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LEIS Indi

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yP r h ,e; j pah jkpo; rpwg;gpjo;


yP r h ,e; j pah jkpo; rpwg;gpjo; This issue in Tamil is a translated version of LEISA India magazine. This includes selected articles from LEISA India, originally published in English. Address : ame Foundation No. 204, 100 Feet Ring Road, 3rd Phase, Banashankari 2nd Block, 3rd Stage, Bangalore - 560 085, India Tel: +91-080- 2669 9512, +91-080- 2669 9522 Fax: +91-080- 2669 9410 E-mail: amebang@giasbg01.vsnl.net.in Leisa India Chief Editor : K.V.S. Prasad Managing Editor : T.M. Radha

yPrh vd;gJ Fiwe;j ntspapL nghUs; kw;Wk; epiyj;j Ntshz;ik vd;gjd; RUf;fkhFk;. Rw;Wr;RoYf;F cfe;j topfspy; cw;gj;jpiaAk;> tUkhdj;ijAk; ngUf;f tpUk;Gk; coth;fSf;F njhopw;El;g kw;Wk; r%f hPjpapyhd tha;g;Gfis cs;slf;fpajhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ cs;@h; ts Mjhuq;fs; kw;Wk; ,aw;ifapd; Nghf;Ffis msTld; gad;gLj;jp Njitg;gLk; NghJ ghJfhg;ghd msT ntspaPL nghUl;fis jpwd;gl ifahs;tjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ Mz; kw;Wk; ngz; coth;fis> me;j r%fj;ij Ragyk; kpf;fth;fshfTk;> rf;jp kpf;fth;fshfTk; khw;wp mjd;%yk; mth;fspd; vjph;fhyj;ij jq;fs; nrhe;j mwpT> jpwik>kjpg;gL P > fyhr;rhuk; kw;Wk; mikg;Gfis mikf;f cjTtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ khwptUk; #oy;fs; kw;Wk; NjitfSf;F Vw;g coth;fs; kw;Wk; ,ju gq;Fjhuh;fspd; jpwikfs;> gq;Nfw;G mZFKiwfs; %yk; gyg;gLj;JtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ ghuk;ghpa mwpitAk;> mwptpay; g+h;tkhd mwpitAk; ,izj;J mjd;%yk; nfhs;if cUthf;fj;jpy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jp vjph;fhy tsh;r;rpf;F rhjfkhd #oiy cUthf;FtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ xU fUj;J> xU mZFKiw kw;Wk; tpNtfkhd nra;jp.

Translated by Suresh Kanna. K Translation coordination Poornima Administration Rukmini G. G. Design and Layout M.S. Vasanth Christopher Printing L.S. Graphic Prints, Chennai Cover photo Permangari Narsamma in her biodiverse farm in Medak distrcit in Telangana (Photo: DDS) Different editions • Regional Editions Telugu, Hindi, Kannada, Marathi, Punjabi and Oriya • Farming Matters The Global edition in English • LEISA Revista de Agroecologia The Latin American edition in Spanish • LEISA India The Indian edition in English • AGRIDAPE The West African edition in French • Agriculturas, Experiencias em Agroecologia The Brazilian edition in Portuguese • LEISA CHINA The Chinese edition The editors have taken every care to ensure that the contents of this magazine are as accurate as possible. The authors have ultimate responsibility, however, for the content of individual articles. The editors encourage readers to photocopy and circulate magazine articles.

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Supported by MISEREOR, Published by AME Foundation yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

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Racjtpf; FOf;fspd; $l;likg;Gfs;> tpQ;Qhdpfs; kw;Wk; jhd; gTz;Nlrd; epWtdj;jpd; fsg;gzpahsh;fs;> jkpo;ehL Ntshz;ik gy;fiyf; fof tpQ;Qhdpfs; kw;Wk; I.rp.V. Mh; epWtdj;jpd; mfpy ,e;jpa rpWjhdpa Nkk;ghl;L xUq;fpizg;G jpl;lk; njhlh; e ; J ,ize; J k; > tpthjpj; J k; > Muha; e ; J k; nra; t jw; F mbj; j skhf mike; j J. jpl; l j; j pd; topfhl; L k; topKiwahdJ> tptrhapfs; Kd;dpd;W nra;Ak; Ma;thf> ghuk;ghpa mwptpay; Kiwfis fl; b naLf; f Tk; kw; W k; ghypd fz; N zhl; l kpf; f mwptpay; g+h;tkhd kw;Wk; gq;Nfw;G Kiwfis epug;GtjhfTk; ,Ue;jJ.

gz;izapNyNa tpijia ghJfhj;jy;> ,ufq;fis Nkk;gLj;Jjy; kw;Wk; cs;@hpy; Gije;Jfplf;Fk; tpij mikg;Gfs; Gof;fj;jpy; cs;s tpij mikg;GfisGhpe;Jnfhs;Sjy; kw;Wk; ,ufq;fspd; gd;kak; tay; Ma;T> ele;J nrd;W ghh;itapLjy; %yk; Ma;T>tptrhapfs; %yk; fye;JiuahLjy;> caph;gd;ka Nghl;b kw;Wk; tpij ghpkhw;wj;jpd; Ma;it njhlh;e;J tpijia Nrfhpj;jy;

gq;Nfw;Gld; $ba ,ufq;fspd; Njh;T tptrhapia Njh;e;njLf;f #o;epiy Ma;T kw;Wk; ,ufq;fspd; tpw;gidj; Njit cfe;j nghUl;fspd; Nj;ly;-ntspaplg;gl;l kw;Wk; cs;@h; ,ufq;fs; tptrhapfspd; tay;fspy; jha; ghpNrhjid tptrhapfspd; tay;fspy; Foe;ij ghpNrhjid

gz;izapNyNa tpijia ghJfhj;jy; caph; gz;kaj; jply; caph; gd;ka epjpia jpul;Ljy; tpijia ghJfhg;gjpy; Mh;tKila tptrhapfis Njh;e;njLj;jy;

epyk; rhh;e;j tpijfspd; gz;Gfis Nrfhpj;jy; kugZ tq;fpia Nrh;j;jy;

Kiwrhuh Ma;T kw;Wk; tsh;r;rp

r%f mbg;gilapyhd tpij mikg;Gfs; tpij Jha;ik> Njitia mjpfhpj;jy;> tpijia ngUf;Fjy; kw;Wk; tpij tpdpNahfk;

nu\;kprh khjphp nu\;kprh khjphpahdJ (xl;l tpsf;fg;glj;ij ghh;ff ; Tk;) gz;izf;Fs; Nrkpg;G> gq;Nfw;G Kiwapy; ufq;fs; Njh;T kw;Wk; r%f mbg;gilapyhd tpij mikg; G fis xUq; f pizf; f pwJ. Muha;r;rpahdJ jw;NghJ cs;s ufq;fspd; gd;ka epytuj;ijAk;> gFjpapy; cs;s tpij guthyhf;f Kiwfis Ghpe; J nfhz; L Jtq;fpaJ. fs tpgu Ma;T> jpl;lg;gFjpapy; ele;J Ma;T nra;jy;> caphpdg; gd;kak; Fwpj;j Nghl;bfs;> kw;Wk; cs;@h; tptrhapfNshL fye; J iuahly; Nghd; w gy; N tW Kiwfs; xt; n thU Ma; T fsj; j pYk; gaphpl jFe; j gaph; f spd; ufq; f is rhFgb nra; t jw; F gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,jd; gpwF caphpdg; gd;ka gFjpfSk; > cs; @ h; ufq; f spd; ntspg; G w Njhw;wj;jpd; Fzeyd;fSk; njhFf;fg;gl;ld. fz;lwpag;gl;l ufq;fs; Gfo;ngw;w kw;Wk; mope;J tUk; ufq;fshf tifg;gLj;jg;gl;ld. mope;J tUk; ufq; f s; Kd; N dhb tptrhapfsplk; nfhLf;fg;gl;L gz;izapNyNa ghJfhg;gjw;F rpwg;G ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl;l mNj Ntisapy;> Gfo;ngw;w ufq;fs; cs;@hpy; mjd; tsh;rr ; pia nra;J ghh;f;Fk; gq;Nfw;G ufq;fs; Njh;Tf;F gad;gLj;jg;gl;ld. gq;Nfw;G ufq;fs; Njh;tpy; > tptrhapfspd; epyq;fspy; jha; ghpNrhjid> Foe;ij ghpNrhjid kw;Wk; Kiwg;gLj;jg;glhj Ma;Tfs; kw;Wk; tsh;r;rp cl;gl nghUj;jkhd fUtpfis Vw; W f; n fhs; t ij ghpNrhjpj; J ghh;ff ; g;gl;lJ. gq;Nfw;G ufq;fs; Njh;tpy; ,Ue;J mjpfk; tpUk; G k; ufkhf Njh; T nra; a g; g l; l ufq;fs; mjpf mstpy; ngUf;fTk;> tsh;f;fTk; nra;ag;gl;ld. mope;J tUk; ufq;fs; r%f tpij mikg; G Kiwapy; gz; i zapNyNa ghJfhf;fg;gl;lJ. 6

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

ufq;fspd; gd;kak; kw;Wk; tpij mikg;Gfs; fsj; j py; mjpf rpWjhdpa ufq; f s; ,Ue; j NghjpYk;> Ma;T nra;ag;gl;l 4 gaph;fspy; ,uz;L ufq;fSf;F Nky; ngUk;ghd;ikahd gFjpfis nrd; w ila Kbatpy; i y. NkYk; midj; J gFjpfspYk; fpuhk mstpy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l ufq;fspd; gd;kak; kpfTk; FiwthdJ. ,e;j #o; e piy> ,e; j gFjpapy; rpWjhdpaq; f spy; ufq;fis mjpfg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd Njitia njspthf fhl;baJ. NkYk;> 90 tpOf;fhL tptrhapfSf;F Nky; gz;izapy; Nrkpf;fg;gl;l rpWjhdpaq;fspd; tpijfisNa gad;gLj;jpdh;. ufq;fSf;Fs; fyg;G Vw;gl;LtpLk; vd;gjhy; mth;fs; tpij Njh;T Kiwfis gpd;gw;wtpy;iynad;wjhy; ufq; f Sf; F s; fyg; G Vw; g l; L tpl; l J. ,e; j epiyapy; ufq;fs; Nkk;ghl;bw;Fk;> ufq;fspd; gd; k aj; i j Nkk; g Lj; J tjw; F k; rpwe; j mZFKiwahdJ jdpg; g l; l tptrhapfs; kl;lj;jpy; mjpf re;jh;g;gq;fis mth;fsplk; cs;s Kiwfspy; mth;fs; tpUk;Gk; ufq;fis vspjhd kw;Wk; jukhd tpij Njh;T Kiwfspy; nra; t Jjhd; . mjpfk; tpUk; G k; ufq; f is ngUf;Ftjw;F gq;Nfw;G uf Njh;tpy; me;je;j gFjpfspy; Kaw;rp nra;ag;gl;lJ.

