Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies - 2017 Annual Report

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Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies

2016-2017


Director’s Letter In addition to reflecting on affirmative action policies in Brazil, the Lemann Institute has taken part in developing affirmative action opportunities by working with faculty at PUC-Rio to submit a successful grant proposal to the Brazilian Ministry of Education to provide scholarships for Afro-Brazilian university students to spend a semester of study at Illinois. In Fall 2017 we welcomed the first three Abdias do Nascimento Scholars to our campus: Aline Ferreira de Souza, Gianne Neves and Marina Reis.

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razil is mired in an economic crisis that reaches all facets of people’s lives, and faces challenges to its political culture that prompt both disillusionment and uncertainty. The confluence of political and economic crisis is not new in Brazil: the transition to democracy in the 1980s coincided with the debt crisis; the first impeachment in the early 1990s came amid vertiginous inflation, and more examples reach further back in Brazil’s history. Our experience with this history prompts two questions: What is at risk in Brazil’s current moment? And what opportunities for progress exist in the midst of crisis?

The Lemann Institute will be taking up these questions in the Fall of 2017 as it hosts the 7th Lemann Dialogue, a meeting that brings together faculty from the centers established through gifts from Jorge Paulo Lemann at Illinois, Harvard, Columbia and Stanford. The Dialogue, which will be held on November 16 and 17, will count on the participation as well of leading policymakers and public figures from Brazil and will be carried out in partnership with the Lemann Foundation in São Paulo.

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Over the past year, we have brought focus to these questions in several areas. The Lemann Institute lecture series explored the role of affirmative action policies in reshaping Brazilian higher education, with talks by Márcia Lima of the University of São Paulo, Angela Paiva of the Pontifícia Catholic University (PUC) in Rio de Janeiro, and Arabela Oliven of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. These talks make clear that affirmative action in Brazil has fundamentally remade public universities and their relationship with society in ways that seem likely to endure beyond the current crisis.

The Institute also explored historical continuities through a symposium on the role of regionalism in the study of Brazilian history. The symposium coincided with the 50th anniversary of the arrival of renown historian of Brazilian regionalism Joe Love at Illinois. The symposium included the participation of historians from Brazil and the United States who pursued their doctorates at Illinois under Joe’s supervision. The symposium also included Lemann Institute Distinguished Visitor Ruben Oliven, an anthropologist of regional and cultural identity in Brazil and a professor at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The Lemann Institute continues to sustain one of the most innovative and distinctive environments for research and teaching on Brazil, its ability to serve this mission was meaningfully enhanced over the past year:

Professor Hadi Estahani, Karen, Christopher and Damien K


The Institute received a commitment from the family of our late colleague Werner Baer, to provide two graduate fellowships per year for doctoral students from Brazil conducting work in the social sciences, support which will total $1 million over twenty years. Werner’s sister, Marianne Kilby, her husband, Peter, and their children Chris, Karen and Damian, organized a memorial service for Werner on campus in October where the creation of the Werner Baer Fellowship was announced. Jorge Paulo Lemann made a gift of $500,000 that will provide income that supports a third Werner Baer Fellowship. We in Brazilian Studies are profoundly grateful for these generous gestures that sustain Werner’s legacy in training Brazilian doctoral students at Illinois.

The Institute has also developed a partnership with the Lemann Foundation, which is providing $1 million to expand its Leadership Program, which provides tuition scholarships for Brazilian civil servants to pursue graduate studies at Illinois. Based on the success of the Institute’s scholarship program for staff of the Central Bank of Brazil to pursue the Masters in Policy Economics, the grant from the Lemann Foundation expands the number of scholarship recipients, who will now come also from the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Planning. In addition to Policy Economics, the civil servants will also study in Masters programs in Accountancy, Finance and Law.

Kilby at the Memorial for Werner Baer in October of 2016

Jorge Paulo Lemann and Jerry Dávila These gifts and grants will play a significant role in the coming years in training new generations of Brazilian scholars and civil servants at Illinois.

Finally, I am delighted to introduce John Karam as Associate Director of the Lemann Institute. Professor Karam is an anthropologist in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese who explores Middle Eastern ethnicities in Brazil. He is the author of Another Arabesque: Syrian-Lebanese Ethnicity in Neoliberal Brazil, which received awards from the Brazilian Studies Association and the Arab American National Museum. John is also the co-editor of Crescent over Another Horizon: Islam in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Latino U.S.A. John will be guiding the implementation of the expanded Brazil Leadership Program, and brings another voice to the Lemann Institute Executive Committee, which is also comprised of past directors Joe Love and Mary Arends-Kuenning.

Jerry Dávila Director

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Brazil Leadership Training Program B

eginning in 2017, the Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies at Illinois and the Lemann Foundation in São Paulo have partnered in a program to bring advanced training to civil servants in the financial and economic sectors of the Brazilian federal government. The program builds on the longstanding program through which the Lemann Institute provides scholarships for staff of the Central Bank of Brazil to pursue studies in the Masters in Policy Economics program at Illinois. Recognizing the capacity for deepening expertise within the Brazilian civil service at Illinois, the Lemann Institute is expanding this program of study to include graduate programs in Finance, Accountancy and Law. The Lemann Foundation will be funding scholarships for an expanded cohort of Brazilian civil servants to study in these programs. The expanded cohort will be nominated by the civil service schools of the Central Bank of Brazil, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Budget and Planning.

In the fall of 2011, Banco Central do Brasil (BCB) and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign signed a memorandum of understanding to allow BCB employees to participate in Illinois’s Master of Science in Policy Economics (MSPE). This partnership was made possible by the Lemann Brazil Leadership Fund at the Lemann Institute and helps to broaden the Institute’s realm beyond students and faculty and contribute to the training of government leaders in Brazil.

