5 DIGITAL MODEL
The basic overall shape created for this physical model is inspired by the wind movement around the LAGI site where the model will be placing as shown above. The site is a small island near Denmark, and the wind mainly comes from the south-west direction according to the research. Our design is to create a shape based on the wind pressure by tracing down the wind direction first, then adjust the points by using moving commend according to where the windward side of the shape will be curvier than the leeward side; hence the whole shape is shifted towards to the leeward direction under wind pressure. We chose the windward side of the model to forming the prototype. An opening was created at the leeward side of the digital model, therefore, people could go and visit the inside of the pavilion. 93
B.6. TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL
B.6. TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL
B.6.1 SITE ANALYSIS SITE LOCATION It is located southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom includes two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. 24
SITE HISTORY Denmark is one of the oldest states in Europe and the oldest kingdom in the world (History of Denmark ). The length of daylight hours in Copenhagen varies greatly due to the extreme northern European location. Denmark is often cited as one of the worldâ€™s best countries to live in. Winds are mainly comes from the south-west direction according to the research. The Regshale is one of the small island within the country of Denmark, where was a harbour before, as can see from the figure there are lots of industrial building placed around. 25
WIND ENERGY Advantages: eco-friendly as no fossil fuels is burnt to generate electricity from wind energy, free resources, less space than the average power station. Disadvantages: not suitable for areas with low wind (solar power or geothermal power could be alternatives in that case), wind turbine construction is expensive, noise pollution, and protest from farm development can be occurred. 26
Figure17 -- LAGI SITE
Figure18 -- LAGI SITE
B.6.1 SITE ANALYSIS
B.6.1 DETAIL SITE ANALYSIS
The whole part B project aims to learn more about how to use computational technologies For example Rhino, grasshopper, lunch-box, kangaroo plug-in etc. The purpose is to have a self-experience of using these parametrical techniques in order to produce more outcomes by changing parameters and input different algorithmic functions. More searches need to be done for how existing pavilion or building deals with the computational technologies. And understand each material system from different aspects. For example, the material system our group chosen for part B namely the biomimicry, we need to figure out how biomimicry mimicking from nature in order to solve very serious human problems. Biomimicry is not only imitates the form or structure form nature, most importantly the technical process from nature. Understanding the After all the researches, we need to start reverse our own chosen engineering. In my opinion, this was a great experience of really testing or learning one parametrical design technique, instead of just follow and copying the process done by the online tutors. In this step, we can produce very crazy shape by simply changing the parameters or the function of the whole process. Even though, we are still not very familiar with grasshopper, but we did create something similar for the reverse engineering. Grasshopper is more convenient than rhino in some of the process, for example, changing the control points and adjusting the size of the shape which all can be done through changing the number sliders. It is also important that our concept meets the designing requirement shown in the brief. We found that we didnâ€™t do so well of integrating the prototype with energy generator, more researches will be required for further development. We really need to put where exactly we are going to install the energy generator and how electricity will be generating and where the energy will be stored. In addition, if we want to installed speakers or lighting tubes for social purpose how those things will be placed insides. Furthermore, how biomimicry applied to the design combined with energy integration. The script of super connector also needs to be refined. More possibilities of using different materials should be tested to bring the best outcome of not only generating energy, but also mimicking from nature to meet the biomimicry brief. The structure of the model is also the most important thing to design with incorporating with the site environment, to explore how the structure will prevent from collapsing under strict weather.
B.7. LEARNING OUTCOMES
B.7. LEARNING OUTCOMES
In my opinion, week 5â€™s demonstrating grasshopper tutorials are the most interesting for the whole part B. after learning from the online tutorials, I start to get an idea of how grasshopper works, because I was very much struggled at the beginning of how to use grasshopper. Every time our group stuck the reversing engineering process, we will look at the tutorials in order to understand it in a better way.
This is the reversed one of evaluating field, i like the way the movement this shape creates . The density of the tentacles can be adjusting by changing the parameters. And the whole process starts form a single curve.