gq;Nfw;G Kiwapy; ufq;fs; Njh;T rpy Fwpg; g plj; j f; f Fz eyd; f Sf; f hf tptrhapfspd; tpUg; g j; j pd; mbg; g ilapy; ghuk; g hpa kw; W k; ntspaplg; g l; l ufq; f s;


jha; ghpNrhjid Kiwapy; ,uz;L Row;rpapy; eilngw;w ufq;fspd; kjpg;gL P fspypUe;J kpfTk;

epow;glk;: jhz; gTz;Nl\d;

xt;nthU rpWjhdpa gaphpYk; 8-10 ufq;fs; gl; b apyplg; g l; l J. 2011 kw; W k; 2012 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; ,e;j ufq;fs; tptrhapfs; nra;Ak; Nkyhz; i k Kiwfis gpd; g w; w p xt; n thU gFjpapYk; cs;s tptrhapfspd; epyq;fspy; kjpg; g P L nra; a g; g l; l J. ,e; j ufq; f spd; ghpNrhjidfs; jha; ghpNrhjidfs; vd miof; f g; g l; L ,it jhd; gTz; N l\d; mikg;gpy; gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l fs gzpahsh;fshy;> njhopw;El;g ty;Yeh;fspd; topfhl;Ljypd;gb fz; f hzpf; f g; g l; l J. ruhrhpahf 15-20 tptrhapfs; ,e; j kjpg; g P L nray; K iwapy; gq;nfLg;gNjhL> gapiu tsh;j;J> mWtil nra; J nfhLf; F k; nghWg; i gAk; vLj; J f; nfhz;ldh;. gFjpf;F nghUj;jkhd ufq;fs; tptrhapfspd; tpUg;gq;fs; kw;Wk; juq;fspy; nra; a g; g l; l gFg; g ha; t pd; mbg; g ilapy; fz;lwpag;gl;lJ. juq;fs; Fwpj;j gFg;gha;tpy; tsh; r ; r p kw; W k; kf#y; fhuzpfs; Fwpj; j tpguq;fis Nrfhpj;Jk;> mtw;wpy; jd;ikfs; Fwpj;J Muha;e;J nra;ag;gLk; xU epiyahd nra; K iw gpd; g w; w g; g l; l J. tptrhapfspd; tpUg;gq;fs; Fwpj;j gFg;gha;tpy; Mz; kw;Wk; ngz; tptrhapfspd; FOf; f s; xt; n thU ufj;jpw;Fk; jdpj;jdpahf mspf;Fk; kjpg;ngz;fis nfhz;L gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

jkpo;ehL> mQ;rl;bapy; xU ngz; tptrhap Kd;Dhpik Ma;tpid Nkw;nfhs;fpwhh;.

tpUk; G k; (ntspaplg; g l; l kw; W k; ghuk; g hpa ufq;fs;) 1 Kjy; 4 ufq;fs; me;je;j ,lj;jpw;Fk; xt;n thU gapUf;Fk; fz;lwpag;g l ; l J. (ml;ltiz 1I ghh;ff ; Tk;) . fz;lwpag;gl;l ,e;j ufq;fspd; nray;jpwd; NkYk; tptrhapfspd; tay; f spy; tptrhapfspd; Nkyhz; i kapy; cs; s ufq; f NshL NkYk; kjpg; g P L nra; J ghh; f ; f g; g l; l J. xt; n thU ufj; j pd; gpshl; msthdJ jha; ghpNrhjid epyj;ijtpl kpfTk; nghpaJ. (Fiwe;jgl;rk; 200kP2). ,Wjpahf mg;gb ve;j ufq;fspd; nray;jpwd; ed;whf cs;sJ vd; g J ngUk; g hd; i kahd tptrhapfshy; xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gl;lNjh> me;j ufq;fNs ,Wjpahf Njh;T nra;ag;gl;L ngUkstpy; kW cw;gj;jp nra; a g; g l; L mjpf msT tptrhapfSf; F

ml;ltiz Ma;tplq;fspy; rpWjhdpa ufq;fspd; gd;kaj;jd;ik epytuk;

jpl;l ,lq;fs;

gaphplg;gl;Ls;s ufq;fspd; vz;zpf;if ghuk;ghpa ufq;fs;

Gfo;ngw;w ufq;fs;

ntspaplg;vz;zpf;if gl;lit

ngah;

Nfo;tuF mQ;nrl;b

2

3

2

[P.gp.A 28(Mh;)> I.vd;.B.V.vg; 5 (Mh;)

gP&

4

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2

Nlk;gh (b) Nyhfh;lhfpah (b)

[t;thJ kiy

2

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1

Kl;lhd; Nfo;tuF (b)

nrkpyp Flh

19

2

4

gl;b (b)> kl;b (b) fhyfpuq;fh (b) Rdhkzp (b)

[t;thJ kiy

9

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rpl;lhd; (b)> fUrpl;lhd; (b) nts;is rhik (b)

nrkpyp Flh

8

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glh rhd; (b)

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rhil (b)

4

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rhik

Fjpiuthyp Ngiua+h; tuF Ngiua+h;

Mh; - ntspaplg;gl;l ,ufk;> b - ghuk;ghpa ,ufk; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

7


Kiwg;gLj;jg;glhj Muha;r;rp kw;Wk; tsh;r;rp nray;ghLfSf;F nrd;wile;jJ. ,q;qdk;> xt;nthU jpl;lg;gFjpapYk; 3 tUl Fiwe;j fhyj;jpy; ufq;fspd; gd;kaj;ij Nkk;gLj;JtJ rhj; j pakhapw; W . NkYk; > ngUk; g hd; i kahd tptrhapfs; mth; f s; tpUk; G k; ufq; f spd; tpijfis mth;fspd; fl;Lg;ghl;by; itj;Jf; nfhz;ldh;. ,Jjhd;> tof;fkhf eilngWk; tpijf; fyg;G jpl;lj;jpd; %yk; Nkk;gLj;jg;gl;l tpijfs; tptrha r%fj;jpw;F nrd;wilAk; fhy msthd 8-10 tUlq; f spy; ,Ue; J NtWgLfpwJ.

gz;izapNyNa eilngWk; tpij ghJfhg;G xU gaphpd; cs;@h; kugZ tsj;ij ghJfhf;f> Mh; t Kila tptrhapfspd; epyq; f spy; 2 caphpdg; gd;ka jply;fs; cUthf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;j jply;fs; tptrhapfsplj;jpy; tpopg;Gzh;it Vw; g Lj; J tjw; f hd topahfTk; > ufq; f spd; gd;kaq;fis mth;fspd; nrhe;j gFjpapNy fpilf;Fk; vd;gjw;F rhl;rpahfTk; tpsq;fpd. fyg;G ,y;yhj tpij J}a;ikahf tpijfis vLf; f mWtilapd; NghJ fjph; f s; Njh; T nra;ag;gl;L mtw;wpypUe;J tpijfs; Njh;T nra;ag;gl;ld. NkYk; ,e;j ufq;fspd; tpijfspd; J}a; i kg; g Lj; j g; g Ltjw; f hf Muha;r;rp ikaq;fSf;F mDg;gg;gl;L mq;F ntspg;Gw Fzeyd;fs; Fwpj;Jk; Ma;Tfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ld. gz;izapNyNa tpijg; ghJfhg;gjpy; Mh;tKs;s tptrhapfSf;F NkYk; cjTk; tpjkhf xt;nthU jpl;lg; gFjpapYk; caphpdg;gd;ka epjp xd;W cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

r%f mbg;gilapyhd tpij mikg;Gfs; jpl; l g; g Fjpfspy; cs; @ h; mikg; G fshd Ra cjtpf; FOf; f s; kw; W k; mth; f spd; $l; l ikg; G fis gq; n fLf; f r; nra; t jpy; rpwg;G Kaw;rpfs; nra;ag;gl;lJ. ghpNrhjid tptrhapfSf;F cs;@h; ufq;fspd; gd;kak; mope;J tUtJ Fwpj;J mth;fspd; tpopg;Gzh;it mjpfg;gLj;j gl;lwpT gazq;fs; Vw;ghL nra;ag;gl;ld. mth;fs; caph;g;gd;ka epjpia eph;tfpg;gjpYk; gq;nfLj;jdh;. Ra cjtpf; FOf;fspd; $l;likg;GfSk; fle;j tUlq;fspy; mth;fSf;fhd mspf;fg;gl;l r%f kw;Wk; nghUshjhu KjyPLfspd; fhuzkhf gz; i zapNy eilngWk; tpij ngUf; f k; kw;Wk; tptrhapfs; tpUk;Gk; ufq;fis Njh;T 8

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

nra; t jw; F gq; N fw; G Kiwapy; eilngWk; ufq;fs; Njh;T Nghd;wtw;wpy; nghWg;Gfis vLf; F k; epiyia mile; j dh; . gy; N tW gFjpfspy; cs;s Muha;r;rp jsq;fspy; ,e;j Racjtpf; F Of; f spy; cs; s Mh; t Kila ghpNrhjid tptrhapfs; xd;wpize;J nu\;kprh Muha;r;rp xUq;fpizg;G FOit (Mh;. Mh;. rp.rp.) mikj;jdh;. Mh;. Mh;. rp.rp jukhd tpij cw;gj;jp> tpij J}a;ik kw;Wk; tpij gutyhf;fk; Nghd;wtw;wpy; epiyj;j jd;ik ngWk; tifapy; nghWg;Gfis vLf;f cs;sdh;.

