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taxyh [kk| inkFkksZ dk eksy nsothr lkjaxh

çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v| 5 xzkeh.k vFkZO;oLFkk ,oa mlds ikfjfLFkfrdh ra= dks iquthfoZr djus gsrq gkFk feykuk jes'k HkkVh ,oa 'kkS;kZekW; nkl 9 taxyh [kk| inkFkksZa dk eksy nscthr lkjaxh 12 Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ij Kku fuekZ.k ds0oh0,l0 izlkn 15 iihrs dh oSKkfud fof/k ls mUur [ksrh egsUnz pkS/kjh] jktef.k] va'kqeku JhokLro ,oa vkj-,u- ekS;kZ

tyok;q ladV ds bl nkSj esa ouksa dks oLrq ds rkSj ij ns[kus ds dkj.k mudk ^^dkcZu LVkWd** de gksrk tk jgk gSA ouksa esa Hkh [kk| inkFkksZa dk Hk.Mkj gS vkSj cgqr ls xzkeh.k xjhc leqnk; viuh [kk| vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus ds fy, ouksa ij gh fuHkZj djrs gSaA fo'ks"kdj tyok;q ladV ds lUnHkZ esa] xSj [ksrh@taxyh [kk| inkFkZ orZeku ifjizs{; esa [kk| ladV ds ,d lek/kku ds rkSj ij gks ldrs gSaA

17 fdlku fo|ky; % Ñf"kxr Kku gsrq O;ogkfjd iz;ksx'kkyk vfHkthr eksgUrh ,oa jathr lkgw

Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ij Kku fuekZ.k ds0oh0,l0 izlkn Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh ij izHkko Mkyus okys vH;klksa] vH;kl vk/kkfjr uhfr;ksa] lk{; vk/kkfjr ppkZvksa ,oa uo fodflr lgHkkfxrk ds Åij O;ogkfjd Kku dk vknku&iznku c<+kus esa O;ofLFkr nLrkosthdj.k ,d eq[; Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA th0bZ0,0th0 dk mnkgj.k dqN ,slk gh iznf'kZr djrk gSA

fdlku fo|ky; % Ñf"kxr Kku gsrq O;ogkfjd iz;ksx'kkyk vfHkthr eksgUrh ,oa jathr lkgw

iihrs dh oSKkfud fof/k ls mUur [ksrh egsUnz pkS/kjh] jktef.k] va'kqeku JhokLro ,oa vkj-,u- ekS;kZ iihrk ls cgqr ls ewY;o/kZd inkFkZ tSls tSe] dS.Mh] usDVj o is; inkFkZ rFkk dPpk iihrk ls izkIr iisu uked inkFkZ ls lkSUn;Z izlk/ku dk lkeku cukus ds vfrfjDr vkS"kf/k dk Hkh dke fy;k tkrk gSA ,slh fLFkfr esa oSKkfud fof/k ls iihrs dh [ksrh dj y?kq] lhekUr o efgyk fdlku vkfFkZd n`f"V ls l'kDr cu ldrs gSaA

fdlku fo|ky; fdlkuksa ,oa lUnHkZ O;fDr;ksa ds chp esa vkil esa gh lh[kus dk ,d eap iznku djrk gSA vkilh esy&tksy] ppkZ ,oa O;ogkfjd izf'k{k.k ds ek/;e ls fdlkuksa ds ikjEifjd Kku dks iquthZfor djus rFkk LFkkbZ cuk;s j[kus dk ;g ,d volj gS] ftls vk/kqfud foKku ds ek/;e ls vkSj mUur fd;k tk jgk gSA

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v| 3


ØãU ¥¢·¤... lEikndh;]]] ekSleh vfLFkjrk vkSj oSf”od ls ysdj LFkkuh; Lrj rd dh eanh dk izR;{k vlj y?kq] lhekUr o efgyk fdlkuksa ij iM+ jgk gSA ,slh fLFkfr esa ;g vko”;d gS fd mUgsa [ksrh dh ikjEifjd fo/kk dh rjQ izsfjr djrs gq, Ñf"k ,oa Ñf"k mRiknksa ls tqM+s vU; i{kksa ls tksM+us dh rjQ Hkh /;ku fn;k tk;sA vkt bl ckr dh fo”ks"k vko”;drk gS fd [kkldj ou vk/kkfjr vkthfodk ij fuHkZj djus okys NksVs] e>ksys o efgyk fdlkuksa ds fy, vkthfodk ds fodYiksa ij iqufoZpkj djrs gq, mUgsa uokpkjksa ds fy, mRizsfjr fd;k tk;sA yht+k bf.M;k (fgUnh) ds flrEcj] 17 vad dks dqN ,sls gh fopkjksa ds lkFk fofo/krk iw.kZ <ax ls lEikfnr fd;k x;k gSA Jh jes”k HkkVh o Jh “kkS;kZekW; nkl }kjk fyf[kr ys[k ^^xzkeh.k vFkZ O;oLFkk ,oa mlds ikfjfLFkfrdh ra= dks iquthZfor djus gsrq gkFk feykuk** esa dPN {ks= ds pjokgk leqnk; }kjk viuh vkthfodk dks lqn`<+ djus ,oa LFkkbZRo iznku djus gsrq fd;s tk jgs iz;klksa dk lfoLrkj o.kZu fd;k x;k gSA ys[k esa ;g Hkh crk;k x;k gS fd vkt Hkh pjokgk leqnk; lfn;ksa ls viuh /kjksgj izkd`frd lalk/ku cUuh pkjkxkg dk laj{k.k o izcU/ku djus gsrq ikjEifjd fof/k;ksa dk lgkjk ys jgs gSaA Jh nscthr lkjaxh }kjk fyf[kr ^^taxyh [kk| inkFkksZa dk eksy** uked ys[k if=dk dk nwljk ys[k gS] tks oukas esa xSj d`f'kr rjhds ls mits [kk| inkFkksZa o muds iks"kd rRoksa ds ckjs esa ckr djrk gSA ys[k ;g Hkh crkrk gS fd ;s xSj Ñf"kr taxyh mRikn fdl izdkj ls vkfnoklh tutkfr; lewgksa dh [kk| iz.kkyh dk ,d vax gSa vkSj ;s mRikn u flQZ mudh [kk| lqj{kk lqfuf”pr djrs gSa] oju~ bu leqnk;ksa dks iks'k.k Hkh iznku djrs gSaA if=dk dk rhljs ys[k ^^Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ij Kku fuekZ.k % O;ofLFkr nLrkosthdj.k dk izHkko** esa bl ckr ij cy fn;k x;k gS fd tehu Lrj ls tqM+s vuqHkoksa dk izlkj fdruk vko”;d gS\ Jh ds0oh0,l0 izlkn }kjk fyf[kr ;g ys[k bl ckr dks iznf”kZr djrk gS fd tehu Lrj ls tqM+s vuqHkoksa dk fu;ksftr <ax ls fd;k x;k nLrkosthdj.k rFkk mldk mfpr ek/;eksa ls fd;k x;k izlkj u flQZ Kku dks c<+krk gS] oju~ ml Kku dk xzg.k Hkh rsth ls gksrk gS vkSj fdlkuksa }kjk fd;s tkus okys uokpkjksa dks O;kid Qyd iznku djus ds fy, tehu Lrj ls tqM+h LoSfPNd laxBuksa ds ikl fu;ksftr o lqO;ofLFkr nLrkosthdj.k dh {kerk gksuk vfr vko”;d gSA fdlku dkWy ls.Vj] Ñf"k ea=ky;] Hkkjr ljdkj] ubZ fnYyh ls tqM+s “kks/kkfFkZ;ksa Jh egsUnz pkS/kjh] Jh jktef.k] Jh va”kqeku JhokLro o Jh vkj0,u0 ekS;Z }kjk izLrqr ^^iihrs dh oSKkfud <ax ls mUur [ksrh** NksVs o e>ksys fdlkuksa ds fy, vk;tud xfrfof/k;ksa dh fn”kk iznku djrk gSA bl ys[k esa iihrs dh [ksrh ds lHkh pj.kksa dks lqO;ofLFkr rjhds ls fly&flysokj <ax ls crk;k x;k gS] ftls viukdj fdlku csgrj vk; izkIr dj ldrk gSA vfUre ys[k ds rkSj ij Jh vfHkthr eksgUrh o Jh jathr lkgw }kjk fyf[kr ys[k ^^fdlku fo|ky; % Ñf"kxr Kku gsrq O;ogkfjd iz;ksx”kkyk** dks if=dk esa “kkfey fd;k x;k gSA bl ys[k ds ek/;e ls ys[kd}; us ;g crkus dk iz;kl fd;k gS fd fdlku fo|ky; xkao o iz{ks= Lrj ij Kku o vuqHkoksa ds vknku&iznku dk ,d ,slk ek/;e gS] tgka fdlkuksa dks mudh [ksrh ls lEcfU/kr leL;kvksa dk O;ogkfjd lek/kku iz{ks= Lrj ij izkIr gksrk gSA bl ys[k esa ys[kd us bl ckr ij cy fn;k gS fd bl fo/kk ls lh[kus dh izfdz;k vf/kd etcwr gksrh gSA vUr esa if=dk esa fn;s x;s ys[kksa dh mi;ksfxrk ,oa mi;qDrrk ds mij vkids lq>koksa dh izrh{kk esa---lEiknd e.My

4

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v|


U»ýæ×è‡æ ¥ÍüÃØßSÍæ °ß¢ ©Uâ·ð¤ ÂæçÚUçSÍçÌ·¤è Ì¢˜æ ·¤æð ÂéÙÁèçßüÌ ·¤ÚUÙð ãUðUÌé ãUæÍ ç×ÜæÙæ ÚU×ðàæ ÖæÅUè °ß¢ àææñØæü×æòØ Îæâ

QksVks % ys[kd

HkSalksa dh LFkkuh; iztkfr;ksa rFkk ikfjfLFkfrdh ra= dks lajf{kr djus gsrq pjokgk leqnk;ksa dh enn djus ds fy, cgqr lh laLFkk,a vkxs vk;h gSaA bl lgHkkfxrk ls leqnk;ksa dks nw/k ds O;olk; ds fy, cM+k cktkj feyk gS] tks ykHkizn gSA vc ;s laLFkk,a leqnk;ksa ds lkFk blfy, [kM+h gSa rkfd mUgsa 'kkldh; vf/kdkj fey ldsaA bl iwjs ifjn`'; esa ljdkj ,d izeq[k fgr/kkjd gS] ijUrq og vHkh Hkh budh ckr lquus dks rS;kj ugha gSA eky/kkfj;ksa }kjk ijEijkxr :i ls izcfU/kr cUuh

cUuh fiNys ik¡p n”kdksa ls Hkh vf/kd le; ls eky/kkfj;ksa dk x<+ cuk gqvk gSA dPN {ks= esa pjokgk leqnk;ksa dks eky/kkjh ds :i esa tkuk tkrk gSA dHkh ,f”k;k ds nwljs lcls cM+s pkjkxkg ds rkSj ij izfl) ^^cUuh** dks Hkkjr ds lHkh pkjkxkgksa esa lcls csgrj ekuk tkrk FkkA yxHkx 2500 oxZ fdeh esa foLrkfjr bl pkjkxkg esa tho&tUrqvksa ,oa ouLifr;ksa dh cgqr lh iztkfr;ka ikbZ tkrh gSaA vkt dh rkjh[k esa Hkh cUuh esa 7000 ls vf/kd ifjokj fuokl djrs gSa vkSj muesa ls vf/kdka”k eky/kkjh gSaA jkt”kkgh “kklu ds nkSjku eky/kkjh cUuh ij vius pjkbZ ds vf/kdkj dk mi;ksx djrs Fks vkSj bl gsrq os ^^pjkbZ dj** dk Hkqxrku djrs FksA pkjkxkg ds izcU/ku ,oa mi;ksx dk fu.kZ; eky/kkjh leqnk; ds usrk }kjk fy;k tkrk Fkk vkSj leqnk; ;g lqfuf”pr djrk Fkk fd lHkh yksx r; ekudksa dk vuqikyu djsaA eky/kkfj;ksa ds ikl vHkh Hkh 1856 dk ,d nLrkost gS] ftlesa jkt”kkgh “kklu ds nkSjku cUuh ij muds vf/kdkjksa dks lafgrkc) fd;k x;k gSA cUuh dks o"kZ 1955 esa lajf{kr ou ds vUnj oxhZÑr fd;k x;kA ml le; ogka ij jgus okys yksxksa dk fdlh Hkh rjg dk dksbZ losZ{k.k ugha fd;k x;k vkSj u gh dksbZ le>kSrk izfØ;k viuk;h x;hA rc ls

