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Visualizing Changing Flood Risks Improving Flood Risk Literacy in NYC

HASSAN SALEEM | LELA ROBINSON | ONAM BISHT CORNELL AAP NYC | FALL 2019


CLIENT SCOPE OF WORK Eric Wilson, Peter Adams, Tallant Burley, NYC Office of the Mayor, Office of Recovery and Resiliency, 253 Broadway, 14th Floor, New York, NY 10007

prompt action. Because of changing flood data, it will also be necessary to create adaptable tools which can accommodate evolving data, visualizations and imagery. Project Description

VISUALIZING CHANGING FLOOD RISKS Scope of Work This document outlines the scope of work for a project to visualize and communicate flood risk in New York City. This project is the result of a partnership between the Mayor’s Office of Resiliency (hereinafter referred to as the “client”) and three Cornell students studying city planning and landscape architecture (the “student team”). This project is undertaken as a part of the student team’s enrollment in the course CRP 5172: Land Use, Environmental Planning, and Urban Design Workshop, and in fulfillment of Cornell’s undergraduate degree in Urban and Regional Studies (URS) and Masters degree of Regional Planning (MRP) and Landscape Architecture (MLA) degree requirements. The course, a cornerstone of the URS and MRP/MLA semester in NYC, examines the evolving landscape of NYC and the way sea-level rise and flood-risk will influence existing developments, patterns of growth, and opportunities for resilient adaptation. Background 1

New York City has more residents living in high-risk flood zones than any other city in the country. Floods are already the most common natural disaster in the United States, and as climate change exacerbates sea level rise and extreme weather events, the risks associated with flooding are expected to 2 grow and change. Rising sea levels can increase the heights of flood, increase the frequency of 100-year storms, increase the size of the floodplain, and increase the impact of tidal flooding. The costs of flood damages can be extremely high, but due to its variations and low frequency, it has been difficult for city officials to effectively communicate risk to the public. One major challenge is that flood risk is typically demarcated by 100-year and 500-year flood events, statistical probabilities challenging to conceptualize. The communications approach also needs to translate academic terminology, as types of flood risk are little known to the public. For instance, tidal flooding (sunny day flooding) isn’t weather dependent like storm floods, but can affect low lying coastal communities. Lastly, people living in threatened areas without previous damage from flooding tend to be less aware of potential damage. Heightening risks are also changing the extent of damage in areas which have experienced flooding in the past. Visualizing changing flood risk needs to effectively envision the realities of flood damage in the future in addition to providing the public with constructive suggestions which may

1 2

The goal of this project is to collaborate with the client in developing visual graphics for communicating current and changing flood-risks to the public by producing maps, 3D images, cross-sections of buildings, renderings, and/or other visual products that enhances the City’s ability to communicate impacts of flooding to both designers and the public. By visualizing the data provided by Mayor’s Office of Resiliency on climate-change and flooding, our team will develop graphics that can be published both online and in print media. These visuals will also be captured in an engaging StoryMap to simplify the understanding of evolving flood-risks and spread awareness about mitigating and adapting to those risks, for both the general public and designers. The student team will work on developing the following visuals for this project: ● StoryMap that combines maps and visualizations to display the following factors in effective ways: a) current flood-risk, b) future flood-risk, c) flood extents, d) flood depths, e) changes in flood frequency, f) tidal flooding depths, etc. This data could be variously displayed as 2D maps, 3D neighborhood zoom-ins, building cross-sections, photographs with renderings, and so on. The StoryMap would go beyond just displaying maps to creatively communicate flood-risk at a human scale, down to the streets and buildings level. ● Original versions of the images and maps that went into the StoryMap and final report ● Summary report of the results of the research and recommendations that informed the choices made in the StoryMap, images, and maps. Final Deliverables 1. Visual glossary of flood related terms such as tidal flooding, coastal flooding, short-term and long-term impacts of flooding and sea-level rise 2. Assessment Maps and Renderings a. 1 map of NYC flood risk data with zoom on of 3 focus neighborhoods b. 1 large context map including the NYC Harbor and Long Island Sound to understand the geomorphology of NYC and its relation with flooding, sea-level rise and climate-change 3. Vulnerability Maps and Renderings (1 for each of the following 3 neighborhoods: Coney Island, Midland Beach, and East Harlem) a. 1 plan map depicting social vulnerability of the communities most affected by flooding and sea level rise b. 1 plan map depicting ecological vulnerability caused by contamination of waterways due to flooding events, CSO discharge, pollution, etc. c. 2 to 3 3D flooding visualizations for each of the 3 neighborhoods.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/07/nyregion/new-york-city-flood-maps-fema.html https://www.nrdc.org/stories/flooding-and-climate-change-everything-you-need-know

