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The history and symbolism behind the tradition of wearing a wedding ring and why, in most western cultures, it’s worn on the fourth finger of the left hand, otherwise known as the ring finger. Wedding rings today are a billion dollar sentiment of love, but no one can really say for sure when this age old tradition actually started. Some believe that the oldest recorded exchange of wedding rings comes from ancient Egypt, about 4800 years ago. Sedges, rushes and reeds, growing alongside the wellknown papyrus were twisted and braided into rings for fingers an other decorative ornaments worn by the women in those days.

Nail polish originated in China as early as 3000 BC. The ingredients included beeswax, egg whites, gelatin, and vegetable dyes. In Ancient Egypt, nail polish was even used to signify class rankings: The lower class often wore nude and light colors, while high society painted their nails red. Acrylic nails were introduced in 1978. And they were invented by a dentist.

The circle was the symbol of eternity, with no beginning or end, not only to the Egyptians, but many other ancient cultures. The hole in the center of the ring also had significance. It wasn’t just considered a space, but rather a gateway, or door; leading to things and events both known and unknown. To give a woman a ring signifies never-ending and immortal love. The materials these rings were made of didn’t last very long and soon were substituted with rings made of leather, bone or ivory. The more expensive the material, the more love shown to the receiver; the value of the ring also demonstrated the wealth of the giver. The Roman’s also eventually adopted this tradition but with their own twist. Rather than offering a ring to a woman as a symbol of love, they awarded them as a symbol of ownership. Roman men would “claim” their woman with the giving of a ring. Roman betrothal rings were later made of iron and called “Anulus Pronubus.” They symbolized strength and permanence. It is also said that the Romans were the first to engrave their rings. It was not until about 860 that the Christians used the ring in marriage ceremonies; even then, it was not the simple plain band as we know it. It usually was highly decorated with engraved doves, lyres, or two linked hands. The Church discouraged such rings as ‘heathenish’ and, around the 13th century, wedding and betrothal rings were considerably simplified, and given a more spiritual look which was very aptly expressed by a Bishop when he dubbed it a “symbol of the union of hearts.” Wedding rings through different stages in history have been worn on different fingers, including the thumb, and on both the left and right hands. According to a tradition believed to have been derived from the Romans, the wedding ring is worn on the left hand ring finger because there was thought to be a vein in the finger, referred to as the ‘Vena Amoris’ or the ‘Vein of Love’ said to be directly connected to the heart. However, scientists have shown this is actually false. Despite this, this myth still remains regarded by many (hopeless romantics) as the number one reason rings are worn on the fourth finger. Another theory thought to be behind the ring being placed on the left hand by Christians seems a little more plausible. Early Christian marriages had a ritual to wear the wedding ring in the third finger. As the priest recited during the binding ,”In the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit”, he would take the ring and touch the thumb, the index finger, and the middle finger; then, while uttering “Amen”, he would place the ring on the ring finger, which sealed the marriage. A more practically based theory is that the soft metal (traditionally gold for wedding rings) is less worn or injured on the finger of the left hand, due to most of the world being right handed. Further, the fourth finger on the left hand is probably the second to the least used finger on a person’s hands outside of pinkies. Pinkies being small, making a small ring with little surface area to decorate, perhaps motivated people to then place it on the next least used finger, namely the fourth finger on the left hand, which is roughly the size of the other fingers.