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The first four years of the Lemann Institute Brazil Leadership Program saw tremendous success. The MSPE experience has prepared future leaders at BCB in many ways. Despite the limited number of MSPE alumni already back at work, three important outcomes with short and long term benefits have been observed. First, the MSPE cultivated solid technical skills in employees who wanted to redirect their career paths at BCB, migrate to other areas involving economic policy, and thus helped them pursue new managerial and consulting roles within the Central Bank. Secondly and conversely, gains

Banco Central do Brasil were observed by those employees who maintained strategic positions within BCB, and who were not directly involved in matters of economic policy, but were better prepared to interact with stakeholders about a variety of core BCB topics. The UniBC and Lemann Institute have focused on the training of junior mid-career staff whose advanced studies prepare them for responsibilities of greater complexity. For example, one alumnus assembled a novel research team in BCB’s International Affairs area. The expansion of the Lemann Institute’s Brazil Leadership Program is intended to reach a broader cohort of civil servants engaged in financial and economic policy in Brazil. In addition to UniBC, the Institute is working with the


School of Government Finance Administration (ESAF) of the Ministry of Finance and the National School of Public Administration of the Ministry of Planning (ENAP).

ESAF was created in 1973 with the purpose of improving the technical training of federal and state civil servants involved in budgeting and public finance management and evaluating federal government employees, as well as offering continuing and/or higher education opportunities. To achieve such goals, ESAF is encouraged to promote partnerships with different schools and government institutions, both nationally and internationally. These partnerships enrich educational programs and provide more technical resources for ESAF’s academic programming. ESAF focuses on economic policies, social security, taxation, government finance, government accounting, cost systems and financial law. In each one of these

areas, ESAF, in addition to specialized graduate programs. Within this context, the creation of a partnership with the Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is a logical step for ESAF, as it offers educational opportunities in many of ESAF’s areas of interest, including economics, law, accounting, administration, statistics, and agricultural and consumer economics. This partnership will enable a collective educational program at the highest level of excellence that will significantly benefit the Ministry of Finance and State Secretariats of Finance, as it already does the Brazilian Central Bank.

ENAP was established in 1986 as a school of government whose main duties include training and ongoing development of civil servants in line with the National Personnel Development Policy (PNDP). For over 30 years, ENAP has offered public management and public policy programs, focusing on technical and management development, on-site training, e-learning courses, career improvement, knowledge exchange, research, as well as fostering innovation in the public sector. ENAP seeks to transform the knowledge base of public administrators in Brazil in order to foster high quality public services and evidence-based, results-oriented public policies. The partnership with the University of Illinois and the Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies relates to its institutional strategy to internationalize its programming. Scholarships for master’s degree programs in areas like Public Affairs, Administration, Law, Finance and Accountancy provide an excellent opportunity for all civil servants to strengthen their contributions to public administration in Brazil.

The first students for the expanded Lemann Institute Brazilian Leadership Program will arrive at Illinois in August 2018.

Assistant Director John Karam and Lemann Distinguished Scholar Ruben Oliven

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Lemann Distinguished Visiting Scholar

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rofessor Ruben Oliven, of the Department of Anthropology of Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, Brazil was chosen as the Lemann Distinguished Visting Scholar for two semesters of the 2016-17 academic year. He is Professor of Anthropology and a member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences. He received his Ph.D from the University of London (London School of Economics and Political Science) and has been a visiting professor at several universities, among them the University of California at Berkeley, Dartmouth College, Brown University and the University of Paris. He was the President of the Brazilian Anthropological Association and the President of the Brazilian Association for Graduate Studies and Research in Social Sciences. He won the Erico Vannucci Mendes Prize for Distinguished Contribution to the Study of Brazilian Culture. In 2014 he was awarded the Prize for Academic Excellence in Anthropology by the National Association for Graduate Studies and Research in Social Sciences. His research interests include urbanization, national and regional

identities, popular culture and popular music, and symbolic meanings of money.

While Professor Oliven was here, he taught one course per semester. The first was a seminar on the Making of Modern Brazil. It was focused on the process and meanings of the building of the Brazilian Nation. Using anthropological and sociological studies of contemporary Brazilian Society, the course analyzed different aspects of the construction of modern Brazil as manifested in images and self-representations, race and ethnicity, individualism, gender and sexuality, urbanization, violence, popular culture. The second course was a seminar on Brazilian Culture and National Identity. It was based on anthropological and sociological research. Themes addressed included: modernity and revival of tradition, national and regional cultures, popular music, sports, consumption and meanings of money, and transnationalization of culture.


Symposium: Regionalism in Brazilian History

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n September, the Lemann Institute held a Symposium on Regionalism in Brazilian History. The event brought together scholars from Brazil and the United States who engage with regional differences and alliances as a means of understanding Brazilian history. The event coincided with the 50th year at Illinois for Professor Joseph Love who continues to publish on issues related to his original interest in Brazilian regionalism.

The symposium built on the largest systematic comparative study of Brazilian history to date: a three volume series by Professor Love and co-authors Robert M. Levine and John D. Wirth. That series—comprised of Minas Gerais in the Brazilian Federation, Pernambuco in the Brazilian Federation, and São Paulo in the Brazilian Federation examined the role of Brazil’s most powerful states in the Brazilian Federation.

Professor Joseph Love

Regionalism reached its peak during the period 1889-1937, when the operative political parties were coextensive with the territorial boundaries of the states. Effective power was concentrated in the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and (from 1910 onward), Rio Grande do Sul. The three states used the central government to serve their own economic interests and to maximize their control of patronage.

Lemann Chair in History Notes

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erry Dávila balanced his duties as Institute Director with a fellowship from the University of Illinois Center for Advanced Study over the 2016-17 academic year. The research time helped bring to press the co-edited volume begun in collaboration with Werner Baer, Brazil’s Economy: An Institutional and Sectoral Approach, Routledge, 2017.

