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,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

LEIS Indi

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yP r h ,e; j pah jkpo; rpwg;gpjo;


yP r h ,e; j pah jkpo; rpwg;gpjo; This issue in Tamil is a translated version of LEISA India magazine. This includes selected articles from LEISA India, originally published in English. Address : ame Foundation No. 204, 100 Feet Ring Road, 3rd Phase, Banashankari 2nd Block, 3rd Stage, Bangalore - 560 085, India Tel: +91-080- 2669 9512, +91-080- 2669 9522 Fax: +91-080- 2669 9410 E-mail: amebang@giasbg01.vsnl.net.in Leisa India Chief Editor : K.V.S. Prasad Managing Editor : T.M. Radha

yPrh vd;gJ Fiwe;j ntspapL nghUs; kw;Wk; epiyj;j Ntshz;ik vd;gjd; RUf;fkhFk;. Rw;Wr;RoYf;F cfe;j topfspy; cw;gj;jpiaAk;> tUkhdj;ijAk; ngUf;f tpUk;Gk; coth;fSf;F njhopw;El;g kw;Wk; r%f hPjpapyhd tha;g;Gfis cs;slf;fpajhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ cs;@h; ts Mjhuq;fs; kw;Wk; ,aw;ifapd; Nghf;Ffis msTld; gad;gLj;jp Njitg;gLk; NghJ ghJfhg;ghd msT ntspaPL nghUl;fis jpwd;gl ifahs;tjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ Mz; kw;Wk; ngz; coth;fis> me;j r%fj;ij Ragyk; kpf;fth;fshfTk;> rf;jp kpf;fth;fshfTk; khw;wp mjd;%yk; mth;fspd; vjph;fhyj;ij jq;fs; nrhe;j mwpT> jpwik>kjpg;gL P > fyhr;rhuk; kw;Wk; mikg;Gfis mikf;f cjTtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ khwptUk; #oy;fs; kw;Wk; NjitfSf;F Vw;g coth;fs; kw;Wk; ,ju gq;Fjhuh;fspd; jpwikfs;> gq;Nfw;G mZFKiwfs; %yk; gyg;gLj;JtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ ghuk;ghpa mwpitAk;> mwptpay; g+h;tkhd mwpitAk; ,izj;J mjd;%yk; nfhs;if cUthf;fj;jpy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jp vjph;fhy tsh;r;rpf;F rhjfkhd #oiy cUthf;FtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ xU fUj;J> xU mZFKiw kw;Wk; tpNtfkhd nra;jp.

Translated by N. Lalitha Sakthivel Translation coordination Arunkumar Shivaray Administration Rukmini G. G. Design and Layout M.S. Vasanth Christopher Printing L.S. Graphic Prints, Chennai Cover photo Holding a bountiful harvest Photo: MSSRF Different editions • Regional Editions Telugu, Hindi, Kannada, Marathi, Punjabi and Oriya • Farming Matters The Global edition in English • LEISA Revista de Agroecologia The Latin American edition in Spanish • LEISA India The Indian edition in English • AGRIDAPE The West African edition in French • Agriculturas, Experiencias em Agroecologia The Brazilian edition in Portuguese • LEISA CHINA The Chinese edition The editors have taken every care to ensure that the contents of this magazine are as accurate as possible. The authors have ultimate responsibility, however, for the content of individual articles. The editors encourage readers to photocopy and circulate magazine articles.

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Supported by MISEREOR, Published by AME Foundation yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

kpnrshpah; vd;gJ tsh;r;rp xj;Jiog;gpw;fhf> n[h;kdp ehl;by; cs;s fj; N jhypf; f ghjphpahh; f shy; 1958 Mk; Mz; b y; epWtg; g l; l Xh; epWtdkhFk;. kpnrshpah; fle;j 50 tUlq;fSf;Fk; Nkyhf Mg;gphpf;fh> Mrpah kw; W k; yj; j P d ; mnkhpf; f ehLfspy; Vo; i k xopg; g jw; f hd Nghuhl;lj;jpy; jd;id mh;gzpj;J gzpahw;wp tUfpwJ. kjk;> ehfhPfk;> ghypdk; vd;w ve;j NtWghby;yhky; kdpj Fyj;jpd; Njitf;F jdJ cjtpia mspj;J tUfpwJ. Vio kw;Wk; gpd;jq;fpa kf;fs;> jhq;fshf Jtf;Fk; ve;j xU Kaw;rpf;Fk; MjuT nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ek;GfpwJ. cs;@h; $l;lhspfSld;> Fwpg;ghf fpUj;Jt Nfhapy;fNshL njhlh;Gila epWtdq;fs;> muR rhuh epWtdq;fs;> r%f ,af;fq;fs;> Muha;r;rp epWtdq;fs; Nghd;wtw;NwhL ,ize;J gzpahw;Wtij tpUk;GfpwJ. gadhspfNshL ,ize;J> mjd; $l;lhspfs; cs;@h; ts Nkk;ghl;L Kiwfspy; cjtpAk;> jpl;lq;fis eilKiwg;gLj;jpAk; tUfpd;wdh;. ,t;topahfNt> kpnrshpah; jdJ $l; l hspfSld; ,ize; J njhlh; r ; r pahf khwptUk; rthy; f is vjph;nfhs;fpwJ. www.misereor.de; www.misereor.org V.vk; . , gTz; N l\d; Fiwe; j ntspapL nghUs; %yk; ,aw; i f ts Mjhuq; f s; Nkyhz; i kf; f hf ghuk; g hpa mwpitAk; > Gjpa fz; L gpbg; G njhopw; E l; g q; f isAk; xd; w pizj; J epiyj; j tho; t hjhug; gzpfis ngUf; F tjpy; <Lgl; L tUfpwJ. V.vk; . , gTz; N l\d; Ntshz; i kapy; khw;WfisAk;> mwpitAk; ngUf;FtjpYk;> gapw;rpfs; mspg;gjpYk;> tsh;r;rp gzpfspy; <Lgl;L tUk; epWtdq;fNshL njhlh;Gfis Vw;gLj;JtjpYk;> mDgtq;fis gfph;e;J nfhs;tjw;Fk;> jf;fhz gPlg+kp gFjpfspy; rpW FW coth;fs; kj;jpapy; gzpahw;wp tUfpwJ. V.vk;., epWtdk; Mh;tKs;s tptrhaf; FOf;fSld; gy fpuhkq;fspy; khw;W tptrha Kiwfis ngUf;fTk;> eilKiwg;gLj;jTk; gzp nra;J tUfpwJ. ,e;j gFjpfs; ,aw;if Ntshz; Kiwfis nfhz;Ltu Kaw;rpf;Fk; kw; W k; eilKiwg; g Lj; j p nfhz; L tUk; jd; d hh; t f; FOf; f s; kw; W k; $l;likg;GfSf;F fw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; ,lq;fshfTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. www.amefound.org

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,jo; 1 • khh;r; - 2015

4 tptrhapfs; cw;gj;jpahsh;fs; rq;fk;;

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9

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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

3


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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

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mWtil nra;j nfhj;jhd ntq;fhaj;ij ifapy; gpbj;Jf;nfhz;bUf;fpwhh; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

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nkhj;j kw;Wk; rpy;yiw tpahghhpfs;jhd; ey;y ,yhgj;ij <l;Lfpd;wdh;.

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,J Ma;T kw;Wk; Mtzj;Jld; ,ize;J nray; g Lj; j g; g LfpwJ. tptrhapfs; ngw; w ,e;j mwpit gug;Gtjw;F tay; jpd tpoh ngUk; tha;g;ig ey;fpaJ. njhopy;El;gq;fspd; ghpkhw;wk; vd;w jpl;lj;jpd; fPo; gapw;rpaspf;fg;gl;l Kd;Ndhb tptrhapfs; ,e;j gs;spapy; nra;Kiw tpsf; f k; khjphp tptrhapahfTk; > cw; W Nehf;Ftjd; %yk; gbg;gpidfis ngwf;$ba nra;KiwfspYk; Kf;fpa gq;fhw;Wfpd;wdh;. ey;y jukhd tpijfis gad;gLj;Jjy;> rhy; Kiwapy; rhFgb nra;jy;> Vf;fUf;F 88>000 vz;zpf;ifapyhd ehw;Wf;fis Nkk;gLj;Jjy; 45 nr.kP x 10 nr.kP ,ilntsp tpLjy; > ePh;tbg;gjw;fhd trjp> xUq;fpize;j G+r;rp Nkyhz;ik njhopy;El;gq;fis gpd;gw;Wjy;> Kd;ghfNt tpijj;J gl;lk; njhlq;Fk; Kd;dNu mWtil nra;jy;. fpuhk mstpyhd Ntshz; thdpiy ikak; mspf;Fk; md;whl jfty;fis fpuhk mwpT ikak; %yk; tptrhapfSf; F njhptpg; g jhy; mth; mjd; mbg; g ilapy; jFe;j KbT vLf;f VJthfpwJ.tptrhapfs; ,aw;ifapd; rPw;wj;ij Ghpe;Jnfhs;s r%f rPNjh\z Mgj;jpw;fhd Nkyhsh;fs; topelj;jp> rPNjh\zk; Fwpj;j fy;tp epfo;rr ; pfs; elj;jpdh;. GJr;Nrhpia Nrh;e;j gps;isahh;gl;b fpuhkj;jpy; cs; s fpuhk Mjhu ikaj; J ld; ey; y hT+h; fpuhk mwpT ikaKk; ,ize; J njhlh; G Vw; g Lj; j g; g l; l J. fpuhk mwpT ikaj; j pw; F Njitg; g Lk; ,lk; > kpd; r huk; kw; W k; xU gzpahshpd; rk;gsk; Mfpa nryTfs; ahTk; fpuhk gQ;rhaj;J Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpwJ.10 ePh;tbg; gFjp fpuhkj; j pypUe; J tptrhapfs; kw; W k;

tptrhapfs; rpy;yiw tpahghhpfSld; fye;JiuahLfpd;wdh; 6

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kw;Wk; gy;NtW ty;Yeh;fspd; Kaw;rpapd; %yk; rhpahd jUzj;jpy; ,LnghUs; kw;Wk; jukhd tpijfs; ngWtJ Nghd;w gpur;ridfSf;F jPhT ; fz;L ntq;fhag; gaphpd; kjpg;G rq;fpypapy; tptrhapfs; jq;fSila gq;if mjpfhpf;fr; nra;Js;sdh;.