This one learned how to create inflows and outflow when a specific point has been selected. As shown in the diagram, when the point moves the arrows pointing towards it will also be changed.
This example, is exploring how to trim the vertices off by using grasshopper, and this is the forming component in the Morning Line project. The scale and sides can be adjusting by changing the number the sliders. More outcomes will be produce when the change the whole original function.
B.8 APPENDIX ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES B.8. APPENDIX
B.9.1 REFERENCES LIST
1. ‘An evolutionary architecture’, John Frazer, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.aaschool.ac.uk/publications/ea/intro.html> 2. ‘Biomimicry in architecture design’, Naraemaeng, last modified 4th May 2014,<http://naraemaeng.wordpress.com/2011/12/01/biomimicry-in-architecture-design/> 3. ‘Biomimicry in architecture design’, Naraemaeng, last modified 4th May 2014,<http://naraemaeng.wordpress.com/2011/12/01/biomimicry-in-architecture-design/> 4. ‘All Seasons Tent Tower in Armenia / OFIS Arhitekt’, Evolo, last modified 4th May 2014, http://www.evolo. us/architecture/all-seasons-tent-tower-in-armenia-ofis-arhitekti/> 5/7. ‘ Biomimicry’, Designboom, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.designboom.com/contemporary/ biomimicry.html > 6. ‘ What is biomimicry’. Biomimicry Institute, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://biomimicryinstitute.org/ about-us/what-is-biomimicry.html> 8. ‘The future of building , biomimicry and architecture’, Naturalwalls, last modified 4th May 2014, http://www. naturalwalls.com/2013/03/01/essay-the-future-of-building-biomimicry-and-architecture/> 9. Bob Berkebile and Jason McLennan, ‘The Living Building: Biomimicry in Architecture, Integrating Technology with Nature’ ,pg1-8 10. ’The Mercedes biome concept’, Sidhun, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://sidhun.com/mercedes_biome_ concept/> 11. ‘ Times Eureka pavilion/Nex Architecture’, Arch Daily, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.archdaily. com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/> 12. ‘Times Eureka Pavilion – Cellular structure inspired by plants / NEX + Marcus Barnett ’, Evolo, last modified 4th May 2014. <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/times-eureka-pavilion-cellular-structure-inspired-byplants-nex-marcus-barnett/ > 13. Moussavi Farshid, ‘The function of ornament’, pg 1-9. 14. ‘The morning line Vienna 2012’, Tba21, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.tba21.org/pavilions/103? category=pavilions > 15-17. ‘The morning line Vienna 2012’, Tba21, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.tba21.org/pavilions/1 03?category=pavilions > 18. ‘The morning line—fractile geometry and parametric design’, TBA21, last modified 4th May 2014, <http:// www.tba21.org/pavilions/49/subarticle/2> 19. ‘ZA11’, Arch2o, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.arch2o.com/za11-pavilion-dimitrie-stefanescupatrick-bedarf-bogdan-hambasan/ > 20. ‘ZA11 Pavillion’, Arch Daily’, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.archdaily.com/147948/za11-pavilion-dimitrie-stefanescu-patrick-bedarf-bogdan-hambasan/ > 21. ‘ZA11’, Future+design, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://futuresplus.net/2011/08/31/clj02-za11/ > 22. ‘burnham pavilion’, Archidaiy , last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.archdaily.com/33110/burnhampavilion-zaha-hadid/> 23. LAGI website, last modified 4th May 2014, < http://www.landartgenerator.org/ > 24. ‘Denmark’, society, last modified 4th May 2014, < www.denmark.dk/en/society/ > 25. ‘History of Denmark’, Danish history and culture,last modified 4th May 2014, <http://ukraine.um.dk/en/ about-denmark/danish-history-and-culture/ > 26. ‘Advantages and disadvantages of wind energy’, clean energy ideas, last modified 4th May 2014, < http:// www.clean-energy-ideas.com/wind/wind-energy/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-wind-energy >