Dávila also conducted research for his next book, Antiracism in Brazil. This work included archival research in the judiciary archives of the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil; the State Archive or Brasília, Brazil; the Center for Afro-Oriental Studies at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil; and at the State Archive of São Paulo Brazil. This research deepened the set of empirical evidence he is compiling on efforts by Brazilians of African descent to challenge discriminatory practices. He Jerry Dávila and Mary Arends-Kuening with Lemann Graduate published a first article connected to the book project, Fellows Marilia Corrêa, Kelly Senters, and Lucas Trevisan “Challenging Racism in Brazil: Legal Suits in the Context of the 1951 Anti-Discrimination Law,” drawn from his analysis of the court cases, in the Brazilian journal Vária História (Vol. 33, No. 16, January, 2017, pp. 731-753). Finally, Dávila completed revisions for the 11th edition of the World History textbook A History of World Societies, whose co-authors include History Department chair Clare Crowston.

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Lemann Lecture Series Every year the Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies invites a number of distinguished scholars, faculty and graduate students from around the world to present lectures on the foremost issues regarding Brazil’s economy, society, and culture.

Fall 2016

October 11th

September 6th Ruben Oliven, Lemann Distinguished Visiting Scholar, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Brazil Circles the Globe: Five Centuries Exchanging Commodities, Ideas and Cultural Practices

Brazil brands itself in the global arena as having a national identity associated with a “Brazilian way of life” dealing with images of nature, body, sexuality, and joy of living. In recent years, Brazil has become highly diversified, with the increasing emergence of fresh social players who build new identities and demand recognition and specific rights. September 13th

Edilza Sotero, Africana Studies, Brown University They Came in Different Colors: Political Traditions and Black Movements in Brazil (1945-1955)

Through electoral campaigns, documents and other political party advertisement material, and Black newspapers and Black organizations’ records, this research seeks to reconstruct the discourse of both individuals and of the political groups they were associated with. One aspect of this investigation is to show how the direct action of the activists portrayed were crucial to the first debates in the political context of anti-racist legislation in Brazil post-1945.

Andiara Schwingel, Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois Mobilizing the Community to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases in Brazil - New Perspectives for Community Health Agents

This presentation examines new perspectives for community health agents in Brazil. Results from a 2-year project with eight community health agents who were trained to deliver a health education program to approximately 300 Brazilians ages 50 and over. The program included workshops on physical activity, nutrition and stress management. Findings confirm that community health agents have enormous potential to promote and deliver health promotion programs. October 18th

Karl Monsma, Sociology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul How did European Immigrants in Brazil Learn to be Racists? Evidence from Western São Paulo

Although racist stereotypes circulated in Europe, most European immigrants in Brazil had no prior personal experience with black people. In Brazil they internalized racist dispositions and representations, often in a form more extreme than those of Brazilian whites. October 25th

Mauro Sardela, Materials Reserach Lab Director, University of Illinois Pepper Extracts as Natural Biocides on the Treatment of Brazilian Tropical Woods

This work is a collaborative research project involving the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the University of São Paulo at São Carlos, Brazil. The use of pepper extracts as a new class of natural and environmentally favorable substances for the treatment of Brazilian reforested woods against fungal attacks is demonstrated.

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Edilza Sotero


Spring 2017 January 24th Panel: Challenges & Opportunities Conducting Research in Brazil: Practical Insights from the Field Juliana Prates Santana, Psychology, Universidade Federal da Bahia Liliane Cambraia Windsor, Social Work, llinois Lenore Matthew, Social Work, Illinois Marcella Rafaelli, Human Development and Family Studies, Illinois

Alexandre Tombini, Edmund Amann, and Jerry Dávila November 1st Luciano Nakabashi, Economics, Universidade de São Paulo Poverty and Development: Evidence from a Developing Country

This study examines the effects of poverty on the development level across the Brazilian states from 1980 to 2010. There are many studies assessing the relevance of economic growth and development on poverty reduction, but there are almost no one trying to measure the impacts of poverty on economic development.

What institutional challenges may impede research conducted in Brazil? Do differences in academic systems affect partnerships between U.S. and Brazilian researchers, and if so, how? How might sociocultural differences, such as concepts of time and gender, shape the research process?

Although such fundamental questions shape the research experience, oftentimes the “nuts and bolts” of conducting research abroad go undiscussed. Focusing on primary research from the applied social sciences, this panel aims to set forth practical insights and lessons learned from U.S. and Brazilian academics working across Brazil. Implications for both experienced and student researchers, as well as supporting institutions at UIUC, will be suggested. While the focus is on Brazil, some of the lessons learned may be extrapolated to other country contexts.

November 8th

Jose Carlos Martines Belieiro Junior, Social Sciences, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Um Novo Capitalismo no Brasil: Fusões e Aquisições no Governo Lula The objective of this research is to analyze the process of mergers and acquisitions during the Lula government. The proposal is to seek the interrelations between economics and politics and the state’s role in the Brazilian economy in the 2000s.The policies of the national food sector companies through BNDES and the relations between the state and the national capital in the period suggest a political alliance of neodevelopmentalist inspiration.

Liliane Cambraia Windsor

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Lemann Lecture Series Every year the Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies invites a number of distinguished scholars, faculty and graduate students from around the world to present lectures on the foremost issues regarding Brazil’s economy, society, and culture. January 30th

March 28th

Panel: Brazil’s Economy in Challenging Times Edmund Amann, Professor of Brazilian Studies, Leiden University Alexandre Tombini, Executive Director, International Monetary Fund; Past-President, Central Bank of Brazil

José Caixeta, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of São Paulo Brazilian Agro-Logistics: Challenges and Opportunities

March 7th Rodger Antunes, Economics, Universidade de São Paulo Earmarking Unconstitutionality and its Impact on Housing Deficit: Evidence from São Paulo State

In 1989, the government of the state of São Paulo passed Law 6.556, increasing the value added tax from 17% to 18%, and earmarking the incremental revenue to low-income housing policies. The Brazilian Supreme Court declared such a law illegal in 1997. We apply a non-linear Diff-in-Diff approach to evaluate the impact of this ruling on the housing deficit of the state.

