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Ronald B.

George

Adler

Rodman

Understanding Human Communication OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

Chapter Twelve: Organization and Support

11


Section One Structuring Your Speech OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


Why Organize? 

Clarity for your audience.

Refines your ideas.

Speech outline = framework on which your message is built.

Basic structure 

Tell what you’re going to say.

Say it.

Tell what you said.


Outline Types

Working outline:

Roughly constructed tool to map out your speech

Formal outline:

Consistent format; set of symbols to structure ideas.

Speaking notes:

Brief, key word outline to jog your memory


Section Two Principles of Outlining OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


Principles of Outlining 

Standard symbols



Example:

I.

Main point (roman numeral)

Subpoint (capital letter)

A. 1.

Sub-subpoint (standard number) a. Sub-subsubpoint (lowercase letter)


Principles of Outlining 

Standard format 

Indentation

Ideas coordinated and ordered in the most comprehensible form

Facilitates better organization

Could help with memory for speaker’s notes


Principles of Outlining 

The rule of division 

Main points and subpoints: Division of a whole

At least two main points for every topic

At least two subpoints for each main point

Never a I without a II; never an A without a B

Three to five main points total

Three to five subpoints, when possible


Principles of Outlining 

The rule of parallel wording 

Points should be worded in a similar manner.

Points should contain only one idea.

Develop one idea fully before moving on to another.

Example: Speech topic: Cures for indigestion I. Prevention cures (before eating) II. Participation cures (during eating)

III. Postparticipation cures (after eating)


Section Three Organizing Your Outline into a Logical Pattern OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


Organizational Patterns 

Time patterns 

Chronology 

Speech topic: Airline food

I. Early airline food: a gourmet treat II. The middle period: institutional food at thirty thousand feet III. Today’s airline food: the passenger starves


Organizational Patterns 

Time patterns 

Process 

Speech topic: Recording a hit song

I.

Find an agent

II.

Record the demo CD

III.

Promote the song


Organizational Patterns 

Time patterns 

Climax pattern 

Creates suspense

Main points build audience’s curiosity

Anticlimax organization 

Good for uninterested audiences

Builds interest early in the speech


Organizational Patterns 

Space patterns 

Organized according to area 

Speech topic: Great Lakes

I.

Superior

II.

Michigan

III.

Huron

IV.

Erie

V.

Ontario


Organizational Patterns 

Topic patterns 

Organized based on types or categories 

Speech topic: College students

I.

Freshmen

II.

Sophomores

III.

Juniors

IV.

Seniors


Organizational Patterns 

Topic pattern 

Invent original categories to avoid “Oh, THIS again?”

Arrange topics in an order that will be easy for your audience to remember: mnemonics 

Speech topic: College students

I.

Grinds—students who go to every class and read every assignment before it is due.

II.

Renaissance students—students who find a satisfying balance of scholarly and social pursuits.

III.

Burnouts—students who have a difficult time finding the classroom, let alone doing the work.


Organizational Patterns 

Problem–Solution pattern 

Describes what’s wrong and proposes a way to make things better 

Example:

I.

The problem: Addiction (broken down into addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, prescribed drugs, and street drugs)

II.

The solution: A national addiction institute (study the root causes of addiction in the same way that the National Cancer Institute studies the root causes of cancer)


Organizational Patterns 

Cause–Effect pattern 

Describes something that’s happened and then its effects 

Speech topic: Workplace revenge

I.

The effects of the problem

II.

A.

Lost productivity

B.

Costs of sabotage

The causes of the problem A.

Employees feeling alienated

B.

Employers’ light treatment of incidents of revenge

Third main point: solutions Fourth main point: desired audience behavior


Section Four Using Transitions OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


Using Transitions 

Transitions 

Tell how the introduction relates to the body of the speech

Tell how one main point relates to the next main point

Tell how your subpoints relate to the points they are part of

Tell how your supporting points relate to the points they support

Should refer to the previous point and the upcoming point, showing their relationship to each other and the thesis


Section Five Beginning and Ending the Speech OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


Start… and Finish 

The introduction and conclusion: 

Are vitally important

Occupy less than 20% of speaking time

Help listeners form impressions early

Leave lasting impressions


The Introduction: Four Functions Function #1: Capturing Attention Refer to the audience

Ask a question

Tell an anecdote

Refer to the occasion

Cite a startling fact or opinion

Use a quotation

Refer to the relationship between the audience and subject

Refer to something familiar to the audience

Tell a joke


The Introduction: Four Functions Function #2: Preview Main Points 

State the thesis

Give an idea of upcoming main points

May not refer directly to main points in order to create suspense or win over a hostile audience


The Introduction: Four Functions Functions #3 and #4 

Function #3: Setting the mood and the tone of your speech

Function #4: Demonstrating the importance of your topic to your audience 

Relate to your audience as individuals

Use audience analysis


The Conclusion: Three Functions 

Function #1: Review the thesis. 

Repeat or paraphrase your thesis.

Devise a summary statement to help the audience remember your thesis.

Function #2: Review the main points. 

Artistically review key ideas covered in the speech.

Function #3: Provide a memorable final remark.


Tips for an Effective Conclusion 

Do not end abruptly

Don’t ramble

Don’t introduce new points

Don’t apologize


Section Six Supporting Material OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


Functions of Supporting Material

To clarify

To make interesting

To prove

To make memorable


Types of Supporting Material 

Definitions

Examples

Analogies/Comparison– Contrast

Hypothetical

Anecdotes

Factual

Quotation/Testimony

Statistics 

Make sense?

Credible source?

Cite source of statistic.

Reduce statistic to a concrete image.


Styles of Support: Narration and Citation Narration: Tell a story with your information.

Citation: Simple statement of the fact.

Anecdotes = narration

Statistics = citation Examples, quotation/testimony, definitions, analogies = you choose


End of Chapter OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


Ch 12  

ch 12, ppt

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