tptrhapfs; ; cw; g j; j p rq; f k; %yk; xUq;fpize;J re;ijgLj;Jjy;

ngz; tptrhapfs; ntq;fhaj;ij mWtil nra;fpd;wdh;

ngz; f s; fpuhk mwpT ikaj; j plkpUe; J jpde; N jhWk; thdpiy jfty; f s; > gaph; cw;gj;jpapy; cs;s gpur;ridfs;> gy;NtW muR jpl; l q; f s; > ey; y rhFgb njhopy; E l; g j; j pd; Gjpa jfty; f s; kw; W k; re; i j epytuq; f s; Mfpa jfty;fis gad;gLj;jp nfhs;fpd;wdh;. gq; N fw; G ld; $ba njhopy; E l; g tsh; r ; r p Kiwf;F nghWg;ghf cs;s tptrhapfSf;F> tay; ntspg; gs;spapd; Njit kw;Wk; gaphpd; tsh;rr ; p mbg;gilapYk; khjk; ,UKiw vOj;J kw;Wk; Fuy; tbt FWe; jfty;fs; mDg;Gk; mstpw;F fpuhk Mjhu ikaj;Jld; njhlh;G cs; s J. njhiyg; N grp epfo; r ; r pfs; (Neub fye;Jilahly;fs;) ty;Yeh;fisf; nfhz;L khjk; xU Kiw elj;jg;gLfpwJ. 2008 Mk; Mz;L 23 tptrhapfs; ntq;fha rhFgb nra;j epiy khwp jw;NghJ mjpfhpj;J 400 f;Fk; Nkw;;gl;l tptrhapfs; rhFgb nra;J tUfpd;wdh;. Vf;fUf;F 2.5 ld;dpypUe;J 4 ld;dhf kf#y; mjpfhpj;Js;sJ.rpy tptrhapfs; 5.5 ld; tiu mWtil nra;Js;sdh;. ePh;tbg;gFjp r%f mikg;G tpQ;Qhd Kiw jz;zhP ; mWtil kw;Wk; mtw;iw tPzhf;fhky; Njitahd msT gad; g Lj; J jy; > rkkhf gfph;e;J nfhs;Sjy;> epWtd mikg;gpd; %yk; ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gl;l rPNjh\zk; cfe;j Ntshz; njhopy; E l; g q; f s; ahTk; tUkhdk; kw; W k; czT cj;jputhjk; tphptilAk; vd;gjid nra;J fhl;baJ. tptrhapfspd; ghh;it jw;NghJ tphptile;Js;sJ. NkYk; tpahghhpapd; jiyaPL> Gjpa re;ijapy; jq;fis mwpKfg;gLj;jp nfhs;tJ> midj;J tpjkhd tpiyf;Fk; rk;kjpg;gJ> epWtdj; njhlh;G

2009 Mk; Mz;L> tptrhapfs; njhopy; FOtpd; tiuaWf;fg;glhj $l;likg;G cUthf;fp> ,e;j ngahpy;- ey;yhT+h; tptrhapfs; rq;fk;> tq;fp fzf;F Jtf;fg;gl;lJ. Rkhh; 400 rpW FW tptrhapfs; (25 tptrhapfs; njhopy; FOf;fs;) ntq; f hak; / ney; Ntshz; i k njhopy; gzpfspy; <Lgl;L te;jdh;. vk; . v]; . v]; . Mh; . v‡g; kw; W k; tptrhapfs; njhopy; FO cWg;gpdh;fs; Mfpait ,ize;J> jq;fspd; nray;ghLfs; kw;Wk; nghWg;GfSld; tptrhapfs; cw;gj;jp rq;fj;ij Nkyhz;ik nra; J tUfpd; w J - ,jpy; mwpT Nritia mspg; g Nj vk; . v]; . v]; . Mh; . v‡g; - d; gq; F . khjf; $l; l q; f s; > ,LnghUs; thq; F jy; > re; i jg; gLj; J jy; > nghUshjhu Nkyhz; ik kw;Wk; njhlh; fz;fhzpg;G Mfpa midj;Jk; nray;ghl;L FOkk; nra;fpwJ. kw;w tptrhapfs; cw;gj;jp rq;fj;ij ghh;itapLtJ tptrhapfspd; mwpT kw;Wk; epWtd mikg; i g Ghpe; J ntw; w pfukhf Nkyhz;ik nra;tJ Fwpj;j jfty; tphptilfpd;wd. tptrhapfs; cw;gj;jp rq;fkhf nray;gLtjhy; tptrhapfs; jhq;fshfNt tUk; gl;lj;jpw;F jpl;lkpLtjw;Fk;> xUq;fpize;J ,LnghUl;fis thq;Ftjw;Fk; kw;Wk; Roy;epjpia nghJ fzf;fpy; jpUg;gp nrYj;Jtjw;Fk; KbfpwJ. 2011 Mk; Mz;L> tpahghhpfSld; <LgLtJk;> tpisnghUl; f is re; i jgLj; J tjw; F k; > nghWg;Gkpf;f re;ijgLj;Jtjw;fhd FOkk; cUthf; fg; gl; l J. nrd; i d kw; Wk; mUfpy; cs;s re;ijfspy; ntq;fha tpiyfs; Fwpj;J Gjpa jfty;fis fpuhk mwpT ikak; %yk; tptrhapfSf;F njhptpf;fg;gLfpwJ. Vw;fdNt gy tptrhapfs; cs; @ h; tpahghhpfSld; ghuk; g hpakpf; f eP z ; l fhy xg; g e; j q; f s; nra;Js;sJ kpf rthyhf ,Ue;jJ. tptrhapfs; cw;gj;jp rq;fk; %yk; tptrhapfs; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

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epahakhd tpiy> Js; s pakhd mstP L > kw; w re; i jg; g Lj; J tjw; f hd cjtpfs; xU %l;ilf;F &. 1200 (Vw;Wkjp tpiyapy; cs;;s nghUl;fs;) kw;Wk; &.850 cs;@h; tpiyapy; cs; s nghUl; f Sf; F Nghd; w epahakhd re;ijg;gLj;Jk; Af;jpfs; ifahsg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd Nfhhpf;if tpLj;jdh;. 2012 Mk; Mz; L tptrhapfs; cw; g j; j p rq;fj;jpy; mUfpy; cs;;s fpuhk tptrhapfs; ,iztjd; %yk; nrd;idapy; cs;s Vw;Wkjp re; i jia ifg; g w; w yhk; vd tptrhapfs; FOkk; KbntLj;Js;sJ. ,jd; %yk; cs;@h; tpiyahd &.900 -iu/ %l;il tpl &. 1700 / %l;il fpilj;jJ.mjdhy; tptrhapfSf;F Vw;gl;l njhlh;Gfshy; xUq;fpize;J ,LnghUs; kw; W k; tpijfs; thq; F tjw; F Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;lJ. tptrhapfs; cw; g j; j p rq; f k; vjph; f hyj; jpl;lq;fSk; itj;jpUe;jJ.tpisnghUl;fSf;F kjpg; G $l; L tjw; F k; > mjw; F ey; y tpiy fpilg;gjw;Fk; ,r;rq;fk;> tsh;j;Jtjw;Fk;> juk; gphpg;gjw;Fk;> Nrkpg;gjw;Fk; Vw;w ,lq;fis/ $lq;fis fl;l jpl;lkpl;Ls;sJ.

8

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

ed;wp $Wjy; khWjYf; F l; g l; l Kiwfspy; xj; J iog; G k; > cWjpAk; nfhz; l ey; y hT+h; eP h ; t b gFjp r%fj; j pw; F ed; w p $Wfpd; N whk; . epjpAjtp mspj; j [hk; \ l; [ p lhlh l; u ]; l ; > Kk; i g mth; f Sf; F vq; f sJ kdkhh; e ; j ed; w pfs; . xl;Lnkhj;jkhf topfhl;ba vk;. v];. Rthkpehjd; Muha;r;rp epWtdj;jpd; nray; ,af;FeUk; ghuhl;bw;Fhpatu;.  P Nandeesa Project Coordinator, Bioindustrial Watershed Project, Villupuram, M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd cross Street, Taramani Institutional Area Chennai – 600 0113 E-mail: nandeeshcp@gmail.com

%yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> [_d; 2013> thy;a+k; 15> ,jo; 2


nra;Kiw tpsf;fg; gs;sp

caph; Mw;wy; Ntshz;ik gz;iz gs;sp tptrhaj;jpy; ,isQh;fis jf;fitj;J nfhs;Sjy; b. jq;fghz;bad; tptrhaj;jpy; tUkhdk; ,y;yhj fhuzj;jhy;> gy ,isQh;fs; tptrhak; my;yhj tho;thjhu tha;g;Gf;fis Njb nry;fpd;wdh;. ,e;jg; gpur;ridf;F jPh;thf capuhw;wy; gz;iz gs;sp fpuhk tptrhapfSf;F Ntshz;ikia epiyj;jjhfTk;> ,yhgfukhfTk; khw;Wtjw;F Fwpj;j ,uz;L tUl gapw;rp fy;tp Jtf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa Ntshz;ik njhlh;e;J gy gpur;ridfis> Fwpg;ghf kdpjd; Vw;gLj;Jk; gpur;ridfis re;jpj;J tUfpwJ. Njitaw;w my; y J rk; k e; j kpy; y hj njhopy; E l; g q; f s; kw; W k; Kiwfis gpd; g w; W tjhy; tptrhak; tUkhdk; ,y;yhj tho;thjhukhf khwpAs;sJ. fpuhk kf; f spd; tho; f ; i f juk; njhlh; e ; J eyptile; J tUtjhy; ngUk; g hyhdth; f s; efug; gFjpia Nehf;fp nry;y njhlq;fpAs;sdh;. rkPgfhy kf;fs; njhif fzf;nfLg;gpy; 50 rjtpfpjj; J f; F k; Nkw; g l; l nkhj; j kf; f s; njhifapy; efuj;jpy; thOk; Nkhrkhd epiy Vw;gl;Ls;s gy;NtW khepyq;fspy; jkpo;ehLk; xd; W . Mifahy; ehk; vq; F nry; f pNwhk; ? Nfhtpy;gl;b kw;Wk; crpyk;gl;bfspy; jfty; njhopy; E l; g epWtdq; f s; kw; W k; cw; g j; j p

gphpTfshf khw;w NghfpNwhkh? ahh; xl;Lnkhj;j khepyj;jpw;F Njitahd czTfis mspg;gJ? ,itnay; y hk; ehk; > jP h ; T fhz Ntz; b a mr;RWj;Jk; Nfs;tpfs;. Ntshz;ikia jq;fs; tho;thjhukhf Vw;W Gjpa rthy;fis re;jpf;ff; $ba fpuhkj;jpypUe;J Mh;tkpf;f kw;Wk; gapw;rp ngw;w ,sq;FO xd;W cldbahf Njitg; g LfpwJ. nghUshjhu tifapy; ,yhgk; jUk; njhopyhf tptrhaj;ij nra;tjw;F> epiyj;j Ntshz;ik kl;Lkpy;yhky; etPd Ntshz;ik Fwpj;j gapw;rpAk; mspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. jkpo;ehl;by; f&h; khtl;lj;ij Nrh;ej ; fhe;jpa nfhs;iffis gpd;gw;Wk; mikg;ghd ,d;g Nrth rq;fk; Vio fpuhk khzth;fs; gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;L Ntshz; ty;Yeuhf yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