gbg;gpidfs; ,e;j xUq;fpize;j khjphpahdJ gy tiffspy; kpfTk; jdpj;Jtk; tha;ej ; J. ,e;j xUq;fpize;j khjphpapy; mjd; KO nray;ghl;bd; ntt;ntW epiyfspy; epiwa vz;zpf;if tptrhapfs; (578 Mz;fs; kw;Wk; 333 ngz;fs;) gq;nfLj;jdh;. mJ mth;fs; xt;nthU nray;ghl;bw;Fk; gpd;dhy; cs;s mbg;gilahd kw;Wk; vspa Nfhl;ghLfis Ghpe;J nfhs;tjw;F cjtpaJ. tptrhapfs; kw;Wk; tpQ;Qhdpfs; xd;W Nrh;eJ ; gzp nra;tjw;fhd tha;g;Gfs; fpilj;jjdhy; xUth; kw;wthpd; mDgtq;fis Ghpe;J nfhz;Lk;> ghuhl;bAk; nray;gl;ljhy; mh;j;jKs;s KbTfis ngw cjtpaJ. xU ufj;jpd; Nkd;ikia kjpg;gPL nra;tjw;F kf#y; xU Kf;fpakhd mbg;gil mk;rkhf Njhd;wpdhYk;> xU ufj;ij tpUk;gp KbT nra;Ak; Kd;dh; ghpNrhjid tptrhapfs; kw;w gz;Gfs; kw;Wk; ghpkhzq;fshd gaph; fhyk;;> gaph; Kjph;r;rpapd; NghJ jhdpaq;fs; tpohky; ,Ug;gJ> gaph; rhahky; ,Ug;gJ> xNu khjphpahd Kjph;rr ; p kw;Wk; ey;y jPtd kf#y; Nghd; w mk; r q; f isAk; fzf; f py; vLj; J f; nfhz; l dh; . Fwpg; g hf> ngz; tptrhapfs; jhdpaj; j pd; ju gz; G fshd epwk; > Rit> jhdpaj; j pd; fbdj; j d; i k kw; W k; Nrkpj; J itf;Fk;NghJ mjd; juk; Nghd;wtw;wpy; kpfTk; ftdkhf ,Ue;jdh;. nghJthf jw;NghJ cs;s mikg;G Kiwfshy; Gwf; f zpj; J tpl; l xd; i w> ,e; j mDgtk; ghuk;ghpa ufq;fs; tptrhapfspd; Njitia g+h;jj ; p nra;af;$ba jpwd; nfhz;lit vd;gij ep&gpj;Js;sJ. jpl;lj;jpd; $l;lhspfSf;F ,ilNa cs;s $l;L Kaw;rpahdJ ehl;bd; gy;NtW gFjpfspy; cs;s tpijf;fUf;fis gfph;e;J cjtpnfhs;tJ %yk; ntF njhiyT gFjpapy; cs; s tptrhapfSf; F ufq; f is Njh; T nra; tjw; fhd tha; g; i g tphpTgLj; j p nfhLj;Js;sJ. ,e;j khjphpahdJ> jw;NghJ eilKiwapy; cs;s tsh;r;rp nray;ghLfshd


Racjtpf; FOf;fs;> rpW fld; Nghd;wtw;NwhL xUq;fpizj;J ufq;fis Nkk;gLj;JtijAk;> tsh;j;njLg;gijAk; rhj;jpakhf;fpAs;sJ. ufq; f s; Nkk; g hL vd; g J tptrhapfspd; Njitfis g+h;jj ; p nra;a Ntz;bAs;sjhy;> mJ xU njhlh; epfo;thf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; (jpl;lj;jpy; xU gFjpahf fhzg;gl;lhYk;). ,jid r%f tpij mikg; N ghL ,izg; g Jjhd; jpl; l f; fhyj;ij jhz;b njhlh;tjw;fhd tha;g;ig nfhLf;Fk;. NkYk; ,e;j khjphpahdJ vd;.V. Mh;. v]; Nghd;w cs;@hpy; cs;s Kiwg;gb nray; g Lk; Muha; r ; r p eP N uhl; l j; j plk; cs; s tpijf;fUf;fNshL Nrh;e;J nray;gLtjw;Fk;> Kiwg;gb nray;gLk; kw;Wk; Kiwg;gb my;yhky; nray;gLk; tpij mikg;GfSf;Fk; ,ilNa njhlh; i g Vw; g Lj; j ,lj; i j cUthf; f p nfhLj;jJ. gz; i zapNyNa eilngWk; tpij Nrkpg; G > gq;Nfw;G Kiwapy; ufq;fs; Njh;T kw;Wk; r%f tpij mikg;G Kiwfs; ,tw;iw xUq;fpizg;gJ> ufq;fis Nkk;gLj;JtjpYk;> rpWjhdpaq;fspy; ufq;fspd; gd;kaj;ij mjpfhpg;gjpYk; rpwe;j KbTfis nfhLj; J s; s J. tptrhapfspd; mikg;Gfs;> tsh;r;rp epWtdq;fs;> Muha;r;rp epWtdq;fs; Nghd;w gy;NtW gq;Fjhuh;fspd; $l;LKaw;rpahdJ xU XUq;fpize;j khjphpia eilKiwg; g Lj; J tjw; F ,d; w paikahjJ. NkYk; ghypd fz; N zhl; l j; N jhL $ba tptrhapfs; Kd; d pd; W elj; J k; gq; N fw; G Muha;r;rp eilKiwfSf;F gykhd mOj;jk; nfhLg;gJ> nray;jpwd; kpf;f gzp cwTepiyfis cUthf;fTk;> mjd; %yk; jw;NghJ cs;s mjpf rkd;ghLfis vjph;nfhs;s Njitahd $l;Lr;

nray; ghLfis ntw; w pfukhf cUthf; f Tk; Njitg; g LfpwJ. ,e; j mZFKiwahdJ midj;J gaph;fs; kw;Wk; g+Nfhs kl;lj;jpYk; gpd;gw;wf;$baJ. xUq;fpizj;j mZFKiwf;fhd NjitiaAk;> $l;lhspfspd; $l; L nray; g hl; i l mq; f P f hpg; g NjhL> rpW tptrhaf; FLk; g q; f spd; tho; t hjhuq; f s; Nkk;gLtjw;F eilngw;W tUk; Kaw;rpfis epWtdg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd NjitAk; cs;sJ. ,e; j nray; K iwapy; > Kiwg; g b nghJtpy; cs;s tpij mikg;G Kiwfs; kw;Wk; murpd; epjp cjtpNahL nra;ag;gLk; gaph; Kiwfs; kw;Wk; tptrhapfSf;F mtw;wpd; kPJ cs;s njhlh; i gAk; fUj; j py; nfhz; L ghuk; g hpa ufq; f spd; nray; j pwidAk; ; cs; s lf; f p Njitg;gLk; Kaw;rpfs; vLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.  M Karthikeyan is the Principal Investigator, RESMISA project and Program Leader for Rainfed Farming Development Program, DHAN Foundation, India. C S P Patil is the former Principal Scientist, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India. References Gill, T. B., Bates, R., Bicksler, A., Burnette, R., Ricciardi, V., & Yoder, L., Strengthening informal seed systems to enhance food security in Southeast Asia, Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems and Community Development, 2013, 3(3), 139-153. %yk:; yPrh ,e;jpah> khh;r; 2014> thy;a+k; 16> ,jo; 1

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9


epow;glk;: Mrphpah;

tUlhe;jpu tpijj; jpUtpohf;fs; ney; ufq;fis ghJfhf;f cjTfpwJ.

tpij ghJfhg;ig Cf;Ftpf;f tpij jpUtpohf;fs; Mjpnuq;fj;jpy; ney; jpUtpoh =Njtp yl;Rkp Fl;b njd; ,e;jpa tptrhapfs; kj;jpapy; tpijfis ghJfhg;gjpYk;;> ghuk;ghpa ney; ufq;fis gaphpLtjpYk; GJg;gpf;fg;gl;l Mh;tk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j khw;wj;ij nfhz;L tUtjpy; Mz;L NjhWk; elf;Fk; tpij jpUtpohf;fs; Kf;fpa gq;if tfpf;fpd;wd. ,e;j ekJ ney;iy ghJfhg;Nghk; vd;w gpur;rhu Kaw;rpahdJ> ney; Ntshz; gd;kaj;ij tsh;j;njLg;gjpYk;> MNuhf;fpakhd rpfg;G ney; ufq;fis cztpy; kW mwpKfg;gLj;JtjpYk; kw;Wk; gUtfhy epiyfSf;F Vw;w nefpo;jpwd; nfhz;l %yAaph; KjYU cUthf;FtjpYk; ntw;wp fz;Ls;sJ. 2013> Nk 25 Mk; Njjp jkpo;ehL tptrhapfSf;F nfhz;lhb kfpo;tjw;fhd tpohthf ,Ue;jJ. ,J ney;ypd; caphpd gd;kaj;ij nfhz; l hLtjw; f hd tpohthf ,Ue; j J. jkpo;ehl;bd; 32 khtl;lq;fspy; ,Ue;J 3000f;Fk; Nkw;gl;l ney; tptrhapfs; xd;whf ,ize;J> jkpo;e hl;b d; jpUth&h; khtl; l j;j py; cs; s Mjpnuq;fk; fpuhkj;jpy; ,uz;L ehl;fs; ney; jpUtpohtpy; gq; N fw; w dh; . jfty; f isAk; > mDgtq; f isAk; ghpkhwpf; nfhz; l NjhL> 10

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

tptrhapfs; jkpo;ehL> Nfush kw;Wk; fh;ehlfhtpy; ,Ue;J nfhz;Ltug;gl;l 61 ghuk;ghpa ney; ufq;fis jq;fSf;Fs; ghpkhwpf; nfhz;ldh;. jpUtpohtpy; gq;Nfw;w tptrhapfs; jq;fspd; tpijfis ey;y ek;gpf;ifNahLk;> mtw;iw ,aw; i f top Ntshz; K iwapy; gaphpLtJ vd;Wk;> mtw;iw fl;lzkpd;wp Mdhy; mjid ,Uklq; f hf mLj; j jpUtpohtpy; jpUg; g p nfhLg;Nghk; vd;w fl;Lg;ghl;NlhLk; ghpkhwpf; nfhz;ldh;.


ney;jpUtpohtpd; Muk;gk; jkpo; e hl; b y; epiwa ney; tptrhapfSf; F Kf; f pakhd epfo; t hf ,Ue; J tUk; ney; jpUtpohthdJ> ,e;jpahtpy; 2006 Mk; Mz;by; ekJ ney;iyf; fhg;Nghk; vd;w 2 tUl gpur;rhuk; Muk;gpj;j NghJ jdJ gazj;ij njhlq;fpaJ. jkpo;ehl;by; ekJ ney;iyf; fhg;Nghk; gpur;rhuj;ij elj;jpa fphpNal; njhz;L epWtdk;> gpur; r huj; j pd; jkpo; e hL xUq; f pizg; g hsh; jpU. n[auhkd; Mjutpd; fPo; tpij ghJfhg;G gzpfis Jtf;fpaJ. Muk;gf;fl;lj;jpy;> ,e;j FOthdJ ghuk;ghpa kw;Wk; cs;ehl;L ney; tpijfis ntt; n tW FOf; f splk; ,Ue; J Nrfhpj;J> Mjpnuq;fk; fpuhkj;jpy; cs;s mjd; gapw;rp ikaj;jpy; gaphpl;L tsh;jj ; dh;. mth;fs; ngah;Nghd ufkhd rPuf rk;ghit cs;slf;fp 3 ney; ufq;fspy; Jtf;fpdh;. mf;FOtpdUf;Fk; tpijfis Rj; j g; g Lj; J tjpNyh my; y J mtw;iw Njh;T nra;Ak; nray;KiwfspNyh ve;j NahridAk; ,y;iy. tpijfis ngUf;FtJk;> ghJfhg;gJk; jhd; kpf Kf;fpa ftdkhf ,Ue;jJ. 2006 Mk; Mz;L> Mh;tKs;s ney; tptrhapfis xd;wpizf;Fk; tpjkhf ney; jpUtpoh vd;w Nahrid Jtf; f g; g l; l J. mq; q dk; Kjy; ney; jpUtpoh gpwe;jJ. 2006 Mk; Mz;L Nk khjj;jpy; elj;jg;gl;l Kjy; $l;lj;jpy; 425 tptrhapfs; 16 ghuk;ghpa ney; ufq;fis Njh;T nra;jdh;. midj;J tptrhapfSf;Fk; 2 fpNyh ney; tpijfs; tpdpNahfpf;fg;gl;lJ. fphpNal; mikg;gpd; mwq;fhtyh; jpU. nghd;dk;gyk; $Wk; NghJ> “ney; jpUtpohthdJ xU ePz;l fhy jpl; l j; N jhNlh my; y J mZFKiwapd; tpisthf elf;ftpy;iy. mJ ekJ ney;iy fhg;Nghk; FOtpd; Mh;tj;jpdhy;> fpuhkj; j pYk; > mjd; mUfhikapy; cs; s fpuhkq;fspYk; cs;s tptrhapfis <LgLj;jp cs;ehl;L ghuk;ghpa ney; rhFgbia Nkw;nfhz;l Kaw;rpahf Muk;gpj;J> xt;nthU tUlKk; nghpjhf tsh;e;J tUfpwJ” vd;fpwhh;. jkpo; e hl; b d; kiwe; j gok; n gUk; ,aw; i f tptrhap jpU. ek;kho;thh; xt;nthU $l;lj;jpYk; ,ij Fwpj; J Ngrp Ngrp> nkJthf ,e; j thh;ji ; j gutyhdJ. ney; jpUtpoh kw;Wk; tpij ghJfhg;G gzpfis ,aw;if Kiwapy; jpU. n[auhkd;> gpur;rhuj;jpd; kw;w cWg;gpdh; kw;Wk; kw;w tpij ghJfhtyh;fspd; topfhl;Ljypd; Nghpy; jiyik Vw;W elj;jp tUfpwhh;. jkpo; Clfq; f spy; ntspte; j jfty; f s; > ney;jpUtpohtpw;F NkYk; cj;Ntfk; te;jJ.

