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The footwear from the 1860s more closely resembles formal dress shoes. ByMegan Hetzel At first glance, the shoe shown above resembles that of a men’s dress shoe thanks to the leather upper and slightly raised heel. In reality, the footwear is considered to be the oldest known example of a running shoe. Spikes affixed to the soles are the only aspect that distinguishes them from their more formal counterparts. The Thomas Dutton and Thorowgood running shoe dates back to the 1860s at a time when “pedestrianism,” or competitive walking, was on the rise. The pair is on display at the Brooklyn Museum’s “The Rise of Sneaker Culture” exhibition along with about 150 other shoes. “Early running shoes are a neat example of, in the trajectory of how a design or concept innovates, sometimes the first version is just an additive one,” Lisa Small, a curator at the Brooklyn Museum, said: “These shoes just look like men’s black dress shoes because they lace up and have that narrow silhouette. And then there are cleats put on the bottom of them. It’s a hybrid-looking form of shoe.” Throughout the 1800s, competitive walking—and later running—started to become activities people did for the sake of doing them. Adding spikes and a leather band around the instep for support to shoes were meant to facilitate that change, said Small. Small could not estimate how much the shoes are worth nor confirm who originally owned them. Later in the 19th century, sneakers with rubber soles came into play, but because rubber was costly at the time, owning such a pair was a status symbol. “They were comfortable and flexible and provided some waterproof protection,” Small said. “To get rubber-soled shoes meant that you were a person who basically had the time to pursue these new leisure-time activities.”


by Rachel Anderson No one knows exactly when the first wheelchair was invented, however its origins date back to ancient times. The earliest records of a wheeled transportation device were found in a stone carving in China and an image on a Greek vase of a wheeled child’s bed. The first known wheelchair purposefully designed for disability and mobility was called an “invalid’s chair”. It was invented in 1595 specifically for King Phillip II of Spain. The chair had small wheels attached to the end of a chair’s legs and it included a platform for Phillip’s legs and an adjustable backrest. It could not be self-propelled but most likely the King always had servants transporting him around. Skipping forward to 1655, Steven Farffler was a young German watchmaker with a disability that limited his mobility. He is the first known person to invent and use a wheelchair that could be independently propelled. It was a stable chair mounted on a 3-wheeled chassis with attached handles on both sides of the front wheel used to propel the chair forward. Mr. Farffler, who is believed to have had paraplegia, created the wheelchair himself when he was only 22 years old! In 1783, John Dawson of Bath, England invented a wheelchair and named it after his town. The Bath wheelchair had two large wheels in the back and one small one in the front. The user would steer the chair by a stiff handle, but all the Bath designs had to be pushed or pulled by a donkey or horse, as they were heavy. The Bath wheelchair did outsell all other models of wheelchairs for 40 years. Then, in the 1800s, the first wheelchairs that are more similar to today’s designs were developed. In 1869 a patent was taken out on a wheelchair that could be self-propelled and had large wheels at the back. Wheelchairs were starting to get less bulky but still were not easily transportable until 1932 when the folding tubular steel version was made by Harry Jennings. Harry Jennings was an engineer that designed it for his friend, Herbert Everest. Together they founded Everest and Jennings company, which had a monopoly on the wheelchair industry for decades. Electric-powered wheelchairs were invented by George Klein and others to assist injured veterans after WWII. As you know, designs from then have consistently improved in size, weight and to adapt to an individual’s needs. They are even currently developing a new “iBot type chair“ (the former iBot chair is currently discontinued and was extremely expensive) that can rise up on to two wheels, walk up and down stairs, traverse sand, gravel and water and cannot be easily flipped over. Some speculate that in the future wheelchairs will be able to be controlled by neurological impulses from the brain.


Baie mense is moeg en weet nie hoekom nie. Hier is 10 siektes wat jou só kan laat voel. Baie mense is moeg en weet nie hoekom nie. Hier is 10 siektes wat jou só kan laat voel. By 20% -30% van mense wat moeg voel, is die oorsaak 'n soort siekte. As jy baie moeg is en dit net al hoe erger word, het jy moontlik iets onder lede. En as jy te swak voel om te gaan stap, werk toe te gaan, te bad of aan te trek, kan dit dalk ernstig wees. DEPRESSIE EN MELANCHOLIE

Een uit 10 mense ly op een of ander stadium aan depressie, en depressie is 'n algemene oorsaak van moegheid. 'n Wanbalans van neuro-oordragstowwe soos serotonien kan moegheid, apatie, 'n dowwe kop en hoofpyn veroorsaak. ANEMIE