9


tUq;fhyj;jpy; cUthf ,th;fSf;F capuhw;wy; Ntshz;ik Fwpj;J gapw;rpia mspf;f gs;sp xd;W njhlq;fpaJ. ,e;j khzth;fs; ,aw;if my; y J capuhw; w y; Ntshz; i kia kl; L k; filgpbf;fhky; ‘G+kpia rPh; nra;Ak; ,af;fk;” vd; w FOtpd; mq; f khf ,Uf; f Ntz; L k; vd;Wk; vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpwJ. ,aw;if capuhw;wy; Ntshz;ik gs;spahdJ jkpo; e hl; b y; f&h; khtl; l j; i j Nrh; e ; j tpNdhgh[pGuk; vd;w ,lj;jpy; 2012 Mk; Mz;L [_iy 11 Mk; Njjp Jtq;fg;gl;lJ. ,J ,d;g Nrth rq;fk; cjtpAld;> jq;fp gbf;Fk; ,uz;L tUl gl; l ag; gbg; G ,ytrf; fy; t pahFk; . jw; N ghJ 7 khzth; f s; Kjy; Kaw; r pahf gapw; r p ngWfpd; w dh; . ,th; f s; ,uz; l hk; Mz;L gapd;W tUfpd;wdh;. ,e;j khzth;fs; ahtUk; mUfpYs; s fpuhkq; f spypUe; J tUfpd;wdh;.mbg;gilapy; ,th;fs; tptrha r%fj;ij Nrh;e;jth;fs;> kpfTk; Vio FLk;g gpd; d zpapypUg; g th; f s; Mth; . ,e; j Kjy; FO [{d; 2014 Mk; Mz;L ,g;gs;spapypUe;J gl;ljhhpfshf ntsptUth;. ,aw;if capuhw;wy; Ntshz;ikapd; midj;J $WfisAk; ‘nra;J fw;wy;“ Kiwapy; khzth;fSf;F gapw;rp mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. Gj;jf tbt ghlj;ij tpl nray;tbt ghlj;jpy; mjpf ftdk; nrYj;jg;gLfpwJ. ghlj;j ; pl;lj;ij %d;W gphpTfshf tbtikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ Fwpg;ghf> njhopy; E l; g jpwd; gapw; r p> nkd; n ghUs; jpwd; gapw;rp kw;Wk; nra;Kiw tpsf;f gs;sp. njhopy; E l; g jpwd; gapw; r papy; > khzth; f s; Ntshz; fhLfs;> ePh;tb gFjp Nkyhz;ik> ghrd Nkyhz; i k> gz; i z fUtpfspd; Nkk;ghL> ,aw;if capuhw;wy; Ntshz;ik> kz; ts njhopy;El;gq;fs;> cotpay;> Njhl;lf;fiy gaph;fs;> tpij njhopy;El;gq;fs;> rhd;wpjo; kw;Wk; tpw;gid Mfpa ghlq;fs; fw;fpd;wdh;. njhiynjhlh; G jpwd; f s; > tho; f ; i fia topelj;Jk; jpwd;fs;> mbg;gil fzpzp mwpT> fiyfs; kw;Wk; fyhr;rhuk; Mfpa ghlq;fis nkd;nghUs; jpwd; tsh;g;gpd; fPo; fw;fpd;wdh;. xt; n thU ,ilf; f hy KbtpYk; (%d; W khjq; f s; / ,ilf; f hyk; > nkhj; j k; MW ,ilf;fhyq;fs;)> khzth;fs; 3-4 thuq;fSf;F gpugykhf cs; s ,aw; i f my; y J ,aw; i f capuhw;wy; gz;izfspy; nra;Kiw gapw;rpapy; gq;FngWfpd;wdh;. ,e;j nra;Kiw gapw; r papd; N ghJ> ngUk; g hyhd ,aw; i f capuhw;wy; njhopy;El;gq;fshd jahhpg;G kw;Wk; ,aw;if capuhw;wy; jahhpg;Gfis njspj;jy;> ,aw;if capuhw;wy; cuk; kw;Wk; jput cuk; nra;Jghh;f;fpd;wdh;. 10

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

jz;zhP ; Nrkpf;Fk; fl;likg;ig khzth;fs; fw;fpd;wdh;

gz;iz fUtpfshd coT ,ae;jpuk;> fisf; fUtp> njspg;ghd;fs; kw;Wk; J}Tk; fUtpfs; Mfpatw;wpd; Nkyhz;ik Fwpj;Jk; khzth;fs; gapw;Wtpf;f gLfpd;wdh;.jw;NghJs;s khzth;fs; FO tpe;juh gz;iz> MNuhtpy; FwpQ;rp ,aw;if capuhw;wy; gz;iz kw;Wk; thy;Nghl; gs;sp nfhilf;fhdy; Nghd;w ,aw;if kw;Wk; ,aw;if capuhw;wy; gz;izfis ghh;itapl;ldh;. NkYk; vk;.rp.Mh;.rp> nrd;id Vw;ghL nra;jpUe;j ‘kz; Ma;tpw;F rpwpa msT Njitg;gLk; rj;Jf;fis khw;W Ma;T ghpNrhjid” Fwpj;j gapw;rpAk; mspf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jpa ,aw;if capuhw;wy; rq;fk; nrz;gfD}h; gFjpapy; Vw;ghL nra;jpUe;j ,aw;if capuhw;wy; gapw;rpapYk; gq;Nfw;wdh;. ,uz;lhk; Mz;bd;NghJ> khzth;fSf;F ju rhd;wpjo; kw;Wk; tpw;gid Nghd;w rpy mbg;gil mwpTk; mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,J vjph;fhyj;jpy; khzth;fs; jq;fSila nrhe;j gz;izia Nkyhz;ik nra;tjw;F cjtpahf ,Uf;Fk;. mLj; j gj; J Mz; L fspy; Mz; > ngz; cl; g l 1000 f; F k; Nkw; g l; l ,isQh; f is jpul; b ‘G+kpia rP h ; nra; A k; ,af; f j; j pw; F ” J}Jth;fshf khw;WtNj vq;fs; jpl;lk;. ,e;jj; jpl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpa Fwpf;Nfhs; ,isQh;fis Ntshz;ikapy; gapw;Wtpg;gJ kl;Lky;yhky; jhq;fshfNt xOf;f newpapy; tsh;e;J ey;y tho;f;if thoyhk;. xd;W $b nra;Ak; ve;j nraYk; r%fj;jpy; khw;wq;fs; Vw;gLk; vd;gij ehq;fs; jplkhf ek;GfpNwhk;.  D Thangapandian is a member of the academic committee of The School of Biodynamic Farming and The Lead Worker of Farm India – www.farmindia.org For more information, contact Mr.Jayakaran, Director, The School of Biodynamic Farming, Vinobajipuram, Karur District, Tamil Nadu. http:// www.inbasevasangam.org %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> nrg;lk;gh; 2013> thy;a+k; 15> ,jo; 3


tptrhap fz;Lgpbj;jtw;iw ePs> mfy gFjpapy; gutyhf;fk; nra;jy; b.N[. N[k;]; gjg;gLj;Jjy; Vyf;fha; re;ijapy; mjpf kjpg;G ,Ue;jhYk;; mJ $ypahl;fs; mjpfk; Njitg;gLk; KiwahFk;. Muha;r;rp epWtdq;fspd; cjtp fpilf;fhjjhy;> ,e;jg; gFjpapy; cs;s tptrhapfs; fw;gidahsh;fshf khwp> mWtilf;Fg;gpd; cs;s nray;ghLfSf;F cfe;j njhopy;El;gq;fis cUthf;fpdh;. gpugykhf kw;Wk; tptrhapfshy; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l njhopy;El;gq;fspy; xd;W Vyf;fha; Rj;jpfhpg;G ,ae;jpuk; MFk;. Vyf;fha; gjg;gLj;Jjypy; fha itj;jy;> Rj;jk; nra;jy;> fOTjy; kw;Wk; juk; gphpj;jy; Mfpait kpf fbdkhd kw; W k; Nrhh; i t Vw; g Lj; J k; Ntiy vd;gjhy; ,jw;F nkhj;j $ypahl;fspy; fpl;ljl;l 70 rjtpfpjj;jpdh; Njitg;gLfpwJ. ntg;gj;jpy; cyh;e;j Vyf;fhapy; G+tpd; fhk;G kw;Wk; ,ju mOf;F kw;Wk; Fg;igfis vLg;gNj Rj;jk; nra;jy; MFk;. ,e;j nray; nra;Ak;NghJ mjpf Jhrpfs; ntspNaWk;. ,jid rhjhuz Kiwapy; ngz;fs; kz;bapl;L ifahy; fk;gp tiyapd; kP J ed; F mOj; j p Rj; j k; nra; a Ntz; L k; . ,e; j Ntiy kpf fbdkhfTk; iffSf;F rpW fhaq;fs; Vw;gLtJ nghJthd xd;W. NkYk; gyUf;F ,e;j Jhrp myh;[pia Vw;gLj;JfpwJ.