pkjkxkg ij “kkldh; vf/kdkj vLi"V gSaA gkykafd jktLo foHkkx us o"kZ 1998 esa gh bldk iz”kklfud fu;U=.k ou foHkkx dks gLrkUrfjr dj fn;k Fkk] ijUrq ou foHkkx us cUuh ds vUnj cls xkaoksa dk losZ{k.k dk;Z iwjk gksus rd iz”kklfud vf/kdkj ysus ls euk dj fn;kA bl izdkj u rks ou foHkkx vkSj u gh jktLo foHkkx us cUuh dks vius iz”kklfud fu;U=.k ea s yuss grsq dkbsZ dne mBk;kA dkbsZ vkiSpkfjd fu;a=.k u gksus ds ckotwn Hkh eky/kkfj;ksa us vius ikjEifjd iz.kkyh dk mi;ksx djrs gq, cUuh pkjkxkg dk izcU/ku ,oa iz”kklu tkjh j[kkA cUuh eky/kkjh vius le`) uLyksa ds tkuojksa] fo”ks"kdj cUuh HkSl ds dkj.k fo”ks"k :i ls izfl) gSaA cUuh HkSalksa dk ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh ds lkFk xgjk lEcU/k gS vkSj eky/kkfj;r dh ,d lq:fpiw.kZ laLÑfr gSA

ifjorZu gsrq xfrfof/k gkykafd phtsa tYn gh cnyus okyh Fkha vkSj o"kZ 2008 esa] cUuh ds tkuojksa dh iztkfr;ksa] laLÑfr ,oa ekuo ikfjfLFkfrdh dks n”kkZrs ,d okf"kZd i”kq esyk& cUuh i”kq esyk us bl ifjorZu dh tehu rS;kj dhA eky/kkjh leqnk; ds o;Ldksa us ;g eglwl fd;k fd mUgsa vius leqnk; dh vkthfodk dks c<+kus ds fy, ,d dsfUnzr iz;kl djus dh

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v| 5


vko”;drk gS] cUuh HkSal iztkfr dks ekU;rk fnykus ds fy, dke djuk gS] pkjkxkg ij leqnk; ds vf/kdkjksa ds eqn~nksa ij dke djuk gS vkSj izkslksfil twyhQ~yksjk uked vaxzsth ?kkl ds foLrkj ds dkj.k rsth ls ?kV jgs cUuh pkjkxkg dks lajf{kr djus gsrq ;kstuk fodflr djuh gSA bl gsrq yxHkx 12 eky/kkjh ,d lkFk vk;s vkSj o"kZ 2009 esa mUgksaus xqtjkr VªLV ,oa lkslk;Vh ,DV ds vUrxZr cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh laxBu uke ls cUuh czhMlZ ,lksfl;s”ku dk xBu dj leqnk; ds mn~ns”;ksa gsrq dke djuk izkjEHk fd;kA cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh laxBu dk ,d vkSipkfjd iz”kklfud <kapk rS;kj fd;k x;k vkSj laxBu dks pykus ds fy, 21 lnL;ksa dh dk;Zdkfj.kh r; dh x;hA dk;Zdkfj.kh lfefr dk pquko rhu o"kksZa ds fy, fd;k x;kA dk;Zdkfj.kh lfefr esa dqy 19 iapk;rksa ds izR;sd iapk;r ls ,d izfrfuf/k vkSj 2 vuqlwfpr tkfr ds lnL; FksA cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh laxBu us nqX/k vFkZ&O;oLFkk dks c<+kus ds fy, cUuh HkSal dks us'kuy Ms;jh Msoyies.V cksMZ ds vUrxZr iathÑr djus gsrq ,d LFkkuh; LoSfPNd laxBu lgthou ds lkFk tqM+ko LFkkfir fd;kA mUgksaus ikjEifjd iz”kklfud ekWMyksa ds ek/;e ls cUuh laj{k.k ds eqn~ns ij Hkh dke djuk rFkk tehu ij vf/kdkj ikus gsrq ljdkj ds lkFk okrkZ djuk izkjEHk dj fn;kA

cUuh HkSal dks feyh ekU;rk blds ckn ls cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh laxBu dks vkthfodk ds eqn~ns ij dke djus esa vlQyrk gh feyhA cUuh esa pjokgksa dh dbZ ihf<+;ksa rd esgur djus ckn cUuh HkSal dh iztkfr rS;kj djus esa lQyrk feyhA bl iztkfr dh viuh dqN fof”k"V fo”ks"krk,a gSaA tSls ;g HkSal lw[kk lguh; gS] blesa chekfj;ksa dk izdksi de gksrk gS vkSj izfrdwy ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa Hkh bldh nqX/k mRiknu {kerk mPp gSA ;g cgqr “kkUr izÑfr dh gksrh gS vkSj jkr esa Hkh Lo;a ls ?kkl pjus pyh tkrh gSA mijksDr lkjh fo”ks"krkvksa ds dkj.k ;g “kq"d ,oa v/kZ “kq"d tyok;q ds fy, lokZf/kd mi;qDr gksrh gSA lgthou] ljnkj Ñf"kuxj Ñf"kxr fo”ofo|ky; rFkk i”kqikyu ds jkT; foHkkx ds lg;ksx ls cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k us o"kZ 2010 esa bl iztkfr dk iathdj.k djok;kA ;g iathdj.k iztkfr ,oa iztud nksuksa ds fy, FkkA 6

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v|

jk"Vªh; tSo fofo/krk vfHkdj.k rFkk ykbQ usVodZ us ,d eky/kkjh Jh gknh ewlk rFkk cUuh i”kq mipkjd la?k nksuksa dks la;qDr :i ls uLy m)kjd iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fd;kA cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k ds v/;{k lyseen gkyiks=k dks us”kuy C;wjks vkWQ ,uhey tsusfVd fjlkslsZt (,uch,thvkj) dh izcU/ku lfefr dk lnL; fu;qDr fd;k x;k vkSj oks vHkh Hkh bl in ij dk;Zjr gSaA cUuh HkSal dh iztkfr dk iathdj.k gks tkus ds ckn ls bldh ekax c<+ x;h gS vkSj nke esa Hkh nksxquk ls vf/kd dh o`f) gqbZ gSA vktkn Hkkjr esa lcls igys iathÑr gksus okyh iztkfr cUuh HkSal vkSj rc ls vkt rd i”kq/ku dh 29 u;h iztkfr;ksa dk iathdj.k us”kuy C;wjks vkWQ ,uhey tsusVfVd fjlkslZ }kjk djk;k tk pqdk gSA

nqX/k vFkZ&O;oLFkk dks feyk thounku cUuh ds pjokgs LFkkuh; ekax dks iwjk djus ds fy, nw/k dk mRiknu dj jgs Fks vkSj blhfy, o"kZ 2008 rd mUgsa nw/k dk vPNk nke ugha fey jgk FkkA nw/k dk vPNk nke ikus ds fy, dPN ds ckgj LFkkfir nw/k dh Ms;fj;ksa rFkk nw/k ds cktkj ls tqM+ko LFkkfir djus dh vko”;drk Fkh vkSj blfy, cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k us us”kuy Ms;jh Msoyies.V cksMZ ¼,uMhMhch½ ds lkFk ppkZ izkjEHk dj nhA ,uMhMhch us cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k ds lkFk la;qDr :i ls cUuh xkao esa Fkksd nw/k vo”khry dsUnzksa dh LFkkiuk djus ij viuh lgefr ns nhA ifj.kkeLo:i] fiNys n”kd ls nw/k dk nke rhu xquk gks x;k gSA blds lkFk gh nw/k dk mRiknu Hkh c<+k gSA vc cUuh esa izfrfnu 1]00]000 yhVj ls Hkh vf/kd nw/k dk mRiknu gksrk gS] tcfd o"kZ 2008 esa ek= 60]000 yhVj nw/k izfrfnu dh nj ls mRikfnr gksrk FkkA vkt i”kq/ku ij vk/kkfjr vFkZO;oLFkk dk foLrkj gqvk gS tks vuqekur% izfro"kZ 110 djksM+ :i;s gSA cUuh ds xkaoksa esa Fkksd ek=k esa nqX/k vo'khry dsUnzksa dh LFkkiuk gks tkus ds ckn ls nw/k dk mRiknu c<+dj 100000 yhVj izfrfnu gks x;k gS vkSj i'kq/ku ls tqM+h vFkZ O;oLFkk yxHkx 110 djksM+ izfro"kZ gks x;h gSA


QksVks % ys[kd ihf<+;ksa ls cUuh esa pjokgksa }kjk rS;kj ,oa fodflr dh xb;h cUuh HkSal

ijEijkxr iz'kklu O;oLFkk dks iquthZfor djuk Hkkjr esa ou lEink dk vfLrRo cpkus ds fy, yEcs le; ls la?k"kZ py jgk gS vkSj gky ds n”kdksa esa ;g la?k"kZ vkSj rst gqvk gSA oU; Hkwfe] tks LFkkuh; ,oa ns”kh yksxksa dh vkthfodk dk ,d cM+k vk/kkj Fkh] mls jkT; ljdkj us laj{k.k ds uke ij dCtk dj fy;kA blls ogka ij jgus okys tu lkekU; dh ouksa ds lkFk fudVrk de gqbZ rFkk bu lalk/kuksa ij LFkkuh; leqnk;ksa ds vf/kdkjksa esa deh vk;h vFkok oU; Hkwfe ij muds vf/kdkjksa dks iwjh rjg ls udkj fn;k x;kA ukxj lekt laxBuksa ds lg;ksx ls iqjkus yksx rFkk LFkkuh; leqnk; bu lkeqnkf;d ,oa lkewfgd lalk/kuksa ij iqu% viuk vf/kdkj ,oa LokfeRo ikus dh ps"Vk esa gSaA ;s iz;kl ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e 2006 ds vkyksd esa vuqlwfpr tutkfr rFkk ou esa jgus okys vU; tutkfr;ksa ds usr`Ro esa fd;s tk jgs gSaA ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e ds vUrxZr LFkkuh; leqnk;kas dks muds iSr`d Hkwfe] lkeqnkf;d ou lalk/kuksa vkSj ou ls tqM+s jhfr&fjoktksa ij vf/kdkj dks ekU;rk nh x;h gSA nqHkkZX; ls] bl ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e ds fojks/k esa dqN LokFkhZ yksxksa us vius LokFkZ ds dkj.k lM+d tke dj fn;kA ifj.kker% vkthfodk lqjf{kr djus] ou laj{k.k dks c<+kus] LFkkuh; Lo iz”kklu dks etcwr djus vkSj blds ek/;e ls jktuhfrd foLrkj ds mn~ns”;ksa dks izkIr djus esa ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e dks cgqr de lQyrk feyhA xqtjkr vkSj dPN nksuksa dh fLFkfr;ksa esa cgqr fHkUurk ugha gSaA cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k }kjk vius vf/kdkjksa dks vkSipkfjdrk iznku djus ds fy, ljdkj ls fd;s tk jgs fopkj&foe”kZ dh