ml;ltiz 1 ney; jpUtpohtpd;NghJ tpijia nfhs;Kjy; nra;j tptrhapfspd; vz;zpf;if tUlk;

,ufq;fs;

nkhj;j tptrhapfs;

2005-2006

16

425

2006-2007

26

1116

2007-2008

28

1629

2008-2009

47

2016

2009-2010

51

2320

2010-2011

53

2860

2011-2012 (etk;gh; 2011)

61

2900+

2013

63

3000+

fU - ney; ,jo;> [_iy 2013

mWgjhk; FWit gw; w pa fl; L iu (mjd; ngahpNy cs;sJ Nghy; 60 ehl;fspy; tsh;e;J tpLk; xU ney; ufk; ) >. ,e; j tpij ekJ ney;iy ghJfhg;Nghk; gpur;rhuj;jpd; $l;lj;jpd; NghJ fpilj;j tpijia gad;gLj;jpa xU tptrhap mjid mLj;jLj;j tUlq;fspy; ngUf;fpa fijahdJ> Ntshz; nra;jpfis jhq; f ptUk; jkpo; gj; j phpf; i fahd gRik tpfldpy; rpwg;G fl;Liuahf ntspte;jJ. ,J ghuk;ghpa ney; ufq;fs; ,Ug;gijAk;> mtw;iw GJg;gpf;f Ntz;ba Njit Fwpj;J Fwpg;gplj;jf;f ftdj;ij nfhz;L te;jJ. ,e;j fl;Liuia gbj;j gy tptrhapfSf;F Mh;tj;ij J}z;b tpl;lJ. ghuk;ghpa ufq;fspd; kPjhd Mh;tk; tsu Muk; g pj; j J. ,d; W fpl; l j; j l; l 20003000 tptrhapfs; mWgjhk; FWit ney; rhFgb nra;J tUfpd;wdh;. mijg; NghyNt> fhl;Lahdk; kw;Wk; khg;gps;is rk;gh vd;w kw;w tiffSk; ,e;j gpur;rhuj;jpd; thapyhf kfj;jhd Gfo; ngw;wJ.

tsh;e;J tUk; tpij gd;gak; tpijfis ghJfhf;fTk;> ngUf;fTk; gpuk;khz;lkhd Kaw;rpfs; Njitg;gLfpd;wd. tpij jpUtpohthdJ tptrhapfs; jq;fspd; ghuk; g hpa ufq; f is gfph; e ; J nfhs; s Tk; > ngUf;fTk; ey;y re;jh;gg ; ij mspf;fpwJ. Kjypy; xU rpy tptrhapfNs tpijj; jpUtpohtpy; ngw;w tpijfis rhFgb nra;J te;jpUe;jhYk;> jw; N ghJ ngUk; g hyhd tptrhapfs; ney; jpUtpohtpy; tpijfis Nrfhpj; J gaphpl; L tUfpd; w dh; . xt; n thU tUlKk; > epiwa tptrhapfs; jhq;fs; ney; jpUtpohtpy; ,Ue;J yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

11


thq; f pa tpijfis ,U klq; f hf jpUg; g p mspf;fpd;wdh;. tpdpNahfpf; f g; g l; l 61 ufq; f spy; rpy kw; w ufq;fisf; fhl;bYk; Gfo; kpf;fitahf cs;sd. ekJ ney;iy ghJfhg;Nghk; gpur;rhuj;jpd; %yk; nra; a g; g l; l xU Ma; t pd; mbg; g ilapy; 19 ufq;fs; kpfTk; Gfo; kpf;fitahf cs;sd. mjpy; khg;gps;is rk;gh> rPuf rk;gh> fhl;L ahzk;> fhl;L nghz;zp> mWgjhk; FWit kw;Wk; rpy mlq;Fk;. ghuk;ghpa ufq;fis gaphpl;l tptrhapfs; mit ey;y kf#y; jUtjhfTk;> ghjfkhd gUtepiy fhyq; f spYk; $l mjpf nefpo;jpwd; nfhz;litahf cs;sjhf njhptpf;fpd;wdh;. rpy Neuq;fspy; tpijfis ngUf;Ftjw;fhf ekJ ney;iy fhg;Nghk; $Ljy; Kaw;rpfis vLj;Js;sJ. cjhuzj;jpw;F> fle;j ,uz;L tUlq;fspy; jkpo;ehl;bd; fhtphp gLif fLk; twl;rpahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l NghJ> ekJ ney;iy fhg;Nghk; FO ePh;ghrd trjp cs;s epyq;fis Fj; j iff; F vLj; J tpijj; jpUtpohtpw; F Njitg;gLk; tpijfis cw;gj;jp nra;jJ.

tsh;;e;J tUk; tuNtw;G tptrhapfs; kj;jpapy; ,e;j jpUtpoh gpuk;khz;lkhd tuNtw;ig ngw;W tUfpwJ. 2013 Mk; Mz;L jpUtpohtpy; njd; gFjpahd fd;dpahFkhp khtl;lj;jpy; ,Ue;J khepyj;jpd; tlf;F Kidg; gFjpahd jpUth&h; khtl; l j; j pw; F tptrhapfs; te; j J mjd; tuNtw;gpw;F rhl;rpahf ,Ue;jJ. 2006 Mk; Mz;L 400 Nghpy; Muk;gpj;j ney; jpUtpoh jw;NghJ 3000 j;jpw;Fk; Nkw;gl;l tptrhapfshf tsh;e;Js;sJ. tsh;eJ ; tUk; tuNtw;Gld;> ney jpUtpohtpw;fhd cjtpfs;/MjuTfs; vz;zw;w epWtdq;fs; kw;Wk; jdpegh;fsplk; ,Ue;J nfhl;Lfpd;wd. epiwa epWtdq; f s; kw; W k; jdp egh; f s; jpUtpohtpw;F Mjutspf;fpd;wdh;. ,uz;L ehs; epfo;tpw;F epiwa xg;gw;w kf;fs; te;J tptrhapfSf;F fUj;Jf;fis njhptpf;fpd;wdh;. gy tUlq;fshf eghh;L kw;Wk; epiwa tq;fpfs; ,e;j jpUtpohtpw;F MjuT je;J tUfpd;wd.

2006 Mk; Mz;L 400 Nghpy; Muk;gpj;j ney; jpUtpoh jw;NghJ 3000 j;jpw;Fk; Nkw;gl;l tptrhapfshf tsh;e;Js;sJ. 12

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

jw;NghJ> muRk; $l jdJ Mh;tj;ij fhl;b tUfpwJ. fle; j tUlk; > jkpo; e hl; b d; gy gFjpfspy; ,Ue;Jk; tptrhapfs; ,e;j ney; jpUtpohtpy; fye;J nfhs;tjw;fhd nghWg;ig Ntshz; Jiw vLj; J f; nfhz; l J. mjd; thapyhf fd;dpahFkhpapy; ,Ue;J jpUth&h; tiu tptrhapfs; fye;J nfhz;ldh;. ,e; j epfo; i t elj; J tjpy; tptrhapfs; mspj;J tUk; MjuT kpfTk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. Muk;gf;fl;lj;jpy; nrytpdq;fis Vw;f Kbahj tptrhapfs;> gbg;gbahf EioTf; fl;lzj;ij nrYj;jp mjd;%yk; rpy nrytpdq;fis gfph;eJ ; nfhs;fpd;wdh;. &. 10 Mf Muk;gpj;j EioT fl;lzk;> &. 50 vd mjpfhpj;J fle;j tUlk; &.100 ahf mjpfhpj;jJ. fl;lzk; itj;Jk; $l jpUtpohtpw;fhd MjuT kpfTk; gpuk;khz;lkhf cs; s J. jw; N ghJ ,e; j jpUtpohthdJ Njitapd; mbg;gilapy; vd fle;j ,uz;L Mz; L fshf kw; w khtl; l q; f spYk; rpwpa jpUtpohthf elj;jp Mjpnuq;fj;jpy; gq;F ngw Kbahj tptrhapfis nrd;wile;Js;sJ. Neubahf tUk; Mapuf;fzf;fhd tptrhapfNshL Nrh;jJ ; > NkYk; gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhd tptrhapfs; ,aw;if Kiw ney; rhFgbapy; <LgLtjd; fhuzkhf tpijfis gfph;eJ ; nfhs;fpd;wdh;. gy Neuq;fspy; kpfTk; J}uj;jpy; ,Ue;J tUk; xU tptrhap gy tptrhapfSf;fhf jpUtpohtpw;F tUfpd;wdh;.