tptrha fz;Lgpbg;G Nfushtpy; cs;s ,Lf;fp khtl;lj;ij Nrh;e;j Gspad; k yh fpuhkj; j py; trpf; F k; vd; . N[. jhk];> jd;Dila ,sk; tajpy; jd; je;ijf;F Vyf; f ha; rhFgbapy; cjtp nra; J te; j hh; . ,e;j Vyf;fha; rhFgb %d;W Vf;fh; epyj;jpy; nra; J tUfpd; w dh; . Vyf; f ha; i a Rj; j k; nra;tJ kpf fbdkhd Ntiy vd;gjhy;> jhk]; ,e;j fbdkhd Ntiyf;F khw;whd jPh;it cUthf; f kpf Mh; t khf ,Ue; j hh; . Kjypy; mth; Njd; vLf;Fk; fUtpia ed;F ftdpj;jhh;. ,e; j fUtpapy; mirah epiyapy; cs; s kuj;jhy; nra;ag;gl;l ,iyfs; nghUj;jpAs;s RoYk; l;uk; nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,e;jf; fUtpia gad;gLj;jp N[k;];> Vyf;fha;ia Rj;jpfhpf;Fk;

jhk]; jd;Dila fz;Lgpbg;ghd Vyf;fha; Rj;jpfhpf;Fk; ,ae;jpuJld; epw;fpd;whh; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

11


ml;ltiz 1 : Vyf;fha; Rj;jpfhpg;G ,ae;jpuk; gbg;gbahf cUngw;w fhyepiy tptuk;. 1992-93

vz;zk; Njhd;wpaJ> Njd; vLf;Fk; fUtpia khw;wp Kjy; khjphp cUthf;fg;gl;lJ> gpd;dh; khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.

1994

KOikngw; W ,aq; F k; khjphpia tptrhapfSf; F tpsf; f kspf; f g; g l; l J. thridg;gaph; eph;thff; FO mYtyh;fs; ghh;itapl;L> ghuhl;b> ];ig]; ,e;jpah vd;w mth;fspd; gj;jphpf;ifapy; ntspapl;ldh;.

1995

NkYk; ,e;j Rj;jpfhpf;fg;gLk; ,ae;jpuj;ij jahhpj;jhh;. thridg;gaph; eph;thff; FO Vw;ghL nra;jpUe;j gapw;rpfspy; fye;Jnfhz;L tptrhapfSf;F tpsf;fkspj;jhh;. nrhe;jkhf gl;liwia Jtf;fpdhh;. gy tptrhapfs; ,tiu re;jpj;J nrd;wdh;. thridg;gaph; eph;thff; FO ,tUf;F tpUJ toq;fpaJ. rpy nra;jpj;jhs;fspy; ,tUila ,ae;jpuk; Fwpj;j nra;jp ntspapl;ld.

1995-96

tpahghu hPjpahf cw;gj;jp Muk;gpf;fgl;L 25 ,ae;jpuj;Jf;Fk; Nky; tpw;fg;gl;lJ. ,th; gl;liwapy; gzpGhpe;j gzpahsh; jdpahf nrhe;j gl;liwia Muk;gpj;J cw;gj;jpia Jtf;fpdhh;.

1996-1997

,Lf;fp khtl;lj;jpy; gy gl;liwfs; nrhe;jkhf cw;gj;jpia Jtf;fpdh;. ,ae;jpuj;ij fz;Lgbj;jth; ,tUila gl;liwia %bdhh;.

1996-1997

40 f;Fk; Nkw;gl;l gl;liwfs; ,Lf;fpapYk;> jkpo;ehl;L vy;iy gFjp khtl;lq;fspYk; Fwpg;ghf fk;gk; Rj;jpfhpg;G ,ae;jpu cw;gj;jpia Jtf;fpdh;. ,J ,Lf;fp khtl;lj;jpd; mUfpy; cs;s njhopw;rhiy gFjp.

1996-1998

kw;w Vyf;f ha; rhFgb khtl; l j; jpw; F fz; L gpbg; ghshpd; <LghL ,y; y hky; gutpAs;sJ.

1998:2010

Efh;Nthhpd; fUj;ij nfhz;L NkYk; rpy khw;wq;fis ,e;j gl;liwfs; nra;jd. Jhrpfis mfw;w tprpwp> nkd;ikahf Jilg;gjw;F fl;ilahy; Md jfLfs; Nky; ug;gh; nghUj;Jjy;> Vyf;fhia juk;gphpf;f ry;yil> Jhrpia Nrfhpf;f jl;L Mfpait $Ljyhf Nrh;f;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,ae;jpuj;jpd; ghfq;fs; ahTk; jpUk;g nghUj;jyhk;. xl;Lnkhj;j gilg;GfSk; cah;e;Js;sJ.

Kaw;rpapy; <Lgl;lhh;. njhlf;fj;jpy;> 5 fpNyh Rj; j pfhpf; f g; g l; l J Mdhy; mJ ntw;wpngwtpy;iy.mjd; mirT nkd;ikahf ,y;iy gpd;dh; Rj;jpfhpf;fg;gLk; Vyf;fhapd; vilia Fiwj;jhh;. 5 fpNyhtpypUe;J ½ fpNyhthf Fiwj; j gpd; d h; Vyf; f ha; ed;whf Rj;jpfhpf;fg;gl;lJ. l;uk;kpd; cs;Rth; kw;Wk; kuj;jhy; Md ,iyfSf;F kj;jpapy; fdkhf mOj;Jtjd; %yk; Vyf;fha; Rj;jpfhpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

fUtpiag; gad;gLj;jp 5 epkplj;jpy; Rkhh; 10 -15 fpNyh Vyf;fha;ia Rj;jpfhpf;f KbAk;. ,jdhy; ngz;fspd; MNuhf;fpa Fiwg;ghL kw;Wk; kpFjpahd gzp Mfpatw;wpypUe;J ghJfhf;fg;gLfpwhh;fs;. 12

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

nray;ghl;bd; Nfhl;ghl;il ed;F Ghpe;Jnfhz;L> jhk]; xU thuj;jpy; cs;@h; nkf;fhdpf;fpd; cjtpAld; xU fUtpia jahh; nra; j hh; . Njd; vLf;Fk; fUtpapd; tbtikg;gpy; ,th; rpy khWjy; f is nra; j hh; - kuj; j hyhd ,iyfSld; ntWk; l; u k; Rw; w tijtpl \h‡g;lL ; ld; ,izj;J rpypz;lh; tbt l;uKld; Rw; W k; g bahd mikg; G cUthf; f g; g l; l J. nrq;Fj;jhf ,Ue;j l;uk;ik gLf;if epiyf;F ,th; khw;wpdhh;. ,e;j l;ukpd; cs;Ns ,Uk;G tpiyia nfhz;L nra;ag;gl;lJ. 100 fpNyh tpisg; n ghUis ifahSk; epiyapy; ,J tbtikf;fg;gl;lJ. njhlf;fj;jpy; kdpjdhy; ,af; fg; gl; l ,ae; jpuj; i j gpd; d h; ½ vr; . gp. Nkhl;lhh; nghUj;jg;gl;lJ. 1994 Mk; Mz;L jhk];> KOikahf ,aq;Fk; khjphp Vyf;fha; Rj; j pfhpg; G ,ae; j puj; i j cUthf; f pdhh; . ,e;j ,ae;jpuj;ij gad;gLj;jp 10-15 fpNyh Vyf;fha;ia Rj;jpfhpg;gjw;F 5 epkplNk NghJk;>


Mdhy; ,Nj Ntiyia %d;W $ypahl;fisf; nfhz;L nra;tjw;F ½ kzp Neuk; MFk;.

midj;J ,lj;jpYk; gutyhf;fk; nra;jy; jhk]; rf tptrhapfsplk; jd;Dila fz;Lgpbg;i g gfph;e; Jnfhz;l hh;. mth; f s; > jhki] ghuhl;b gpd;dh; mth;fSf;F nra;J jUkhW Nfl;Lnfhz;ldh;. tpiutpy; mth;> thrid gaph;fspd; eph;thff; FOit mZfp jd;Dila fz;Lgpbg;gpid fhZkhW Nfl;Lnfhz;lhh;. ,e;j eph;thff; FOtpd; mYtyh;fs; ,tiu ghuhl;b fhh;gy; (CARPOL) vd; w ngaiu toq; f pdh; > NkYk; ,ae; j puj; i j gpugyg; g Lj; J k; midj; J Kaw; r pfisAk; vLj; j dh; . ]; i g]; ,e; j pah vd nrhy;yg;gLk; thrid gaph;fspd;; eph; t hff; F Otpd; gpugy gj; j phpf; i fapy; ntspal; l J. cs; @ h; Clfq; f Sk; ,jid ntspapl;ld. ,ae;jpuj;jpw;F fpilj;j tuNtw;ig fz;L gpukpj;JNghdhh; jhk];. ,e;j nra;jp tptrha r%fj; j pw; F nkJthf gutpaJ. xt;nthU thuKk;> Fiwe;jJ 100 tptrhapfs; jhk]pd; gz;izia ghh;itapl;ldh;. thridg;gaphpd; eph;thff;FO gy;NtW gapw;rp jpl;lq;fs; Vw;ghL nra;ag;gl;l fpuhkq;fSf;F jpU. jhki] mioj;J ,ae;jpuj;jpd; nra;Kiw tpsf;fk; nfhLf;FkhW Nfl;Lf;nfhz;ldh;. Fiwe;jJ 50 fUj;juq;Ffs; kw;Wk; gapw;rpfs; tptrhapfSf;F toq;fg;gl;lJ. ,jd; %yk; rhFgb nra;gth;fs; kj;jpapy; ,e;j ,ae;jpuk; mjpfstpy; gpugykile;Js;sJ. thridg;gaph; eph; t hff; F O> jhk]; f ; F tpUJ toq; f pdh; . Fwpg; g hf thridg; g aphpd; eph; t hff; F O mYtyh;fs; kj;jpapy; mth; kpf gpugykile;jhh;. cs;@h; nkf;fhdpf;Ffis itj;J jhk]; gy vz; z pf; i fapy; ,ae; j puj; i j cw; g j; j p nra;a Muk;gpj;jhh;. Kjypy; 25 ,ae;juq;fis nra;J> &gha; 5200 vd;w tpiyf;F tpw;gid nra;jhh;. tpiutpy; ,g;gFjpapy; cs;smidj;J gl; l iwfspYk; ,ae; j puj; i j jahh; nra; a