jkg dfBu gS vkSj vHkh Hkh ckr&phr fdlh urhts ij ugha igqaph gSA cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k us lcls igys ukxks;k izksVksdky ds vkfVZdy 8ts ds vUnj fodflr chlhih QkesZV ds vk/kkj ij leqnk; ds vf/kdkjksa dks nLrkosftr djuk izkjEHk dj fn;kA o"kZ 2009 esa ou foHkkx us cUuh ds foLr`r ifj{ks= dks ?ksjus dh dk;Z;kstuk rS;kj dhA fcuk fdlh lkeqnkf;d ppkZ o lgHkkfxrk ds rS;kj dh x;h bl dk;Z;kstuk esa u dsoy pjokgksa dh cUuh ds vUnj ueHkwfe rd igqap esa dVkSrh dh x;h Fkh] oju~ ,d ,dy dSys.Mj o"kZ esa pjokgksa dh vko”;drk rFkk ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh dks Hkh /;ku esa ugha j[kk x;kA cUuh czhMlZ ,lksfl;s”ku us vius lkeqnkf;d vf/kdkjksa ds fy, iwNus dk fu”p; fd;kA D;ksafd ;g r; Fkk fd ;fn dk;Z;kstuk dks fØ;kfUor fd;k x;k rks pjokgk leqnk; gsrq vko”;d ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh ds le{k cM+k [krjk mRiUu gkx s k vkjS vUrr% mudh Lo;a dh vkthfodk] iztkfr;ka rFkk mudh laLÑfr izHkkfor gksxhA czhMlZ la?k us ;g Hkh eglwl fd;k fd ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e ds ek/;e ls cUuh pkjkxkg ij vius vf/kdkjksa dks vkSipkfjd :i iznku djus esa lgk;rk fey ldrh Fkh vkSj ,sls le; esa] tcfd os vius vf/kdkjksa dks izkIr djus ds fy, la?k"kZ dj jgs gSa rks ikjEifjd “kkldh; iz.kkyh dks iquthZfor djus dk ;g ,d volj FkkA bl mn~ns”; dh izkfIr gsrq cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k us iwwjs cUuh {ks= esa fLFkr lHkh 54 xkaoksa esa ,d gLrk{kj vfHk;ku pyk;kA ;g vfHk;ku vc ^^cUuh dks cUuh jgus nks** vFkkZr ^cUuh dks lkoZtfud ds rkSj ij tkuk tk;s* ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA pjokgksa }kjk pkjkxkg dks iz;ksx djus] lajf{kr djus rFkk izcfU/kr djus dh iqjkuh ijEijk dks Hkh iqu% LFkkfir djus ds fy, dk;Z izkjEHk gks x;k gSA cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k us xkaoksa ,oa iapk;rksa esa cgqr lh cSBdsa dha ,oa vius vf/kdkjksa ds ckjs esa tkx:drk QSykus] viuh vlgefr dks lkewfgd :i ls trkus rFkk cUuh esa ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e dks rRdky ykxw djkus gsrq jkT; ljdkj ls vkxzg djus dk fu”p; fd;kA eky/kkjh leqnk;ksa ds vxztksa rFkk cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k ds izfrfuf/k;ksa us i;kZoj.k ,oa ou eU=ky; rFkk vkfnoklh ekeyksa ds ea=h ds lkFk fopkj&foe”kZ dk nkSj tkjh j[kkA vkfnoklh ekeyksa ds ea=ky; us

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v| 7


izfrfuf/k;ksa dks ;g lwfpr fd;k fd ;|fi iwjs jkT; esa ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e ykxw gks x;k gS] ijUrq dPN esa vHkh ykxw ugha fd;k x;k gS] D;ksafd dPN {ks= esa vkfnoklh tula[;k de gksus ds dkj.k ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e dks fØ;kfUor djus gsrq uksMy ,tsUlh dks p;u fd;k tkuk vHkh Hkh “ks"k gSA o"kZ 2012 esa] ou foHkkx us dk;Z;kstuk ij dke djus dh igy dhA eky/kkfj;ksa us Hkqt esa ,d jSyh dk vk;kstu fd;k vkSj dPN ds ftykf/kdkjh dks ,d Kkiu lkSairs gq, mUgsa rFkk jkT; fuxjkuh lfefr dks lwfpr fd;k fd & tc rd muds vf/kdkjksa dks ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e ds rgr~ ekU;rk ugh nh tk;sxh] rc rd “kkfUriw.kZ <aax ls mudk fojks/k tkjh jgsxkA 5 twu] 2012 dks cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k us pkjkxkg dks izcfU/kr fd;s tkus okys rjhds dks fn[kkus rFkk la?k"kZ esa lg;ksx nsus gsrq ehfM;k dks vkeaf=r fd;kA

jkT; ds lkFk okrkZ cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k ds dgus ij cUuh ds izR;sd xkao esa ou vf/kdkj lfefr dk xBu dj cUuh ij vius vf/kdkjksa dh ekax djuh izkjEHk dj nh x;hA bu iz;klksa dk ifj.kke ;g jgk fd xqtjkr ljdkj dh rjQ ls ,d “kklukns”k tkjh dj jkT; ds xSj vuqlwfpr tkfr okys ftyksa ds ftykf/kdkfj;ksa dks ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e ykxw djus gsrq i= Hkstk x;kA rc ftyk iz”kklu us izR;sd xkao esa ou vf/kdkj lfefr xfBr djus gsrq xzke lHkk dks vkSipkfjd :i ls cqyk;kA ikjEifjd pjkbZ i)fr;ksa] tSo&HkkSfrd ifjfLFkfr;ksa] i”kq/ku ij fuHkZjrk rFkk ekStwnk tho&tUrqvksa ,oa ouLifr;ksa dh tSo fofo/krk dks tkuus gsrq lgHkkxh vH;kl ds ek/;e ls lalk/ku ekufp=.k ;kstuk fodflr dh x;hA leqnk; ds bu nkoksa dks ,lMh,ylh }kjk laLrqr fd;k x;k] tcfd Mh,ylh fl)kUrr% bu nkoksa ls lger FkhA 54 xkaoksa esa dqy 54 ou vf/kdkj lfefr;ka xfBr dh x;ha] ftuesa ls 48 lfefr;ksa us cUuh ij lkewfgd vf/kdkj ds fy, nkok nkf[ky djus dk fu.kZ; fd;kA cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k ds fy, ;g ,d mYys[kuh; miyfC/k jghA blls ;g Hkh iznf”kZr gqvk fd iwjs cUuh ds lHkh {ks=ksa ds pjokgksa dh vko”;drk ,d gSA lkFk gh ;g Hkh fn[kk fd lEiw.kZ ou ij lkewfgd nkok nkf[ky djus gsrq bruh cM+h la[;k esa leqnk; ds yksx ,d lkFk igyh ckj lkeus 8

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v|

vk;sA rc ls] cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k us pkjkxkg ij v/;;u djus rFkk blds laj{k.k ,oa izcU/ku gsrq “kks/k vk/kkfjr fn”kk&funsZ”k iznku djus gsrq izfrc) laxBu ds rkSj ij vkj,,ech,ybZ (cUuh Hkw&{ks= esa “kks/k ,oa fuxjkuh) ds fy, izfrf"Br “kks/k laLFkkuksa tSls ,VhvkjbZbZ] ,ulhch,l ,oa vEcsMdj fo”ofo|ky; ds lkFk dke djuk izkjEHk dj fn;kA cUuh eky/kkfj;ksa ds bu iz;klksa us u dsoy muds nkoksa ds fy, ,d jkLrk rS;kj fd;k] oju~ xqtjkr ds vU; {ks=ksa esa jgus okys xSj vuqlwfpr leqnk;ksa ds yksxksa ds vf/kdkjksa dks LFkkfir djus dk dk;Z Hkh ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e ds ek/;e ls fd;kA cUuh ij leqnk; ds vf/kdkjksa dks vkSipkfjd Lo:i iznku djus gsrq iz;kl vHkh Hkh py jgs gSa vkSj Hkqt ds ftykf/kdkjh rFkk xqtjkr ds eq[;ea=h ds lkFk cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k dh okrkZ py jgh gSA vusd ijh{k.kksa vkSj d"Vksa ls xqtjdj ;g ;k=k gks jgh gS vkSj cUuh eky/kkfj;ksa dh lkewfgd ,drk gh mudh “kfDr gSA Hkkjr esa cUuh eky/kkjh gh ,dek= pjokgk lewg gSa] tks vius vf/kdkjksa ds fy, yM+kbZ yM+ jgs gSaA fo”ks"k :i ls] cUuh Hkh lcls cM+k pkjkxkg gS] tgka Hkwfe ij vf/kdkjksa ds fy, leqnk; vkSj ljdkj ds chp okrkZ py jgh gSA “kklu ds vHkko vFkok xyr “kklu ds dkj.k Hkkjr esa lkeqnkf;d lEifÙk;ksa dk gzkl yEcs le; ls ns[kk tk jgk gSA cUuh i”kq mipkjd eky/kkjh la?k ds ek/;e ls] eky/kkfj;ksa us bls gy djus ds fy, ,d ,slh iz.kkyh dks izLrkfor fd;k gS] tks iwjs ns”k esa nqgjkbZ tk ldrh gSA muds vf/kdkjksa dks ekU;rk fn;k tkuk u dsoy pjokgksa ds fy, ,d mYys[kuh; miyfC/k gksxh] oju~ ;g Hkkjr ds iztkra= ds fy, Hkh egRoiw.kZ gksxkA ge dsoy ;g vk”kk gh O;Dr dj ldrs gSa fd cUuh ij leqnk; ds vf/kdkjksa dks ekU;rk feyus ls Hkkjr ds vU; pjokgk leqnk; Hkh bls viuk;saxs vkSj vius lkewfgd tehuksa ij vf/kdkj ikus gsrq nkok djuk izkjEHk djsaxsA ÚU×ðàæ ÖæÅUè ·¤æØü·ý¤× çÙÎðàæ·¤, âãUÁèßÙ æéÁ, ·¤‘ÀU- x|®®®v ßðÕâæ§ÅU Ñ www.sahjeevan.org §ü×ðÜ Ñ rkb335@gmail.com Stakeholders in agroecology LEISA INDIA, Vol 18, No.4, Dec. 2016


UÁ¢»Üè ¹æl ÂÎæÍæðZ ·¤æ ×æðÜ ÎðßÁèÌ âæÚ¢U»è tyok;q ladV ds bl nkSj esa ouksa dks oLrq ds rkSj ij ns[kus ds dkj.k mudk ^^dkcZu LVkWd** de gksrk tk jgk gSA ouksa esa Hkh [kk| inkFkksZa dk Hk.Mkj gS vkSj cgqr ls xzkeh.k xjhc leqnk; viuh [kk| vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus ds fy, ouksa ij gh fuHkZj djrs gSaA fo'ks"kdj tyok;q ladV ds lUnHkZ esa] xSj [ksrh@taxyh [kk| inkFkZ orZeku ifjizs{; esa [kk| ladV ds ,d lek/ku ds rkSj ij gks ldrs gSaA ou cgqr ls xSj [ksrh okys [kk| inkFkksZa tSls [kk| Qwy] Qy] iÙks] cht] e”k:e] ckal] tM+sa ,oa dUn] if{k;ka] “kgn ,oa [kk| dhM+s vkfn dk le`) lzksr gSaA jk;x<+ ds vf/kdka”k vkfnoklh fdlku] tks ,d Qlyh o"kZ esa 30 ls Hkh vf/kd Qlysa ysrs gSa] os Hkh fofo/krk ds fy, taxyksa ij Hkjkslk djrs gSaA vkfn uked ,d fdlku dk dguk gS& ^^ou dk dksbZ eksy gks gh ugha ldrkA pkgs ge 40 iztkfr;ka Hkh mxk ysa] ijUrq ouksa ls gesa fofo/k izdkj ds 200 [kk| inkFkksaZ dh miyC/krk gksrh gSA ouksa esa] xfeZ;ksa esa Qyksa lfgr dbZ izdkj ds [kk| inkFkksZa dk vadqj.k gksrk gS] ekulwu lhtu esa ckfj”k ds le; ckal dh [kwaVh vkSj e”k:e rFkk lfnZ;ksa esa fofo/k id z kj ds dUn gkrss gAaS rfnxaikbZ xkoa dh c<wh+ vkfnoklh efgyk ikjcrh iqfldk dgrh gSa& ou gekjh eka gSA ,d ckj tc cgqr Hk;adj lw[kk iM+k Fkk] ml le; ou ls feyus okyh tMk+]as ckl a dh dkiasyk]as ifÙk;kas ,oa “kgn ij gh gekjs xkoa ds ykx s kas dh i.wkZ fuHkjZrk FkhA** ifjokjksa dh [kk| vko”;drk dks iwjk djus esa lg;ksx iznku djus ds vfrfjDr] ;s oU; [kk| inkFkZ ifjokj ds fy, vk; ds lzksr ds :i esa Hkh mi;ksxh gksrs gSaA vkfn dk dguk gS& ^^tc ?kj esa iSlk ugha jgrk gS] ml le; ge taxy esa ls mxs gYnh dks [kksn dj cktkj esa csprs gSa vkSj ogka ls ued ;k rsy [kjhn dj ykrs gSaA** ou ls feyus okys [kk| inkFkZ u flQZ mUgsa vkRefuHkZj cukrs gSa] oju~ blls mudh igpku vkSj vkRelEeku c<+rk vkSj lcls egRoiw.kZ rks ;g gS fd ;s [kk| inkFkZ mUgsa lkgwdkjksa ds paxqy esa vkus ls cpkrs gSaA vr%