One of the most striking phenomena observed in the Brazilian agricultural economy in the past decades, and in an accelerated way in recent years, is the transformation in its spatial arrangement. The agricultural businesses have occupied new frontier areas such as the North and Center-North, in addition to large areas in the Northeast, by utilizing modern production technologies.

March 14th

Arabela Oliven, College of Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Implementing Affirmative Action in Higher Education: African and Native Brazilians in an Elite University

Until the beginning of the 21st century, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (URGS) was highly reluctant to include poor students coming from public schools, who are mainly African-Brazilians. In 2008, UFRGS implemented an affirmative action policy based on social and racial quotas that increased the opportunities for students from public high schools in its courses. This lecture will examine the debate, implementation, and results of that policy. It will also analize the experience of a group of African and Native Brazilian students, who were among the first to enter UFRGS through social and racially preferential admission. Finally, it will discuss the challenges of Brazilian public universities in a scenario of social mobilization and change.

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Marcia Lima April 25th Marcia Lima, Department of Sociology, University of São Paulo Racial inequalities in Brazil and Affirmative Action: What has Changed? How have race relations and inequalities been treated in Brazil? Has the situation of inequalities changed in recent decades? If so, how have those changes been interpreted?

The lecture will analyze the scenario of racial inequalities in Brazil in recent decades based with special focus on the access to the higher education system.


Lemann Institute Collaborative Grant Program The Collaborative Grant program supports research on Brazilian topics that involve University of Illinois faculty members working closely with Brazilian faculty members. These Grants are for one year and up to $20,000.

Parincipal Investigators:

Principal Investigators:

Clarissa Freitas, Assistant Professor, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil

Walkyria Monte Mor, Associate Professor, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Faranack Miraftab, Professor, Department of Urban & Regional Planning, University of Illinois

Statute of the city and urban inclusion: Study of formal planning and citizens’ informal insurgent practices in Fortaleza, Brazil This project brings urban planning faculty and students from UIUC and UFC together to study the impact a legal framework that recognizes urban marginalized citizens’ voice to their living conditions within cities­—in short their right to the city. The project will closely study two communities in Fortaleza with different outcomes in their struggles to access urban resources.

Bill Cope, Associate Professor, Department of Education Policy, Organization & Leadership, University of Illinois

Literacies and Languages in Teacher Education

This project between UIUC and USP seeks to investigate the affordances of a ubitiquous learning platform to upgrade public school English teachers’ skills in Brazil.

Principal Investigators:

Steve Clough, US Department of Agriculture Research Service, University of Illinois

Fernando Juliatti, Universidade de Uberlândia, Brazil

The Genetics of a Plant Disease and Pests Important to Brazil and the US This project focuses on understanding and identifying genes and proteins involved in soybean defense to the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sobreeders can develop more resistant plants.

Principal Investigators:

Mauro Sardela – Director of Central Research Facilities, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratories, University of Illinois

Ruy A. Sá Ribeiro, Senior Research Engineer, Structural Engineering Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil Amazonian Geopolymer Perfomance-Based Specification for Sustainable Construction

This project will develop a testing program on the performance-based specification for Amazonian non-reinforced and bamboo-reinforced geopolymer for use in sustainable construction. The bamboo-reinforced geopolymer composites intend to replace conventional concretes and cements.

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum growing on a bean stalk.

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Lemann Institute Graduate Fellows

John Ben Soileau, Anthropology The Forest, the Trees, or the People: the Quilombolization of an Amazonian Peasantry in a post-NGO era of “Sustaininability”

The Amazon contains the most federally-titled quilombos in Brazil. In a region where environmentalists, the State, and corporateactorsvehemently contest land and its properfunction, quilombos have become key decision makers about the usage of the vast forests they legally own. Based on ethnographic fieldwork since 2012, this dissertation examines how quilombo land titles have become a form of environmental governance.

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Thaís R. S. de Sant’Ana, History

Between Nature and Nation: Manaus and the Making of Modern Brazil Using Manaus as a site of inquiry, this project will examine how the capital of Amazonas state both shaped and was shaped by the peoples, landscape and economy of the Brazilian Amazon from 1892 to 1940. By moving beyond “boom and bust” narratives about Manaus, this research seeks to show that an analysis of “change over time” in Brazil must pay equal attention to political, economic, social, environmental and cultural issues.

Juan Andrés Suarez Ontaneda, Spanish & Portuguese

Kelly Norell Senters, Political Sciences

This research project inquires into the performance methods used by Abdias do Nascimento (1914-2011) and the cultural institution he founded, the Teatro Experimental do Negro (Black Experimental Theater— TEN henceforth), in mid twentieth-century Rio de Janeiro. The purpose of this project is to analyze how Nascimento used musical and theatrical performances to develop a language to discuss race and discrimination in postWorld War II Brazil.

Does decentralization improve public goods provisionand enhance political participation? Many international, government and civil society organizations believe it achieves these goals. However, research on the subject has failed to provide strong supportive evidence. By focusing on subnational fragmentation, my work rigorously assesseswhether smaller units–the result of any process of decentralization–are better equipped and motivated to meet demands for public servicesand encourage participation.

Performing the Diaspora in Brazil: the Black Experimental Theater and its Search for a Racial Language in Mid-twentieth Century in Rio de Janeiro

Is Municipality ‘Emancipation’ Overrated? An Assessment of the Causes and Consequences of Subnational Fragmentation in Brazil


Werner Baer Doctoral Fellows

Lenore E. Matthew, School of Social Work Work/Family Balance in the Informal Economy: A Phenomenology of Intersections Between Informal Employment and Unpaid Care

This study employs a phenomenological approach and in-depth interview data gathered from 27 informally employed working mothers in Salvador, Brazil. The purpose of this study is to understand the experience of intersecting work/family care roles, as lived by informally employed working mothers. To this end, the study aims to capture the ways in which employment in the informal economy and the demands of unpaid family care intersect one another, and unpack how informally employed working mothers and navigate this intersection.