Lae ystervlakke of onvoldoende rooibloedselle beteken dat die bloed heelwat minder suurstof vervoer, en as die brein, spiere en ander weefsels nie genoeg suurstof kry nie, sal jy moeg voel, veral as jy moet stap of enigiets anders doen wat fisiese inspanning vereis. RUMATIESE ARTRITIS EN ANDER KONNEKTIEWE WEEFSEL SIEKTES

In hierdie siektes vorm die liggaam teenliggame teen gesonde weefsel wat skade veroorsaak. Die aanval op die immuunstelsel verlaag die liggaam se energievlakke. Spesifieke siektes sluit in lupus erythematosus en keratodermia (verharding van die vel). SKILDKLIERPROBLEME

Die skildklier skei hormone af wat die spoed van jou metabolisme bepaal. As jou skildklierhormoonvlakke te laag is, sal jou metabolisme stadig wees. Jy is moeg en jou vel en hare is droog en vaal. Jy mag ook gewig aansit omdat jou liggaam te stadig kilojoules verbrand; jou voete mag swel en jou hartklop mag stadiger wees. Jy kan ook so uitgeput wees dat jy depressief raak. Tot 10% van vroue en 'n effens laer persentasie van mans ly aan skildklierprobleme. DIABETES EN INSULIENWEERSTANDIGHEID

Of jy aan tipe 1 diabetes (wanneer die liggaam geen insulien produseer nie, en insulieninspuitings noodsaaklik is) of tipe 2 (wanneer die insulien al hoe oneffektiewer raak, bv. wanneer mense oorgewig is), kry jou selle nie genoeg energie om ordentlik te werk nie. Selfs ligte inspanning kan diabete uitgeput laat voel. BLOEDDRUKPROBLEME

Beide hoë en lae bloeddruk kan moegheid veroorsaak. Party bloeddruktablette veroorsaak moegheid as 'n newe-effek. Moegheid is ook 'n belangrike simptoom van sommige nierprobleme soos nierversaking. Dit veroorsaak hoë bloeddruk en anemie wat jou moeg kan maak. Lae bloeddruk veroorsaak dikwels lighoofdigheid en apatie. SIEKTES MET KOORS EN INFEKSIE

Die meeste infeksies laat jou swak en moeg voel, veral wanneer dit met koors gepaard gaan. As die siekte ook lewensbelangrike organe soos die longe, beenmurg of hartspier aantas, kan die moegheid selfs erger wees. Voorbeelde van sulke siektes is endokarditis, miokarditis, asimptomatiese longontsteking (veral by ouer mense), MIV (as gevolg van gewigsverlies, diarree, longinfeksies en anemie), tuberkulose en hepatitis. SLAAP-APNEE EN ANDER OOR-, NEUS– EN KEELPROBLEME

'n Chroniese verstopte neus (as gevolg van allergieë), sinusitis, vergrootte mangels en slaap-apnee kan slaap versteur en die suurstoftoevoer na die liggaam verminder. Op die ou end is jy permanent vaak, uitgeput en kort van draad. Slaap-apnee word veroorsaak deur 'n slap sagte verhemelte wat gedurende slaap ontspan en sodoende die lugweë blokkeer. Alhoewel jy wakker word en skuif wanneer die liggaam se koolstofdioksiedvlakke te hoog raak, is jy meestal onbewus daarvan. Dikwels is die enigste simptoom hiervan 'n harde gesnork gedurende diep slaap. Sommige mense word tot 30 keer per nag wakker. HARTSIEKTE

Moegheid mag die eerste teken wees van hartversaking, aritmie, bloedvatsiektes en hartaanval. Volgens navorsers by Harvard Universiteit kla 71% van vroue 'n maand voor 'n hartaanval en 43% gedurende 'n hartaanval oor moegheid. Die belangrikste simptoom van 'n hartaanval by diabetes is ernstige kortasem en moegheid, en nie pyn nie. COELIAKIE Coeliakie is 'n chroniese wanabsorpsie-siekte wat deur gluten-intoleransie veroorsaak word. Gluten kom in koring en rog en tot 'n mindere mate in gort en hawerprodukte voor. Wanabsorbsie van veral Bvitamiene kan tot anemie en moegheid lei.