ekJ ney;iy fhg;Nghk; gpur;rhuk; ekJ ney; i y fhg; N ghk; gpur; r hukhdJ ,e;jpahtpy; jdy; (Nfush) fphpNal; (jkpo;ehL) rf[h rk; U j; j h (fh; e hlfh) kw; W k; ypt; t pq; ghh; k ; ] ; (xhp]; ] h) Nghd; w epWtdq; f shy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. gpd;dh; ,e;j gpur;rhukhdJ 2009 y; Nkw;F tq;fj;jpw;F efh;e;J mJ ekJ ney;iy fhg;Nghk;> Nkw;F tq;fk; vd;W Gjpjhf cUthfpAs;sJ. ,e;j gpur;rhuk; 5 Nehf;fq;fspy; mike;Js;sJ: (1) ney; #oypaiy ghJfhg;gJ (2) ney; fyhr; r huj; i jAk; > gd; k aj; i jAk; jf;fitg;gJ (3) ghuk;ghpa Qhdj;ij ghJfhg;gJ (4) kugZ khw;wj;ijAk;> er;Rf;fisAk; jLg;gJ kw;Wk; (5) ghJfhg;ghd kw;Wk; Cl;lr;rj;Jkpf;f czit cWjpg; g Lj; J tJ. ,e; j FOf; f s; me;je;j rk;ke;jg;gl;l khepyq;fspd; midj;J gFjpfspYk; gzp nra;fpwJ.


ntspg;ghLfs; ghuk;ghpa ney; ufq;fis ,aw;if Ntshz; top Kiwapy; rhFgb nra;Ak; tptrhapfSf;F jdpj;Jtkhd nghUshjhu ed;ikfs; fpilf;fpd;wd. tof;fkhd Kiwapy; tptrhapfs; xU Vf;fh; ney; rhFgbf;F &. 15000 - &. 20000 tiu nryT nra;J 32 %l;il (1 %l;il 60 fpNyh) ney;iy ngWfpd;wdh;. mNj Ntisapy; ,aw;if topapy; ghuk;ghpa ney; rhFgb nra;Ak; tptrhapfs; xU Vf;fUf;F &. 5000 ,LnghUl;fSf;fhf nryT nra;J 24 %l; i l ney; mWtil nra; f pd; w dh; . $Ljyhf ,th; f Sf; F xU %l; i l &. 1200f; F k; > mNj Ntisapy; tof; f khd Kiwapy; ney; rhFgbapy; tpistpf;Fk; xU %l;il &. 800f;Fk; tpiy NghFk; vd;fpwhh;> jpU. n[auhkd;. ,Ue;jNghjpYk; Nrhfkhd cz;ik vd;dntd;why;> muR ghuk;ghpa ney; ufq; f is nfhs; K jy; nra; t jpy; i y. mjpf tpisr;ry; jUk; my;yJ xl;Lufq;fis kl;LNk; nfhs;Kjy; nra;fpwJ. rpW tptrhapfspd; gy FLk;gq;fs; jq;fspd; tho;thjhuj;jpw;fhf ghuk;ghpa rpfg;G mhprpia kjpg;Gf;$l;b tpw;Wk; rk;ghjpf;fpd;wdh;. NkYk;> jkpo;ehl;bd; gy;NtW kf;fs; kl;lj;jpYk;> r%f mstpYk; ghuk;ghpa rpfg;G mhprpapd; gad;fis gw;wp Ngr Muk;gpj;J tpl;ldh;. jw;NghJ mwpag;gLk;; nra;jpfspy; gy efuq;fspy; cs;s #g;gh; khh;fn ; fl;Lfs; rpfg;G mhprpahdJ ,Ug;G itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,J xU fhyj;jpy; nts; i s mhprp kl; L Nk ,Ue; j ,lj; j py; xU khw;wk; te;jjw;fhd mwpFwp. kw;WnkhU Rthu]; a khd ntspg; g hL vd; d ntd; w hy; > tpijj; jpUtpohtpy; Nrfhpj; j tpijfis gaphpl;l tptrhapfs; jw;NghJ ,e;j ufq;fisNa jq; f spd; tP L fspy; cz; L tUfpd; w dh; . Fwpg; g pl; l msit jpUkzq; f s; kw; W k; jpUtpohf; f s; Nghd; w rpwg; G tpohf; f Sf; F ghJfhj;J itf;fpd;wdh;. Kd;G> ngUk;ghyhd tptrhapfs; jhq; f s; tpistpj; j ney; i y tpw;Wtpl;L re;ijapy; ,Ue;J nts;is mhprpia jq;fspd; FLk;gj; Njitf;F thq;Fthh;fs;.

ekJ ney;iy fhg;Nghk; gpur;rhuj;jpd; Njrpa xUq;fpizg;ghsh; c\h $Wk; NghJ> “ghuk;ghpa ney;iy tpistpg;gjpy; tptrhapfs; fhl;Lk; Mh;tk; kpfTk; Cf;fkspg;gjhf cs;sJ. ,J tptrhapfs; ,d; D k; ghuk; g hpa Ntshz; caph;gd;kaj;jpd; kPJ itj;jpUf;Fk; kjpg;ig fhl; L tNjhL tha; g ; G fpilf; F k; NghJ mjid nray;gLj;jTk; nra;fpd;wdh;. ,e;j tptrhapfspd; mDgtq;fs;> ,it ey;y kf#y;> Cl;lr;rj;jpy; juk; kw;Wk; gUtfhy khw;wq;fis vjph;nfhs;Sk; Mw;wiy fhl;LfpwJ. ghuk; g hpa tpij jpUtpohthdJ> jkpo; e hL KOtJk; epiwa tptrhapfs; kj;jpapy; ghuk;ghpa ney;iy gutyhf;Fk; Kf;fpakhd Nehf; f j; i j mile; J s; s J. ghuk; g hpa ney; rhFgb kWkyh;r;rp ngw;Wk;;> mjd; tpijfis ghJfhj;J tsh;g;gjpy; GJg;gpf;fg;gl;l Mh;tKk; njspthf njhpfpwJ. ney;ypy; Ntshz; caph; gd;kaj;ij mjpfhpg;gjpYk;> MNuhf;fpakhd rpfg; G mhprpia kW mwpKfg; g Lj; J tjpYk; kw;Wk; gUtfhy epiyfSf;F Vw;w nefpo;jpwd; nfhz;l %yAaph; KjYU cUthf;FtjpYk; ntw;wp fz;Ls;sJ xU kpfg; nghpa gbahFk;.  Sreedevi Lakshmi Kutty is a consultant with the Save Our Rice campaign and works and writes on issues related to safe food and sustainable agriculture. She can be contacted at slakshmikutty@rocketmail.com %yk:; yPrh ,e;jpah> khh;r; 2014> thy;a+k; 16> ,jo; 1

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

13


epow;glk;: tpUl;b

caph; g+r;rpf; nfhy;ypfspd; gad;ghl;lhy; nghwp tz;L kPz;Lk; epyj;jpw;F te;jJ.

$l;Lr; nray;ghL epiwa gyd;fs; r%f njhopy;tpw;gd;d khjphpf;F jFe;j cjhuzk; gpNuky; Fg;jh caph;r# ; oYf;F cfe;j epiyj;j nray;ghLfis gad;gLj;jp cUthf;fg;gLk; r%f tpw;gd;d njhopy; %yk; kj;jpa gpuNjrj;jpy; cs;s tptrhapfs; jq;fspd; gaph; cw;gj;jpia ngUf;fTk;> tUkhdj;ijAk; cah;j;jp tUfpd;wdh;. ,e;j r%f tpw;gd;d njhopy; khjphpahdJ tptrhapfSf;F ey;y tUkhdj;ij kpff;Fiwe;j %jypLfNshL Vw;gLj;jp jUtNjhL kl;Lky;yhky; caphpdg; gd;kaj;ij mjpfhpg;gjpYk; cjTfpwJ. kj;jpa gpuNjr khepyj;jpd; NrNfhh; khtl;lj;jpd; Gl;dp tl;lj;jpy; cs;s fhd;g+uh 100 FLk;gq;fs; nfhz;l xH; rpwpa fpuhkkhFk;. ,e;j fpuhkkhdJ> mlh; e ; j fhLfshy; #og; g l; l Ntshz; i kia Kf; f pa tho; t hjhukhf nfhz;ljhFk;. rpy tUlq;fSf;F Kd;jhd; ,e;j gFjpiar; rhh;e;j tptrhapfs; ghuk;ghpa Ntshz;ikia tpl;Ltpl;L Ntjp cuq;fisAk;> g+r; r pf; n fhy; y pfisAk; mjpfkhd msT gad;gLj;j Muk;gpj;jdh;. 14

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

tpUl;b tho;thjhu ts ikak; vd;fpw jd;dhh;tj; njhz; L epWtdk; ,e; j gFjpapy; epiyj; j tho;thjhuq;fis cUthf;Ftjpy; gzp nra;J tUfpwJ. ,e;jg; gFjpapy; cs;s tptrhapfs; msTf;F mjpfkhf G+r;rpnfhy;ypfis gad;gLj;jpajd; tpisthf Vf;fUf;F &. 10003000 tiu nryT nra;tjhf ftdpf;fg;gl;lJ. mjpfsT gaph; rhFgb nrytpdq; f NshL> msTf;F mjpfkhf gad;gLj;jg;gLk; Ntjp cuq; f s; kw; W k; g+r; r pf; nfhy; y pfspdhy;


Rw;Wr;#oYf;F cfe;j epiyj;j nray;Kiwfis nfhz; L tptrhapfspd; rhFgb nryit Fiwg;gjw;F cjTtjw;fhf> tpUl;b cs; @ h; mwpit mbg; g ilahf nfhz; l gRtpd; Nfhkpak;> Ntk;G kw;Wk; Mkzf;; if nfhz; L ,aw; i f g+r; r pf; nfhy; y pfisAk; gad; g Lj; J k; g b MNyhrid toq; f paJ. nuhk;g ehshf Ntjp cuq;fis gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;bUe;j tptrhapfSf;F Muk;gf;fl;lj;jpy; ,e;j ,aw;if g+r;rpf;nfhy;ypfspd; nray;jpwd; Fwpj;J Ia;auT ,Ue;jJ. Kiwahd mZFKiw Nkw;nfhz;ljd; tpisthf> ,aw;if ,LnghUl;fspd; gad;fis tptrhapfSf;F Ghpa itg;gjpy; tpUl;b ntw;wp fz;lJ. NkYk;> ,ijnahl;b tpUl;b tptrhapfs; ey;y tpahghu khjphpia cUthf;fTk; Cf;Ftpj;jJ. tpUl;b fpuhkg;Gw kf;fs; tptrhaf; FOf;fshfTk;> Racjtpf; FOf;fshfTk; mikj;Jf; nfhs;s cjtpaJ. tptrhaf; FOf;fspd; cWg;gpdh;fs; gy;NtW gz;izfSf;F mioj;Jr; nry;yg;gl;L mq;F nrk;ik ney; rhFgb> nrk;ik NfhJik rhFgb> g+r; r pf; nfhy; y p gad; g hL ,y; y hj mZFKiwfs; kw;Wk; ,aw;if Ntshz;ik njhlh;ghd Ntshz; nray;ghLfis ghh;j;J fw; W f; nfhs; t jw; f hf gl; l wpT gazq; ; f s; Vw; g hL nra; a g; g l; l d. NkYk; > FOtpd; cWg; g pdh; f s; Ntshz; mwptpay; ikak; > Ntshz; gy; f iyf; fofq; f s; kw; W k; ,ju epWtdq; f Sf; F mioj; J r; nry; y g; g l; L > mq; F s; s gzpahsh; f NshL fye; J iuahb> mq;F nray;gl;LtUk; coth; cw;gj;jpahsh; epWtdq;fs; gw;wp Ghpe;J nfhz;ldh;. ey;y Ntshz; Kiwfis tpiutpy; nray; g Lj; J gth; f s; > Gjpa fz; L gpbg; G Kaw; r pfis nra; J ghh; g ; g th; f s; kw; W k; r%fj;jhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba Kd;Ndhb tptrhapfs; Ntshz; tpahghu tsh; r ; r p Nritfis mspg;gth;fshf Njh;T nra; a g; g l; l d. tptrhapfSf; F mth; f spd; ,lj;jpw;Nf nrd;W cjtpfs; mspg;gJk;> muR Nritfs;> re;ijapy; cs;sth;fs;> tphpthf;fr; Nritfs; kw;Wk; Muha;r;rp kw;Wk; mwptpay; epWtdq;fNshL njhlh;Gfis Vw;gLj;JtJ ,th;fspd; gzpahf ,Ue;jd.