B.9.2 IMAGE REFERENCES LIST 1.‘Biomimicry in architecture design –all seasons tent tower’, Ofis, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.ofis-a.si/str_7%20-%20OFFICE/4_ALL_SEASONS_TENT_TOWER/ofis_ALL_SEASONS_TENT_TOWER.html> 2-5. ‘Mercedes-Benz’, Sidhun, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://sidhun.com/mercedes_biome_ concept/ > 6. ‘Times Eureka pavilion/Nex Architecture’, Arch Daily, last modified 4th May 2014, < http://www. archdaily.com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture/ > 7. ‘Times Eureka pavilion/Nex Architecture’, Marcus Peel Photography, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.marcuspeelphotography.co.uk/news/nex_the-times-eureka-garden-and-pavilion > 8. ‘Times Eureka pavilion/Nex Architecture’, Bustler, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/the_times_eureka_pavilion_by_nex_and_marcus_barnett/ > 9.‘The morning line ’, Ecosistema Urbano, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://ecosistemaurbano. org/english/the-morning-line-anti-pavilion-launched-at-3rd-international-biennale-of-seville/ > 10. ‘The morning line’, Artpulse Magazine, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://artpulsemagazine. com/the-morning-line-launches-in-istanbul > 11-12. ‘The morning line’, Art21, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.art21.org/videos/shortmatthew-ritchie-the-morning-line > 13. ‘ZA11 PAVILION’, Futureplus, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://futuresplus.net/2011/08/31/ clj02-za11/ > 14. ‘ZA11 PAVILION ’, Angine, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://www.a-ngine.com/2011/06/ clj02-za11-pavilion.html > 15. ‘ZA11 PAVILION’, All That’s Design, last modified 4th May 2014, <http://allthatsdesign. blogspot.com.au/2011/11/za11-pavilion.html > 16. ‘ ZA11 PAVILION’, JCP-Team, <http://jcpteam.wordpress.com/2013/03/26/za11-pavilion-romania-precedence-study-02> 17. ‘lagi site’ < http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/01/prweb11457880.htm > 18. ‘lagi site’ < http://landartgenerator.org/designcomp/about-the-2014-competition/ >
c.1. design concept
c.1. Design concept
The target of this course is to design a proposal that acts as a â€˜Land Artâ€™ at Copenhagen, capital city of Denmark. In order to do that, two main approaches need to be taken into consideration. Firstly, the design concept needs to be not only integrated with computational techniques but also how the design encounters with the users. Secondly, in order to achieve energy efficiency and sustainability to meet Denmarkâ€™s future environmental plan.
Feedback from the tutor and the guests suggests that our group need to put more effort on the design concept by using algorithmic techniques. The conceptual approach needs to be refined by creating more variations. Moreover, the most intractable problem is how to integrate with the piezo system, for example how exactly piezoelectricity system works in our design, how it has been installed and how much energy will be generated. Therefore, we re-designed the wind generation system to form a better outcome.
1 Refine the basic form & Introducing more parametric design
2 More detailed on the wind generation & Pizeo system
Re-calculate the amount of energy will be generated
The render effect need to be improved by using V-ray render.
C.1.2 RECORD FAILURE
Up to the pr iterations of form is havi rial system. We come up idea, therefo
The previou Our design wind direct ing to wher side; hence wind pressu type.
The whole i tains very li attraction to strong link
CHANGE IN FORMS
preliminary presentation, we only manage to come up with some f the form of our design project. The main problem of the designed ing a very weak connection and relation to both of the site the mate. In addition, it is not progressed in appropriate way for fabrication. p with many ideas and we did not really concentrate on one design ore the quality of the design intention is relatively low.
us form we did for part B starts with a single curve. is to create a shape based on the wind pressure by tracing down the tion first, then adjust the points by using moving commend accordre the windward side of the shape will be curvier than the leeward the whole shape is shifted towards to the leeward direction under ure. We chose the windward side of the model to forming the proto-
idea of the design intention is based on the wind load which conimit idea of parametric design. Moreover, the design project has no o the users and clients. It is more like a sculpture but does not have a to how the uses will use this project.