Renato Schwambach Vieira, Agricultural and Consumer Economics

Three Applied Microeconomics Essays in the Evaluation of Brazilian Public Policies

Guilherme Marques de Amorim, Economics Incoming Doctoral Student in the Department of Economics, 2017.

This project employs impact evaluation microeconometric tools to examine three different Brazilian public policies:the efficiency of transit fare subsidies in major metropolitan areas, the outcomes of affirmative action policies adopted by Brazilian federal universities in the 2000s, and the impacts of fare-free public transportation for the elderly on the travel behavior of the policy beneficiaries.

Created in memory of Werner Baer, renown economist of Brazilian development who taught at the University of Illinois, thanks to gifts from the family of Professor Baer’s sister, Marianne Kilby, and from Jorge Paulo Lemann, the Werner Baer Fellowship supports social scientific doctoral work on Brazil. The Werner Baer Fellowship provides support for incoming Brazilian doctoral students whose studies engage Brazil in the social sciences, and for doctoral students of any nationality and from any academic department conducting social scientific dissertation research on Brazil.

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Faculty Reports on Collaborative and Research Grants Ryan Shosted, Department of Linguistics, Illinois Co‐Principal Investigators: Eleonora Albano, Institute of Language Studies, University of Campinas; Francisco Meneses, Institute of Language Studies, University of Campinas

The Articulation of Vowel Reduction in Brazilian Portuguese

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o‐PI and graduate student Francisco Meneses visited the University of Illinois in Spring 2016. During that time, we collected data from speakers of Brazilian Portuguese at the Biomedical Imaging Center at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology. Real‐time magnetic resonance images were collected, reconstructed, and analyzed. In addition, ultrasound data were collected in the Articulatory Phonetics Laboratory in the Department of Linguistics. Analysis was initiated and Meneses received training in the instrumental methods and statistical modeling necessary to carry the project forward.

Conference presentations: Gesture and velocity in Brazilian Portuguese devoiced vowels: a preliminary EMA study. Francisco Meneses, Denise Pozzani, Nicole Wong, Zainab Hermes, Torrey Loucks and Ryan Shosted. Laboratory Phonology, Ithaca, NY. July 2016. The articulatory space of oral and nasal vowels in Brazilian Portuguese. Ryan Shosted, Denise Pozzani, Francisco Meneses, Nicole Wong, Zainab Hermes and Torrey Loucks. Laboratory Phonology, Ithaca, NY. July 2016. Is the vowel really disappearing in Brazilian Portuguese sandhi? An ultrasound study of vowel reduction.

Francisco Meneses, Sarah Ellen Johnson, Eleonora Albano and Ryan Shosted. Phonetics and Phonology in Europe, Cologne, Germany. July 2017. [Accepted]

Two cases of vowel weakening in Brazilian Portuguese: an ultrasound study. Francisco Meneses, Sarah Ellen Johnson, Eleonora Albano and Ryan Shosted. Chicago Linguistics Society. May 2017. [Accepted]

Ryan Shosted visited the University of Campinas in Summer 2016. During that time he continued the analysis of the articulatory data that was gathered in April and provided additional training to Meneses to conduct the relevant analyses in Matlab and to undertake statistical modeling. R. Shosted presented a seminar‐style talk on the research to the linguistics community at UNICAMP. Writing of the results and presentation is ongoing with a goal of submitting two manuscripts for publication by the end of Summer 2017. Publications:

Articulatory characterization of oral/nasal vowel contrast in Brazilian Portuguese [16 pp. ms] to be submitted to journal Phonetica (Karger). Two cases of vowel weakening in Brazilian Portuguese to be submitted to Journal of Phonetics (Elsevier).

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This ultrasound image shows two tongues (one in green, one in magenta) superimposed on one another; they represent the tongue positions for the vowels [u] (green) and [i] (magenta). The triangles represent regions of interest that were used to distinguish the movement of devoiced and fully voiced vowels in Brazilian Portuguese. Also, a real-time magnetic resonance image representing the vowel [i] in the word “caridoso” (this was contrasted with the vowel sequence in words like “cara idoso”). Both methods allow us to detect fine-grained differences in the articulatory movements associated with these sounds / phonological processes in Brazilian Portuguese.


Faculty Reports on Collaborative and Research Grants Marcela Raffaelli, Department of Human Development & Family Studies, Ilinois

Collaborators: Normanda Araujo de Morais, Universidade de Fortaleza; Juliana Prates Santana, Universidade Federal da Bahia

Building Collaborations to Study Vulnerable Brazilian Youth

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he goal of this Lemann Institute Collaborative Research Grant was to further a collaboration with faculty members at two Brazilian universities on a research project led by my long-time research collaborator, Dr. Silvia Koller from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). The project, entitled Understanding Street Children in Brazil to Improve Intervention, is a longitudinal mixed method study of street-involved youth funded by the Jacobs Foundation. Originally, Dr. Koller and I proposed to study youth only in Rio Grande do Sul, but the opportunity arose to extend the study to Fortaleza and Salvador. Accordingly, we brought Drs. Morais and Santana onto the project, but because of budgetary constraints, I was unable to visit the two satellite study sites and work directly with the local teams before receiving the Lemann Collaborative Research Grant. The grant supported a variety of activities across a two-year period, as described below. I made two extended trips to both Salvador and Fortaleza during Fall 2014 and Spring 2015. The first visit was devoted to preliminary analysis of data from the longitudinal study. I worked with the local teams in each city to finalize the datasets, conduct psychometric analyses, and work on abstracts that we submitted to the March 2015 meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. During the second visit, we developed case studies drawing on the longitudinal data, drafted a set of publication proposals, and discussed tasks and timelines. In addition to devoting sustained time to research activities, during each visit I visited field sites where data collection was conducted; gave presentations to academic and professional audiences; and interacted with students, faculty members, and administrators at the two universities.