Intelligence may be somewhat innate, but wisdom can most certainly be learned. Here’s how to wise up at any age. BY LAUREN GELMAN WISDOM VS. INTELLIGENCE Although people value intelligence—understanding, reasoning, the ability to learn—they also respect wisdom, or the knowledge and experience that we accumulate over a lifetime. Cognitive scientists call the former “fluid intelligence,” which does reduce somewhat during adulthood, and the latter “crystallized intelligence,” which generally improves with age. In some ways, wisdom is like beauty: we value it, we desire it, we know it when we see it, but it is nearly impossible to pin down such an ethereal quality. But researchers have tried—and here’s what they’ve found. THE DEFINITION OF WISDOM In the late 1980s, the Berlin Wisdom Project at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development defined wisdom as having: * Intellectual knowledge * Factual knowledge * Superior judgment * Excellent problem-solving skills * The ability to learn from experience * Humility * Emotional resilience, or the ability to rebound from a setback * Openness, or the maturity to be comfortable allowing the world to see you as you really are * A deep understanding of human nature, including empathy for people who are different or from other cultures Don't have all these qualities? Almost everyone has the capacity to become wiser, especially if you strengthen these six habits that the wisest people all share in common. THEY WORK AT BEING SOCIAL Studies show that people who stay connected to others demonstrate higher levels of wisdom than those who are more isolated. Make an effort to join a new club, reconnect with far-flung friends on Facebook, or invite an old friend or new co-worker for coffee. Next time you’re at a party or gathering, single out someone who’s standing alone and strike up a conversation. People generally love to talk about themselves; you, on the other hand, have a harder job: to listen closely. THEY PRACTICE BEING OPEN-MINDED Wisdom involves being able to understand all sides of an issue without letting emotions or personal feelings get in the way. Being open-minded means finding empathy and realizing that everyone has a life story that influences their actions. During the course of every day, make a note of the issues that bug you, and take a moment to see them from the other side. THEY’VE LEARNED HOW TO SAY, “I COULD BE WRONG” A wise person understands that it is impossible to know everything and that life is capable of taking unexpected turns. Recognizing your errors can lead only to greater wisdom, and admitting that there are times when you could be mistaken will go a long way in solidifying your reputation as someone whose advice can be trusted. As the Roman philosopher Cicero said, “Any man is liable to err; only a fool persists in error.” THEY SWITCH UP WHAT TYPES OF BOOKS THEY READ While current events are important, both fiction and nonfiction books can help you expand your worldview and allow you to explore new ideas and points of view. Mix up your bookshelf: Read histories, biographies and memoirs, funny reads, fictional books that expose you to new cultures and eras, and books that present a point of view or make a case about certain aspects of heath/science, politics, and other subjects. THEY TAP INTO THEIR SELF-KNOWLEDGE You’ve learned a lot just by being alive, but have you taken the time to review all that you’ve learned? Try this exercise: write down your three biggest failures and three greatest successes. For each, review the events that led up to it and what lessons you took away from the experience. Look for patterns. This is not a time for regret or pride; the goal is to look at each experience, good or bad, as more fuel to enrich your wisdom. THEY READ THE NEWS You cannot make balanced choices unless you understand world circumstances and the experiences of others. If you don’t already read a daily paper or news online, start by going through a single front-page article from a major respected news source, from start to finish, every day. Don’t just scan or skip around it; read every word. Eventually, try to get through the main articles of a full newspaper every day.


5 KOMBUIS GEHEIME WAT JY MOET KEN

POTATOBAKE BUNS  Vat 3 tot 4 hamburger buns  Sny in helfte oop  Le plat in bak sodat gesnyde kante na bo lê  Maak aan: 1 blikkie room, een pakkie potato of pasta bake (enige geur) meng goed  Gooi bo-oor die buns  Rasper klomp kaas bo-oor en bak in die oond tot gaar en goudbruin  Jy kan sout en gemaalde swartpeper ook byvoeg en bietjie pietersielie en paprika