epow;glk;: tpUl;b

NkYk; gpur; r idfshf g+r; r pfs; vjph; g ; G rf; j pia tsh; j ; J f; nfhs; t Jk; > g+r; r pfs; Gj; J aph; ngWtjw; F k; > Rw; W r; # oy; kw; W k; czT ghJfhg;G gpur;ridfSk; jiynaLf;f Muk;gpj;jd.

jdJ caph; g+r;rpf; nfhy;ypfs; cw;gj;jpapy; jpU. uhk; ifyh\;

,e; e Ntshz; tpahghu tsh; r ; r p Nrit mspf;Fk; gzpahsh;fs; ey;y gapw;rpahsh;fshf gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;ldh;. ,th;fs; gjpT nra;ag;gl;l tptrhapfSf;F gR Nfhkpaj;ij Nrfhpg;gjpYk;> mtw;iw tpahghu tsh;r;rp Nritf;F caphpay; g+r;rpf; nfhy;ypfis jahhpg;gjw;fhf mth;fSf;F gR Nfhkpaj;ij mspg;gjpYk;> gR Nfhkpak; kw;Wk; Ntg;gpiyia mbg;gilahf nfhz; L caphpay; g+r; r pf; nfhy; y pfspd; gad; g hl; i l kjpg; g P L nra; t jpYk; gapw; r p mspj;J cw;rhfg;gLj;jg;gl;ldh;.

nray;Kiw ,e;j KOikahd caphpay; g+r;rpf; nfhy;yp cw;gj;jpahdJ 3 kl;lq;fspy; eilngw;wJ. Ra cjtpf;FOf;fs; kw;Wk; tptrhaf; FOf;fs; kl; l j; j py; gR Nfhkpak; Nrfhpf; f g; g l; l J. 400f;Fk; Nkw;gl;l FLk;gq;fs; gR Nfhkpak; Nrfhpg; g py; <Lgl; l dh; . Ntshz; tpahghu tsh; r ; r p Nritmspf; F k; gzpahsh; f s; > Racjtpf; F Of; f s; kw; W k; tptrhapfs; FOf;fsplk; ,Ue;J gR Nfhkpaj;ij Nrfhpj;J mjid nray; K iw ikaq; f Sf; F vLj; J nry;thh;fs;. midj;J FLk;gq;fspy; ,Ue;Jk; xt;nthU ehSk; fpl;lj;jl;l 500 ypl;lh; gR Nfhkpak; Nrfhpf; f g; g l; l J. tptrhapfSf; F xU ypl; l h; gR Nfhkpaj; j pw; F &. 5 tP j k; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j nra;Kiw fz;lthh;> fhd;Guh> kw;Wk; xd;bah fpuhkq;fspy; KiwNa xU $lk; vd;w hPjpapy; %d;W $lq;fs; mikj;J nra;ag;gl;lJ. Nrfhpf; f g; g l; l gR Nfhkpak; 200 ypl; l h; nfhs;ssT nfhz;l gpsh];bf; buk;kpy; Cw;wp itj;J> mjDld; 20 fpNyh Ntk;G kw;Wk; rPj;jh go ,iyfs; Nrh;f;fg;gLk;. nehjpg;gjw;fhf buk; 21 ehl;fs; %b itf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;. ,iyfis yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

15


Kd;djhfNt filgpbj;j xUthpd; fij jpU. uhk; ifyh\; ahjt; > Kd; d jhfNt ,e;j Kiwfis filgpbj;jth;fspy; xUth;. ,th; fhd;Guh fpuhkj;ij Nrh;e;j tptrhap kw;Wk; Ntshz; tpahghu Nkk;ghl;L Nrit mspf;Fk; gzpahsh;. 35 tajhd ,th;> ed;F gbj;j> 5 Vf;fh; epyk; nfhz;l tptrhap. ,th; kpfTk; Mh;tkpf;fth;> fbd ciog;ghsp kw;Wk; jiyikg; gz;GfNshL ey;y njhopw;tpw;gd;d jpwik nfhz;lth;. ,tUf;Fk; 4 gRf;fs; cs;sd. tpUl; b epWtdj; j pd; JizNahL uhk; ifyh\; gR Nfhkpaj;ij gad;gLj;jp caphp g+r;rpf;nfhy;yp cw;gj;jp nra;J ghh;g;gnjd KbntLj;jhh;. Muk;gf; fl;lj;jpy;> eghh;L cjtpAld; 200 ypl;lh; nfhs;sT nfhz;l 18 buk;fis ngw;whh;. ,th; 15 ypl; l h; gR Nfhkpak; > 5 fpNyh Ntg;gpiyfs;> miu fpNyh rPjj ; hg;go ,iyfs; kw;Wk; miu fpNyh vUf;F ,iyfs;Mfpatw;iw Nrh;j;J nfhz;lhh;. ,tw;iw fye; J mg; g bNa 21 ehl; f s; itj;jpUe;jhh;. ,e;j fyitahdJ gpuhzthA ,y;yhj epiyapy; nehjpf;f itf;fg;gl;lJ. 21 ehl;fs; fopj;J> miu fpNyh caphp g+r;rpf; nfhy;ypahdJ 15 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J NrhahgP d ; gapUf; F mbf; f g; g l; l J. ,e; j njspg; g hdJ 15 ehl; f s; ,ilntspapy; njhlh;e;J mbf;fg;gl;lJ. gaphpy; Vw; g l; l khw; w q; f is uhk; ifyh\; ftdpj;jhh;. gaphpd; tsh;r;rpahdJ ngUksT mjpfhpj;jpUe;jJ. xU MNuhf;fpakhd gaphpd; mwpFwpahf> gaphpd; Nth; f s; gykhfTk; > fpisabf;fTk; Muk;gpj;jJ. Neha; jhf;FjYk; Fiwe;J fhzg;gl;lJ. gaph;> Neha; kw;Wk;

nfhz;l fyitia tbfl;ba gpd; fpilg;gNj caph; G+r;rpnfhy;ypahFk; xt; n thU $lj; j pYk; 3000 ypl; l h; caphp g+r;rpf;nfhy;yp cw;gj;jp nra;af;$ba jpwd; nfhz;lJ. jw;NghJ> rpy Racjtpf; FOf;fSk; ,JNghd;W g+r;rpf; nfhy;ypfis fpuhk mstpy; jahhpj; J > fpuhkj; j pw; F cs; N s tpw; g id nra;tjpy; Mh;tk; fhl;Lfpd;wd. eh;kjhd;ry; cotd; cw;gj;jpahsh; epWtdk; (1000 tptrhapfs; nfhz;L cUthf;fg;gl;lJ) 16

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

g+r;rpj;jhf;FjYf;F vjph;g;G rf;jpia ngwj; njhlq;fpaJ. kzpfspd; juk; mjpfhpj;jJ. gR Nfhkpak; gad;gLj;jpajd; tpisthf epyj;jpd; tsk; $l Muk;gpj;jJ. kf#Yk; mjpfhpj;jJ. cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;l tpijfs; caphp g+r;rpf;nfhy;ypfis gad;gLj;jhky; cw;gj;jp nra; a g; g l; l tpijfNshL xg; g pLifapy; mtw;iw fhl;bYk; kpfTk; MNuhf;fpakhf ,Ue;jJ. ,e; j ey; y khw; w q; f is ftdpj; j gpwF> caphp g+r; r pf; n fhy; y pia tpahghu hP j pahf cw;gj;jp nra;tnjd mth; KbT nra;jhh;. Kjy; tUlj;jpy; 2200 ypl;lh; caphp g+r;rpf;nfhy;ypia jahhpj;J tpw;wjd; %yk; &. 17600 tiu mtUf;F yhgk; fpilj;jJ. mtuJ rk;ghjpj;j yhgk; Fwpj;j tpguq;fs; fPNo nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

Mz;L

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cw;gj;jp (ypl;lhpy;)

tpw;fg;gl;l tpiy

ngwg;gl;l njhif

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2013

&. 4

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2012

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caphp g+r; r pf; n fhy; y p jahhpg; g pw; F mjpf $ypahs; Njit ,y; i y> kpfTk; vspjhf jahhpf;fyhk;. caphp g+r;rpf;nfhy;yp jahhpf;f mth; fhLfspy; fpilf;Fk; Ntg;gpiy> rPj;jh ,iy kw; W k; vUf; F ,iyfs; Nrfhpg; g J kw; W k; mthplk; cs; s gR Nfhkpaj; i j Nrhpg;gJ kl;LNk vd;gjhy; ,jpy; ,LnghUs; nryT vd;gJ xd;WNk ,y;iy. cz;ikapy; uhk; ifyh\; ntWk; &. 200 itj;Jjhd; jdJ tpahghuj;ij Jtf;fpdhh;.

caphp g+r;rpf;nfhy;ypfis thq;fp tpahghuk; nra;fpwJ. eh;kjhd;ry; cw;gj;jpahsh; epWtdk;

25 tpOf;fhL tptrhapfs; g+r;rpf; nfhy;ypfs; Kw;wpYkhfTk;> 50 tpOf;fhL tptrhapfs; ghjpasTk; gad;gLj;Jtij epWj;jptpl;ldh;. ,J cw;gj;jp nryit Fwpg;gpl;lj;jf;f msT Fiwj;Jtpl;lJ.


fk;ngdp rl;lj;jpd; fPo; gjpT nra;ag;gl;l r%f epWtdk; MFk;. ,e;j caphp g+r;rpf; nfhy;ypfs; gpuhz;l; ,[f;lh vd;w ngahpy; tpw;fg;gLfpwJ.