In the spring of 2015, Drs. Morais and Santana spent two weeks in the U.S. The first 6 days were spent on the UIUC campus, where they had the opportunity to interact with scholars from across campus. For example, they participated in the annual Human Development and Family Studies “Research and Outreach Symposium” held in connection with admitted graduate student visiting day and attended a related social event hosted by my department Head. They also met with UIUC graduate students and faculty members working in Brazil. During the second part of their visit, we presented study findings at the Society for Research in Child Development in Philadelphia, PA. Together with two colleagues from the UFRGS team in Porto Alegre, we gave a poster symposium drawing on the longitudinal study. The conference attracts scholars from around the globe, so Drs. Morais and Santana were able to meet researchers working on issues of homelessness and poverty in other countries.

In the Spring of 2016, we presented study findings at the Society for Research on Adolescence in Baltimore, MD. Two graduate students (from UFBA and UFRGS) also presented findings from the longitudinal project.

This Lemann Collaborative Grant helped advance my research agenda and strengthen institutional and personal connections in Salvador and Fortaleza. Through this grant, I expanded my activities in Brazil to new geographic locations and solidified ties with two outstanding junior scholars. In addition to the activities described in this report, future activities are planned that will give continuity to our work. Assuming Dr. Santana’s visa is granted by the U.S. Consulate in Salvador, she will be on the UIUC campus from early September 2016 to late January 2017. This will allow us to accelerate dissemination activities and plan new projects; she will also be able to connect with other UIUC scholars. As a direct result of my visit to Fortaleza, one of Dr. Morais’ current graduate students applied for a pre-doctoral fellowship to work with me at UIUC. Although she was could not secure funding due to the economic crisis, we co- authored two posters at the Society for Research on Adolescence and I am serving on her dissertation committee. The collaborative grant also had a broader impact on Brazilian Studies at UIUC. For example, during her March 2015 visit to UIUC, Dr. Santana met a graduate student planning to conduct dissertation research on Bolsa Familia and is helping her make contacts with community agencies in Salvador.

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Lemann Graduate Fellow Reports on Research Funding Kelly Norell Senters, Political Sciences

Is Municipality ‘Emancipation’ Overrated? A Study of Subnational Fragmentation in Brazil

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n an effort to spur economic development and entrench democratization in the late-twentieth century, many developing countries ceded to the demands of the international community and adopted institutions of decentralization. As countries have devolved power to smaller units, some have experienced subnational fragmentation– a process in which some local communities split into two (or more) new communities. Increasingly common throughout the developing world, subnational fragmentation provides me with an opportunity to assess the effects of smaller, more localized governments on public goods provision and political participation with a method that overcomes some problems in traditional decentralization studies while also capturing the phenomenon at the national-level. I investigate this relationship in the context of Brazil, which is one of the most decentralized countries in the world whose most disaggregated political unit (the municipality) has increased in number by about 25% since its most recent democratic transition. Using an original dataset that traces the administrative, political, fiscal, and demographic histories of all Brazilian municipalities (currently numbering 5,570) over the 1988-2015 period, I systematically leverage subnational fragmentation to assess whether empowered local governments are more efficient providers of public services and whether they inspire political participation, as theory suggests. Critical to my work is the reality that not all municipalities in Brazil fragmented, and those that did, varied in terms of when and how they split. This variation allows me to make a number of comparisons that are not possible in traditional studies of decentralization. Capitalizing on this opportunity, I evaluate the consequences of subnational fragmentation for metrics of the municipal provision of primary education and participation in municipal politics in Brazil using difference-in-differences analyses implemented with data pre-processed with matching. I find that subnational fragmentation contributed to some anticipated development goals and helped to reduce inter-municipal inequality.

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Since being awarded the Lemann Fellowship, I have successfully defended my dissertation prospectus, constructed an original data set that traces the administrative, political, fiscal, and demographic histories of all Brazilian municipalities (currently numbering 5,570) over the 19882015 period, and started to empirically analyze my data as well as to present and write up my results. I started my tenure as a Visiting Scholar at the University of São Paulo in March 2017. In addition to working toward collecting non-digitized data for my dissertation, I have also started to help a professor at USP design/teach a new course on comparative political behavior and to work with this professor on updating an important political science dataset on democracies and dictatorships for the Latin American region. Aside from my dissertation research and involvement at the University of São Paulo, I have completed one book chapter on public attitudes toward corruption in Brazil, started another book chapter on corruption in Brazil, made progress on two additional research papers, collaborated on a large data collection effort at the Cline Center for Democracy, and presented in several conferences. Publications: “Continuity and Change in Public Attitudes toward Corruption,” Chapter prepared with Matthew Winters and Rebecca Weitz-Shapiro for the Routledge Handbook of Brazilian Politics, Barry Ames, ed. (Forthcoming Summer 2017) “Corruption in Brazil,” Chapter prepared with Matthew Winters for the Handbook on Geographies of Corruption for Edward Elgar publishers, Barney L. Warf, ed. (Forthcoming 2018) “The Nuts and Bolts of Interviewing Legislators: An Interview with Stefanie Bailer” in The Legislative Scholar


Lemann Graduate Fellow Reports on Research Funding Kelly Norell Senters (continued) Working Papers: “Can High Cost-Imposing Voting Systems and Ballots Enhance Civic Participation and Knowledge? A Curious Case of Ballot Effects in Brazilian Executive Elections” with Rodrigo Schneider (University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign) “Political Polarization: A Measurement Analysis” with Paul Testa (Brown University) Democracy and Dictatorship Dataset Update with Lorena Barberia (University of São Paulo) Conference Presentations: “Is Municipality ‘Emancipation’ Overrated? A Study of Subnational Fragmentation in Brazil,” Presented in April 2017 at the Midwest Political Science Association Conference in Chicago, IL “Is Municipality ‘Emancipation’ Overrated? A Study of Subnational Fragmentation in Brazil,” Presented in February 2017 in the Faculty-Student Seminar in the Political Science Department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign “Political Polarization: A Measurement Analysis” in April 2016 at the University of Washington at St. Louis in St. Louis, MO