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

2 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


CLIENT SCOPE OF WORK 4. (Optional, if time allows) Urban planning and design recommendations to adapt to flooding: a. Design recommendations for graphic media like flood-level signages, subway posters, etc. b. Design recommendations for location specific formats for disseminating information on sea-level rise and changing flood-risks (social media posts, website, subway ad, handouts, billboards) Final Deliverables: Final powerpoint presentation, StoryMap website and a final technical report. Images used in the other deliverables provided in formats accessible by Adobe Illustrator. Due Date: Draft visuals are due during bi-weekly meetings, based on the task list outlined in the Gantt chart Mid-term reviews: ● October 31, 2019: To review tasks 2 and 3 ● November 21, 2019: To review task 4 and 5 (it time allows) Final review: ● December 16, 2019: Final Presentation and StoryMap website (to be confirmed by the client) ● December 20, 2019: Final Technical report Tasks: ​Bi-weekly meetings with the client (preferably on Thursdays) to present our progress on visuals and also to receive feedback. Task 1: Research/ Review of background material provided by client. Exploration of existing visuals and how flood risk is communicated both as it exists in NYC and in other places. Task 2: Visual Glossary of Flood Related Terms

The student team will be advised by Robert Balder, Executive Director of AAP in NYC and Instructor for CRP 5172. The student team will provide the deliverables listed above to the client as outlined in the schedule in this scope of work. The student team will seek the client’s guidance as needed and will alert the client if any problems or issues arise. Client: ​Mayor’s Office of Resiliency The primary client is Peter Adams, Senior Policy Advisor of the Mayor’s Office of Resiliency (padams@resiliency.nyc.gov). The client will provide the student team with technical data on sea-level rise and flooding that would assist the student team for the workshop. The client will assist the student team in gaining an understanding of flooding in NYC as well as specific areas of potential concern and provide the team specific guidance. Both parties agree to meet in person or via telephone conference as needed to discuss the progress of the project and any issues. These meetings will be held at a time as agreed upon by both parties.

Agreed this_____ day of October, 2019.

_______________________________

_____________________________

Peter Adams

Onam Bisht e: ​ob82@cornell.edu p: 607 220 7474

E: ​PAdams@resiliency.nyc.gov P: ​212 748-0369

Task 3: Assessment Maps and Renderings Task 4: Vulnerability Maps and Renderings (one for each of three specific sites)

_________________________________

Task 5 (if time allows): One site specific toolkit with design recommendations

Hassan Saleem e: ​hss98@cornell.edu p: 929 371 4025

Task 6: Final presentation and report Roles and Responsibilities Student Team: ​Three Cornell students from College of Architecture, Art, and Planning (AAP): ● ● ●

Onam Bisht: dual-Masters in Landscape Arch. and Regional Planning Hassan Saleem: B.S. Urban and Regional Studies Lela Robinson: B.S. Urban and Regional Studies

_________________________________ Lela Robinson e:​ ​lgr47@cornell.edu P: 513 614 9901

3 Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


CLIENT SCOPE OF WORK

TASK 6

TASK 5

TASK 4

TASK 3

TASK 2

TASK 1

TIMELINE/ PHASES

W1 09/12

BACKGROUND RESEARCH • Scope of Work • Precedent study • Case studies VISUAL GLOSSARY OF FLOOD CONCEPTS • Design • Review and Revision

W2 09/19

W3 09/26

W4 10/03

W5 10/10

W6 10/17

W7 10/24

W8 10/31

W9 11/07

W10 11/14

W11 11/21

W12 11/28

W13 12/05

W14 12/12

W15 12/19

3 weeks 9 weeks 1 week FALL BREAK

NYC FLOOD-RISK VISUALIZATION • Assessment Maps • Vulnerability Maps • Review and Revision SITE LEVEL FLOOD-RISK RENDERINGS • Rhino models • Section perspectives • Review and Revision COMPLEMENTARY GRAPHICS* (optional) • Site specific designs • Additional graphics FINAL PPT AND