In Part C, we still keep the idea of the wind load and wind direction. But we did more research on the analysis of the wind from different season and we found out that winter winds are the strongest wind on the site. Three layers have been created in order to form a maze shape pavilion that attract users to discover what is in the very inside and users or clients could experience the view inwards out when walk through between layers. On the other hand, we must redevelop our surface patterning system to accommodate the formal changes that the materials undertake in response to the wind. We were trying to use hexagon form which could be the natural form mimicking for the nature at the beginning, but it did not succeed with it. After the discussion with tutor, we decided to use another way to convert the form to hexagon shape. The reason for that is diamond is generated form from triangle, which is the most stable geometric shape to construct with; more diamonds could automatically form a shape of hexagon.
CHANGE OF ENERGY GENERATION
According to the research of the site, it surrounded by ocean, the weather of Copenhagen has lots of wind; therefore wind energy is the best way for energy generating. The previous energy generation we used is vertical wind turbine which catches winds so that the blades in the middle will rotate when the wind blows by it. As soon as the blades start rotating, it will generate electricity which is stored in a battery for daily consumption. But this wind turbine is large in size and very hard to install on the model. We did not even have an idea of how many vertical wind turbines should be used and how much energy will be generated.
In order to achieve the energy efficacy to meet the design brief. We convert the vertical wind turbine to vibro-piezoelectricity generator which has a very similar working process as the previous turbine, but the size is much smaller and adjustable. How much energy will be generated depends on the size of the pizeogenerator and how strong the winds are. Vibro-piezoelectricity generator is cheap,echo-friendly and the installation methodology is easier compare to previous wind turbine.
C.1.3 site analysis
Starting with the design concept, basically, we started from the LAGI wind report. The LAGI site is at Copenhagen, we need to find the wind station that is closest to the LAGI site, in order to find the wind analysis during different season.
Our design is based on the wind load and wind direction. Danish weather is extremely changeable. Denmark lies in the path of the westerlies, an area characterized by fronts, extra tropical cyclones and unsettled weather. At the same time, the country is situated on the edge of the European Continent, where winters are cold and summers hot. The shape our design has a strong impact on the west wind, As the wind in Denmark is predominantly westerly, depressions, with their windy and rainy weather, generally move along different tracks from the west in a direction north of Denmark.
The orientation of the model is mainly based on two approaches. Firstly, the model is facing the wind direction where the strongest winds come from. Secondly, the opening is facing the main entrance of the site and pathways are created to direct uses way to our project.
Moreover, when uses come to the site from the ferry station, more pathways are designed to lead people to our project which can be experiences through two ways: from the ferry station, a whole facade covered by Piezoelectricity generators that vibrate when catches wind, whilst from the road entrance, uses will see a â€˜mazeâ€™ with openings that attract people to discover what is inside.
C.1.4 concept DIAGRAM
The above diagrams shows the design intention of this form generation is mainly based on the wind load and wind direction. Starting with a rectangular shape inspired form the shape of the LAGI site, and then integrated with the wind analysis diagram during the winter winds period from November to February. The rectangular shape starts to be pushed and squeezed by the power of wind and gradually forms the final shape. From the parametric techniques perspective, the shape has been adjusted by changing the number sliders to make one part curvier than other. Scale down the border of the surface to get a concentric parallelogram of the border. Loft the original border and scaled one. Use the center point of the general shape to scale, then lofted together.
The diagram on the left shows the final outcomes of the form arrangement, in order to form a â€˜mazeâ€™ project, therefore the site could be interpreted as a place where uses or clients came to rest and discover how energy has been generated. The inner layers are the smaller scale based on the outer one by using computational techniques.