Lucas R. Trevisan, Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Developing Guidelines for Maximum Allowable Storage Times of Soybeans in Brazil and Other Low-Latitude Regions

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uring the past academic year, I have been engaged in research involving post-harvest losses in Brazilian scenarios. This project studies the effects of typical Brazilian conditions on grain quality by quantifying dry matter losses related to grain respiration during storage. The activities included adapting instrumentation system, developing experimental design and collecting data on soybean storage. As a subsequent step, this data will be used to develop guidelines for a maximum allowable storage time of soybeans in Brazil, to fill a gap in Brazil’s soybeans production and create reliable, safe storage guidelines that reduce post-harvest losses and consequently increases economic aspects in Brazil. Publications:

“Variability of respiration rates of high moisture soybeans at elevated storage temperatures.” ASABE Annual Meeting, Spokane-WA, 2017. Conference Presentations:

“Rates of Dry Matter Loss of High Moisture Soybeans Stored at 25 to 45°C”. ASABE Annual Meeting, Orlando-FL, 2016.

“Variability of respiration rates of high moisture soybeans at elevated storage temperatures.” NC-213 Annual Meeting, Kansas City-MO, 2017.

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Lemann Graduate Fellow Reports on Research Funding Marília Corrêa, History

Unusual Suspects: Persecuted Soldiers Under Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-1988

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uring the academic year of 2016-2017 I travelled to Brazil, Mexico and the United States to conduct research to write my dissertation, “Unusual Suspects: Persecuted Soldiers Under Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-1988.” I studied members of the military in Brazil who were expelled from the Army, Air Force and Navy in the wake of the military coup of 1964 and throughout the military regime in Brazil. I studied the life trajectories of officers and soldiers seen as subversive from the moment they were purged from the forces, their trajectories upon leaving the military, up until the end of the military regime.

In February 2017, I organized and submitted for approval a panel to be presented at the 2018 Conference of the American Historical Association. This panel, entitled Implementing Aut h o r i ta r i a n i s m : Overlooked Sectors Under Latin America’s Cold War Regimes, explores the complex relationships between military regimes and professionals in the second half of twentieth-century Latin America, and more specifically Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. In addition, I am writing an article about the Brazilian military archives. Although today researchers have access to the documents of some agencies of repression of the military, after almost forty years since redemocratization documents from the military, and specially the Army and Navy intelligence agencies, continue to be sealed to public access. In this article, I discuss how studying the military dictatorship is still a contentious political issue in Brazil.

Memorial da Resistência de São Paulo

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After passing my preliminary examinations and defendingmy dissertation proposal on May 2016, I started conducting field research. Since then I have visited Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Recife, Salvador, Curitiba and Belo Horizonte in Brazil, and Washington D.C. and Mexico City outside of Brazil. I have, thus far, collected thousands of documents from military agencies in Brazil and from the United States State Department and Mexican foreign relations office about former military personnel, the motives behind their expulsion from the armed forces and their activities thereafter. In addition, I have also interviewed more than thirty men from distinct ranks in the military, from captains to soldiers.

Pelourinho, in Salvador, decorated for São João


Portuguese Program Director Support

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he Institute supports the Portuguese Language Program and the Portuguese Language Director in the Department of Spanish & Portuguese, currently held by Raquel Castro Goebel.

To achieve this the program relies on these strengths:

Prestige of our Institution—We are part of the “Illinois Experience”

In the past year, the Portuguese Program was nominated and received the prestigious National award in the category “best educational initiative” by the Association of Teachers of Portuguese for the immersion project entitled “Illinois Portuguese Language Connection”. The event, organized by the three major universities in Illinois– UIUC, Northwestern University, and University of Chicago– exemplifies how to raise the profile of a Portuguese Language Program in a university, and how collaborations can integrate universities and generate opportunities for students. The goal is to make the Portuguese program at the University of Illinois one of the leading Portuguese programs in the United States by increasing the number of students while providing them with a high-quality language and cultural experience while fostering the appreciation of diversity and inclusion.

Strong departmental support— School of Literatures, Cultures, and Linguistics, Center for Latin American & Caribbean Studies, Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies High-quality staff and faculty— Ranked excellent/outstanding by students

Quick Return on Investment—Basic Language Program delivered in two semesters

Availability of prestigious Fellowships/Scholarships— FLAS, Fulbright, and Lemann fellowships are available to offset tuition costs Visibility—Presence on numerous campus events such as Quad Day, Liberal Arts & Studies Welcome, Liberal Arts & Studies Majors and Minors Fair Innovation—On-line Presence (Port 200); courses for adult learners and high school students in the local community

Poster for Illinois Portuguese Language Connection

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Cultural Programming October 6, 2016 - A Night of Brazilian Regional Music: Northeast by Southeast Don Pandeiro and Di Freitas are performers, artisans, and instrument builders who represent two different Brazilian contexts and musical styles: urban and rural, southeast and Northeast, and samba and música nordestina. This event showcased the unique combination of musical talent and instrument-making abilities of these two musicians in residence.

The performance was the final event in the CAS (Center for Advanced Studies) initiative Dissonance Music and Globalization since Edison’s Phonograph which examines how communications and technology have accelerated the pace of encounter and exchange between musical cultures. February 22, 2017 - Afrolatinos: An Untaught Story

A documentary screening about the African Diaspora in Latin America a College-Film Festival Tour, was presented as part of Black History Month. The program consisted of a screening of the documentary and a Q&A with the Emmy award winning director Renzo Devia. The Afrolatinos film documents the African influence in Latino culture seeking out the often unspoken truths, stories and hidden facts about this history. The African Diaspora is rarely found in history books or taught in the educational systems of Latin America.