It can be tough to figure out if you're just moody, or if your emotional highs and lows are the result of a more serious mental illness. Here's how to tell if you might have bipolar disorder. BY ILISA COHEN WHAT IS BIPOLAR DISORDER? There are two commonly diagnosed types of bipolar disorder, a mental illness characterized by mood swings from emotional highs to lows. People with bipolar I have depression alternating with severely elevated mood, or mania. Bipolar II is much more common, and is marked by less severe manic symptoms, called hypomania. Since the characteristics of bipolar disorder exist along a spectrum ranging from nonexistent to extreme, and because good or bad moods can be a result of temporary events or circumstances rather than a mental illness, diagnosis of bipolar disorder can be difficult. YOU’RE DOWNRIGHT DEPRESSED A bipolar person in a depressive state will have the same symptoms as someone who has only depression. "They have the same problems with energy, appetite, sleep, and focus as others who have 'plain old depression,'" Don Malone, MD, chair of the department of psychiatry at Cleveland Clinic, in Ohio, says. The period of mania, or elevated mood, that follows the depression is what differentiates a bipolar diagnosis. It’s important to discuss fluctuations in mood with your therapist because the treatment for depression will be different from bipolar disorder treatment. "Antidepressants can be downright dangerous in people with bipolar because they can send them into mania," says Dr. Malone. Signs of depression include: feeling sad or hopeless for long periods of time, withdrawal from family or friends, lack of interest in activities you used to enjoy, significant changes in appetite, lack of energy, slow speech, problems concentrating, and preoccupation with death. YOU CAN’T SLEEP It’s common to have periods of insomnia due to stress or anticipation of something exciting on the horizon. But someone in a manic phase of bipolar disorder will require significantly less sleep than usual (sometimes none at all) for days at a time—and still feel energized. During a depressive phase, a person may sleep for longer than usual. Carrie Bearden, PhD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and psychology at UCLA, says that staying on a regular sleep schedule is one of the first things she recommends for bipolar patients.

YOU’RE IN A GREAT MOOD—A REALLY, REALLY GREAT MOOD! Who wouldn’t love to be in a great mood? And why would anyone see that as a sign of mental illness? “These phases of the disorder may actually be enjoyable to the individual because they allow for increased productivity and creativity that they normally might not experience,” says Smitha Murthy, MD, psychiatrist at the Seton Mind Institute in Austin, Texas. But if the mood elevation is extreme, there is no apparent cause for it, it lasts for a week or longer, or it appears in combination with other symptoms, it may be indicative of bipolar disorder. Hypomania, characteristic of bipolar II, may be even harder to differentiate from a generally good mood because the symptoms are milder. Look for a combination of elevated mood with other bipolar symptoms, especially in repetitive cycle that alternates with depression. YOU GET DISTRACTED EASILY Trouble concentrating, a tendency to jump from task to task, or being generally unable to finish projects may be attributed to flightiness, stress, or other factors. But if you’re so distracted that you’re unable to get anything done, and it’s interfering with your work or relationships, it could be a sign of bipolar disorder, says Dr. Murthy. YOU’RE UNUSUALLY IRRITABLE “This is one of the trickiest symptoms to recognize since it’s a natural reaction to frustration or unfairness,” says James Phelps, MD, director of the Mood Disorders Program at Samaritan Mental Health in Corvallis, Oregon and coauthor of the upcoming book, Bipolar, Not So Much: Understanding Your Mood Swings and Depression. Getting upset that someone cut you off on the highway, for example, is pretty normal. “Anger out of proportion to the situation, rising too fast, getting out of control, lasting for hours, and shifting from one person to another, would differentiate the behavior as a possible bipolar symptom,” he says. YOU TALK—AND THINK—FAST A “chatty Cathy” is not abnormal, says Dr. Phelps. “But talking so fast that others can’t keep up or understand—especially in phases with other bipolar symptoms, may be hypomania,” he adds. Someone in a manic state may not even let another person get a word in. This type of rapid speech is especially concerning if a person doesn’t speak this way typically. Similarly, racing thoughts or ideas that come so quickly that others—and even you yourself—may not be able to keep up may be indicative of mania. YOU’RE EXTREMELY CONFIDENT—BUT DON’T MAKE GOOD DECISIONS Normally, high self-esteem is a good thing. In a person with bipolar disorder, excessive confidence could lead to poor decisions. "They feel grandiose and don't consider consequences; everything sounds good to them," Dr. Malone says. This may lead to taking risks and engaging in erratic behavior you ordinarily wouldn’t attempt, like having an affair or spending thousands of dollars you can’t afford to spend. DRUG AND ALCOHOL USE “People with bipolar disorder have a higher than average rate of a co-occurring substance or alcohol use,” says Dr. Murthy. They may try to calm themselves with alcohol or drugs during a manic phase, or use them to cheer up during a depression.