REPORT

2 weeks 2 weeks

2 weeks 2 weeks 2 weeks 10/31 MID-TERM REVIEW I 2 weeks 2 weeks 2 weeks 11/21 MID-TERM REVIEW II 2 weeks 2 weeks THANKSGIVING BREAK

• Storymap and PPT • Final report

1 week 1 week 12/16 FINAL REVIEW

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

4 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


VISUALIZING CHANGING FLOOD RISK WEBSITE (preview): https://storymaps.arcgis.com/stories/9fc872c403ac455d982f24d072972854

THE STORYMAP VISUALIZING FLOOD RISK The first deliverable requested by the Mayor’s Office of Resiliency is a graphic visual narrative of changing flood risk in New York City. We used the free StoryMap feature provided by ArcGIS to create this to be linked in our client’s website. The StoryMap takes advantage of the web platform to incorporate graphic animations and sidecars to tell the story of changing flood risks. Please use the link to access this webpage. 5 Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


INTENDED IMPACT Under the guidance of NYC’s Mayor’s Office of Resiliency, we created this handbook in the hopes that it can be used as a capacity building tool to foster literacy and awareness of terms, maps and data surrounding sea level rise and flood risks in NYC. We are students studying planning and urban design, who are interested in informing future action. There is already a great deal of maps conveying flood risks. However, it is our goal to create NYC specific information which visualizes flood risks, while at the same time increases flood risk literacy among general public. The information in this handbook is packaged as a printable document. Access the website through the link below: - Hassan, Lela, and Onam

THE HANDBOOK VISUALIZING FLOOD RISK

URL: https://storymaps.arcgis.com/stories/9fc872c403ac455d982f24d072972854 3

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

The second deliverable was a handbook for libraries that would be easily printable and foldable. It would help spread word of the StoryMap in the physical world, in addition to making it accessible to people without Internet access. As the Handbook is more content rich than the narrative-focused StoryMap, we will be using the spreads from it to describe in our report. 6 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


TABLE OF CONTENTS Uncertain Questions

6

What’s at Risk

8

Coastal Flood Risk

10

Sea Level Rise

12

Storm Surge

18

Non-Coastal Flood Risk

22

Zooming into East Harlem

26

Visual Glossary

32

References

38

6’ HUMAN

HIGH ESTIMATE 2’ 6”

MIDDLE ESTIMATE 1’ 4” LOW ESTIMATE 8”

NYC Coastline By 2050 sea levels are projected to rise between 8 and 30 inches*

Sea level rise projections at human scale.

5

4

7 Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


UNCERTAIN QUESTIONS

The places we live and work are becoming increasingly vulnerable BRONX

Data is changing constantly and there is a great deal of uncertainty in risk maps

PROTECT

GROWING FLOOD ZONE MANHATTAN

When and how will we adapt to changing flood risk?

Current FEMA flood zone 2050 flood zone projection

ADAPT QUEENS

Which communities are most vulnerable? BROOKLYN

STATEN ISLAND

Risk comes in many different forms: sea level rise, storm surge, rain events, flash floods, tidal flooding.

RETREAT How inevitable is permanent displacement? Which communities will feel the greatest impact?

6

MIND MAPPING A STARTING EXERCISE

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Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

We began our project by thinking in the bigger picture and discussing what the key issues are that we want to communicate. Some of the questions we didn’t necessarily have the information to address, but this task helped us to develop our narrative for both the StoryMap and the Know Your Risk Handbook. 8 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


High Tide 2100

High Tide 2050

Storm Surge 2100

COASTAL FLOOD RISK

Storm Surge 2050

High Tides and Storm Surge

The white dashed line indicates the ESTIMATED boundary of flooding during a 1% chance annual flood event.

The pink dashed line indicates areas that will experience flooding regularly on sunny days.

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Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

50 20

2050 TODAY

COASTAL FLOODING

flood nce a h

od

c

an

flo ce

0.2%

ch

ve

se l Ri 1%

Le Sea

Due to historic growth patterns and high�density shoreline development, urban infrastructure resides within areas exposed to coastal hazards. The above information indicates the areas that will be inundated during high tides (regularly occurring) in addition to storm surge inundation. Projections for the year of 2050 and 2100 are included.