taxyh [kk| [ksr vkfnoklh ifjokjksa ds Hkkstu dk egRoiw.kZ fgLlk gSaA

Ñf"k foKku ds ikjEifjd mn~ns';ksa ls vyx tkdj ouksa ls izkIr gksus okys [kk| Qyksa] Qwyksa vkSj ifÙk;ksa vkfn dks ,df=r o lajf{kr djuk Hkh [kk| mRiknu dh Js.kh esa vkrk gSA

ifjokj ds Hkkstu esa oU; [kk| inkFkksZa dh Hkwfedk yksxksa ds Hkkstu esa oU; [kk| inkFkksZa dh Hkwfedk dks le>us ds fy, o"kZ 2013 esa mM+hlk ds jk;x<+ ftys esa ouksa ds ikl jgus okys fdlkuksa ds Åij ,d v/;;u fd;k x;kA v/;;u ds nkSjku ;g irk pyk fd tqykbZ] 2013 ds vkf[kjh lIrkg ls ysdj fnlEcj] 2013 rd 121 izdkj ds fofo/k [kk| inkFkZ ouksa ls fy;s x;sA vkSlru] 21 ls ysdj 69 izdkj ds [kk| inkFkZ rks ,sls Fks] ftUgsa izfr ifjokj 4-56 fdxzk0 dh nj ls taxyksa ls izkIr fd;k x;kA lkekU;r% yksx izfrfnu 0-725 fdxzk0 oU; [kk| inkFkksZa dk miHkksx djrs gSa] tks muds Hkkstu dk fgLlk gksrk gSA 6 xkaoksa esa fd;s x;s bl v/;;u ls irk pyk fd dqy ids Hkkstu dk 12 izfr”kr ls 24-4 izfr”kr rd dk fgLlk oU; [kk| inkFkksZa dk gksrk gSA xkao dh fo”ks"krkvksa rFkk ou dh tSo fofo/krk la;kstu ds vk/kkj ij oU; [kk| inkFkksZa ds Åij leqnk;ksa dh fuHkZjrk 20 ls 50 izfr”kr rd gksrh gSA fuHkZjrk dk ;g izfr”kr fofo/krk vkSj ek=k nksuksa lUnHkksZa esa gksrk gSA

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v| 9


ouksa ls fy;s x;s [kk| inkFkksaZ esa lcls cM+h ek=k fofHkUu izdkj ds dUnksa dh FkhA dsVk ,d ,slk gh dUn gS] tks ,d lw[ks [kk| ds :i esa LFkkuh; leqnk;ksa ds fy, fo”ks"k egRo j[krh gSA fiVk dksUMk ,d nwljh iztkfr gS] ftls 4&5 eghus rd ds fy, Hk.Mkfjr fd;k tk ldrk gSA lw[kk ds o"kksZa esa] tc Qlysa ugha gks ikrh gSa] ;s dUn vkSj vU; nwljs oU; [kk| inkFkZ yksxksa dh Hkkstu dh vko”;d vko”;drk dks iwjk djrs gSaA blds lkFk gh] xkao okys 22 izdkj dh [kkus ;ksX; gjh ifÙk;ksa rFkk 12&15 izdkj ds Qyksa dks ikrs gSaA lkekU;r% xk¡o okys ouksa ls [kk| inkFkZ ,d= djus gsrq >q.M esa tkrs gSaA os ,d lkFk [kk| inkFkZ bdV~Bk djrs gSa vkSj fQj vkil esa caVokjk dj ysrs gSaA ;gka rd fd xk¡o esa mu yksxksa dks Hkh ,df=r oU; [kk| inkFkZ esa ls fgLlk fn;k tkrk gS] tks ou rd tkus esa vleFkZ gksrs gSaA iqjkus le; ls izR;sd xk¡o ds fy, ou dk {ks= caVk gksrk gS vkSj viuh lhek esa gh jgdj Hkkstu ryk”kus ds Åij mudh vkilh lgefr cuh gksrh gSA xk¡o ds izR;sd O;fDr dk ou] LFkkuh; tylksrksa] o`{kksa rFkk ogka dh Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkrdh ds vuqlkj miyC/k lalk/kuksa ij leku vf/kdkj gksrk gSA ;fn ,d xk¡o ds ykx s nl w js xko¡a ds vf/kdkj {k= s okys ou eas tkdj ckal dh [kwaVh ysrs gSa rks nwljk muds {ks= ls “kgn ,d= djrk gSA yksxksa vkSj i;kZoj.k dks cpk;s j[kus ds fy, vUrfuZHkZjrk dh ;g laLÑfr egRoiw.kZ gSA

fldqM+rs ou lalk/ku {ks= ds vuqHko rFkk leqnk; ds lkFk dh x;h ppkZ nksuksa ;g iznf”kZr djrs gSa fd ouksa dks mtkM+ fn;k x;k gS vkSj mudh txg lkxkSu] uhyfxjh] ¼;wdsfyIVl½ rFkk iksaxfe;k ds ou rS;kj fd;s tk jgs gSaA ifj.kker% ou dk la;kstu rsth ls cny jgk gSA ou fofo/krk de gksus dk udkjkRed ifj.kke gks jgk gS vkSj bls fo”ks"kdj efgykvksa us eglwl fd;k gS] tks oU; [kk| inkFkksZa lfgr xSj bekjrh ouksRiknksa dks feydj ,d= djrh FkhaA 80 lky dh Qwyks fldksdk dgrh gSa& ^^ou cny x;s gSa vkSj yksx Hkh cny x;s gSaA bl izfØ;k esa] gekjs cgqr ls oU; [kk| dUn foyqIr gks x;sA ge vius Lo;a ds [kk| o`{kksa dks yxkuk ilUn djsaxsA vke rkSj ij cgqla[; vkcknh esa izpfyr [kk| ,oa [ksrh ds ekWMy esa vkfnokfl;ksa rFkk vU; ou vk/kkfjr

10 ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v|

leqnk;ksa }kjk miHkksx fd;s tkus okys ou vk/kkfjr ikjEifjd ,oa fofo/k [kk| inkFkksZa ds cgq mi;ksxh ewY;ksa dks ekU;rk ugha nh tkrh gSA ik= yksxksa dks xksnkeksa esa j[ks vFkok jkT; ljdkj }kjk fu/kkZfjr ekudksa ds vuqlkj pkoy@xsagw dh ,d fuf”pr ek=k esa vuqnkfur ewY; ij miyC/k djkuk gh [kk| lqj{kk dk vf/kdkfjd vFkZ gksrk gSA LFkkuh; rkSj ij ilUn dh tkus okyh vkfnoklh [kk| ,oa [ksrh i.zkkyh eas “kkfey ik"sk.k;Dqr Qlykas tl S s ekVss vukt] vU; vukt] nygu] frygu rFkk gjh ifÙk;ka iwjh rjg misf{kr gSaA buds leFkZu esa dkuwu ,oa uhfr;ka Hkh ugha cuh gSaA ouksa esa ijEijkxr :i ls fuokl djus okys leqnk;ksa esa ls cgqrksa dk viuh ml tehu ij dksbZ dkuwuh vf/kdkj ugha gSA ;|fi fd os ml tehu ij ihf<+;ksa ls fuokl djrs gSa vkSj og muds thou o vkthfodk ds fy, cgrq egRoi.wkZ gSA ;gka rd fd ou vf/kdkj vf/kfu;e cuus ds 10 o"kksZa ckn Hkh] mM+hlk ds ouksa ds ek= 6 izfr”kr xkoakas dks gh vius ou ij dkuuwh ekU;rk fey ikbZ gAS

vkxkeh ifjn`'; tyok;q ifjorZu ds lUnHkZ esa] vÑf"kr taxyh [kk| inkFkZ ,d cgqr egRoiw.kZ leqnk; vk/kkfjr vuqdwyu j.kuhfr gSA oS”ohdj.k rFkk gj iy cnyrh nqfu;k ds bl nkSj esa cgqr lh ekuotfur pqukSfr;ka Hkh ouksa ds lkeus gSaA tyok;q ladV ds bl nkSj esa ouksa dks vc flQZ ^^dkcZu Hk.Mkj** ds rkSj ij ns[kk tk jgk gS] tcfd os [kk| dk Hk.Mkj Hkh gAaS mudh ikfjfLFkfrd fØ;kvkas tl S & s vkDlhtu iznku djuk] ckfj”k djkuk] HkwxHkZ tyLrj dks fjpktZ djuk] e`nk dh Åijh moZj lrg dk laj{k.k djuk] ck<+ vkSj lw[kk dk lek/kku cuuk vkfn ds lkFk gh LFkkuh; leqnk;ksa ds fy, [kk| lqj{kk Hkh ou ds egRoiw.kZ dk;Z gSaA Hkkjr dh ou uhfr dks [kk| lqj{kk ds lUnHkZ esa fQj ls ifjHkkf"kr djus dh vko”;drk gSA u flQZ [kk| lqj{kk rFkk iks"k.k ds dkj.k dbZ jktuhfrd vkSj oSKkfud {ks=ksa ds ,ts.Ms eas izeq[krk ds rkSj ij 'kkfey gksus ds dkj.k] [kk| lqj{kk rFkk iks"k.k laosnh Hkfo"; ds lUnHkZ esa taxyksa vkSj o`{kksa ds ;ksxnku dks le>uk vf/kd egRoiw.kZ gSA