caphp g+r;rpf; nfhy;ypfs; ney;> NfhJik> NrhahgPd; Nghd;w gy;NtW gaph;fSf;F 500f;Fk; Nkw;gl;l tptrhapfshy; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. caphp g+r;rpf; nfhy;ypfs; gad;gLj;jpajhy; tptrhapfs; gy;NtW gad;fis ghh;jj ; dh;. 20 Kjy; 25 tpOf;fhL gaph; tsh;rr ; pahdJ J}h;fspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpg;G> ,iyfs; kQ;rs; MfhkYk; g+Q;rhzq;fshy; jhf;fg;glhky;> gaph; MNuhf;fpakhfTk;> fjph; ePsk; mjpfhpj;Jk;> kzpfspd; vilfs; mjpfhpg;G Nghd;wit tptrhapfshy; ghuhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ. tpijfs; jpul; r pahfTk; > ey; y epwj; N jhLk; > Njhw;wj;NjhLk; cs;sd. tptrhapfs; ,urhad g+r; r pf; n fhy; y pfis gad;gLj;JtJ Fiwf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. nkhj;jj;jpy; 25 tpOf;fhL tptrhapfs; ,urhad g+r;rpf;nfhy;ypfis gad;gLj;JtJ KOikahf epWj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. 50 tpOf;fhL tptrhapfs; ghjpastpw;F ,urhad g+r;rpf;nfhy;ypfis Fiwj; J k; > 25 tpOf; f hL tptrhapfs; gaph; rhFgbapy; Fiwe;jgl;rk; xU KiwahtJ caphp g+r;rpf; nfhy;ypfis gad;gLj;jpAs;sdh;. ,J gaph; cw;gj;jp nryit Fwpg;gplj;jf;f mstpw;F Fiwj; J s; s J. xU Vf; f Uf; F ,urhad g+r;rpf;nfhy;ypfSf;F &.1800 nrytpl Ntz;ba ,lj;jpy;> caphp g+r;rpf;nfhy;yp jahhpg;gpw;F &. 1000 kl;LNk Njitg;gl;ljhy;> me;j tifapy; Vf; f Uf; F &. 800 Nrkpf; f g; g l; l J. Xl; L nkhj; j khf cw; g j; j p nryT FiwT kw; W k; mjpfg;gbahd kf#y; fhuzkhf tptrhapfs; jq;fspd; epfu tUkhdj;ij Vf;fUf;F &. 5000 mjpfhpf;f Kbe;jJ. njhlh;e;J caphp g+r;rpf;nfhy;ypfis gad;gLj;jpajd; tpisthf> tptrhapfspd; epyq;fspy; nghwp tz;L kw;Wk; kz;GOf;fs; ngUfp mJ caph;r;#oy; gd;kaj;ij Nkk;gLj;jpaij czu Kbe;jJ. Kd;G ,urhad g+r; r pf; nfhy; y pfis gad; g Lj; J tjw; F gad;gLj;jg;gl;l jz;zPUk; $l ngUksT Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ.

njhopy;El;gj;ij gutyhf;fk; nra;jy; jw; N ghJ 500 tptrhapfs; gR Nfhkpaj; i j mbg;gilahf nfhz;l caphp g+r;rpf;nfhy;ypfis mth;fspd; gz;izapy; cs;s ney;> NfhJik> NrhahgP d ; Nghd; w gy; N tW gaph; f Sf; F

epow;glk;: tpUl;b

gad;fs;

nghJ Nkyhsh; jpU. jPgf; Fkhh;> caph; g+r;rpf;nfhy;ypfs; jahhpg;G $lj;ij Jtf;fp itf;fpwhh;.

gad; g Lj; j p tUfpd; w dh; . ,jd; rhjfkhd KbTfs;> ,e;j tpahghu Kaw;rpfis eghh;L tq;fpapd; cjtpNahL NkYk; tsh;j;njLf;f tpUl;b epWtdj;ij cw;rhfg;gLj;jpAs;sJ. eghh;L tq;fpapd; Rw;Wr;#oy; Nkk;ghl;bw;fhd jpl; l j; j pd; fP o ; tpUl; b epWtdk; kj; j pa gpuNjr khepyk; > NrN`hh; khtl; l k; Glhdp tl;lj;jpy; cs;s goq;Fb gFjpfshd ahh;Lefh; kw; W k; fz; l thh; fpuhkq; f spy; ,uz; L caphp g+r;rpf;nfhy;yp jahhpf;Fk; $lq;fis cUthf;fpAs;sJ. ,J tptrhapfspd; FOf;fs;> $l;likg;Gfs; kw;Wk; tpUl;b epWtdj;jpd; $l;L Kaw;rpapy; eilngw;W tUfpwJ. ,e ;j r%f mstpyhd n jhopy; k h j p h p tptrhapfSf;F kpfTk; Fiwe;j %jypLfNshL ey;y tUkhdj;ij ngw;Wj; jUtNjhL kl;Lky;yhky; Rw;Wr;#oiy ghJfhj;J kz; ts Nkk;ghl;bw;Fk; cjtpAs;sJ.  Pramel Gupta Vrutti Livelihood Resource Centre, Behind Govt. High School, 41, 1st Main Rd, Ashwath Nagar, RMV 2nd Stage, Bangalore, Karnataka 560094, India. E-mail: pramel@vrutti.org; info@vrutti.org %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> [_d; 2014> thy;a+k; 16> ,jo; 2

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

17


Cl;lr;rj;J Njhl;lq;fs; ngz;fs; jiyikNaw;W topfhl;Lfpwhh;fs; N[. fpU\;zd; jh;kGhp khtl;lj;jpd; khdhthhp gFjpfspy; cs;s ngz;fs;> FLk;gj;jpd; Cl;lr;rj;J kw;Wk; gzk; jUk; tPlL ; f;fha;fwp Njhl;lj;jpw;F khwpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwhh;fs;. ,Uf;ff;$ba Fiwe;j msT ePiu kWRow;rp nra;tjd; thapyhf> tUlk; KOtJk; fha;fwp gaphpLtJ rhj;jpak; vd;gij ,e;j ngz;fs; nra;J fhl;bAs;sdh;. jkpo;ehl;bd; jh;kGhp khtl;lj;jpd; ngz;zhfuk; jhYf; f hthdJ> fpof; F kiyj; n jhlhpd; Nkw;F gFjpapd; mike;Js;s NkLgs;sq;fs; epuk;gpa epyg;gug;G nfhz;l tpe;ijahd g+Nfhs mikg;ig ngw;wjhFk;. ,e;j khtl;lk; kiyfs; nfhz;l epyg;gug;G fhNthp Mw;wpd; gad;fis ngwKbahky; jLj;JtpLfpwJ. ,e;jg; gFjpapy; epyTk; fLikahd eP h ; gw; w hf; F iwahdJ> Ntshz; i kiaAk; > jz; z P h ; Efh; T f; F k; ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;JfpwJ. khdhthhp epyg; g ug; g py; Kf; f pa gapuhf epyf;fliy> Jtiu kw;Wk; jl;ilg;gaph; Nghd;w CLgaph; f NshL Nrh; j ; J gaphplg; g LfpwJ. ,e;j gaph;fs; tptrhapfSf;F tUkhdj;jpw;F Mjhukhf kl;Lky;yhky;> FLk;gj;jpy; cs;s egh;fs; kw;Wk; fhy;eilfSf;F Njitahd Gujr;rj;jpw;fhd Kf;fpa MjhukhfTk; tpsq;fp tUfpwJ. ,Ue; j NghjpYk; > fle; j ,UgJ tUlq; f spy; > tptrhapfs; mbf; f b gaph; ,og; G kw; W k; mjpfhpj; J tUk; ,LnghUs; nrytpdq;fs; Nghd;w rthy;fspd; fhuzkhf Fiwe; j kf#y; kw; W k; Fiwe; j tUthia ngw;W te;jdh;. msTf;F mjpfkhf gad;gLj;jg;gl;l ,urhadq;fspdhy; kz;zpd; MNuhf;fpak; ghjpf;fg;gl;lNjhL kl;Lky;yhky;> Rw;Wg;Gwr;#oYk; mopf;fg;gl;L te;jJ. NkYk;> tUlj;jpy; gUtkio jtWk; NghJ> tptrhapfs; khdhthhp gFjpapy; tsuf;$ba Nfo;tuF gapiu gaphpl;L te;jdh;. me;j tUlq;fspy;> FLk;gj;jpy; cs;s egh;fs; kw;Wk; fhy;eilfSf;F Gujr;rj;J fpilf;fhky; my;yy;gLthh;fs;. ,e;j epiyia rkhspf;fTk;> tptrha FLk;gq;fs; Cl;lr;rj;J Mjhuq;fis ngWjw;F cjTk; nghUl;Lk; V.vk;.,. gTz;Nl\d; ngz;zhfuk; jhYf;fhtpy; 20 fpuhkq;fspy; tPlL ; j; Njhl;lq;fs; jpl;lj;ij nray;gLj;jpaJ. ,e;j jpl;lkhdJ> nrd;idapy; cs;s =tl;]; uhk; gTz;Nl\d; 18

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

rikayiw fopT ePh; fha;fwp Njhl;lj;jpw;F kWRow;rp nra;ag;gLfpwJ.

cjtpNahL nra; a g; g l; l jh; k Ghp gz; i z nray;ghl;bd; xU gFjpahFk;.

Muk;g Kaw;rpfs; gq;Nfw;G fpuhkg;Gw Ma;tpd; %yk; mg;Nghija fs epytuj; i j gw; w pa Ez; z pa Ma; T Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ngUk; vz;zpf;ifapyhd tptrhapfs;> Fwpg;ghf ngz;fs; mjpf msT mjpy; gq;Nfw;W jw;Nghija epytuj;ij mwpaTk;> vjph;fhy tsh;r;rpf;F cs;s rhj;jpaf;$Wfis NjLtjpYk; <Lgl;ldh;. epyf;fliy rhFgbia tsh;j;njLg;gJ Kjw;fl;l gzpahf ghh;f;fg;gl;L> NkYk; tphpthf;fk; nra;tjw;fhd gzpfshf tPlL ; j;Njhl;lq;fs; mikg;gJk; KbT nra;ag;gl;lJ. Kjw;fl;lkhd> 20 fpuhkq;fspy; ,Ue;J 25 ,sk; ngz;fSf;F caph;r;#oy; Ntshz; Kiwapy; epyf; f liy rhFgb nra; t jpy; jP t pukhd gapw; r p mspf; f g; g l; l J. ,e; j gapw; r pfspy; mth;fSf;F tay;ntspg;gs;spfis topelj;Jk;


ml;ltiz 1: tPl;Lj;Njhl;lk; - khje;jpu cw;gj;jp nkhj;j mWtil (fp)

tPl;L cgNahfj;jpw;F (fp)

gf;fj;J tPl;bw;F nfhLj;jJ (fp)

ntspapy; tpw;wJ (fp)

tpw;gidapd; %yk; fpilj;j tUkhdk; (&)

ntspapy; thq;FtJ Fiwe;jJ (&)

Ks;sq;fp

15-25

5-6

1-2

10-15

150

200

gPl;&l;