EGG ROLL NOODLE BOWL RECIPE TOTAL TIME: Prep/Total Time: 30 min. MAKES: 4 servings INGREDIENTS: 1 tablespoon sesame oil 1/2 pound ground pork 1 tablespoon soy sauce 1 garlic clove, minced 1 teaspoon ground ginger 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon ground turmeric 1/4 teaspoon pepper 6 cups shredded cabbage (about 1 small head) 2 large carrots, shredded (about 2 cups) 150g rice noodles 3 green onions, thinly sliced Additional soy sauce, optional DIRECTIONS:  In a large skillet, heat oil over medium-high heat; cook and crumble pork until browned, 4-6 minutes. Stir in soy sauce, garlic and seasonings.  Add cabbage and carrots; cook 4-6 minutes longer or until vegetables are tender, stirring occasionally.  Cook rice noodles according to package directions; drain and immediately add to pork mixture, tossing to combine.  Sprinkle with green onions. If desired, serve with additional soy sauce. NUTRITIONAL FACTS: 1-1/2 cups: 302 calories, 12g fat (4g saturated fat), 38mg cholesterol, 652mg sodium, 33g carbohydrate (2g sugars, 4g fiber), 14g protein. Diabetic Exchanges: 2 medium-fat meat, 2 vegetable, 1-1/2 starch, 1/2 fat.


“No one wants a kid to suffer like that.” BY ASHLEY LEWIS It was a frigid wintry morning in Kennewick, Washington when John Lunceford picked up a crying child along his bus route to school. Tears rolled down the young boy’s cheeks as his bare hands and ears burned red from the bitter cold. Lunceford took his gloves off, gave them to the child, and said, “It’ll all be ok.” The little boy stopped crying. “I’m a grandfather,” Lunceford said, according to a Kennewick School District Facebook post. “No one wants a kid to suffer like that.” His heart ached for the poor student, knowing the brunt of winter still loomed ahead.

After dropping the kids off at school, the three-year bus driver and U.S. Army veteran went to the dollar store to buy 10 sets of gloves and stocking hats in pink and black. He drove back to the school later that day with his new purchases in tow to track down the boy from his bus route. Lunceford and administrators found him in the library, where he surprised the boy with a new pair of gloves and hat. But the little boy was just the beginning. Many other students would reap the rewards of their benevolent bus driver. He announced to the students in the library that any child found without a hat or gloves on his bus route would be given a set. One little girl immediately said she didn’t have a hat. As Lunceford handed her a cozy hat, he smiled and said, “I’ll take care of you sweetie.”


"Succulent Nails" Are Taking Over Instagram, And We Have So Many Thoughts For starters, how would you do the dishes? By Gina Mei

It's time to take your love for succulents to the next level — by growing a few on your fingernails. Thanks to Australian artist Roz Borg, it's now possible for tiny plants to survive while hanging out near your cuticles. As she explained in an interview with The Huffington Post, while she normally uses succulents to create gorgeous terrariums and jewelry, she recently decided to branch out to other mediums, and ended up discovering a technique to create real, living nail art. In order to achieve the look, Borg glues the baby succulents to an acrylic nail using Oasis floral adhesive, then attaches the nail to her real nail after it dries. She tells the publication that the whole process takes hours — but it's definitely worth it, and it's safe to say the finished look is unlike anything you've ever seen at your local nail salon. Plus, once the "polish" starts to "chip," it's actually quite environmentally friendly. "The Oasis glue eventually releases and I can plant the baby succulents and they can grow happily," she told The Huffington Post. "It's definitely a temporary green thumb."