ydfM+;ksa ds lUnHkZ esa oju~ ouksa dh cgq fØ;kvksa rFkk mi;kfsxrk dks n[skrs g,q Hkh LFkk;h ou iczU/ku dh vko”;drk gSA yksxksa dh igqap lkoZtfud lalk/kuksa rd gksrh gS vkSj lkoZtfud lalk/kuksa dh fofo/krk dks cuk;s j[kus ds fy, vf/kd /;ku nsus dh vko”;drk gksxhA efgykvksa dh igqap oukas rd c<+kus ds leqfpr mik;ksa dks mUur djuk gksxk] rkfd [kk| lqj{kk ds fy, lalk/kuksa dk vf/kd LFkkbZ izcU/ku lqfuf”pr fd;k tk lds o ouksa dh fofo/krk dks izcfU/kr fd;k tk ldsA yksxksa vkSj muds laLÑfr nksuksa dks cpkus dh n`f"V ls ouksa dh vko”;drk gSA tyok;q ladV ds vkyksd esa] ,d nh?kZdkfyd vuqdwyu j.kuhfr ds rkSj ij vÑf"kr [kk| inkFkksZa dks ikzRslkfgr djus dh vko”;drk gAS Ñf"k& okfudh vkSj LFkkbZ Ñf"k ds fy, LFkkuh; rkSj ij igy fd;s tkus gksaxsA D;ksafd ;s e`nk vkSj ty nksuksa ds fy, ykHkizn gksrs gSaA lkFk gh blls ouksa dh fofo/krk Hkh cjdjkj jgsxhA [kk| lqj{kk rFkk iks"k.k dh n`f"V ls dbZ jktuhfrd vkSj oSKkfud {ks=ksa ds ,ts.Ms eas izeq[krk ds :i ls “kkfey gksus ds dkj.k] [kk| lqj{kk rFkk iks"k.k laosnh Hkfo"; ds lUnHkZ esa ouksa vkSj o`{kksa ds ;ksxnku dks le>uk vf/kd egRoiw.kZ gSA ;fn [kk| laizHkqrk dks LFkkuh; ou vkfJr leqnk;ksa ds ,d laxfBr fl)kUr ds :i esa fodflr ugha fd;k x;k rks blls iwjs jkT; dh [kk| laizHkqrk ij izHkko iM+ ldrk gSA ^^vÑf"kr** vFkok oU; [kk| inkFkZ u flQZ Hkw[k feVkus ds fy, gSa oju~ taxyksa vkSj yksxksa dk ijLij xgjk lEcU/k gS vkSj bls leqfpr <ax ls le>us dh t:jr gSA

lUnHkZ nscy nsc] dfcrk dqjxUrh] oh :dfeuh jko ,oa lkykses ;s”kwnkl] [kk| mRiknu LFkkuksa ds rkSj ij taxy& mM+hlk esa vkfnokfl;ksa dh [kk| ,oa iks"k.k lqj{kk ,oa vÑf"kr [kk| inkFkksZa dk ,d [kkstiw.kZ v/;;u] tqykbZ 2014] fyfoax QkElZ }kjk izdkf”kr

Issues and Themes of LEISA INDIA Published in English 2000 - 2016 V.2, No. 1, 2000 - Desertification V.2, No. 2, 2000 - Farmer innovations V.2, No. 3, 2000 - Farming in the forest V.2, No. 4, 2000 - Monocultures towards sustainability V.3, No. 1, 2001 - Coping with disaster V.3, No. 2, 2001 - Go global stay local V.3, No. 3, 2001 - Lessons in scaling up V.3, No. 4, 2001 - Biotechnology V.4, No. 1, 2002 Managing Livestock V.4, No. 2, 2002 - Rural Communication V.4, No. 3, 2002 - Recreating living soil V.4, No. 4, 2002 - Women in agriculture V.5, No. 1, 2003 - Farmers Field School V.5, No. 2, 2003 - Ways of water harvesting V.5, No. 3, 2003 - Access to resources V.5, No. 4, 2003 - Reversing Degradation V.6, No. 1, 2004 - Valuing crop diversity V.6, No. 2, 2004 - New generation of farmers V.6, No. 3, 2004 - Post harvest Management V.6, No. 4, 2004 - Farming with nature V.7, No. 1, 2005 - On Farm Energy V.7, No. 2, 2005 - More than Money V.7, No. 3, 2005 - Contribution of Small Animals V.7, No. 4, 2005 - Towards Policy Change V.8, No. 1, 2006 - Documentation for Change V.8, No. 2, 2006 - Changing Farming Practices V.8, No. 3, 2006 - Knowledge Building Processes V.8, No. 4, 2006 - Nurturing Ecological Processes V.9, No. 1, 2007 - Farmers Coming together V.9, No. 2, 2007 - Securing Seed Supply V.9, No. 3, 2007 - Healthy Produce, People and Environment V.9, No. 4, 2007 - Ecological Pest Management V.10, No. 1, 2008 -Towards Fairer Trade V.10. No. 2, 2008 - Living soils V.10, No. 3, 2008 - Farming and Social Inclusion V.10, No. 4, 2008 - Dealing with Climate Change V.11, No. 1, 2009 - Farming Diversity V.11, No. 2, 2009 - Farmers as Entrepreneurs V.11, No. 3, 2009 - Women and Food Sovereignty V.11, No. 4, 2009 - Scaling up and sustaining the gains V.12, No.1, 2010 - Livestock for sustainable livelihoods V.12, No.2, 2010 - Finance for farming V.12, No.3, 2010 - Managing water for sustainable farming V.13, No.1, 2011 - Youth in farming V.13, No.2, 2011 - Trees and farming V.13, No.3, 2011 - Regional Food System V.13, No.4, 2011 - Securing Land Rights V.14, No.1, 2012 - Insects as Allies V.14, No.2, 2012 - Greening the Economy V.14, No.3, 2012- Farmer Organisations V. 14, No.4, 2012- Combating Desertification V. 15, No.1, 2013- SRI: A scaling up success V. 15, No.2, 2013- Farmers and market V. 15, No.3, 2013- Education for change V. 15, No.4, 2013- Strengthening family farming

,l- HkwVkuh] taxy] gekjs Hkkstu! ikWfylh czhQ] 2014] fyfoax QkElZ] mM+hlk

V. 16, No. 1, 2014- Cultivating farm biodiversity V. 16, No. 2, 2014- Family farmers breaking out of poverty V. 16, No. 3, 2014- Family farmers and sustainable landscapes V. 16, No. 4, 2014- Family farming and nutrition

ÎðÕÁèÌ âæÚ¢U»è çÜçߢ» Ȥæâü ŒÜæòÅU Ù¢0 vv}v/wvy{, ÚUˆÙæ·¤ÚU Õæ»-w, Å¢U·¤æÂæÙè ÚUæðÇU, æéßÙðàßÚUU- |zv®v} §ü×ðÜ Ñ livingfarms@gmail.com osclkbZV Ñ www.vasundharaorissa.org

V. 17, No. 1, 2015- Soils for life V. 17, No. 2, 2015- Rural-urban linkages V. 17, No. 3, 2015- Water-lifeline for livelihoods V. 17, No. 4, 2015- Women forging change

Valuing underutilized crops

V.18, No.1, 2016- Co-creation of knowledge V.18, No.2, 2016-Valuing underutilised crops V.18, No.3, 2016-Agroecology-Measurable and sustainable V.18, No.4, 2016-Stakeholders in agroecology

LEISA INDIA, Vol 9, No. 2, June 2016

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v| 11


U·ë¤çcæ ÂæçÚUçSÍçÌ·¤è ÂÚU ™ææÙ çÙ×æü‡æ UÃØßçSÍÌ ÎSÌæßðÁè·¤ÚU‡æ ·¤æ ÂýÖæß ·ð¤0ßè0°â0 ÂýâæÎ d`f"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh ij izHkko Mkyus okys vH;klksa] vH;kl vk/kkfjr uhfr;ksa] lk{; vk/kkfjr ppkZvksa ,oa uo fodflr lgHkkfxrk ds Åij O;ogkfjd Kku dk vknku&iznku c<+kus esa O;ofLFkr nLrkosthdj.k ,d eq[; Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA th0bZ0,0th0 dk mnkgj.k dqN ,slk gh iznf'kZr ikfjfLFkfrdh Ñf"k Kku ds ikjEifjd ns”kt lzksrksa] fdlkuksa }kjk fd;s x;s “kks/kksa rFkk {ks= fo”ks"k ds vk/kkj ij lek/kku ,oa fodYi rS;kj djus ds Åij fd;s tkus okys uokpkjkas ls ifszjr gAS vud q y w u vkjS LFkkuh; uokpkjkas ds ek/;e ls Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh ij Kku dks lqq/kkjk tkrk gSA LFkkbZ [kk| iz.kkfy;ksa ,oa vkthfodk dks c<+kok nsus grsq bl rjg dh tkudkfj;ksa dks lk>k djuk egRoiw.kZ gksrk gSA fQj Hkh] lUnHkZ fof”k"V vH;klksa] n`f"Vdks.kksa ,oa lh[kksa dk O;ofLFkr nLrkosthdj.k rFkk mudk izlkj djus dh izfØ;k cgqr etcwr ugha gSA [ksr ij dke djus okys fdlku vkSj Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh ls tqM+s vH;klksa dks c<+kok nsus okys LoSfPNd laxBu nksukas gh ds ikl nLrkot s hdj.k djus dh {kerk vDlj cgrq de gkrsh gSA blfy, laLFkkvksa dh nLrkosthdj.k {kerk c<+kus dh eq[; vko”;drk gS rkfd os tkudkfj;ksa vkSj vuqHkoksa dks lkoZtfud Mksesu esa lk>k dj ldsaA bl i"`BHkfwe e]as ,-,e-b-Z Qkm.M”sku us yhtk+ bf.M;k dk;ZØe ds vUrxZr lg;ksxh laLFkkvksa ds lkFk feydj ,d oSdfYid Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh ewoes.V ij Kku lgfuekZ.k dks etcwr o lk>k djus gsrq nLrkosthdj.k ,oa laokn dk;ZØeksa ds ek/;e ls igy dhA yhtk+ bf.M;k dUlkfsV;Ze leku fopkj/kkjk okys LoSfPNd laxBuksa ,oa O;fDr;ksa dk lewg gS] tks Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh vH;klksa ij la;qDr n`f"V ,oa vke /kkj.kk iz.kkyh ds rgr~ dke djrk gSA 12 ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v|

th0bZ0,0th0 ds izdk'ku

Lo;a dks l”kDr djus dh etcwr bPNk”kfDr ls lapkfyr] yht+k bf.M;k dUlksfVZ;e ds lgHkkxh ,d nks o"khZ; nLrkosthdj.k ,oa laokn dk;ZØe esa “kkfey gq,A o"kZ 2003&2005 ds nkSjku lapkfyr bl dk;ZØe dks bfy;k] uhnjyS.M ds ijke”kZ ls yht+k bf.M;k Vhe us lapkfyr fd;kA ;g dk;ZØe laxBuksa ds vUnj nLrkosthdj.k ,oa laokn fØ;kvksa dks rst djus vkSj izkFkfedrk esa “kkfey djus ds fy, izfØ;kvksa ,oa vH;klksa dks lfØ; djus ds mij dsfUnzr FkkA Kku vknku&iznku djus] Kku lg fuekZ.k rFkk Kku mi;ksx dks c<+kus ds fo"k; ij {kerk fuekZ.k ds chp rky&esy dks n”kkZus gsrq ,d lg;kx s h ds vuHqkokas dks ;gka n”kk;Zk tk jgk gAS

dk;ZØe o"kZ 2003&2005 ds nkSjku nLrkosthdj.k ,oa laokn ij nks o"khZ; dk;ZØe dks fØ;kfUor fd;k x;kA blds vUrxZr lzksr] nLrkosthdj.k ,oa laokn ij dk;Z”kkyk,a] fu;kstu ,oa leh{kk cSBdsa] iz{ks= ,oa vU; dk;Z “kkfey jgsA lgHkkfxrk dj jgs laxBuksa dks nLrkosthdj.k izfØ;k dks izkFkfedrk nsus] bl dk;Z gsrq viuh laLFkk ls fdlh O;fDr dh igpku djus vkjS vUr eas viuh lLaFkk ds vUnj ijws dk;ZØe dks laLFkkxr Lo:i iznku djus gsrq Lo;a ls