10-15

5-8

1-2

5-8

200

200

Gliy

10-15

3-5

1-2

4-5

100

200

gPh;f;F

8-10

10

1-2

5

200

200

ghfy;

5-8

2-3

1

2-3

100

200

jf;fhsp

25-30

10

1-2

10-15

400

200

ntz;il

15-25

5-6

1-2

10-15

200

200

fj;jhp

10-15

3-5

1-2

8-10

300

200

fPiufs; (4 tiffs;)

20-30

10

1-2

8-15

250

200

G+rzp (jiyf;F 4-5 fha;fs;)

60-70

30

0.5

50

300

200

fhul;

5-10

5

1

5

200

200

2400

2100

fha;fwpfs;

jpwikfis Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd gapw;rpfSk; Nrh;j;J nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j gapw;rp ngw;w ngz;fSk;> V.vk;.,. gzpahsh;fSk; ,ize;J 20 fpuhkq; f spYk; tay; n tspg; g s; s pfis elj;jpdh;. gaph;f;fhyk; KOtJk; eilngw;w tay;ntspg;gs;spapy; fpl;lj;jl;l 400 ngz; tptrhapfs; epiyj;j Ntshz; mZFKiwfis gad; g Lj; j p epyf; f liy rhFgb nra; t jpy; gapw;rp ngw;Wf; nfhz;ldh;.

tPlL ; f; fha;fwp Njhl;lq;fis mikj;jy; epyf;fliyapy; fpilj;j ey;y mWtilapdhy;> ,e;j ngz;fs; ,d;Dk; epiwa tpraq;fis fw; W f; n fhz; L mtw; w pd; %yk; jq; f spd; FLk;gq;fSf;F cjTk; Mh;tk; kpFjpahdJ. me;j Neuj;jpy; jhd; tPlL ; j; Njhl;llq;fis mikj;J mjd; %yk; Cl; l r; r j; J cj; j puthjj; i j ngUf;FtJ mth;fSf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. Fwpg;ghf ngz;fs; gaph; my;yhj gUtq;fspy; ,jid fw;Wf;nfhs;stjpy; kpFe;j Mh;tk; nfhz;bUe;jdh;. ,q;qdk;> mth;fs; Fiwe;j nrytpy; caph;r# ; oYf;F cfe;j Kiwfspy; tPlL ; j; Njhl;lq;fs; mikg;gjpy; gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;ldh;. Kjw;fl;lkhf> mth;fspd; nfhy;iyg;Gwq;fspy; 13 tifahd fha; f wp tpijfis nfhz; L tPl;Lj;Njhl;lq;fs; cUthf;fg;gl;ld. (ml;ltiz 1). fha;fwpfs; kw;Wk; fPiufs; %yk; ey;y mWtilia mth;fs; ngw;W mjid mth;fs; cz;zTk; Muk;gpj;jdh;. cghpahd

fha; f wpfs; mUfpy; cs; s ez; g h; f Sf; F k; > cs; @ h; re; i japy; tpw; g idAk; nra; j dh; . jpdrhp fha; f wpfs; fpilj; j jd; fhuzkhf re;ijapy; ,Ue;J fha;fwpfs; thq;Ftij ,e;j FLk;gq;fs; epWj;jptpl;ldh;. mjd; tpisthf xt;nthU khjKk; &.2100 mth;fshy; Nrkpf;f Kbe;jJ. xU khjj;jpy;> xt;nthU FLk;gKk; 6-9 fpNyh fj;jphpf;fhAk;> 7-9 fpNyh gPh;f;fq;fhAk;> 10-14 fpNyh ntz; i lf; f hAk; > 4-6 fpNyh ghfw;fhAk; jq;fspy; nfhy;iyg;Gwj;jpy; ,Ue;J mWtil nra;aKbe;jJ. ,tw;wpy; 40 tpOf;fhL tpw;gid nra;ag;gl;L mjd; %yk; &.2000-2400 tUkhdkhf fpilj;jJ. ,e;j jpl;lj;jpd; xU gFjpahf> fpl;lj;jl;l 400 tptrhapfs; 100 - 150 r.mbapy; tPlL ; f; fha;fwp Njhl;lj;ij mth;fspd; tPl;Lf; nfhy;iyg;Gwj;jpy; mikj;jdh;. fha;fwpfis cw;gj;jp nra;tjpy; mth;fSf;F Mh;tk; Vw;gl;l gpd;G> ,e;j ngz;fs; re;jpj;j jz;zhP ; gw;whf;Fiwapdhy; ,e;j nray;ghl;il njhluTk; ; kw; W k; tphpTgLj; j Kbahky; NghdJ. fha;fwp rhFgbahdJ kioia ek;gp nra;ag;gLtjhy; gUtkio jtWk; gl;rj;jpy; tPl;Lf; fha;fwp Njhl;lj;ij ghjpj;jJ. ,jid rkhspf; f ngz; f s; rikaiwapy; ,Ue; J ntspNaWk; fopTeP i u kWgad; g hL nra; t J Fwpj; J rpe; j pf; f Muk; g pj; j dh; . mth; f s; xt; n thU ehSk; rikayiwapy; ,Ue;J ntspahFk; fopTePhpd; msT Fwpj;J xU Ma; t pid Nkw; n fhz; L mjd; g b xU yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

19


ehisf;F 40-50 ypl;lh; fopT ePh; ntspNaWtij fzf;fpl;ldh;. ,e;j fopTePiu tPzhf;fhky; tPl;Lj; Njhl;lj;jpw;F jpUg;gp tpl Muk;gpj;jdh;. Fiwthf fpilf; F k; ,e; j eP h ; Mjhuj; i j jpwikahd gad;gLj;jtjd; nghUl;L fopT ePh; tbfl;lg;gl;L 50 ypl;lh; nfhs;ssT nfhz;l buk; nfhz; L Nrfhpf; f g; g l; l J. me; j buk; Foha;fs; nghUj;jg;gl;L jz;zPiu fha;fwp nrbfspd; Nth; gFjpf;F fpilf;FkhW ePhg ; hrdk; nra; a g; g l; l J. kw; W nkhW Gjpa Kaw; r pAk; nra; J ghh; f ; f g; g l; l J. glh; n fhbfSf; F xU ypl; l h; ghl; b y; nfhz; L nrhl; L eP h ; ghrd Kiwapy; ePh; gha;;r;rg;gl;lJ. ,e;j Kiwfis gad; g Lj; j pajhy; > eP h ; MtpahtJk; > mjd; frpTk; fl; L g; g Lj; j g; g l; L eP i u jpwikahf ifahs cjtpaJ. jw;NghJ> midj;J tptrha FLk;gq;fSk; rikayiwapy; ,Ue;J tPzhf ntspNaWk; fopT ePiu gad;gLj;jp fha;fwp cw;gj;jp nra;fpd;wdh;. FLk;gj;jpy; cs;s Mz;fs; kw;Wk; Foe;ijfs; vd midtUk; jw; N ghJ tP l ; L f; fha; f wp Njhl;lj;jpy; Mh;tkhf <LgLfpd;wdh;. Mz;fs; Njhl;lj;jpw;F Njitahd jz;zPh; nfhz;L tUtjw; F k; > Ntyp mikg; g jw; F k; cjtpa Ntisapy;> ngz;fs; nrbfis tsh;g;gjpYk;> kQ;rs; nghwpfis Njhl;lq;fspy; Mq;fhq;Nf nghUj; J tjpYk; > eP h ; gha; r ; R tJ kw; W k; mWtil Nghd; w gzpfspYk; <Lgl; l dh; . ,sk; Foe;ijfSk; mth;fspd; Xa;T Neuj;jpy; mk;khtpw;F jq;fspd; cjtpfis toq;;fpdh;. czT Efh;tpy; fz; $ lhf khw; w q; f s; epfoe;Js;sJ. mth;fspd; FLk;g czTKiwapy; jw;NghJ epiwa tifahd fha;fwpfs; Nrh;eJ ; s;sJ. mth;fspd; cly; MNuhf;fpaj;jpYk; epiwa Kd;Ndw;wq;fs; epfo;e;Js;sJ. mjpfg;gbahd fPiufis (ehh;rr ; j;J) cz;ljhy; nrhpkhdf; NfhshWfs; Vw;gLtjpy;iy vd ngz;fs; nrhy;fpd;wdh;. Kjw;fl;lkhf tPl;Lj; Njhl;lk; mikg;gJ gaph; my;yhj fhyq;fspy; mjhtJ Idthp Kjy; I{d; tiu Kjy; ,uz;L tUlq;fspy; (2010-2011> 2011-2012) nra;ag;gl;lJ. jw;NghJ gaph; cs;s fhyq;fspy; nra;Akstpw;F tphpTgLj;jg;gl;L> Mz;L KOtJk; fha;fwpfs; fpilg;gJ cWjp nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.

tPl;Lj; Njhl;lj;jpy; fPiufs; cw;gj;jp

ntw;wpfs; gutyhf;fy; ,e; j 400 ngz; tptrhapfspd; ntw; w pfs; midj; J fpuhkq; f spYk; cs; s th; f spd; ftdj;ij <h;j;jJ. fpl;lj;jl;l 20 fpuhkq;fspy; cs;s 300 - 500 FLk;gq;fs; ,e;j nray;ghl;il vLj;J nray;gLj;jpd. ngq;f@hpy; rh;tNjr FLk;g Ntshz;ikf;fhd Mz;L njhlh;ghf eilngw;w epfo;rr ; papy; Jtf;f epfo;thf ,e;j ngz;fs; jq;fspd; fha;fwp cw;gj;jp njhlh;ghd mwpit gfph;eJ ; nfhs;Sk; tha;g;ig ngw;wdh;. mq;F jq;fspd; tPl;Lj; Njhl;lq;fspy; gaphplg;gl;l gy;NtW fha;fwpfis fhl;rpg;gLj;jp mjd; mDtgq;fisAk; gfph;eJ ; nfhz;ldh;. ,g;ngz;fSf;F tPlL ; f; fha;fwpj; Njhl;lkhdJ> FLk; g j; j pd; Cl; l r; r j; i j fl; b naOg; G topfisAk; mNjhL Fwpg;gplj;jf;f tUkhdj;ij rk; g hjpf; f Tk; cjtpaJ. NkYk; > 10-15 fp.kP njhiyT nrd;W fha;fwpfs; thq;f Ntz;ba fbdkhd #oypy; ,Ue; J tpLtpj; j J. kpf Kf;fpakhf> ,e;j tPlL ; f; fha;fwpj; Njhl;lq;fs; mth;fspd; FLk;gj;ijAk;>; r%f gpizg;GfisAk; gyg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; Mjhukhf mike;jJ.  J Krishnan FAO trained FFS facilitator AME Foundation, No.5/1299-B-2, NSCB Road, Behind TAMS Colony Lakkiampatty, Dharmapuri - 636705 Email: josephkrish@rediffmail.com

%yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2014> thy;a+k; 16> ,jo; 4

20

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 2 • [_d;; 2015

Tamil - June 2015  
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