Muk;gpj;jdh;. ,e;jf; filfspy; Njitahd trjpfs; kw; W k; ,ae; j puq; f s; ,Ue; j jhy; > jhk];> ,th;fSld; Nghl;bapl Kbatpy;iy. Mifahy; mth; cw;gj;jp nra;tij epWj;jp> cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; gl;liwfSf;F cw;rhfj;ij mspj;jhh;. 2-3 tUlq;fSf;Fs;shf> ,Lf;fp gFjpapy; cs;s gy gl;liwfspy; nrhe;jkhfNt Vyf;fha; Rj;jpfhpf;Fk; ,ae;jpuj;ij cw;gj;jp nra;a Muk;gpj;Jtpl;ldh;. FWfpa fhykhd 5 tUlj; j py; > ,e; j Vyf; f ha; Rj; j pfhpf; F k; ,ae;jpuk; kpf gpuykile;Jtpl;lJ. cs;@h; nkf;fhdpf;Ffs; kw;Wk; gl;liwfs; 10 -13 tUlq;fspy; (1995- 2008) gy Kd;Ndw;wq;fs; kw;Wk; khWjy;fs; nra;jdh;. mbg;gil vz;zk; kw; W k; njhopy; E l; g k; Mfpait khwhky; ,Ue;jJ. Jhrpfis mfw;w tprpwp> nkd;ikahf Jilg;gjw;F fl;ilahy; Md jfLfs; Nky; ug;gh; nghUj;Jjy;> Vyf;fhia juk;gphpf;f ry;yil> Jhrpia Nrfhpf;f jl;L Mfpait $Ljyhf Nrh;f;fg;gl;lJ. ,ae;jpuj;jpd; ghfq;fs; ahTk; jpUk;g nghUj;jyhk;. xl;Lnkhj;j gilg;GfSk; cah;e;Js;sJ. ,d;W vq;nfy;yhk; Vyf;fha; Rj; j pfhpf; f g; g LfpwNjh> mq; n fy; y hk; ,e; j ,ae;jpuk; gad;gLj;jg;gL fpwJ. jh k]; ,jw;F ngUkpjk; nfhs;fpwhh;. jhk]; ,jd; chpikia gjpT nra;J mjd; gaid milatpy; i y vd; w hYk; > ,e; j g; gFjpapy; re;jpj;j Kf;fpa gpur;ridia jPh;j;J itj;jjpy; ,th; kfpo;r;rpaile;Js;shh;. NkYk; ,thpd; fz; L gpbg; G thridg; g apUf; f hd eph; t hff; FO> ,jid Vw; W nfhz; l jhYk; > ,g; g Fjp tptrhapfs; gutyhf gad;gLj;JtjhYk; ngUk; kfpo;r;rpailfpwhh;. 

T J James Director, Innoaction India Innoaction India, Aaz complex, Calvary Junction, Poothole, Thrissur-680004, Kerala www.innoaction.net

%yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2013> thy;a+k; 15> ,jo; 4

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

13


gy mLf;F fha;fwp rhFgb Kiwia gad;gLj;jp cw;gj;jpia ngUf;Fjy;

gy mLf;F fha;fwp rhFgb cw;gj;jpia cah;j;Jtjw;F rpW tptrha r%fk; njhopy;El;gq;fis fz;Lgpbf;fpd;wdh; gpufh\; rpq; kw;Wk; [p.rp.v]; Nefp tptrhapfs; ngUk;ghYk; jq;fSila tay;fspy; Gjpa vz;zq;fis Kaw;rp nra;th;. NkYk; fz;Lgpbg;Gfs; kw;Wk; gof;fq;fs; %yk; gy cs;@h; njhopy;El;gq;fis cUthf;Ffpd;wdh;. ,e;j njhopy;El;gq;fs; ahTk; cs;@h; Rw;Wr;#oypd; Mo;e;j mwpit mbg;gilahf nfhz;lJ.NkYk; caph;r;#oy; kw;Wk; Rw;Wr;#oy;kpf;fjhf cs;sJ. ,e;jpahit Nrh;e;j cj;juf;fd;l; khepyj;jpy; cs;s kj;jpa cah;e;j ,khya fpuhkj;ij Nrh;e;j FU tptrhapfs; fha;fwp rhFgbapy; Gjpa njhopy;El;gq;fis cUthf;fpajd; mwpf;ifNa ehk; fhzg;NghtJ. kf; u ht; > ,e; j pahtpy; cs; s cj; j uf; f d; l ; khepyj;ij Nrh;e;j FNkhd; gFjpapy; ,Uf;Fk; xU rpwpa ,khyad; fpuhkk;. ,J 1100 kPll ; h;fs; cauj;jpy; mike;Js;sJ. Ntshz;ik kw;Wk; mij rhh;e;j nray;ghLfis rhh;e;J Rkhh; 85 FLk;gq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. ,e;j fpuhkj;jpy; Rkhh; 50 n`f;lh; epyj;jpy; rhFgb nra;ag;gLfpwJ. ,jpy; 90% epyk; khdhthhpahFk;. ,e;j epyj;jpy; Nfo;tuF> nrQ;Nrhsk;> ney;> NfhJik kw;Wk; fLF Mfpa gaph;fs; rhFgb nra;ag;gLfpwJ. rpwpa mstpy; ,Uf;Fk; ghrd epyg;gFjpapy; fha;fwpfs; rhFgb nra;ag;gLfpwJ. fpuhkj;jpd; ruhrhp epy msT 0.58 n`f;lh;. ,lk;ngaUk; 14

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

FLk;gq;fSf;F nrhe;jkhd epyk; jq;fspd; cwtpdh; f s; my; y J mUfhikapy; cs; s ez; g h; f s; rhFgb nra; t jhy; ve; j epyKk; gad;gLj;jhj epiyapy; ,y;iy. ,e;j fpuhkk; rhiyfSld; ed; F ,izj; j pUg; g jhy; tpw;gid nra;tjw;F kw;Wk; Nghf;Ftuj;Jf;Fk; Rygkhf ,Uf;fpwJ.

Gjpa njhopy;El;gk;: gy mLf;F fha;fwp rhFgb Rkhh; E}W tUlq; f Sf; F Kd; fpuhkj; j pd; %j;jth;fs; xd;W Nrh;eJ ; rpwpa tptrha epykhd> 5 n`f;lhpy; fha;fwp rhFgb nra;J te;jdh;.


Kd; G > epyj; i j cs; @ hpy; jahhpf; f g; g l; l Ftiyapy; ghrdk; nra; a g; g LfpwJ> ed; F tbtikf; f g; g l; l jz; z P h ; Nrkpg; G njhl; b kw;Wk; ghrd tha;fhy; Mfpait Jiwfs;/ jpl;lq;fspd; cjtpAld; fl;lg;gl;lJ. njhlf;fj;jpy;> fhul;> cUisf;fpoq;F> Nridf; fpoq;F> gr;ir fha;fwpfs; kw;Wk; thridg; gaph;fs; cjhuzj;Jf;F nfhj;jky;yp> kQ;rs;> G+z; L Nghd; w it ,e; j epyj; j py; rhFgb nra;ag;g l;lJ. rhjhudkhf Nridf;fpoq; F jdpg;gapuhf rhFgb nra;ag;gl;l epyj;jpy; NtW ve;jg;gapUk; mWtil nra;tJ rhj;jpakpy;iy. ,e;jg; gaphpd; fhy msT 7-8 khjq;fs;> ,J xt;nthW tUlKk; [dthp khjk; njhlq;FfpwJ. NkYk;> Nridf;fpoq;fpd; tpijf; fpoq;Ffs; G+kpapypUe;J Kisg;gjw;F 60-80 ehl;fs; MFk;. Nridf;fpoq;F epyq;fspd; Nky; kz; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyk; gad;gLj;j epiyia czug;gl;lJ. ,J gaphpd; Kisf;Fk;jpwid jhkjg;gLj;Jtjhy; tptrhapfs;> gaphpd; rhFgb cah;j;Jtjw;F Mjhuq; f is ey; y Kiwapy; gad; g Lj; J k; topfs; fz;Lgpbj;Js;sdh;. tptrhapfs; Kjypy; FWfpa fhyg; gapuhd gr;ir fha;fwpfs; Nky; kl;l kz;zpy; rhFgb nra;jdh;. G+kpf;FNky; Kf; f pag; g aph; Kiyj; J tUk; tiu> ,e; j f; FWfpaf;fhyg;gaph; rhFgb nra;ag;gLfpwJ. ,e;jf; fpoq;F jhkjkhf Kiyg;gjhYk;> ,jd; fhyk; 7-8 khjj;jpy; KbtjhYk;> tptrhapfs; ,e;j tpay;fspy; ghpNrhjidfs; nra;jdh;. fpoq; f pd; tpijf; F k; Moj; i j 10-20 Kjy; 20-30 nr.kP tiu khw; w p Nridf; f poq; i f tpijj; J mjd; Nky; cs; s nrq; F j; j hd ,lj; i j cUisf; f poq; F tpijg; g jw; F gad;gLj;jpf;nfhz;ldh;. ,jd;%yk; tptrhapfs; gymLf; F tpij tpijf; F k; njhopy;El;gj;ij fz;Lgpbf;f Kbe;jJ> ,jpy; Nridf;fpoq;F> cUisf;fpoq;F kw;Wk; gr;ir fha;fwpfis kz;zpd; Nky;> eLepiy kw;Wk; Mok; Mfpa %d;W mLf;Ffspy; tpijf;fyhk;. gymLf; F rhFgb vd; W $Wk; ,e; j Gjpa njhopy;El;gk; %yk; tptrhapfs; mjpf cw;gj;jp vLf;f Kaw;rpj;jdh;.