C.1.5 concept DIAGRAM
The diagrams of this section is analyzing the height change from the wind-ward side towards the lee-ward side for each layers. The diagram above is indicating the height of the very outer layer that the highest point marked in red color where wind power is at the strongest level according to previous wind research. The highest point is about 10 meters where energy generators will be placed, and it gradually reduced to 3 meters marked in blue color. The reason for changing the height is because the wind power is getting weaker and weaker from the west to east direction.
This diagram shows the changing heig totally opposite the outer layer. The ou wind, but the middle layer is based on mainly comes from the eastern direct energy generators will be placed. Ther the east higher faรงade will cover what how attracts users to enter the pavilio Secondly, if the highest point of the m direction as the outer layer, the wind p not very efficient than placed to anoth
ght of the middle layer that is uter one is based on the winter n the summer wind instead which tion around 10 meters high where re are two reasons for this, firstly, t is in the very center so it someon and discover what is inside. middle layer is facing the same power will all be covered which is her direction.
The inner layer is consistent in height about 3 meters and no energy generators are placed on this layer. Sits are created around the center part in order for uses to have a rest. Mini toy sized kinetic energy generators are created for children to experience how the energy will be generated by flapping it.
C.1.6 site arrangement 1:1000
ORIENTATION The orientation of the project based on the wind direction which is southwest where wind power reaches the highest point, therefore, more will be catch by the piezoelectricity generator. In addition, the opening is facing the main road entrance, yet creates an obvious view for uses to visit.
C.1.7 WORKFLOW for panel
WORKFLOW -- DIAMOND PANEL FACADE DEFINITION
MIDEDGE SUBDIVISION (WEAVERBIRD)
EXPLODE & 4PT SURFACE
DIAMOND SHAPE SURFACES
C.1.8 WORKFLOW for panel
WORKFLOW -- EXTRUDE D
Use surface centroid as the centre point to scale
Use the c Loft
2. Area centroid to scale the border of the surface
3. loft the original and the scaled border
DIAMOND PANEL DEFINITION
centroid of the basic shape as the centre point to scale
4. Area centroid to scale the border
5. Repeating scale the border
6. Loft and Join the scaled border
C.1.9 wind power analysis
Wind power analysis As mentioned before, when describing the Danish weather, the wind direction and the season are fundamental â€“ the weather simply changes according to the prevailing wind direction. What is more, it is often windy in Denmark and calm situations are rare. The wind power industry and sailors enjoy this state of affairs while sunbathers and cyclists feel somewhat more dubious. At all events, the wind is a key factor of daily life in Denmark. There wind energy has been chosen in order to generate electricity. The two diagram on the left indicated level of wind power for a certain height. The red area shows the greatest wind load will be caught here where piezoelectricity generator will be installed. The color gradually turns to blue accompanied with the wind power that is getting weaker and weaker towards the eastern direction.
C.1.10 panel size analysis
PANEL SIZE ANALYSIS According to the previous wind analysis, we divided the diamond panels into different size in order to create a consistent and harmonious relation with the wind analysis, which will be normally distributed at the south-west facade where wind power reaches the highest point.
The diagram on the right in order show the area size of the hollow part changing from large to small then disappear. Starting form red color the strongest one then gradually fade away according to wind power is getting weaker and weaker and finally turns to blue with no hollow on it.
C.1.10 CONSTRUCTION PROCESS 2
1 Define the position on the inner layer, steel frame then assembled and stabilized by connects between the form and the natural ground
6 Install chairs on the inner ground are as well as the imitated piezoelectric energy facilities.
Construct second layer steel main vibration structure of wind piezoelectric is assembled same time as they form an inte system.
Placement of scattered shaped pathway pavem
frame, vibrod at the egrated
diamond ment on ground.