RISE

ve

day l to

Sea

le

FLOOD TYPES

A flood that has a 1% chance of occurring in any given year.

A flood that has a 0.2% chance of occurring in any given year.

9

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

The client expressed the importance of distinguishing different types of coastal flooding, such as tidal and stormsurge, as well as land loss from sea level rise. One of the other challenges with our project was incorporating the various time projections and estimates associated with each type of flooding into our work.9 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


WHAT’S AT RISK More than just a flood

SEA LEVEL RISE

Telecommunication Networks

Shipping Infrastructure WEATHER EVENTS storm surge, flashfloods, tidal flooding, heavy rain

Community

Family

Emergency Services Homes

People

Transit

Powerplants International Airports

Waste Water Treatment

Oil refineries

What’s At Risk Coastal flooding, poses a high risk to the population, housing, and many essential New York City infrastructure facilities that line the 520 miles (837 km) of the city's waterfront. These include three major international airports, shipping infrastructure, segments of commuter and intercity bus and rail transit systems, many subway, tunnel, and bridge entrances, nearly all city wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), oil tanks and refineries, most power plants, and telecommunication networks.

INFRASTRUCTURE RISK THE SCALE OF IMPACT

AT RISK INFRASTRUCTURE

Long‐term sea level rise, as well as episodic coastal flooding, poses a high risk to the population, housing, and many essential New York City infrastructure facilities that line the 520 miles (837 km) of the city’s

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

waterfront. These include three major international airports, shipping infrastructure, segments of commuter and intercity bus and rail transit systems, many subway, tunnel, and bridge entrances, nearly all city wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), oil tanks and refineries, most power plants, and telecommunication networks.

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

Rising sea levels and extreme weather events threatens not just people, but the infrastructure and facilities that help New York City work. This timeline makes the association between melting icebergs, changing climate, and the various scales of impact. 10 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


SEA LEVEL RISE

Rising water levels are increasing everyday. 2050

High Tide, given 16 inches of Sea Level Rise

2100

High Tide, given 75 inches of Sea Level Rise

CHANGING TIDES Sea L

ev el

se Ri

2050 TODAY

Sea level rise represents one of the most momentous consequences of climate change, potentially affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In recent decades, melting ice sheets and glaciers account for over half of the total observed current rise.

ON SEA LEVEL RISE

How fast is the sea level rising?

1992 to 1996: 0.01 inches/year

2012 to 2016: 0.07 inches/year

12

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

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CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

Tidal flooding and sea level rise are very closely related. As sea levels rise, low lying areas will become more frequently impacted by tidal flooding until the sea level rises to the point where the water remains permanently. While this is a slow process, communicating this risk is a key part of our work. 11 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


SEA LEVEL RISE PROJECTIONS

6’ HUMAN

Low, Middle and High Estimates for 2050

HIGH ESTIMATE2’ 6”

MIDDLE ESTIMATE 1’ 4”

LOW ESTIMATE 8”

14

15

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

RELATABILITY PEOPLE AND PLACES Maps and charts are useful for communicating information, but they’re not always the most effective source of visual impact. We incorporated infographics where possible into out project to relate the science and data to everything from the iconic New York coastlines to the human scale. 12 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


SEA LEVEL RISE: by Central Park If area of land that would go under sea was measured using area of the Central park (843 acres), how many Central parks would be lost to sea level rise?

YEAR 2050

YEAR 2100

If sea level rises 30 inches by 2050

2,900

Acres of land could be lost to water. That’s nearly 3.5 Central Parks.

BRONX BRONX

If sea level rises 75 inches by 2100

CENTRAL PARK

MANHATTAN

QUEENS

16,900

Acres of land could be lost to water. That’s nearly 20 Central Parks.

CENTRAL PARK

MANHATTAN

QUEENS

BROOKLYN STATEN ISLAND

BROOKLYN STATEN ISLAND

= 1 Central Park

16

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

17

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

Central Park is a useful metric of scale that many New Yorkers can relate to – in the maps to the left we used it to help visualize the scale of land loss due to the rising seas. 13 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


1% CHANCE ANNUAL FLOOD

Storm Surge and other weather events A ZONE FLOOD PLAIN

A flood that has a 1% chance of occurring each year. Predicted to occur once within a timespan of 100 years... WHICH COULD HAPPEN THIS YEAR.