Woermann House and Tower is situated in Bismarck Street Swakopmund. This beautiful old building was erected in 1894. During 1903/04 the Woermannhaus was extended and extravagant wood paneled offices were added. The Damara Tower served as a water tower, landmark and navigation point for the ships of the Woermann line. In 1921 the South West Africa Administration bought the Woermannhaus and converted it into a school hostel. It was later restored and transformed into the public library and art centre as it is today.

Arnhem Cave is the longest cave system in Namibia, situated on the farm Arnhem, 120 km east of Windhoek. There are six bat species in the cave, including the giant leaf-nosed bat. The Tsumeb mine was once the richest source of lead and zinc in Africa. More than 200 different minerals have been found in and around Tsumeb. Dragon's Breath is the largest underground lake in the world and situated on the farm Hariseb, 46 km north west from Grootfontein off the road C4 There is a horse graves site on the way to Walvis Bay just outside of Swakopmund where more than 1650 horses and mules were shot in 1915 by South African. Hunting season in Namibia is open from 1 May to 31 August. Hunting is permitted throughout the year, but only with special permission (Correction - last week's edition)


Rats multiply so quickly that in 18 months, two rats could have over a million descendants. ****** Wearing headphones for just an hour will increase the bacteria in your ear by 700 times. ****** The cigarette lighter was invented before the match. ****** Thirty-five percent of the people who use personal ads for dating are already married.

TIC TAC CONTAINERS: PRACTICE PORTION CONTROL Care to eat eight orange Tic Tacs at once? We get it. But for moments when you're inclined to practice self-restraint, make use of the crater on the underside of the lid, which nicely holds exactly one Tic Tac. Turn the container upside down, give it a little shake, and slowly open the lid while tilting the box horizontally so the other mints don't fall out. One Tic Tac will be awaiting you in its designated spot.


INGREDIENTS:

Purin the multi-record-breaking dog from Japan is back with another impressive title.

1 cup of salt 1 cup of flour 1/2 cup water

The 11-year-old beagle and her owner Makoto Kumagai first set the record for the Most skips by a dog and a person in one minute – single rope back in May 2016 with a total of 51 successful jumps. After a few months more practice, the pair have now raised the record to an incredible 58 skips. The attempt took place in Ito, Shizuoka in Japan. Purin first rose to fame in 2015 when she earned a place in the Guinness World Records 2016 Edition for the Most balls caught by a dog with the paws in one minute. The goalkeeping pup expertly ‘saved’ 14 mini footballs thrown by Makoto. The skilful pooch also holds the record for the Fastest 10 m travelled on a ball by a dog with a time of 10.39 seconds achieved in March 2016. Her earlier record was 11.90 seconds. Purin has become an unstoppable record-breaker and we can’t wait to see what jaw-dropping trick she will amaze us with next.

INSTRUCTIONS:       

First, dump them all in a bowl and mix well. (Little hands are great helpers with this!) Use a fork to mix it until it came together in a ball. You can judge if you think you need a little more water. It should be a similar consistency to play dough. Now shape it into whatever you want, like this heart above. You can make one large shape so it would be more like a plaque or stepping stone, but you can also make multiple smaller ones as well. (If you'd like to hang yours, use a straw to add one or two holes near the top.) Then put the dough directly on the pan and parchment paper that you are going to bake it on. Next, put the heart on the floor and let your children step on the one side of the heart while you gently pressed down on their foot to make an impression. Then use the thin handle of a fork to carve their names above their footprints and the year in the center. Now, it's time to bake! Bake at about 200F (or 100C) for 3 hours.

Check to see if it's dry. If you did multiple little ones, they'll probably be done. But if you did one big one, then it may need a little longer. If the bottom is still a little moist in the center, turn it upside down and baked it for another hour. Take out your baked heart and let it cool. Once it's fully cooled, you can paint it. You can use a metallic colour, which dried with a nice sheen. Foam brushes are best for this part, and to get paint in all the letters, you have to dab them a bit. You could paint the bottom as well, if you wanted. Let it dry completely, then display it or wrap it up as a very special gift!