3 Bolting outer layer steel frame and energy generate vibration structure.
4 Plywood panels bolted according to the steel frame by fixing plate.
c.2. TECTONIC ELEMENTS
c.2. TECTONIC ELEMENTS
C.2.1 SUB-FRAME STRUCTURE
The core construction element of our design is the steel frame that holds up the whole structure. The higher the facade is, more wind will be caught by the energy generator, therefore to deal with the relatively high structure, a sub-frame is very much needed. Therefore we need to design a sub-frame to support the main facade to avoid structural failure such as collapsing. The steel frame is designed into diamond shape that will perfectly support the facade through special designed joints.
C.2.2 STEEL-FRAME CONNECTION 1:10
MATERIAL STAINLESS STEEL -- 10 cm DIAMETER BOLTS – 1.5cm DIAMETERS 8 BOLTS BASE PLATE -- 30X30x10 Things need to be considered of how the steel frame interlocking with each other’s and how they are connected to the ground. In addition, we need to think about if the energy generator is stalled at the hollow part of the façade, how it will connects to the steel frame. A base plate is needed when connects the steel frame to the natural ground by bolts.
C.2.2 STEEL-FRAME CONNECTION 1:10
MATERIAL STAINLESS STEEL -- 10 cm DIAMETER BOLTS â€“ 0.75cm DIAMETERS 4 BOLTS All connection of steel bars is designed to form a diamond shape which is not only become easier when connects the steel frame to the facade, but also creates a harmonious relation to the diamond shape panel in order to achieve aesthetics. The diagram below shows that when steel connects together, they will insert to another with a certain angle and bolted together with bolts to creates a fixed joints in order to stiff the connection.
C.2.3 STEEL bar CONNECTION prototype 1:10
During fabrication, we were decided to make a steel bars connectors from the beginning. The working theory of steel bar connector is the connector has four hollow openings that facing four directions, when steel bars meet together, can easily insert into the hollows then bolted together. But we did not manage to find such a material, therefore, the prototype is not very beautiful as we thought it would be.
C.2.4 steel frame&facade connection 1:10
The connection between each piece that forms the façade is using flexible hinged joint, hence the angle of each pieces could be adjusted to form the curved shape. Each flexible hinge has 6 bolts so it is stable enough to connect them together. When connects the façade and the sub-steel frame together, the flexible hinged joint will be not be working properly due the angle. Hence, an angled cleat plate will become a better choice to connect two perpendicular objects, then bolted together.
Plywood benifits It is light in weight Less malleable It is easier to form the connection between each pieces. Eco-friendly and reusable
MATERIAL STAINLESS STEEL -- 10 cm DIAMETER BOLTS – 0.75cm DIAMETERS PLYWOOD THICKNESS -- 2 cm
C.2.5 fabrication detail prototype
C.2.6 energy generator connection
Plastic mount used to bolted the feller gage and the PZT bender together to create a flexible connection, because PZT bender is the one drives the whole system vibrating where there is a wind.
C.2.6 energy generator PROTOTYPE
The test Vibro-Wind generator is made with an array of foam blocks which catch the wind and act as oscillators. It produces electricity with piezoelectric transducers, small devices that emit electrons when stressed by the vibrations from the blocks. Beacuse the Vibro-Wind generator works with buffeting and vibration, it could be more appropriate for urban installations where swirling winds are more usual than the ideal winds needed for typical bladed turbines.