Sekere dinge maak jou lewe in die kombuis net soveel makliker. Hier is 5 wenke wat elke huiskok moet hoor om kosmaak vreugdevol en vrolik te hou! KEER DAT AARTAPPELS BRUIN RAAK Wanneer jy aartappels skil, is dit baie belangrik om die geskilde aartappels in koue water te hou terwyl jy nog die res skil. Sodra die aartappels met lug in aanraking kom, word die stysel in die knol bruin – jy kan dit steeds eet, maar dit lyk minder mooi. STADIGER VROT Hou jou tamaties langer vars deur hulle met die stingels na onder by kamertemperatuur te stoor. Wanneer die stingels onder is, keer dit dat suurstof in die vrug intrek en vloeistof uit die vrug verdamp. Tamaties is ook een van die min vrugte (ja, die tamatie is ’n vrug!) wat langer by kamertemperatuur hou as in jou yskas: tamaties hou nie van vog nie en daar is baie vog in jou yskas. LAAT JOU PIESANGS LANGER HOU Wanneer jy piesangs koop, breek dit los van mekaar en draai die stingels toe met kleefplastiek. Die stingels stel etileengas vry wat die rypmaakproses in vrugte aanhelp. Hou piesangs weg van ander vrugte en groente om seker te maak alles hou langer. Jy kan ook harde vrugte gouer ryp maak deur dit in ’n kardoes te sit met ’n piesang of twee daarby. Avokado’s werk veral goed. KEER DAT VRUGTE BRUIN RAAK Jy weet seker as jy appels of pere sny, druk jy klein bietjie suurlemoensap oor om te keer dat dit bruin raak. Ongelukkig kan dit ’n suur smaak agterlaat. Meng volgende keer ’n paar teelepels heuning met bietjie water en gooi dit oor jou vrugte. Heuning bevat ook suur wat oksidasie, die bruin op die gesnyde vrugte, help voorkom – en dis lekker soet! HOU JOU BRUINSUIKERKORRELS LOS As jy so baie van bruinsuiker hou soos ek, sal jy weet dat as jy nie so baie die suikerhouer oopmaak nie, die suiker gou in een groot klont verander. Gooi volgende keer ’n paar lemoenskille in jou houer met bruinsuiker. Die skille sit vog in suiker om dit lekker los te hou én gee ’n subtiele lemoensmaak. Jy kan dieselfde doen met witsuiker. - Herman Lensing -


A button box can tell a lot about the milestones in a person’s life, as one woman found out when she bought this one at an auction. BY KAREN GRISSINGER

“Going, going, gone—for $3 to bidder No. 43, the lady in the last row, white hat.” The auctioneer rattled off my auction number and location as I bought the memories of a lifetime, packed into a 1950s cookie tin. I gave the box a shake and heard the rattle of buttons hit the cover. I took a peek and saw hundreds of buttons, pins, and other trinkets glittering in the sunlight. Replacing the cover, I turned my attention to the auctioneer. As I listened to his cadence, my eye caught the movement of a swing on the front porch. A petite lady with thinning hair watched the happenings in her yard, her eyes wandering through the crowd, trying to find the faces of her neighbors and friends. Carrying an armload of purchases to my car later, I chatted with her about the large gathering and the prices her things were bringing. Her eyes reflected sorrow at the passage of time and the loss of her independence. She would be moving to a progressive nursing home in town after the sale. I showed her the button box I was carrying, and she looked up, tears glistening in her eyes. I asked if she minded if I sat with her a while. She slid over on her swing to give me room. Her eyes fell to the box, and I removed the cover so we could view the contents. Her gnarled hands lifted a handful of buttons before slowly dropping them back into the container. Her tiny fist closed around a delicate pearl button now yellow with age. She smiled as she told me about the birth of her first child and the special pearl-buttoned christening outfit that would be worn by five more babies before time wore it thin. I put my hand into the box and pulled out a large, dark brass military button that appeared to be from World War II. “From my first husband’s uniform,” she said. “It’s one of the few things I had to remind me of him when he didn’t return home alive.” They had been married seven months before he left to serve his country, she told me. “I married his best friend two years later, and we had a good marriage. That’s the way it was in those days. Someone always looked out for the widows and children.” As we sifted through the box, we found hairpins ranging from black to brown to shades of gray and even white. Each color noted the passing of time and its effect on her hair. I pulled a small key from the box, and I heard the sharp intake of her breath. Her eyes glistened again with unshed tears, and she told me it was the key to a music box that played a special love song. She thought it had been lost, never to be found. From my hand to hers, I passed the key to her memories. We found a Sunday school pin holding a bar for every year of perfect attendance except one. As I searched her face for the reason, she said, “The year my mother was sick with cancer, I stayed home on Sundays with her so my father could get to church. He never missed a Sunday until his death 15 years ago.” Garter clips, wooden nickels, snaps, and ruby buttons took her further down memory lane. I learned of her wedding, the birth of her children and the life she led for 89 years. I set her box of memories down on the swing and slid my hands into hers. I knew I would be visiting her at her new home, just as I knew that when I reached my house, my heart would pull me to the sewing room, where I would rediscover my own lifetime of memories in my button box.