C 1%

H AN C

E FLOOD

2

05

0

18

A flood that has a 1% chance of occurring in any given year.

A 1% chance annual flood, also known as a 100‐year flood, could occur tomorrow. We don’t experience a flood of this measure everyday, however, the likelihood that it will occur, increases day by day.

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) creates maps designating risk zones. These zones indicate the insurance rate a home or a business owner must pay. Higher the risk of flooding, greater is the insurance rate.

Storm surge flood zones Current FEMA flood zone 2050 flood zone projection

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

19 14 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


NEIGHBORHOOD VIEWS OF STORM SURGE

The following images are renderings of what selected neighborhoods would look like after a 1% chance flood event in 2050. East Harlem, Manhattan

FiDi, Manhattan

Flushings, Queens

E. Williamsburg, Brooklyn

Rockaway, Queens

Coney Island, Brooklyn

Redhook, Brooklyn

Hunt’s Point, Bronx

NEIGHBORHOOD VIEWS THE VARIATIONS Greenspoint, Brooklyn

Tottenville, Staten Island NYC Flood Hazard Mapper

To view the flood hazard in your neighborhood, visit: shorturl.at/sBIMN

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Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

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CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

It was important during our project to understand that flooding looks different in different communities. We incorporated various housing typologies across boroughs to maximize the chance that the viewer will see a place that looks like their neighborhood. 15

Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


NON-COASTAL FLOODING

BASEMENT FLOODING

FLASH FLOOD

Flash-flooding occurs during heavy rain events and have the highest impact in low-lying urban areas, due to large extent of impervious surfaces. They occur very suddenly within a short span of time, and can cause flooding within a span of 30-minutes of intense rainfall.

BASEMENT FLOODING AND COMBINED SEWAGE OVERFLOW A basement flood shown to the right could occur on a sunny day due to high tide. It could also occur in very short warning during a flash-flood.

Flood water pushing up through basement pipes.

As the sea level rises, it pushes sewage up through street grates and indoor plumbing

FLOOD TYPES NON-COASTAL FLOODING

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Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

While the risk of coastal flooding in New York is the main scope of our work, we wanted to highlight growing risks in noncoastal flooding as well. This includes events such as combined sewage overflow and urban flooding, which are also impacted by climate change 16 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


FLOOD RISK TIMELINE When will NYC experience flooding?

FLOODING

2100

2050

2020

SEA LEVEL RISE

Increasing everyday BRONX

MANHATTAN

MANHATTAN

MANHATTAN

QUEENS

STATEN ISLAND

BRONX

BRONX

BROOKLYN

QUEENS

QUEENS

STATEN ISLAND

BROOKLYN

STATEN ISLAND

BROOKLYN

STORM SURGE EVENTS Rain Hurricane Northeaster

BRONX

BRONX

BRONX

MANHATTAN

MANHATTAN

MANHATTAN

QUEENS

QUEENS

BROOKLYN STATEN ISLAND

QUEENS

BROOKLYN STATEN ISLAND

BROOKLYN STATEN ISLAND

DISTINGUISHING DATA TYPES AND PROJECTIONS

As time passes and the climate continues to warm, storm surge events are projected to increase in frequency and in intensity of damage they inflict.

The timeline above illustrates flood risk scenarios that could happen today due to severe storm surge events as well as projected future risks. 25

24

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

The two major main map types relate to sea level rise and !% flood zones, and for each we had projections from the 2020s to the 2100s. Part of our work was to visually clarify the differences while emphasizing the growing nature of the risk. 17 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


SCHOOLS AND EMERGENCY SERVICES

The map below uses 15 indicators categorized into four themes: socioeconomic status, household composition and disability, minority status and language, and housing and transportation.

ZOOMING INTO EAST HARLEM

According to a study of Social Vulnerability done by the New York Academy of Sciences; Northern Manhattan, Hunts Point, and Sunset Park have the highest vulnerability.

