REPUBLIC BOLIVARIANA OF VENEZUELA MINISTRY OF P. P. FOR HIGHER EDUCATION POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE "SANTIAGO MARIﾃ前" SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (49)
Periodic Table Elements Acids And Bases Formulation Mﾃｩrida
Periodic Table The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers,electron configurations (electron shell model), and recurringchemical properties. Elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus). The standard form of the table consists of a grid of elements laid out in 18 columns and 7 rows, with a double row of elements below that. The table can also be deconstructed into four rectangular blocks: the sblock to the left, the p-block to the right, the d-block in the middle, and the f-block below that.
The rows of the table are called periods; the columns are calledgroups, with some of these having names such as halogens ornoble gases. Since, by definition, a periodic table incorporatesrecurring trends, any such table can be used to derive relationships between the properties of the elements and predict the properties of new, yet to be discovered or synthesized, elements.
A chemical element is a pure chemical substance consisting of a single type of atom distinguished by its atomic number, which is the number of protons in its atomic nucleus. Elements are divided into metals, metalloids, and non-metals. Familiar examples of elements are carbon, oxygen (non-metals), silicon, arsenic (metalloids), aluminium, iron, copper, gold, mercury, and lead (metals).
The history of the discovery and use of the elements began with primitive human societies that found native elements like copper and gold and extracted (smelted) iron and a few other metals from their ores. Alchemists and chemists subsequently identified many more, with nearly all of the naturally-occurring elements becoming known by 1900. The properties of the chemical elements are often summarized using the periodic table, which organizes the elements by increasing atomic number into rows ("periods") in which the columns ("groups") share recurring ("periodic") physical and chemical properties.
Acids And Bases The first definition of acid and base was coined in 1880 by Svante Arrhenius who are defined as substances that can donate protons (H +) or hydroxide ions (OH-), respectively. This definition is incomplete course, since there molecules such as ammonia (NH3) that lack the OH group and having basic characteristics A more general definition was proposed in 1923 by Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry who enunciated that an acidic substance is one that can donate H + , exactly equal to the Arrhenius definition , but unlike the latter , defined a base as a substance that can be accept protons.
Formulation chemistry Formulation is the mixture of compounds that do not react in order to obtain a mixture having the desired characteristics. Examples of formulations are adhesives, paints, inks, cosmetics, detergents, and many pharmaceuticals. This is a development work product that is very focused on the need for a product to be profitable items. Although no chemical reactions involved, many aspects of the chemical present in a formulation. Part of the chemistry involved is the thermodynamic mixing, phase equilibrium solutions, surface chemistry, colloids, emulsions and suspensions. Even more important is the way these principles are connected to accession, weather resistance, texture, shelf life, biodegradability, allergic response, and many other properties. 4
Chemical Engineering Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the design , maintenance , evaluation , optimization, simulation, planning , construction and operation of plants in the process industry , is that related to the production of compounds and products whose production requires sophisticated physical and chemical transformations of matter. Chemical engineering also focuses on the design of new materials and technologies, is an important form of research and development . It is also a leader in the environmental field, as it contributes to the design of environmentally friendly processes and processes for environmental decontamination . Chemical engineering is based on the basic sciences and mathematics (linear or higher algebra , calculus, differential equations , numerical methods, advanced mathematics ) , basic chemical engineering sciences ( thermodynamics, transport phenomena , chemical kinetics ) , and applied disciplines such as process engineering , reactor design , equipment design chemical processes and separation processes. Are also incorporating elements of environmental sciences , biotechnology, food engineering and materials engineering . 5