izfrc) gksuk FkkA bfy;k ds leUo;u esa yht+k bf.M;k Vhe us bl dk;ZØe dks lapkfyr fd;kA ek/;e ;g dk;ZØe lh[kus o izkIr ifj.kkeksa ds rhu ek/;eksa& lgHkkxh lh[k] djus ds fy, lh[k vkSj vkof/kd fu;kstu o leh{kk ij vk/kkfjr FkkA lgHkkxh lh[k okrkoj.k ,d ek/;e gS] ftlds vUrxZr iz{ks= ij dke djus okys izfrHkkfx;ksa ds fofHkUu vuqHkoksa ls lh[kk tkrk FkkA fo"k; ij vko”;d Li"Vrk iznku djus okys csgn vuqHkoh ,oa tkudkj lUnHkZ O;fDr;ka s ds egRoi.wkZ lg;kx s ls O;ogkfjd lh[k dks Hkh “kkfey fd;k x;kA nwljk] vU; egRoiw.kZ ek/;e ds rkSj ij fof”k"V izfrHkkxh dks lkSais x;s dk;Z ds ek/;e ls laLFkk ds vUnj fØ;kRed lh[k FkhA blesa vkxzg fd;k x;k fd izR;sd laLFkk ds visf{kr i`"BHkwfe rFkk {kerk okys O;fDr gh bl dk;Z”kkyk esa “kkfey gksa] lkSais x;s dk;Z dks djsa vkSj nwljksa dks Hkh izf”kf{kr djsaA blls nLrkosthdj.k ,oa laokn ij laLFkk ds vUnj {kerk fodflr djus esa lgk;rk gksxhA rhljk] laLFkkxr izfrc)rk dks lqfuf”pr djus o vko”;d /;ku dks cuk;s j[kus ds fy, dk;ZØe esa la;qDr fu;kstu ,oa leh{kk izfdz;kvksa dks Hkh tksM+k x;kA leh{kk cSBdkas eas izfrHkkfx;ksa ds lkFk laLFkk izeq[kksa dks Hkh “kkfey djus ls u dsoy izxfr dh okLrfod leh{kk gqbZ oju~ dk;ZØe ds fy, vko”;d lg;ksx vkSj izfrc)rk Hkh lqfuf”pr gqbZA th0bZ0,0th0 dk mnkgj.k th-bZ-,-th- (xksj[kiqj ,Uok;jUes.Vy ,D”ku xzqi) ,d LoSfPNd laxBu gS] tks iwohZ mÙkj izns”k ds xksj[kiqj tuin esa y?kq ,oa lhekUr fdlku leqnk;ksa ds LFkkbZ fodkl gsrq dk;Z djrk gSA “kks/k] ,Moksdslh ,oa usVofdZax tSls eqn~nksa ij th-bZ-,-th,d ekU;rk izkIr laLFkk gS] tks mÙkj izns”k lfgr ns'k ds vU; Hkkxksa esa dbZ usVodkZas ds lkFk dke djrh gSA vf/kd tkudkjh ds fy, bldh osclkbV www.geagindia.org ns[k ldrs gSaA laLFkk ds v/;{k MkW0 “khjkt+ vkxs tksM+rs gSa ^^th-bZ-,-th- igys Hkh iz{ks= vk/kkfjr dkeksa ds lUnHkZ esa ,-,e-bZ- ds lkFk tqM+h jgh gSA th-bZ-,-th- dks o"kZ 1990&92 eas ikfjfLFkfrdh Ñf"k ,oa de ckgjh ykxr rduhdksa ij ,-,e-bZ- }kjk izf”kf{kr Hkh fd;k x;k FkkA**

o"kZ 2002 esa dUlksfVZ;e ds lnL; ds rkSj ij] th-b-Z,-th- us ukfer dep Z kjh ds lkFk nLrkot s hdj.k ,oa laokn dk;ZØe ¼2003&2005½ esa Hkkx fy;kA th-bZ-,-th- us ^^izlkj lsokvksa dks l”kDr djus esa efgykvksa dh Hkwfedk** fo"k; dks ojh;rk fn;kA vius lkSais x;s dk;Z ds vuqlkj uoEcj 2003 esa lzksr ij igyh dk;Z”kkyk ds ckn th-bZ-,-th- us ^^iwohZ mÙkj izns”k esa Ñf"kxr izlkj esa efgykvksa dh lgHkkfxrk** fo"k; ij ,d Mªk¶V nLrkost rS;kj fd;kA Qjojh] 2004 esa nLrkosthdj.k ij nwljh dk;Z”kkyk ds nkSjku] izfrHkkfx;ksa ,oa lUnHkZ O;fDr;ksa }kjk rS;kj nLrkost dk xgu fo”ys"k.k fd;kA bl fo”ys"k.k ls nLrkost ds vUnj dh dfe;ksa] folaxfr;ksa ,oa vLi"Vrkvksa dh igpku djus esa enn feyhA ;s dk;Z”kkyk,a vR;f/kd l?ku Fkha vkSj blesa lewg ds lkFk&lkFk lUnHkZ O;fDr;ksa }kjk fd;s x;s iz;klksa ds lkFk gh O;fDrxr izfrHkkfx;ksa dh ^^lgdehZ leh{kk** dks “kkfey fd;k x;k FkkA bl dk;Z”kkyk ds nkSjku izkIr lh[kksa ds vk/kkj ij] laLFkk us okil tkdj vius nLrkost dks la”kksf/kr dj ;FkklaHko iwjk djus dk iz;kl fd;kA flrEcj] 2004 esa laokn ij vk;ksftr r`rh; dk;Z”kkyk ds nkSjku fofo/k lwpuk mRiknksa esa bl la”kksf/kr nLrkost dks ^^iqu% O;ofLFkr** djus dk iz;kl fd;k x;kA bl dk;Z”kkyk ds nkSjku fof”k"V lans”kksa ,oa yf{kr n”kZdksa ds fy, mi;qDr lapkj ek/;eksa vkSj ehfM;k dh igpku o vkdyu djus dh {kerk izkIr djus ls lEcfU/kr lh[kksa ij /;ku fn;k x;kA dk;Z”kkyk ls izkIr lh[kksa ds vk/kkj ij laLFkk us xkaoksa esa tkx:drk QSykus ds mn~ns”; ls ^^Ñf"kxr Hkwfe ij efgykvkas ds vf/kdkj** ij ,d iksLVj rFkk ohfM;ks fQYe ds :i esa laokn mRikn rS;kj fd;kA nLrkost vkSj lapkj ds fofHkUu igyqvksa ij laLFkk LVkQ ds Kku vkSj dkS”ky dks fodflr djus dh n`f"V ls ;g dk;ZØe lQy jgkA fdlh fof”k"V vuqHko ;k izfØ;k ij ,d ^^iw.kZ nLrkost** rS;kj djus ds fy, fofHkUu n`f"Vdks.kkas] rF;ksa vkSj lkekftd] rduhdh o ekuo igyqvksa ij vc csgrj Li"Vrk FkhA

,Moksdslh gsrq ,d midj.k ds rkSj ij th-bZ-,-th- us bu dk;Z”kkykvksa ls rS;kj dh x;h xfr dks ,d dne vkxs c<+dj LFkkbZ cuk;s j[kkA

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v| 13


mUgksaus vius mnkgj.k ^^izlkj lsokvksa dks l”kDr djus esa efgykvksa dh Hkwfedk** dk mi;ksx fd;kA ,Moksdslh ds ,d midj.k ds rkSj ij bldks cgqr vPNh izfrfØ;k feyhA th-bZ-,-th- us blds vk/kkj ij ,d ikWfylh isij rS;kj dj iz/kku lfpo (Ñf"k)] mÙkj izns”k jkT; ljdkj ds lkFk lk>k fd;kA {ks=h; ,oa jkT; Lrj ij Ñf"kxr izlkj esa efgykvksa ls lEcfU/kr gksus okyh ppkZvksa ,oa cSBdksa esa bldk iz;ksx LVsVl isij ds rkSj ij Hkh fd;k x;kA Ñf"k izlkj esa efgyk fdlkuksa dh nqnZ”kk dk eqn~nk mBkuk] mUgsa efgyk fdlku ds :i esa ekU;rk feyuk vkSj uhfr esa egRoiw.kZ ifjorZu vkfn dN q ,l s h miyfC/k;ka g]aS ftuls il z kj eas efgyk fdlkuksa dh Hkwfedk dks ekU;rk izkIr gksrh gSA th-bZ-,-th- ds v/;{k MkW0 “khjkt+ v0 othg dk dguk gS & ^^bl dsl LVMh ds iw.kZ gksus ds ckn Hkh efgyk fdlkuksa dh igpku ,oa vf/kdkj ds fy, tehuh Lrj ij dke djus gsrq lh[kus dh izfØ;k esa lfØ;rk vko”;d gSA bls gh /;ku esa j[krs gq, o"kZ 2006 esa ^^vkjksg** uke ls mÙkj izns”k esa ,d vfHk;ku pyk;k x;kA bl vfHk;ku esa mÙkj izns”k esa ikap {ks=ksa ds lHkh 70 tuinksa ls yxHkx 200 LoSfPNd laxBuksa rFkk leqnk; vk/kkfjr laxBuksa dk tqM+ko jgkA bl vfHk;ku dks jkT; ,oa ns”k Lrj ij ekU;rk feyh] ftlls mÙkj izns”k ds fu;e ,oa dkwuu esa mYys[kuh; cnyko djus esa Hkh lgk;rk feyhA** blds vfrfjDr efgyk fdlkukas ij dfsUnrz ,d Mkd fVdV Hkh ifj.kke ds :i esa lkeus vk;kA efgykvksa }kjk Ñf"k esa iwjs o"kZ fd;s tkus okys dk;ksZa dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, ;s lHkh xfrfof/k;ka lEikfnr dh x;haA izHkko ls izsfjr gksdj efgyk fdlkuksa ds eqn~ns ls tqM+h u;h ifj;kstuk,a ,oa uokpkj “kq: fd;s x;sA blds ckn] th-bZ-,-th- esa nLrkosthdj.k ,oa laokn iz;klksa esa xq.koÙkk ,oa la[;k nksuksa {ks=ksa esa cgqr o`f) gqbZ gSA lwpuk mRiknksa ls rS;kj lkexzh eas of`)] lkexhz ds lkFk gh iLzrfqrdj.k dh x.qkoÙkk esa lq/kkj bl ckr ds ,d egRoiw.kZ lh[k ;g jgh fd nLrkosthdj.k ,d fu;ksftr o fujUrj pyus okyh eq[; laLFkkxr izfØ;k gS] ftls O;ofLFkr o fu;fer rjhds ls fd;k tkuk pkfg,A vU;Fkk fofHkUu Lrjksa ij okLrfod lwpuk,a Hkwy tkrh gSaA

iezk.k gAaS blds lkFk gh lkot Z fud Mkesus eas vuHqkokas dks lk>k djus ds iz;klksa esa Hkh o`f) gqbZ gSA blls igys] LFkkuh; uokpkjksa rFkk lekpkjksa ij dsfUnzr ,d fgUnh if=dk ^^olqU/kjk** dk izdk”ku th-bZ-,-th- }kjk fd;k tkrk FkkA ckn esa yht+k bf.M;k if=dk dh igqap ns”k ds lcls cM+s ikBd oxZ fgUnhHkk"kh {ks=ksa rd c<+kus ds mn~ns”; ls blds fgUnh vad dks izdkf”kr djus dh eq[; ftEesnkjh Hkh th-bZ-,-th- us laHkkyhA orZeku esa th-bZ-,-thfgUnh Hkk"kk esa yht+k bf.M;k lfgr rhu if=dk] 15 okf"kd Z fjikVZs rFkk v/;;u] “kk/sk iiz=] cd q yVs] euSv q y] ifj;kstuk vk/kkfjr Fkhe isij] ohfM;ks lfgr 400 ls Hkh vf/kd nLrkostksa dk izdk”ku dj pqdk gSA

fo'ys"k.k ,oa fu'd"kZ mÙkj Hkkjr ds fgUnh Hkk"kh {ks=ksa esa iz{ks= Lrj ij Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh dks c<+kok nsus] bl gsrq jkT; ,oa jk"Vª Lrj ij ,Moksdslh djus rFkk fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa fodklkRed dk;ZØeksa dks lapkfyr djus ds lUnHkZ esa th-bZ-,-th- usVodZ ,d izeq[k laLFkk gSA 2003&05 esa {kerk fuekZ.k dk;ZØe us blds mn~ns”;ksa] n`f"V] nLrkosthdj.k dh xq.koÙkk ,oa igqap dks c<+kus esa csgrj ;ksxnku fn;k vkSj blds dkeksa ls tkudkfj;kas] fo”ys"k.k] lesdu o lk>k djus esa vPNh xq.koÙkk cuk;s j[kus dh bldh izkFkfedrk iznf'kZr gksrh gSA iz{ks= Lrj ij ?kfVr gksus okys rF;ksa dks vkadM+ksa lfgr ,d= dj mldk mi;ksx uhfr;ksa dks izHkkfor djus] u;s fodklkRed dk;ZØeksa tSls& isjh vjcu Ñf"k] tyok;q ifjorZu ds izfr LFkkuh; vuqdwyu vkfn dks fØ;kfUor djus] f”k{kkfonksa rFkk ljdkjh dk;ZØeksa esa cgl “kq: djus gsrq lk{; ds rkSj ij fd;k tkrk gSA yht+k bf.M;k fgUnh vad ds izdk”ku ds ek/;e ls Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh lEcU/kh vH;klksa rFkk ikfjokfjd Ñf"k vfHk;ku dks fgUnh Hkk"kh leqnk;ksa rd ig¡qpkus o izpyu esa ykus dk dke laLFkk }kjk c[kwch fd;k tk jgk gSA