c.3. final model
c.3. final model
C.3.1 FINAL MODELLING PROCESS
1. UNROLL SURFACE & SEND TO FABLAB
4. FORMING THE FACADE PATTERN
3. FOLDING TO FORM THE DIAMOND SHAPE
5. BENDING TO FORM THE CURVE SHAPE
6. SETTING ALL THREE LAYERS INTO POSTION
FINAL MODEL 1:100
FINAL MODEL 1:100
FINAL MODEL 1:100
FINAL MODEL 1:100
FINAL MODEL 1:100 Under light effect
FINAL MODEL 1:1000 Site arrangement
FINAL MODEL 1:1000 Site arrangement
c.4. LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENT
c.4. LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS
C.4.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
PROJECT DESCRIPTION Copenhagen is one of the most environmentally aware cities in the world. The main theme of LAGI project is to creating a land art with educationally reasons for the uses or visitors about emerging green technologies and the benefits of sustainable future. Our design is based on the wind load and wind direction. Danish weather is extremely changeable. Denmark lies in the path of the westerlies, an area characterized by fronts, extra tropical cyclones and unsettled weather. The shape our design has a strong impact on the west wind, as the wind in Denmark is predominantly westerly. We are aiming to create a project that is not only generating energy but also provide a site for people to rest and experience the site by walking through our designed project. Starting with a rectangular shape inspired form the shape of the LAGI site, and then integrated with the wind analysis diagram during the winter winds period from November to February. The rectangular shape starts to be pushed and squeezed by the power of wind and gradually forms the final shape. These wind energy project has expanded the future possibilities by using renewable wind energy which has been used in many ways around us. The designers combine their idea with sustainable energy in order to achieve a more livable environment for our generation.
C.4.2 DESIGN TECHNOLOGY
Image 1 -- pizeoelectricity generator 180
PIEZOELECTRICITY GENERATOR Learning for the failure from the first prototype, we changed to use Vibro-piezoelectric wind turbines instead of vertical wind turbine. Traditional wind turbines have raised concerns about noise and are disruptive to bats and birds, the Vibro-Wind offers a low-impact, nearly silent alternative. Moreover, the Vibro-Wind Piezoelectric Pads now provide a more eco-friendly form of electricity and cheaper to install. The generator can be put onto any structure, and contain 25 foam pads that form a square and vibrate as wind or even a simple breeze passes through them. The composition of the pizeo-generator consists with the blunt body, Feeler gage & steel bar, PZT Bender and DuraAct Patch transducer that converting wind energy to electricity.  The PZT Bender will drive the feller gage and blunt body to vibrating when catches wind, and thought the DuraAct Patch transducer where vibration is then converted into electricity. The simplistic design of the Vibro-Wind Piezoelectric Pads allows it to be built for significantly less than the larger turbine counterparts. The design is simple, yet effective. Each of the Vibro-Windâ€™s individual pads generates just a trickle of energy, but when framed in an array theyâ€™re capable of producing a significant amount of usable electricity. They can be easily attached to the facades of large buildings or to any outdoor surface.  The energy generated is three times than the solar energy generators.
C.4.3 energy calculation
Image2 -- pizeoelectricity generator calculation
ENERGY CALCULATION The flow of wind power P (W/m2) past an area (A) normal to the flow velocity (V) is proportional to the density of air (r) as given by Equation below :
P = r V3 A/2 With the density of air of 1.2kg/m3, the power density of wind at V = 10m/s is 600W/m2. However, it might be possible to convert 30% of this power into structural vibration energy with a density of P (P/A) = 180W/m2 (V = 10m/s). If one were to scavenge 30% of the structural vibration into electrical energy our figure of merit would be wind density power P = 54W/m2. As frontal area of blunt body = 0.05 x 0.07 = 0.0035 m2, approximately 8553 generators Total wind crossing area is 8553 x 0.0035 = 30 m2 P (electricity power) = 54 x 30 = 1620 W W = 1620 x 24 x 365 = 141941200 Wh = 14191.2 kWh Annually Each household average annual electricity usage is 5000 kWh, hence generated power will support 14191.2/5000 = 3 households per year.