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Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

FOCUS AREA ON EAST HARLEM After looking at the social vulnerability map, we found there were a few regions of New York City where growing flood risk will have exacerbated impact due to lower socioeconomic power. Through the NPCC report, we identified East Harlem to be the most vulnerable in both metrics.18 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


SCHOOLS IN FLOOD ZONE

BRONX

HA EM RL RIV ER

SCHOOLS IN FLOOD ZONE

EAST HARLEM

JOSE CELSO BARBOSA

ZOOMING IN ON K-12 SCHOOLS

JOSE CELSO BARBOSA 28

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS: 456 GRADES 3,4,5,6,7,8 508 EAST 120 STREET

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

29

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

This spread shows how we’ve worked in different scales, highlighting the overall pattern of schools in the floodplain in New York City, zooming in on the dense risk area of East Harlem, and then picking out one particular school to zoom into and visualize the flood. 19 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


EMERGENCY SERVICES IN FLOOD ZONE

In 30 years, the number of emergency services in the floodplain grows to 39

BRONX

EM RL HA E RIV R EAST HARLEM

Fire Station 91 Fire Station 53

ZOOMING IN ON EMERGENCY SERVICES

Service Neighborhood: E. Harlem Fire station 91

30

Fire station 53

Both are in danger of flooding under a storm‐ surge event, endangering the community they serve. Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

Fire Station 91 CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

31

Similarly to the school map, we looked at fire stations as well. While we know emergency services will have trouble reaching the areas experiencing flood, we know that people who live outside of the flood zone but whose local fire station is located within it may face some consequences as well. 20 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


VISUAL GLOSSARY OF FLOOD RISKS Level Today a Se

hance food c 1%

2050

A flood that has a 1% chance of occurring in any given year.

Level Rise a Se

chance food % 2 0.

2050

RISE

2050

THE VISUAL GLOSSARY

TODAY

Rate of Sea Level Rise is increasing every year.

32

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

UNDERSTANDING FLOODING

A flood that has a .2% chance of occurring in any given year.

33

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

There is much specific and technical terminology associated with flooding, and we wanted to create a visual dictionary to help people understand these different concepts. The remainder of the booklet will showcase terms requested by our client to be included in the glossary. 21 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


dp o o Fl

n Flooding a b Ur

lain

Flood plain

The ground area that is covered by water during a flood.

Occurs during rain events, NOT from coastal flooding.

e Depth g r Su

DEPTH

g ndin o P

SEA LEVEL

*Surge measurement starts at SEA LEVEL, not ground level

Often Happens From Rain In Low Spots (Could Be Behind A Sea Wall Or Other Coastal Protection Projects).

34

35

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

22 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


/ Base Flood d o Ele Flo va r te

Flooding l a Tid n

Stl lW a

to

Flood Level Not Including Effects Of Waves.

Flood Eleva to

n

m se

Ba

D

n esig

Often occurs during full moon

Flo t n e

oding and

CSO

Sea Level rise pushes sewage up through street grates and plumbing

Lowest Occupiable Floor

Base Level Flood Elevation

*CSO: Combined Sewage Outflow

36

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Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


REFERENCES Under Water

How Sea Level Rise Threatens the Tri-State Region

A Report of The Fourth Regional Plan December 2016

NYC Flood Hazard map:

http://dcp.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/ index.html?id=1c37d271fba14163bbb520517153d6d5

Waterproofing New York:

Urban Research (UR) | Published by Terreform

NYC Panel on Climate Change:

https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ nyas.14008

Urban Waterfront Adaptive Strategies:

NYC Planning | Dept. of City Planning, City of New York

On the Water | Palisade Bay

Princeton University, School of Architecture

Under Water: How Sea-level rise threatens the tri-state region

Rebuild by Design

River Space Design: Planning strategies, Methods and Projects for Urban rivers

A Country of Cities: a manifesto for an urban America

Rising Currents: Project for New York’s waterfront

Making and breaking the grid:

Regional Plan Association

Living in the Endless city: Phaidon

Birkhauser

The Best American Infographics:

Introduction by David Byane | Edited by Gareth Cook

Adapting Cities to sea-level rise: Stephan Al

Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

Bay Area Challenge: Resilient by Design

MoMa

Vishaan Chakrabarti

A graphic design layout workshop | Timothy Samara

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

24 Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht


PRECEDENT RESEARCH

25 Visualizing Changing Flood Risks: NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency

CRP 5172: Urban Planning Workshop, Fall 2019 | AAP NYC, Cornell University

Hassan Saleem | Lela Robinson | Onam Bisht

Profile for Lela Robinson

Visualizing Flood Risk Report  

Visualizing Flood Risk Report  

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