U·ð¤0ßè0°â0 ÂýâæÎ ·¤æØü·¤æÚUè çÙÎðàæ·¤ °.°×.§ü. Ȥæ©U‡ÇUðUàæÙ, Õ¢»ÜæñÚU- z{®-®}z ßðÕâæ§ÅU Ñ www.amefound.org Agroecology- Measurable and Sustainable LEISA INDIA, Vol 9, No.3, Sept. 2016

th0bZ0,0th0 LVkQ 14 ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v|


UÂÂèÌð ·¤è ßñ™ææçÙ·¤ çßçÏ âð ©U‹ÙÌ ¹ðÌè ×ãðU‹¼ý ¿æñÏÚUè, ÚUæÁ×ç‡æ, ¥¢àæé×æÙ ŸæèßæSÌß °ß¢ ¥æÚU.°Ù. ×æñØæü iihrk ls cgqr ls ewY;o/kZd inkFkZ tSls tSe] dS.Mh] usDVj o is; inkFkZ rFkk dPpk iihrk ls izkIr iisu uked inkFkZ ls lkSUn;Z izlk/ku dk lkeku cukus ds vfrfjDr vkS"kf/k dk Hkh dke fy;k tkrk gSA ,slh fLFkfr esa oSKkfud fof/k ls iihrs dh [ksrh dj y?kq] lhekUr o efgyk fdlkuksa vkfFkZd n`f"V ls l'kDr cu ldrs gSaA iihrk cgqr gh de le; esa rS;kj gksus okyk mi;ksxh] Lokfn"V ,oa foVkfeu ,] lh] vkSj bZ ls Hkjiwj Qy gS ftldk mi;ksx ge dPps rFkk ids nksuksa :iksa esa djrs gSA iihrs ds Qy esa iisu uked inkFkZ rFkk egÙoiw.kZ ikpd ,atkbe rRo ik;k tkrk gSA iisu dk vusd egRoiw.kZ mi;ksx gksus ds dkj.k iihrk dh [krsh O;olkf;d :i ls cgrq gh ykHkdkjh gAS ;g de le;] de ykxr] de {ks= esa vf/kd iSnkokj o vf/kd vk; nsrh gSA cMs + ieSkus ij iihrs dh [krsh djus grsq uhps nh x;h tkudkfj;ka dkQh mi;qDr gksaxh& tyok;q o Hkwfe iihrs dh vPNh [ksrh m".k dfVcU/kh; {ks=ksa esa gksrh gS ysfdu le'khrks".k {ks=ksa esa Hkh bldh vPNh mit çkIr dh tk ldrh gSA iihrs dh [ksrh ds fy, xeZ] ueh ;qä tyok;q lcls vPNh gksrh gS ijUrq vf/kd ueh Qyksa ds fy, gkfudkjd gksrh gSA iihrk lHkh çdkj dh feêh esa mxk;k tk ldrk gSA ysfdu bldh vPNh [ksrh thoka'k;qä mitkÅ ,oa mfpr ty fudkl okyh 6-5 ls 7-5 ih ,p eku okyh lery nkesV ,oa cybqZ nkesV Hkfwe eas gkrsh gAS

mUufr'khy çtkfr o cht dh ek=k Mk;ksfl;l çtkfr % lhvks&1] lhvks&2] lhvks&5] lhvks&6] iwlk M~okQZ] iwlk ft;kar] iwlk uUgk] iUr iihrk&1 vkfnA bl iztkfr dh [ksrh gsrq ,d gsDVs;j esa 400&500 xzke cht i;kZIr gksrs gSaA xkbuksMk;ksfl;l çtkfr % lhvks&3] lhvks&7] iwlk estsLVh] dqxZ guh Mîw] vdkZ lw;kZ] lujkbt

lksyks] rkbZoku vkfnA ,d gsDVs;j esa bl iztkfr ds 250&300 xzke chtksa dh vko”;drk gksxhA

ikS/k'kkyk dk fuekZ.k iihrs ds ikS/kksa dks 3 eh- yEch] 1 eh- pkSM+h rFkk 15 lseh- Å¡ph D;kjh] xeys ;k ikyhFkhu cSx esa rS;kj djrs gSaA ikS/k'kkyk esa cqvkbZ ls igys cht dks 10 çfr'kr QkesZYMhgkbM ds ?kksy dk fNM+dko djds mipkfjr djrs gSaA blds mijkUr 1&2 lseh- xgjkbZ ,oa 10 lesh- njwh ij cht dh cv q kbZ djrs gAaS yxHkx 60&70 fnu ckn ikS/ks jksiuss ;ksX; gks tkrs gSaA

xïs dh rS;kjh rFkk ikS/kjksi.k ikS/k yxkus ls igys [ksr dks vPNh rjg ls rS;kj dj ysuk pkfg,A 50×50×50 lseh- vkdj ds xïs 1-6×1-6 ;k 1-8×1-8 ehVj dh nwjh ij [kksnuk pkfg,A çR;sd xïs esa 30 xzke ch,plh rFkk 10 xzke bZLV feykdj mipkfjr dj ysuk pkfg,A ikS/k yxkus ds mijkUr xïs dks <d nsuk pkfg, ftlls ikS/ks esa ikuh uk yxsA Hkkjr esa iihrk dh jksikbZ rhu ekSleksa twu&tqykbZ esa] flrEcj&väwcj esa rFkk tuojh&ekpZ esa jksikbZ dh tkrh gSA blfy, jksikbZ ls 60&70 fnu igys ikS/k rS;kj fd;s tkrs gSaA nf{k.k Hkkjr esa iihrs dh jksikbZ lk/kkj.kr% Qjojh&ekpZ esa dh tkrh gSA [ksr esa ikS/kksa dh jksikbZ nksigj ds ckn 3&4 cts rd djuh pkfg,A rS;kj fd;s x, xïks esa 2&3 ikS/ks FkksM+h&FkksM+h nwjh ij yxkuk pkfg,A ik/Skkas ds tM+ idMu+s rd çfrfnu 'kke ds le; gYdh flp a kbZ djrs jguk pkfg,A Qwy vkus ij 10% uj ikS/kksa dks NksM+dj lHkh uj ikS/kksa dks m[kkM+ nsuk pkfg,A

[kkn] moZjd o flapkbZ izcU/ku iihrk cgqr tYnh Qy nsuk 'kq: dj nsrk gS blfy, vPNh Qly ysus ds fy, 20&25 fdxzklM+h gqbZ xkscj dh [kkn o 250 xzk-ukbVªkstu] 500 xzk-Q‚LQksjl o 500 xzk-iksVk'k çfr ikS/kk çfr o"kZ nsuk pkfg,A ukbVªkstu dh ek=k dks 5&6 ckj esa ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v| 15


2&2 eghuksa ds vUrjky ij Mkyuk pkfg,A Q‚LQksjl vkSj iksVk'k dh vk/kh&vk/kh ek=k ikS/kksa dks nsuh pkfg,A moZjdksa dks ikS/ks ds rus ls yxHkx 30 lseh- dh nwjh ij ikS/ks ds pkjksa vksj fc[ksj dj feêh esa vPNh rjg ls feyk nsuk pkfg,A rRi'pkr~ gYdh flapkbZ dj nsuh pkfg,A iihrs dh vPNh [ksrh ds fy, xehZ ds ekSle esa 7&8 fnu ds vUrjky ij] tkM+s ds ekSle esa 12&15 fnu ds vUrjky ij rFkk ds ekSle esa ckfj'k u gksus ij vko';drkuqlkj flapkbZ djuh pkfg,A flapkbZ djrs le; /;ku j[kuk pkfg, fd ikuh ikS/ks ds rus ds lEidZ esa u vkus ik, vU;Fkk ikS/ks esa xyu dh chekjh yxus dh lEHkkouk c<+ tkrh gSA feêh p<+kuk iihrs ds ik/Skka s ij feêh p<k+uk cgrq gh vko';d fØ;k gAS ik/Skkas dh tMk+as ds ikl yxHkx 30 lesh- dh xky s kbZ esa feêh p<+kuk pkfg,A feêh p<+kus ls rst gokvksa ls lqj{kk feyrh gS vkSj ikS/ks fxjus ls cp tkrs gSaA

jksx çcU/ku vknZz xyu jksx % ;g ikS/k'kkyk esa yxus okyk xEHkhj jksx gSA bl jksx dk dkjd ihfFk;e ,QSuhMjesVe gSA ftldk çHkko u, vadqfjr ik/Skka s ij gkrsk gAS bl jkxs ea s ik/Sks dk ruk çkjfEHkd voLFkk esa gh xy tkrk gS vkSj ikS/kk eqj>kdj fxj tkrk gSA fu;a=.k% ikS/k'kkyk ds vkl&ikl ty fudkl dh mfpr O;oLFkk djuh pkfg, rkfd ty teko u gksA lkFk gh cht dh cqokbZ ls igys cht rFkk feV~Vh nksuksa dk mipkj djuk pkfg,A ruk rFkk tM+ lM+u jksx % bl jksx esa rus fupys Hkkx ds Nky ij tyh; ¼xhys½ pdÙks curs gSa tks ckn esa rus ds pkjksa vksj QSy tkrs gSaA rus dk Åijh fNydk ihyk gksdj xyus yxrk gS rFkk tM+ Hkh xyus yxrh gSA ikS/ks dh ifÙk;k¡ ihyh gksdj lw[k tkrh gSa vkSj ikS/kk xydj ej tkrk gSA fu;a=.k % bl chekjh ls cpko ds fy, mfpr ty fudkl dh O;oLFkk djuh pkfg,A xzflr ikS/ks dks m[kkM+dj Qsad nsuk pkfg,A Qy lM+u jksx% ;g iihrs ds Qy dk çeq[k jksx gSA ;s dksysVksVªksbZde fXy;ksLiksjkbM~l o vU; dod ds }kjk gksrk gSA ;g jksx v/kids o ids Qy esa yxrk gSA bl jksx esa Qyksa ds Åij NksVs xksy xhys /kCcs curs gSaA /kCcs ckn esa c<+dj vkil