Kjypy; nghpa fha; f wp gaphpd; epyj; j py; [dthp khjk; Nridf;fpoq;if tpijj;jdh;. Nridf;fpoq;if tpijj;j mNj Fopapy; 10-15 nr.kP. Moj;jpy; cUisf;fpoq;F tpijf;fg;gl;lJ> ,Wjpahf NkNy 0-5nr.kP Moj; j py; gr; i r fha; f wp tpijfs; tpijf; f g; g l; l J. NkNy tpijj;j gaphpd; tpij cldbahf Kisj;J 20-25 ehl;fspy; mjhtJ gpg;uthp ,Wjpapy; mWtil nra;ag;gLk;. gr;ir fha;fwp mWtil nra;j clNd ,uz;lhtJ mLf;fpy; tpijj;j cUisf;fpoq;F Kisf;f Muk;gpf;Fk;. ,uz;L Kiw fisnaLj; j gpd; d h; Nk khjj; j py; mWtil nra; a g; g Lk; . cUisf; f poq; i f mWtil nra; j clNd Nridf; f poq; F Kisj;J ntsptUk;> ,J mf;Nlhgh; khjj;jpy; mWtil nra; a g; g Lk; . nkhj; j gFjpapy; > Fsph;fhy tpijf;Fk; nghUSf;F mjpf Njit ,Ug;gjhy;> etk;gh; kw;Wk; brk;gh; khjj;jpy; fpoq;F gaph; taypy; ntq;fha ehw;wq;hfiy tsh;g;gjw;F gad;gLj;jpnfhs;th;. kPjKs;s fha;fwp tay;fs; nghJthf rpwpajhf cs;sjhy;> gy mLf;F tpij tpijf;Fk; njhopy;El;gk; ,jpy; filg;gpbg;gjpy;iy. gy;NtW tifahd gl;lk; rhh;e;j fha;fwpfs; tUlk; KOtJk; rhFgb nra; a g; g LfpwJ. tptrhapfs; fha; f wpfis mUfpy; cs;s re;ijapy; Neubahf tpw;fpd;wdh; my;yJ cs;@h; tpahghhpfSf;F tpw;W mth;fs; mjid mUfpy; cs;s re;ijapy; tpw;gid nra;th;. xU gapiu tsh;f;Fk; ,lj;jpy; %d;W gaph;fs; tsh;j;jhy;> ,aw;ifahfNt jz;zPh; kw;Wk; rj; J f; f Sf; F Nghl; b Vw; g Lk; . vdpDk; gy

,e;jj; njhopy;El;gj;ij gad;gLj;jp> tptrhapfs;

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xNu epyj;jpy; %d;W tifahd fha;fwpfis tsh;j;jy; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

15


mLf;F rhFgb njhopy;El;gj;ij gpd;gw;Wk; kf;uht; fpuhkk; tptrhapfs; ,e;j Nghl;bfis ed;F Nkyhz;ik nra;fpd;wdh;.,aw;ifahf tUk; kioia rpnkd;l; njhl;b Nrfhpj; J f; n fhs; t jhy; Nfhil fhyj; j pYk; epyj; i j ghrdk; nra; t jw; F gw; w hf; F iw Vw; g Ltjpy; i y. NkYk; > nghJthd xg; g e; j mbg;gilapy;> tptrhapfs; Row;rp Kiwapy; mth;fs; epyj;ij ghrdk; nra;fpd;wdh;. ,e;j Kiwapy; xU tptrhapf;F xU ehs; vd;w hPjpapy; jz;zhP ; Nrkpj;J itj;jpUf;Fk; njhl;bapypUe;J gad; g Lj; j pf; n fhs; s yhk; . gy mLf; F gaph; epyj;jpy; cs;s gpur;ridahd rj;Jf;fspd; Nghl; b ia jP h ; g ; g jw; F tptrhapfs; mjpf njhOcuk; brk;gh; khjk; ,Lfpd;wdh;. ,J xt;nthU gaphpd; taYf;Fk; ,ij tpijg;gjw;F Kd; d hy; ,lg; g LfpwJ (Nridf; f poq; F > cUisf;fpoq;F kw;Wk; gr;ir fha;fwpfspd; tpij/tpij fpoq;Ffis tpijg;gjw;F Kd;). ,e;j Kiwia gad;gLj;Jk; epyq;fs; ahTk; tptrhapfspd; tP l ; b w; F mUfpy; cs; s jhy; cukpLtJ Rygkhf cs;sJ. kpf Kf;fpakhf ,e;j rhFgb Kiwf;F Njitahd jz;zPh; kw;Wk; njhOcuk; fpilg;gjhy; kf;uht; fpuhkj;jpy; ,d;Dk; ,jid iftpltpy;iy. jw;NghJ %d;W fha;fwp gaph;fs; xNu Neuj;jpy; rhFgb nra; t jhy; > ntWk; Nridf; f poq; F tay; f spy; fpilf; F k; kf#iytpl ,e; j Gjpa Kiwapd; %yk; mjpf fha;fwp cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLfpwJ. ,e;j Kiwapd; ,LnghUs; tpisnghUs; tpfpjhr;rhuk; (&ghapy;) 1:8. ,J kw;w gaph;fspd; tpfpjhr;rhuj;ijtpl mjpfk;. Fwpg;ghf cUisf;fpoq;F (1:2)> jf;fhsp (1: 5)> kpsfha; (1:2) kw;Wk; gl;lhdp (1:2) Mfpa gaph;fs; jdpg;gapuhf ,g;gFjpapYs;s kw;w fpuhkq;fspy; nra;Ak;NghJ fpilf;Fk; kf#iy nfhz;L

16

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

tpfpjhr;rhuk; ghh;j;Njhkhdhy; FiwthfNt cs;sJ.

KbT kz; kw;Wk; jz;zPh; Mjhuq;fis msNthL gad;gLj;jp Fiwthd epyj;ij KOikahf gad;gLj;Jtjpy; kf;uht; fpuhkj;jpy; gpd;gw;wpa gy mLf; F fha; f wp rhFgb kpf rpwe; j cjhuzkhFk; . NkYk; > re; i jfs; mUfpy; cs;sjhy; ,e;j Gjpa njhopy;El;gj;ij nfhz;L nry;Yk; Kf;fpa fhuzpahf ,Ue;jJ. ,g;gFjpapy; ,e;j fpuhkk; Ntshz; ty;Yeh;fSf;F Kf;fpa fpuhkkhf fUjg; g l; l J. kz; z pd; <ug; g jk; kw;Wk; rj;Jf;fspd; gad;ghL ,e;j fha;fwp rhFgb njhopy;El;gj;jpy; NkYk; Ma;T nra;Ak; mstpw;F Mh;tk; Vw;gLfpwJ.

epd;wp $Wjy; vq;fis cw;rhfgLj;jpajw;Fk;> Njitahd trjpfis mspj;jjw;Fk;> ,af;Feh;> [p.gp.ge;j; epWtdk; ,khyad; Rw;Wr;#oy; kw;Wk; tsh;rr ; p> my;Nkhuh> ,e;jpah mth;fSf;F epd;wpia ciw Mrphpah; f shd ehq; f s; njhptpf; f pd; N whk; . NkYk; kf;uht; fpuhk tptrhapfs; jq;fspd; Neuk; kw; W k; mwpit gfph; e ; J nfhz; l jw; F epd;wpia $WfpNwhk;.  Prakash Singh (Research scholar) and GCS Negi (Scientist ‘D’) G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora, Uttarakhand, India. Email: dhailaprakash@yahoo.com %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2013> thy;a+k; 15> ,jo; 4


,aw;if Kiwapy; gaphpLjy; fyhr;rhu ghpkhw;wq;fs; thapyhf mwpit Nkk;gLj;Jjy; `hp\; `hp\; jpthhp jpthhp kw; kw;W Wk; k; g+zk; g+zk; jpthhp jpthhp

,urhad Ntshz; i kia mjpfkhf ek; g pAs; s Gjpa jiyKiwapdUf; F ,aw; i f Ntshz;ik Fwpj;j fy;tpia nfhz;L nry;tjpy; cg; ,e;jpah cyfpd; gy;NtW gFjpfspy; cs;s ,sk; njhopw;tpw;gd;dh;fis ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s ,aw;if Ntshz; gz;izfNshL ,izg;ig Vw;gLj;Jk; xU Kaw;rpia Nkw;nfhz;lJ. cg; tptrhapfs; ,aw;if Ntshz; nray;Kiwfis filgpbg;gjw;fhd cjtpfs; kl;Lky;yhJ> khzth;fSf;F Ntshz;ik kw;Wk; ,aw;if top cw;gj;jpapy; jq;fs; iftrk; ,Ue;j Ntshz;ik mDgtq;fisAk; nfhLj;J> NkYk; gy;NtW ehLfSf;F nrd;W fyhr;rhu ghpkhw;wq;fis nra;a top elj;jpaJ. Rw;Wr;#oiy ghJfhf;f Ntz;Lk; vd; g jpy; mjpfhpj; J tUk; tpopg; G zh; T kw; W k; Ntshz; i kapy; ; gad; g Lj; j g; g Lk; ,urhadq; f spdhy; Vw; g Lk; MNuhf; f pa NfLfSk; > Efh; N thh; kj; j papy; jukhd czit Njh; e ; n jLf; F k; tifapy; nghpa khw;wj;ij nfhz;L te;Js;sJ. cyf mstpy; Efh; N thh; f s; > ,aw; i fahd czTfs; ghJfhg;ghdit kw;Wk; MNuhf;fpa NfLfs; ,y;yhjit vd;gij czuj; njhlq;fpajhy;> ,aw;ifahd czTfis vjph;Nehf;fpAs;sdh;. tsh;e;j kw;Wk; tsUk; ehLfspy; Mz;Lf;F ruhrhpahf 20 Kjy; 25 tpOf; f hL tiu ,aw;if czTfSf;fhd Njitfs; mjpfhpj;J tUfpwJ. ,aw;if Ntshz;ikf;F ,e;jpahtpy; epiwa tha;gG ; fs; cs;sd. ,aw;if Ntshz;ik vd;gJ ,e;jpa Ntshz;ik nray;ghLfspy; kpf Kf;fpaj;Jkhd ,lj;ij ngw;wpUe;jJ. jw;NghJ epyTk; #oyhd gaph;fisAk;> fhy;eilfisAk; xUq;fpizj;J nra;Ak; gaph; rhFgb KiwAk;> ngUk;ghyhd rpW kw;Wk; FW tptrhapfs; mjpf mstpy; caph;k gd;kaj;ij fUj;jpy; nfhz;L