From cancer to migraines to arthritis, researchers have recently made some exciting advances in early diagnosis and treatments. BY MARY S. AIKINS The treatment breakthrough for breast cancer

“Astonishing!” and “Ground breaking!” and “Game-changing potential!” is how breast cancer experts are describing the results from a recent trial. Researchers from Cancer Research UK gave women with aggressive breast cancer a combination of two cancer-treating drugs: Herceptin (trastuzumab) and Tyverb (lapatinib). After 11 days of treatment with the drug combo, 17 percent of women saw their tumors shrink drastically. Even more impressive: Tumors completely disappeared in another 11 percent of women given both drugs. In the trial, the researchers had been looking to see how the combined drug treatment affected tumors between diagnosis and surgery; the “unexpected” results were “dramatic.” Both drugs are current breast cancer treatments, so the combination therapy could be prescribed very soon—excellent news for some breast cancer patients.


In celebration of GWR Day 2016, the title holders for Smallest married couple have travelled to London this week to visit the London HQ of Guinness World Records.

Paulo Gabriel da Silva Barros and Katyucia Lie Hoshino, both of Brazil, have been verified at a combined height of just 181.41 cm, and became world record holders back in September after tying the knot. Paulo (aged 31 and 90.28 cm in height),and Katyucia, (28 and 91.13 cm) first met in 2006 through the now defunct social media platform, Orkut. 'I found her very beautiful from the first moment I saw her,' he explains. But Katyucia didn't reciprocate and at first blocked him on the instant messaging site, before Paulo eventually won her over. They would chat online regularly for a couple of years before first meeting in person on 20 December 2008. They began dating on 29 December. They maintained a long distance relationship for four years, managing to see each other every couple of months. In January 2012, Katyucia decided to move from her hometown of Londrina to Paulo’s town, Itapeva. They did not need to live together long before they knew they were meant to be together. Paulo, a civil servant for his local government, and Katyucia, beauty salon owner, receive a lot of attention for their height, and not all of it is good. They find that being together attracts more attention – but equally, being together gives them greater strength in dealing with the attention. Paulo was unable to walk until the age of 21. In an attempt to be more independent, he used a child’s tricycle to aid his mobility in his late teens, and upgraded to a four-wheeler when he turned 20. Having learned to walk and following the fitting of orthopaedic boots in 2008, he vowed to never use a child’s bike again – he upgraded to a specially fitted out car which he still drives today. His colleagues know him as ‘Paulinho Gigante’ – Giant Paulo. Speaking ahead of today’s celebrations on the international day of record breaking, Katyucia said: “We are so happy to be a part of Guinness World Records Day and to have our unique record celebrated. We hope our new record will encourage the world to look past the physical differences in others and understand all people should be treated equally.” “We may be short but we have big hearts and lots of love for each other as well as everybody in our lives. Our life isn’t without its challenges but we are so happy we can tackle these challenges together.”


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“Too often we underestimate the power of a touch, a smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliment, or the smallest act of caring, all of which have the potential to turn a life around.” Leo Buscaglia

Sometimes it’s the smallest act that makes the biggest impact, something as simple as saying please or thank you can turn a day around, and make a life seem that much better. Random Acts of Kindness Day encourages you to get out there and be the light you want to see in the world. HISTORY OF RANDOM ACTS OF KINDNESS DAY Random Acts Of Kindness Day was first created in Denver, Colorado in 1995, and nine years later it spread to New Zealand in 2004. Random Acts of Kindness can include just about anything, including something as simple a taking a tray of muffins to work. The idea behind this day is to make the world a better place by spreading a little light around. Lift someone up with your words, compliment them on their appearance, all these things can help to really turn around someone who’s having a bad day. Additionally, research has shown that the very act of doing something for someone else gives us a chemical high, a higher one, in fact, than if something had been done for us. There was a wise man who once shared a concept “Do not think of those who are in need, such as panhandlers, as seeking charity. They are, instead, providing a service. A service that allows you to get your fix of feel good while simultaneously paying someone for providing it.” It may be a bit more open-minded than some people are ready for, but it certainly helps bring things into light! HOW TO CELBRATE RANDOM ACTS OF KINDNESS DAY Random Acts of Kindness come in all forms, large and small, and how you choose to perform yours is entirely up to you. It can start with dropping a bit of change in the cup of the homeless person along the street, or considering the time of year, providing a warm blanket to see them through. You could take a friend out to lunch, for no other reason than that they’re your friend. See someone looking down? Drop a hot coffee or tea on their desk with a smile, and tell them to have a great day. Even just smiling at someone and telling them to have a good day could have a profound impact. On Random Acts of Kindness Day, help yourself by helping others, the smile on their face and yours will prove it’s all worth it.


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Le jetee news #39 (17 feb 2017)