March 8-9, 2017 - Kayapó Film-Kayapó Song: Cultural Performance and Survival from the Amazon Rain Forest In the 1990s Kayapó videographers from the Brazilian Amazon began producing short films to document their society’s

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struggles for land, rainforest preservation, and cultural survival. At the vanguard of what is today called Indigenous Media, these films were screened throughout South America, Europe, and the USA and ended up playing an important role in the securing of indigenous lands and livelihoods. In the 2010s a new generation of Kayapó videographers has emerged that continues this tradition while also seeking to capture novel cultural innovations transpiring as the Kayapó engage the outside world. Whether it is concert by a Kayapó pop/country singer or an intertribal demonstration in a faraway city to protest the construction of a hydroelectric dam, the videographers are there to film. These latter films embody cultural hybridity, or cultural invention that refracts and recombines elements from multiple cultures.

On March 8th and 9th Kayapó videographers Krakrax Kayapó, Pati Kayapó, and Bepto Kayapó, along with singer/song writer Pykatire Kayapó and village leader Kaket Bepuneiti were on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign campus to screen their productions, perform songs, and discuss the current struggles for rain forest preservation and cultural survival in the Brazilian Amazon. Also accompanying them were Rafael Galvão from Association for Protected Forests, a non-governmental organization dedicated to the protection and conservation of Kayapó Territories and defense of Indigenous Rights. Krakrax is a young videographer who specializes in documenting traditional Kayapó ritual, especially the large and colorfully synchronized dances for which the tribe is famous. Pykatire is singer/song writer that combines tradition Kayapó musical themes with Brazilian ‘country’ and Brazilian popular music. He sings both in Kayapó and Portuguese. Pati Kayapó and Bepto Kayapó are experienced filmmakers who have been documenting Kayapó culture for years. Their films range from community rituals, celebrations, to official and political events and gatherings. Kaket Bepuneiti is a tribal leader of the village of A’Ukre who has long supported media making initiatives in his community and other partnerships with universities and international NGOs.

Scenes from Kayapô Song


April 26-30, 2017 Capoeira Angola Roda Presentation Capoeira Angola is an Afro- Brazilian Art Form that encompasses folkloric traditions, oral history, dance and song into a martial art. The art is unique and uplifting cultural experience that brings together beauty and power, balance and physical conditioning, as well as dance, music, language, art and self-defense.

April 7, 2017 - An Evening of Brazilian and Latin Jazz

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he Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies presented an evening with the Concert Jazz Band & Lívia Nestrovski - The Music of Milton Nascimento – under the direction of Professor Chip McNeil (School of Music) at Krannert Center for the Performing Arts. The performance featured the Brazilian singer Lívia Nestrovski who is refereed to as one of the new voices to look out for in Brazilian music by Vogue and Marie Claire magazines, and described by Polivox culture magazine as a singer of “luminous, overwhelming presence”, whose voice is “one of the greatest achievements in contemporary Brazilian music”. Since 2014 she has been invited to sing as guest soloist with orchestras throughout Brazil, such as the Tom Jobim Youth Orchestra (São Paulo) - together with jazz guitarrist Chico Pinheiro, Heliopolis Symphony Orchestra - conducted by Isaac Karabtchevsky - and Jazz Sinfônica, the most important jazz orchestra in Brazil.

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Past Director Mary Arends-Kuenning with Distinguished Visiting Professors Carlos Azzoni, left, and Eduardo Rios-Neto, right. Carlos Azzoni, former Dean of the School of Economics, Administration and Accounting at the University of São Paulo was the Distinguished Visitor in 2012 and Eduardo Rios-Neto is Professor of Demography at the Center for Regional Development and Planning at the Federal University of Minas Gerais and was Distinguished Visitor in 2015-2016.

Angela Randolpho Paiva, Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs PUC-Rio- Spring 2017

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About the Institute Established in 2009, the Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies promotes teaching and research about Brazil by faculty and students at Illinois and their Brazilian counterparts, who take advantage of the extensive resources available at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC).

Building on long-standing collaboration with Brazilian scholars in economics and agriculture, as well as nearly a half-century of teaching and research in Brazilian literature and history, the Institute fosters knowledge and understanding of Brazil across disciplines and colleges. It does this by offering fellowships to UIUC and Brazilian students at graduate and undergraduate levels; funding faculty research; organizing international conferences on Brazilian topics; and supporting cultural activities.

Staff

Jerry Dávila, Director John Karam, Associate Director Elis Artz, Lemann Program Coordinator Dan Bacon, Communications Coordinator Gonzalo Pinilla Gomez, Research Assistant Gloria Ribble, Office Manager

Faculty Advisory Board

Heitor Almeida, Department of Finance Mary Arends-Kuenning, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics Carlos Armando Duarte, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Anna Maria Escobar, Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies and Department of Spanish, and Portuguese (ex-oficio) Richard Gates, Department of Agriculture and Biological Engineering Patrick Keenan, College of Law Joseph Love, Department of History Marcela Raffaelli, Department of Human Development and Family Studies Liliane Windsor, School of Social Work

External Advisory Board

Edmund Amann, University of Manchester, England Carlos Azzoni, University of São Paulo, Brazil João Castro Neves, Ambev, United States Jorge Paulo Lemann, InBev, Brazil Paulo de Tarso Flecha Lima, Flecha de Lima Associados, Brazil Reitumetse Obakeng Mabokela, Vice Provost for International Affairs and Global Strategies Alexandre Tombini, Executive Director, International Monetary Fund Feng Sheng Hu, Dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Maria De Lujan Caputo Winkler(ex-oficio), Consul-General of Brazil in Chicago Janelle Weatherford, Director of Foundations Relations, University of Illinois John H. Welch, Macro Strategy, Fixed Income, Currencies & Distribution CIBC World Markets, Inc.