Ons sien deesdae onverwags Vitamien D-tekorte in gesonde sowel as siek mense. Vitamien D (Vit D) bestaan in 2 vorms wat beide noodsaaklik is, veral vir gesonde beengroei. Vit. D 2 (ergocalciferol) is ‘ n vetoplosbare vitamien wat voorkom in dierlike vette, volroom suiwel en plantvette. Dit is veral volop in vis en visolie. Vit D 3 (cholecalciferol) word in die vel vervaardig wanneer sonlig op die vel skyn. GEVOLGE VAN ‘N VIT D-TEKORT: By kinders: Onvermoë tot gesonde groei van die skelet. Neerlegging van kalsium is gebrekkig, sodat die hele skelet sag bly. Die lang bene in die arms en bene buig, die ruggraat verkrom, die hele skelet ontwikkel abnormaal. Beide gebrekkige dieëtinname en te min blootstelling aan sonlig speel ‘n rol. Die klassieke voorbeeld in mediese handboeke was altyd die lang donker Europese winters waar daar vir maande lank geen sonskyn is nie, en kinders veral in die stedelike agterbuurte nie genoeg Vit D in die dieët gehad het nie. Dit is skokkend dat ons deesdae hierdie siekte (“rickets”) sien in stede soos Johannesburg, waar klein kinders die hele dag lank net binnenshuis opgepas word en nooit in die son kom nie, saam met ‘n onvoldoende dieët. Die oormatige gebruik van sonblokroom blokkeer ook die vorming van in Vit D in die vel. By volwassenes: Osteoporose as gevolg van te min Vit D in volwassenes word genoem osteomalasie. Osteoporose is reeds baie algemeen veral by ouer vroue, (meer nog by rokers, mense wat hulle lewe lank onaktief was, en baie skraal vroue) en word deur ‘n Vit D-tekort vererger. Baie bejaardes kom nooit in die son nie, en die ouer vel is minder effektief om Vit D te vervaardig. Depressie: ‘n Ander gevolg van te min Vit D is depressie. Depressie is baie algemeen onder ouer mense, veral die in inrigtings, en kan baie verbeter word met Vit. Daanvullings. Ons toets deesdae standaardweg ons ouer pasiënte vir Vit D-bloedvlakke, en tekorte is baie meer algemeen as wat eers vermoed was. Ons weet dat sonlig ons altyd opkikker en laat beter voel. Te min sonlig in ‘n lang koue winter speel ‘n groot rol in die “kollektiewe depressie” wat goed beskryf is in die Europese lande. Die winterreënstreke hier by ons het ook hierdie probleem. DIE BEHANDELING IS DUS:  Sonlig op die vel op ‘n daaglikse basis, verkieslik op ‘n groot area, sonder sonblok vir 15 – 20 minute per dag.  Genoeg suiwelprodukte en dieëtaanvulling waar nodig. L.W.: ‘n Oormaat inname van Vit D as gevolg van te veel dieëtaanvulling is toksies vir die liggaam en kan hiperkalsemie veroorsaak.


NAMPOL TRAFFIC NUMBERS WALVIS BAY SWAKOPMUND HENTIES BAY KARIBIB OMARURU CITY POLICE

081 333 0449 081 202 8391 081 657 0704 081 711 9482 081 657 0703 061—302302

OTHER EMERGENCY NUMBERS LIFELINK NAMIBIA E-MED RESCUE ST GABRIELS COM AMBULANCE EAGLE CHRIST. AMBULANCE WINDHOEK STATE AMBULANCE SWAKOPMUND STATE AMBULANCE WALVIS BAY STATE AMBULANCE

085 900 081 924 085 955 085 933 061-2033282 064-4106000 064-216300


Le jetee news #34 (16 jan 2017)