Ntshz; i kapy; <LgLtjhy; > ,e; j pahtpy; ,aw;if Ntshz;ikia gutyhf;Ftjw;fhd rhj;jpaq;fs; mike;Js;sd. ehl;bd; ngUk; g hd; i kahd ,lq; f spy; ghuk; g hpa Ntshz; Kiwfshd Fiwe; j ntspapL nghUs; Ntshz;ikNahL> Fwpg;ghf kiyg; gpuNjrq; f s; kw; W k; khdhthhp gFjpfspy; $l tptrhapfs; ,aw; i f Ntshz; i kf; F khWtjw;F ,J xU $Ljy; rhjfkhd mk;rhf cs;@h; kw;Wk; ntspa+h; re;ijfis fUj;jpy; nfhz; L nray; g l cjTfpwJ. ,urhad Ntshz; i kia mjpfkhf ek; g pAs; s Gjpa jiyKiwf;F ,aw;if Ntshz;ik Fwpj;j fy;tpia nfhz;L nry;tJ> ,e;j fhyfl;lj;jpy; kpfTk; Njitahd xd;whf cs;sJ.

cg; ,e;jpahtpd; Njhw;wk; ,e;jpahtpy; ,urhad Ntshz;ik Kiwfs; neLq; f hykhf Mjpf; f k; nrYj; j ptUfpwJ. mNj Ntisapy; ,urhadq;fs; gad;gLj;jhj Ntshz; Kiwfs; Fwpj;J gaDs;s jfty;fs; kpfTk; FiwthfNt fhzg;gLfpwJ my;;yJ yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

17


,aw;if Ntshz; Kiwfs; kw;Wk; Njitg;gLk; njhopw;El;gq;fis nfhLf;ff;$ba jFjptha;e;j ty;Yeh;fs; Fiwthf cs;sJ. ,urhad Kiw Ntshz;ikf;fhd tphpthf;f Kiwfs; Kf; f pakhf ,urhad Ntshz; njhopw; E l; g q; f isAk; > mwpitAk; kl; L Nk Kd; d pWj; J fpd; w d. ngUk; g hd; i kahd jUzq;fspy;> midj;J muR nfhs;iffSk; ,d; W k; Ntshz; i kapy; ,urhadq; f is gad;gLj;Jtij kpf jpwikahf Kd;dpWj;Jfpd;wd. Mdhy; mit ,aw;if Ntshz;ik njhopw;El;gq;fs; Fwpj;J vijAk; Kd;dpWj;Jtjpy;iy. ,e;jpahtpy; ,aw;if Ntshz; gz;izfSf;fhd cyfyhtpa tha;gg ; hf fUjg;gLk; cg; ,e;jpah 2007 Mk; Mz;by; cUthf;fg;gl;L> ,aw;if Ntshz; i kia Mh; t Kld; Jtf; f pAs; s tptrhapfSf;F njhopw;El;ghPjpahf mth;fSf;F vq;Nf ,ilntsp cs;sNjh me;j ,ilntspia g+h;jj ; p nra;Tk; tpjkhf gzpahw;wptUfpwJ. ,e;j gpd;dzpapy;> cg; ,e;jpah gbg;gbahf epiwa ,aw;if tptrhapfis jdJ $l;likg;gpy; <LgLj;jp tUfpwJ. 2007 Mk; Mz;L ntWk; 14 ,aw;if gz;izfNshL Jtf;fpa ,e;j $l;likg;G jw;nghJ 180f;Fk; Nkw;gl;l ,aw;if Ntshz; i k gz; i zfis (jd; d hh; t j; njhz;L epWtdq;fs; cl;gl) jdJ $l;likg;gpy; nfhz;L te;Js;s J. jw;NghJ cg; ,e; jpah ehl;bd; 16 khepyq;fspy; tphpTgLj;jpAs;sJ. cg; ,e;jpahtpd; Nehf;fk; tptrhapfs; ,aw;if Ntshz; nray;ghLfis filgpbf;f cjTtJ kw;Wk; ,aw;if Ntshz; Fwpj;j mDgtq;fis fw; W f; nfhs; s if nfhLg; g J mjid khzth; f s; %ykhf gy; N tW ehLfspy; fyhr;rhu ghpkhw;wk; Vw;gl top tFg;gjhFk;. cg; ,e;jpahtpd; Kf;fpa Fwpf;Nfhs; vd;gJ ,aw;if kw;Wk; capuhw;wy; Ntshz;ik topapy; ; tho;tJ Fwpj;j Mh;tj;ijAk;> GhpjiyAk; cUthf;FtjhFk;. vq;nfy;yhk; nghUj;jkhd Njit ,Uf;fpwNjh me;j gl;baiy jahhpj;J mjid cyf mstpy; cs; s midj; J jd;dhh;tyh;fSk; mwpe;J nfhs;Sk; tifapy; nfhLf; f g; g l; l J. me; j jd; d hh; t yh; f s; cg; g P h ; ] ; vd miof; f g; g l; l dh; . ,q; q dk; kw;w ehLfSf;F gazk; nfhs;Sk; tifapy; kf; f Sf; F cw; r hfkspj; J mjd; thapyhf mth;fSf;F kw;w fyhr;rhu gz;ghl;il kf;fs; kw;Wk; tho;f;if topKiwfs; kw;Wk; mwpit mwpe;J nfhs;sTk; cjtpaJ. ghpkhw;wj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; ,aq;fpa ,e;j Kiwapy; czT kw;Wk; jq;Fkplk; xOq;;F nra;ag;gl;L mjd; %yk; mjd; cWg;gpdh;fs; mjid Kbe;j kl;by; rpf;fdkhf elj;j cjtpaJ. 18

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

,aw;if Ntshz; nray;ghLfisAk;> jd; d hh; t yh; f s; $l; l ikg; i g njhlh; e ; J tsh;f;f Ntz;ba cjtpfis nfhLf;f> cg; ,e;jpahtpy; cg; cyf fpuhkq;fis cUthf;fpa mitfis ,aw;if Ntshz;ikf;fhd Muha; r ; r p ikaq; f shf khw; W k; tifapy; cUthf; f paJ. KjyhtJ cg; cyf fpuhkk; 4.5 Vf; f h; gug; g stpy; kj; j pa gpuNjrj; j py; cs;s Ruh[;Guh fpuhkj;jpy; cUthf;fpaJ. ,J cyf gpurpj;jp ngw;w fI{uNfh Nfhapy;fSf;F mUfpy; kw;Wk; nfd; MW kw;Wk; gd;dh Gypfs; ruzhyak; mUfpy;; cs;sJ.

gz;iz fy;tp jpl;lk; ,aw;if Ntshz;ikia mjpy; <Lgl;L fw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;F mbg;gilahf jd;dhh;tyh;fshfTk; my;yJ Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F jq;fp gapYtJ vd ,uz;L topKiwfs; cs;sd. jd;dhh;t gzpahf VjhtJ xU gz;izapy; mth;fs; nrd;W fw;Wf; nfhs;tJ my;yJ cg; fpuhkj;jpy; gzpahw;WtJ.

jd;dhh;tg;gzp jd;dhh;tg; gzpia VjhtJ xU gz;izapNyh my; y J cg; fpuhkj; j pNyh Nkw; n fhs; s yhk; . ,q;F tUk; jd;dhh;tj; njhz;lh;fs; cyfpd; gy;NtW ehLfspy; ,Ue;J tUfpd;wdh;. ,e;j jd;dhh;tj; njhz;lh;fs; Fwpg;ghf epiyj;j Ntshz; i k nray; g hLfspYk; gRikahd tho;fi ; f KiwapYk; Mh;tKs;s ,isQh;fshf cs; s dh; . ,e; j jd; d hh; t j; njhz; l h; f s; cs;@h; ,aw;if Ntshz;ik KiwfisAk; mjpy; cs;s rpf;fy;fis fw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; mNj Ntisapy; Ntshz;ik gzpapYk; cjtp nra;fpd;wdh;. ,e;j jd;dhh;tj; njhz;lh;fs; ve;j ,aw;if Ntshz; gz;izapy; Vw;Wf; nfhs; s g; g Lfpwhh; f Nsh mq; N fNa jq; f p gz;izapy; fw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;fhd tha;g;Gfs; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd. mth;fis Vw;Wf; nfhz;l gz;izapy; czT ,aw;if Kiwapy; tpistpf;fg;gl;L> epiyahd tho;f;ifiaAk;> nghJthf tho;f;ifapy; Fiwe;j mstpyhd jhf;fj;NjhL tho Kaw;rp Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wdh;. ,aw;ifahf gaphpLtijAk;> ,aw;if tpis nghUl;fis tpistpg;;gijAk;> caph;r;#oy; kw;Wk; epiyj;j Kiwapy; tho;f;if mDgtq;fisAk;> mwpitAk; mth;fs; ghpkhwpf; nfhs;fpd;wdh;. mth;fSf;F MNuhf;fpakhd czTk; > jq; F tjw; F ghJfhg; g hd kw; W k; Rfhjhukhd ,lKk; nfhLf; f g; g LfpwJ. jd;dhh;tj; njhz;lh;fs; xU ehisf;F 4-6 kzp Neuk; gz;izapy; cjtpfs; nra;tNjhL fw;Wf; nfhs;sTk; nra;fpd;wdh;.


Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F jq;fp gapYk; jpl;lk; cg; ,e;jpahtpd; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F jq;fp gapYk; jpl; l khdJ> ,aw; i f Ntshz; i k> epiyj;j jd;ik> kw;Wk; Rw;Wr;#oy; njhlh;ghd gpur;ridfspy; Ma;Tfis Nkw;nfhs;tjpy; Mh; t khf cs; s khzth; f Sf; F mth; f s; kj;jpapy; xU Mjhu $l;likg;ig Vw;gLj;jp mjpy; mth;fs; njhopy; hPjpahf tsUk; mstpw;F Vw;w #o;epiyia cUthf;fp nfhLg;gJ Kf;fpa Fwpf; N fhshf cs; s J. ,jpy; gq; F ngWk; khzth;fs; ngUk;ghYk; gy;NtW ehLfspy; cs;s gy gy;fiyf;fofq;fspy; ,Wjp tUlg; gl;;lg;gbg;ig gbg;gth;fshf ,Ug;gh;. cg; ,e;jpahtpd; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F jq;fp gapy;tJ jdp egNuh my;yJ xU FONth nra;Ak; xU jpl;lj;ij mbg;gilahf nfhz;ljhTk; cs; s J. 12 thu eP z ; l fhy mstpw; F jpl;lkplg;gLk; NghJ mit mth;fspd; nrhe;j Muha;rr ; papy; <LgLtjw;Fk;> mjid jpl;lkpl;L eilKiwg; g Lj; J tjw; F nghUj; j khfTk; mikfpwJ. mNj Ntisapy; 4 my;yJ 8 thu fhyj;jpw;F jpl;lkpLk;NghJ mit cg; ,e;jpah MNyhrfh;fs; ghpe;Jiunra;f ; pd;w xU jpl;lj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; mjw;fhd Ma;Tfis jpl;lkpl;L eilKiwg;gLj;j nghUj;jkhf mikfpwJ. Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F jq;fp gapy;tJ %d;W epiyfis nfhz;lJ. Kjy; epiyahdJ fUj;J hPjpahd Ghpjy; kw;Wk; mjw;fhd Kd;Ndhl;l gapw;rpfs; nfhLg;gJ. ,e;j Kjy; epiyahdJ ,e;j Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F jq;fp gapy;tjpy; cs;s Nghf;Ffs;> kjpg;gPLfs;> cg; ,e;jpahtpy; topfhl;Lk; nfhs;i ffs; kw;W k; mth; fis jq; F tjw; F Vw; W f; nfhs; S k; tptrhapfs; kw; W k; mth; f NshLk; > cg; ,e; j pahNthLk; mh;j;jKs;s kw;Wk; ey;ytpjkhd njhlh;Gfis Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;F me;j khzth;fspd; ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;Nj njhlq;FfpwJ. ,e;j Kjy; epiyapy; mth; f s; Nkw; n fhs; s Ntz; b a

fle;j Ie;jhz;Lfspy;> INuhg;gpa ehLfs; kw;Wk; mnkhpf;fh Mfpa ehLfspYs;s gy;NtW gy;fiyf;fofq;fspy; gapYk; 2000j;jpw;Fk; Nkw;gl;l jd;dhh;tyh;fs; kw;Wk; jq;fp gapYk; jpl;lj;jpd; fPo; 15 khzth;fSf;Fk;> ,aw;if tptrhak; Fwpj;J gapw;rpaspf;fg;gl;lJ

xU jd;dhh;tyh; jd;id Vw;Wf; nfhz;l tptrhapd; epyk; jahhpg;gpy; cjtp nra;fpwhh;.

jpl; l q; f Sk; fz; l wpag; g LfpwJ. ,uz; l hk; epiyapy; jpl;lq;fs; Fwpj;j njspT Vw;gl;LtpLtjhy; khzth;fspd; Neuk; mjpf mstpy; Fwpg; g pl; l Muha; r ; r pfspy; nrytplg;gLfpwJ. ,ilepiyapy; nra;ag;gLk; rPuha;Tfs; mth;fis nrOikg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf nfhLf;fg;gLk; fUj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; kjpg;gPLfs; fpilg; g jw; f hd re; j h; g ; g j; i j cUthf; f pf; nfhLf;fpwJ. mjd; gpd; ,Wjpahf mth;fs; nfhLf;Fk; jpl;l Kd;tiuTfs; Muha;r;rpapd; KbitAk;> mjw;fhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba nray;ghLfis Jtq;FtijAk; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. %d;whk; epiyapy; mth;fis Vw;Wf; nfhz;l gz;izfspy; jq;fspd; jpl;lj;ij nray;Kiwg;gLj;Jfpd;wdh;. rpy khzth;fs; cg; cyf fpuhkj; j py; fpuhkg; G w fw; w Yf; F Ntiyia nra; a mkh; j ; j g; g Lfpd; w dh; . mUfhikapy; cs; s fpuhkq; f spy; cs; s tptrhapfSk; ,e; j khzth; f s; kw; W k; jd; d hh; t yh; f NshL ,ize; J ,aw; i f Kiwapy; kuf;fd;Wfs; tsh;gG ; > jLg;G mizfs; fl;LtJ> ku ehw;wq;fshy; cs;s fd;WfSf;F epoy; jUk; nfhl; l iffs; mikg; g J> kl; F Fopfs; mikg;gJ Nghd;w gy;NtW gzpfis ,ize;J Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wdh;. ,th; f sJ gzpf; f hyk; Kbtile; j Tld; mth;fspd; ,e;j %d;W epiyfspy; fUj;Jf;fspy; Vw;gl;l njspT> eilKiwapy; fw;Wf;nfhz;l yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

19


mk;rq;fs; kw;Wk; Ma;Tfspd; mbg;gilapy; mth;fspd; fw;wy; Mfpatw;iw cs;slf;fpa xU mwpf;ifia rkh;g;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;. jpl;lk; Jtq;fpajpy; ,Ue;J ,Wjpahf KbtilAk; epiy tiuf;Fk; Mtzg;gLj;Jjy;; mth;fspd; gad;ghl;bw;Fk;> xl;L nkhj;j jpl;lj;jpw;Fk; Njitg; g LfpwJ. cg; ,e; j pah mth; f s; fw; W f; n fhz; l tw; i wAk; > rhjpj; j tw; i wAk; Fwpg;gpl;L xU rhd;wpjo; toq;FfpwJ.

,Jtiuf;Fk; te;j gazk; xt;nthU tUlKk; ,e;j cg; ,e;jpah jpl;lj;jpy; ,ize;J nfhs;s tpUk;Gk; jd;dhh;tyh;fs; kw;Wk; khzth;fspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpj;j tz;zk; cs;sJ. ,aw;if Ntshz;ik Kiwfs; kw;Wk; nray;ghLfs; Fwpj;j mth;fspd; Qhdk; mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. cjhuzj;jpw;F> gaph; Row;rp Kiw> vjph;gG ; rf;jp nfhz;l ufq;fspd; gad;ghL> kl; F cuk; jahhpg; G > gygaph; f is fye; J gaphpLk; Kiw> coT nra;ahj Ntshz;ik> g+r; r pj; j hf; f j; j pypUe; J fhj; j y; fl; L g; g hL> gRe; j hs; cuq; f is gad; g Lj; J k; Kiw> %lhf;F> rj;Jf;fspd; Row;rp> Mjhuq;fspd; Row; r p Nghd; w tw; w py; epiwa tpopg; G zh; T cs;sJ ;. mth;fs; tbtikj;J nray;gLj;jpa g+r;rpfs; Nkyhz;ik Kiwapy; cw;WNehf;Fjy;> tUk; Kd; Nkw; n fhs; s Ntz; b a jLg; G eltbf; i ffs; > fz; f hzpj; j y; Mfpait Kf;fpakhd mk;rq;fshf cs;sd. ,aw;if Kiwapy; tpistpf; f g; g l; l nghUl; f is ftdkhf ifahs Ntz; b ajd; Kf; f pa Njitfs; Ghpe;J nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sd. ,aw;if Ntshz; Kiw my;yhj nghUl;fspd; fyg;gpdhy; Vw; g Lk; gpur; r idfs; Fwpj; J k; mth; f s; tpthjpf; f pd; w dh; . mth; f s; ,g; N ghJ cg; ,e;jpah tptrhapfspdhy; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;l ,aw;if tpis nghUl;fSf;F rhpahd re;ij Vw; g Lj; J tjw; f hd mikg; G fis Ghpe; J nfhz; L s; s dh; . mjw; f hd cs; s gy; N tW topKiwfs; (Neubahf re; i jg; g Lj; J tJ> coth;fspd; re;ijfspy; tpw;gJ kw;Wk; Fwpg;gpl;l filfspy; nfhLg; g J my; y J rpy; y iwahf tpw;gJ) Nghd;wtw;iw njhpe;J nfhz;Ls;sdh;. mth;fspd; rhd;wpjo; ngWtjw;fhd tha;g;Gfs; Fwpj;Jk; Muha;e;J mtw;iw Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak; NghJ Vw;gLk; gy;NtW gpur;ridfs; Fwpj;J mjw;F Vw;w Vw;Wkjp mZFKiwfs; Fwpj;Jk; Ghpe;J nfhz;Ls;sdh;. ,e;j jd;dhh;tyh;fis gz;izfspd; nray;ghLfspy; ,izj;jjd; fhuzkhf cg;

20

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2015

jd;dhh;tyh;fs; jq;fis Vw;Wf; nfhz;l gz;izapy; mth;fspd; jpl;lj;ij nray;gLj;Jfpd;wdh;.

,e;jpah epiwa tptrhapfis ,aw;if top Ntshz; K iwf; F khw; w cjtpAs; s J. ehL KOtJk; ,e;j $l;likg;gpd; %yk; fpl;lj;jl;l 50 Gjpa gz;izfs; ,aw;if top Kiwf;F khw Muk;gpj;jJ ,e;j topKiwapy; jhd;. ,d;Dk; 5 tUl fhyj; j py; ,JNghy; 1000 ,aw; i f gz;izfis 5000 jd;dhh;tyh;fs; kw;Wk; 200 khzth;fis nfhz;L cUthf;fTk;> mjpy; ,Ue;J fw;Wf;nfhs;sTk; jpl;lkpl;Ls;sJ. ,g;gbahf jd;dhh;tyh;fisAk;> mth;fs; te;J jq; F tij Vw; W f; n fhs; g th; f isAk; xd; W Nrh;g;gjd; thapyhf> cg; ,e;jpahthdJ vq;F kf;fs; xUtUf;nfhUth; cjtpf; nfhs;sTk;> epiyj;j tho;tpw;fhd topKiwfis gfph;e;J nfhs;sTk;> MNuhf;fpakhd cyif cUthf;fTk; tpUk;Gfpwhh;fNsh mth;fSf;F ,ilapy; ,izg;G ghykhf nray;gLfpwJ. ,e;j Kiwapy; epiwa fyhr;rhu ghpkhw;wq;fSk; epfo;fpd;wd.  Harish Tewari Director, WWOOF India, A-46 Judge Farm, Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India E-mail: sewak1@rediffmail.com www.wwoofindia.org Poonam Tewari Junior Scientist, College of Home Science, G.B.P.U.A.&T.,Pantnagar University, Uttarakhand, India. %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> nrg;lk;gh; 2013> thy;a+k; 15> ,jo; 3

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Tamil - March 2015  
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