16 ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v|

ea s fey tkrs ga S rFkk budk jxa Hkjwk ;k dkyk gks tkrk gSA ftlds dkj.k Qy idus ls igys gh fxj tkrs gSaA fu;a=.k % bl chekjh ls cpko ds fy, mfpr ty fudkl dh O;oLFkk djuh pkfg,A xzflr ikS/ks dks m[kkM+dj Qsad nsuk pkfg,A oy; jksx % bl jksx dk dkjd iik;k oy; fpÙkh fo"kk.kq gSA bl jksx esa iihrs dh ifÙk;k¡ dVh&QVh lh gks tkrh gaS vkSj xk¡B ij dVs&QVs iÙks fudyrs gSaA ifÙk;ksa ds rus ij NksVs xksykdkj /kCcs cu tkrs gSa vkSj ikS/ks dh o`f) #d tkrh gSA iÙkh dk MaBy NksVk gks tkrk gS vkSj iqjkuh ifÙk;k¡ fxj tkrh gaSA ifÙk;k¡ NkVsh vkjS QQky s nskj gks tkrh gASa Qy w de yxrs gaS Qy dk vkdj NksVk jg tkrk gSA fu;a=.k% jksxh ikS/ks dks m[kkM+dj tyk nsuk pkfg, uhe dh [kyh ,oa uhe ds rsy ç;ksx djus ls jksx dh jksdFkke gksrh gSA iihrs ds [ksr ds vkl&ikl díw dqy ds ikS/ks ugha gksus pkfg,A i.kZ dqapu jksx% ;g iihrs dk ,d xaHkhj fo"kk.kq jksx gSA bl jksx ds dkj.k 'kq#vkr esa ikS/ks dk fodkl #d tkrk gS vkSj ifÙk;k¡ xqPNkuqek gks tkrh gSa rFkk ifÙk;ksa dk vkdkj NksVk gks tkrk gSA ifÙk;ksa dk fljk vUnj dh vksj eqM tkrk gS rFkk ikS/ks esa Qwy ,oa Qy ugha yxrs gaSA fu;a=.k% jksxh ikS/ks dks m[kkM+dj tyk nsuk pkfg,A lQsn eD[kh ds fu;a=.k ds fy, MkbehFkks,V 1 feyh- çfr yh- ikuh esa ?kksy cukdj fNMdko djuk pkfg,A Qyksa dh rqM+kbZ o mit iihrs dk Qy ik/Sks yxkus ds 9&10 eghus ckn rM q k+bZ djus ;ksX; gks tkrk gSA Qyksa dk jax tc xgjs gjs jax ls ifjofrZr gksdj gYdk ihyk gksus yxs rFkk Qyksa ij uk[kwu yxkus ij nw/k dh txg ikuh ;k rjy inkFkZ fudkyus yxs rks le>uk ysuk pkfg, dh Qy rqM+kbZ ;ksX; gks x;k gSA Qyksa dks lko/kkuh ls rksM+uk pkfg, ftlls Qyksa dks fdlh çdkj pksV] nkx ;k /kCcs uk yxs ugh rks Qy lM+dj [kjkc gks tkrs gSaA iihrs dh vPNh iSnkokj gekjs tyok;q] feêh dh fdLe] çtkfr rFkk mfpr ns[kHkky rFkk leqfpr çcU/k ij fuHkZj djrh gSA iihrs dh vkSlr mit yxHkx 35&50 fdxzk- Qy çfr ikS/kk rFkk 35&40 Vu çfr gsDVs;j mit çkIr gks tkrh gSA ×ãðU‹¼ý ¿æñÏÚUè, ÚUæÁ×ç‡æ, ¥¢àæé×æÙ ŸæèßæSÌß, ¥æÚ.°Ù. ×æñØæü ç·¤âæÙ ·¤æÜ âð‡ÅUÚ, ·ë¤çcæ ×¢˜ææÜØ ÖæÚUÌ âÚU·¤æÚU §ü×ðÜ Ñ anshumanbasti@gmail.com


QksVks % vfHkthr eksgUrh vius fefJr [ksr esa mxs ykSdh dks fn[kkrk ,d fdlku

ç·¤âæÙ çßlæÜØ ·ë¤çcæ»Ì ™ææÙ ãðUÌé ÃØßãUæçÚU·¤ ÂýØæð»àææÜæ ¥çÖÁèÌ ×æðãU‹Ìè °ß¢ Ú¢UÁèÌ âæãêU

U

fdlku fo|ky; fdlkuksa ,oa lUnHkZ O;fDr;ksa ds chp esa vkil esa gh lh[kus dk ,d eap iznku djrk gSA vkilh esy&tksy] ppkZ ,oa O;ogkfjd izf'k{k.k ds ek/;e ls fdlkuksa ds ikjEifjd Kku dks iquthZfor djus rFkk LFkkbZ cuk;s j[kus dk ;g ,d volj gS] ftls vk/kqfud foKku ds ek/;e ls vkSj mUur fd;k tk jgk gSA

frygu gSaA ysfdu] fiNys nks n”kdksa esa] fofHkUu izdkj ds O;olkf;d mn~ns”;ksa dh iwfrZ gsrq ouksa ds vR;f/kd dVku ls bu vkfnoklh leqnk;ksa dh vkthfodk cqjh rjg izHkkfor gqbZ gSA blds lkFk gh ckfj”k dh i)fr esa cnyko ds dkj.k e`nk vijnu rFkk fupys {ks=ksa esa ckyw tek gks tkus ds dkj.k gLrkUrfjr [ksrh esa Hkh eqf”dysa vkus yxh gSaA

Hkkjr esa mM+hlk jkT; ds nf{k.kh Hkkx esa iM+us okys ftys lokZf/kd igkM+h {ks= okys o o"kkZ vk/kkfjr Å¡ph Hkwfe okys ftys gSaA bu ftyksa essa vkSlr okf"kZd o"kkZ 1200&1400 feeh0 ds chp gksrh gSA [kk| Qlyksa ds fy, bu {ks=ksa ds vkfnoklh leqnk;ksa dh fuHkZjrk ou vk/kkfjr vkthfodk ,oa gLrkUrfjr [ksrh ij gksrh gSA bl {ks= dh eq[; Qlysa eksVs vukt] nygu] vukt ,oa puk rFkk

jlk;fud moZjdksa o dhVuk”kdksa ds vR;f/kd iz;ksx ls e`nk dh izkd`frd moZjrk esa gzkl gqvk gS vkSj [ksrh dh ykxr c<+h gSA bu lc dkj.kksa ls fo”ks"kdj Qly u"V gksus dh fLFkfr esa fdlku dtZ ds edM+tky esa Qalrk tk jgk gSA bl {ks= esa LFkkuh; Qlyksa dh mis{kk dj uxnh Qlyksa dks izksRlkfgr djus gsrq ljdkj }kjk Ñf"k ds fodkl ds fy, pyk;h tk jgh vf/kdka”k ifj;kstuk,a fLFkfr dks vkSj Hkh fcxkM+ jgh gSaA ;s LFkkuh; Qlysa

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, çâ̐ÕÚU w®v| 17


LFkkuh; vFkZ O;oLFkk ds fy, dkQh egRoiw.kZ Fkha vkSj buls leqnk;ksa dh [kk| ds lkFk&lkFk iks"k.k vko”;drk Hkh iwjh gksrh Fkh ijUrq cM+s iSekus ij gkbfczM chtksa rFkk ,dy Qly i)fr dk mi;ksx djus ds dkj.k [ksrh ,oa cht lalk/kuksa ls lEcfU/kr ikjEifjd Kku foyqIr gksrs tk jgs gSaA

vxzxkeh ,d LoSfPNd laxBu gS] tks mM+hlk ds vkfnoklh ,oa vU; lhekUr leqnk;ksa ds fodkl ds fy, izfrc) gSA ;g laLFkk tSo&fofo/krk laj{k.k rFkk leqnk;ksa dh [kk| ,oa iks"k.k lqj{kk lqfuf”pr djus gsrq Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh ekWMyksa dks izksRlkfgr djus dk dke djrh gSA blus nks fodkl[k.Mksa dk”khiqj vkSj Fkqvkeyjkeiqj esa fdlku fo|ky; tSls Kku l”kfDrdj.k izfØ;k ds ek/;e ls leqnk;ksa ds lkFk dke djuk izkjEHk fd;kA [ksrh ls lEcfU/kr egRoiw.kZ eqn~nksa dh igpku rFkk mu ij ppkZ djus ds fy, fdlkuksa ds lkFk dbZ cSBdsa vk;ksftr dh x;haA lQy Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ekWMyksa ij vk/kkfjr fofHkUu MkD;wes.Vªh fQYesa fn[kkbZ x;ha o ,Dlikstj foftV djk;k x;kA blls fdlkuksa dks iz{ks= vk/kkfjr vuqHko izkIr gq, rFkk fofHkUu {ks=ksa ds fdlkuksa ds lkFk l?ku cSBdsa dj vkil esa lh[kus dh izfØ;k izkjEHk dh x;hA bu xfrfof/k;ksa ls ,d rjQ rks fdlkuksa ds chp tkudkfj;ka lk>k gksus yxha rks nwljh rjQ muesa vkil esa ikjEifjd chtksa] [ksrh i)fr;ksa] [kk| fofo/krk rFkk mudh lkaLÑfrd xfrfof/k;ksa ds Åij Hkh ppkZ gksus yxhA

fdlku fo|ky;ksa esa Kku dk fuekZ.k xkao Lrj ij LFkkfir fdlku fo|ky; Ñf"k& ikfjfLFkfrdh ij Kku fuekZ.k ,oa tkudkfj;ka vknku&iznku djus dk ,d ,slk eap Fkk] tgka ij vkl&ikl ds 5&7 xkaoksa ds fdlku feyrs Fks]

[kr s ls i; z kx s 'kkyk vkjS i; z kx s 'kkyk ls [ksr rd dh fopkj/kkjk ij vk/kkfjr ;g ek/;e rHkh lQy gks ldk] tc fdlkuksa vkSj oSKkfudksa us ,d lkFk feydj dke fd;kA

18 ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v|

QksVks % vfHkthr eksgUrh

;k=k

fefJr [ksrh ds ek/;e ls ikjEifjd eksVs vuktksa dks iquZthou

,d&nwljs ls ppkZ djrs Fks vkSj [ksrh ls lEcfU/kr leL;kvksa dk LFkkuh; lek/kku fudkyrs FksA os fofHkUu fo"k;ksa tSls e`nk] ty ,oa iks"k.k izcU/ku dh ikjEifjd i)fr] cht iztkfr;ksa] Qly cqokbZ] dhV fu;U=.k] pkjkxkg ,oa pkjk izcU/ku vkfn ds Åij O;ogkfjd izf”k{k.k izkIr djrs Fks rkfd tSo fofo/krk lajf{kr jgsA fdlkuksa ds lkFk ckr&phr djus ds ek/;e ls cgqr lh ns”kt xfrfof/k;ksa dks nLrkosftr fd;k x;kA fdlku fo|ky; l=ksa ds nkSjku fdlkuksa }kjk fd;s x;s iz{ks= izn”kZuksa dh ,d yEch J`a[kyk ds ek/;e ls bu nLrkosftr xfrfof/k;ksa dks izekf.kr fd;k x;kA fdlkuksa us izkIr ifj.kkeksa dks ns[kk vkSj dqN ifjorZuksa ds lkFk bu ns”kt xfrfof/k;ksa dks vius [ksr esa viukus dk fu”p; fd;kA mnkgj.k ds fy,] vuktksa dks lqjf{kr j[kus ds fy, uhe dh ifÙk;ksa dks feykus dh ns”kt i)fr dks fdlku fo|ky; esa la”kksf/kr djrs gq, QaQwn ,oa phafV;ksa ls cpko gsrq blesa uhe ds lkFk det ,oa vekjh dh ifÙk;ksa dks Hkh “kkfey fd;k x;kA ifj.kker% yEcs le; rd vkjS vf/kd ljqf{kr Hk.Mkj.k gv q kA tkudkjh ds lEi.wkZ pØ dks fp= l[a;k 1 ds ek/;e ls n”kkZ;k x;k gS] tgka dbZ rjhdksa ls izkIr lwpuk ,oa Kku ls lh[kus dh izfØ;k crkbZ x;h gSA bu iqjkuh iztkfr;ksa dks iquthZfor djus dh vko”;drk dks eglwl djrs gq, dqN pqfuUnk Qlyksa tSls& /kku] eksVs vuktksa] nyguksa ,oa


Hindi - Sept 2017