C.4.3 dimension list STRUCTURAL DIMENSION
PLYWOOD STAINLESS STEEL STEEL CONNECTOR BOLTS
2CM THICK 210CM DIAME 13CM DIAMET 1.5CM DIAMET
BLUNT BODY FEELER GAGE PZT BENDER BOLTS PLASTIC MOUNT
5CM X 5CM X 24CM X 5CM X 18CM X 5CM X 0.75CM DIAME 6CM X 3CM
BASIC FORM 1. Outer layer -- highest point 10m lowest point 3 around the opinigng 2. Middle layer – highest point 10m lowest point 3-5m. 3. Inner layer – 3m high 4. Spacing between each layer, widest distance 5-10m, narrowest distance 3-5m. 184
ETER TER TER
7.5CM X 0.09CM X 0.55CM ETER
FUNCTION FACADE ELEMENT SUB-FRAME SUPPORT CONNECTS STEEL BARS FIXED CONNECTION
FUNCTION HEAD OF GENERATOR CANTILEVER VIBERATING FIXED CONNECTION FLEXIBLE CONNECTION
C.4.4 ENVIRONMENT IMPACT
The design project carries smalle amount of the environmental impact once it constructed. Since the Wind Vibro Piezo-electricity is an eco-friendly project, it sustainably generates clean energy without any unrenewable resource to operate, hence avoid generating pollution to the environment which caused by using fossil or nuclear fuels, as well as helps in the control of global warming. In addition, the system minimizes the noise impact as it offers a low- impact, nearly silent alternative, and provides a safer alternative to bird and bat-unfriendly turbines, eliminates concerns about noise and animal safety raised by traditional wind turbines.
The materiality of pavilion is the locally sourced durable plywood with embodied energy of 10.4 MJ/ kg and steel that has embodied energy of 38 MJ/kg. Both materials not only have relatively low embodied energy and low maintenance required, but also contain a significant amount of recycled content, main components of the project, the timber faรงade and steel structure will be fully recycled from demolition once the life cycle of the project ends. Furthermore, the project is designed to be prefabricated and specified material size list avoids using additional materials as fillers, locally sourced materials chosen reduce need for transportation. Therefore, this pavilion project has low environmental impact as it significantly minimizing the subsequent impact on the natural environment, reducing the greenhouse emission and embodied energy.
During the whole semester, we all feel that we definitely fulfilled most of the leaning objectives that have been prescribed in this subject. And we do enjoy learning a new methodology of design technologies that leads us to a new generation of using computational design technologies. From my opinion, it is very abstract and takes times to get familiar with the parametric design techniques, but it is worth for spending time on this design project to experiences a new and innovative way of architecture design. The theme of this subject is not only assisted me learn to appreciate the complicated process involved in parametric design, and experiment with the knowledge of using grasshopper, kangaroo, lunchbox and weaverbirds plug-ins, but most importantly our attitude towards parametric digital design and to dissect intents and techniques behind the designs. My intended design approach is to follow the principle of practical, aesthetic and economical. A good design is not only about the magnificent of the exterior appearance unlike the traditional composition way of design. The architecture should be designed to meet humanâ€™s need and achieve environment friendly through the use of material or the concept of project in order to achieve sustainable and energy efficient, that is main goal for long-term design. The innovative parametric design and algorithmic thinking could experiment the best way for fabrication by follow set of rules. During the technical exploration of the computational techniques, we tested with different computational designing tools to analysis the wind power for example, galapagos and Vasari but very struggled. Even though failures happen during the process, but it is an interesting experience for watching the tutorial and have a try with it. But we did succeed with Weaverbird for creating the diamond panels on the faĂ§ade and it is quite useful, rather than traditional way of conceiving the forms by sketching, modelling, which enable us produces more outcomes. In addition, energy is a very important aspect of the learning project; the aim is to design a project that is innovative towards the design futuring. Large amount of research needs to be done for the energy generation part in order achieve the functionality of how the generator is working, and our group found it is quit challenging when integrating this with the parametric design. Learning form the failure, we tested with different generators to see which one is the best for our designed project according to its size, weight and how much energy will be generated in order to meet the brief that sustainable energy in order to achieve a more livable environment for our generation. In general, more works need to be done with parametric design techniques and there always are new techniques have been invited and the improvement of the design will never stop.
c.5. learning outcomes and objectives
c.5. learning outcomes and objectives
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