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Leila Mills Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Project Notebook Premiered on December 21, 1937

Basic Information

Plot Synopsis from IMDb: A beautiful girl, Snow White, takes refuge in the forest in the house of seven dwarfs to hide from her stepmother, the wicked Queen. The Queen is jealous because she wants to be known as "the fairest in the land," and Snow White's beauty surpasses her own. The dwarfs grow to love their unexpected visitor, who cleans their house and cooks their meals. But one day while the dwarfs are at their diamond mine, the Queen arrives at the cottage disguised as an old peddler woman and persuades Snow White to bite into a poisoned apple. The dwarfs, warned by the forest animals, rush home to chase the witch away, but they are too late to save Snow White from the poisoned apple. They place her in a glass coffin in the woods and mourn for her. The Prince, who has fallen in love with Snow White, happens by and awakens her from the wicked Queen's deathlike spell with "love's first kiss."

Cast: Adriana Caselotti – Snow White Harry Stockwell – Prince Lucille La Verne – Queen/Witch Roy Atwell – Doc Eddie Collins – Dopey Pinto Colvig – Sleepy/Grumpy Billy Gilbert – Sneezy Otis Harian – Happy Scotty Mattraw – Bashful Marion Darlington & Purv Pullen – Birds Produced by: Walt Disney Directed by: David Hand – supervising director William Cottrell – sequence director Wilfred Jackson– sequence director Larry Morey– sequence director Perce Pearce– sequence director Ben Sharpsteen – sequence director Studio: RKO Radio Pictures Writers: Ted Sears, Richard Creedon, Otto Englander, Dick Rickard, Earl Hurd, Merrill De Maris, Dorothy Ann Blank, and Webb Smith Music: Frank Churchill, Leigh Harline, and Paul Smith

Leila Mills Running time: 83 minutes YouTube Links: Movie – Steam Boat Willie – The Old Mill – Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs - Movie Premiere 1937

Sources: 1) IMDb

a) b) Trivia

25 songs were written for the movie but only eight were used.

The first full-length animated feature film to come out of the United States.

To keep the animators’ minds working, Walt Disney instituted his “Five Dollars a Gag” policy. One notable example of this policy is when Ward Kimball suggested that the dwarfs’ noses should pop one by one over the foot boards while they were peeking at Snow White.

Dopey initially was to be a talking dwarf, but was made mute when a suitable voice was not found.

“Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” became the first release in Disney’s new Platinum Edition DVD Series, hitting stores on October 5th, 2001. On its first day, more than 1 million copies were sold.

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Was the first film to ever have a soundtrack recording album released for it.

Held the title of highest grossing film ever for exactly one year, after which is was knocked out of the top spot by “Gone with the Wind”.

The first animated feature to be selected for the National Film Registry.

To give Snow White a more natural look, some of the ink and paint artists started applying their own rouge on her cheeks. When Walk Disney asked one how they would apply the rouge correctly for each cel, she responded, “What do you think we’ve been doing all our lives?”

2) Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination a) Gabler, Neal. Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination. New York City: Random House, Inc., 2007. Print. • “The idea of producing a feature, he once said, first occurred to him when he was in Europe and saw audiences sitting through a program of five or six Mickey Mouse cartoons in a row.” • Walt Disney knew he wanted to attempt a feature but he didn’t know which story. Many suggestions came from books that were already written such as Alice in Wonderland, Bambi: A Life in the Woods, Homer’s Iliad or Odyssey, Gulliver’s Travels. He finally chose snow white. • “Walt said he could remember seeing a Snow White play when he was a boy, though he was probably recalling a film version of the play starring Marguerite Clark that screened on January 27 and January 28, 1917, in the cavernous twelve-thousandseat Kansas City Convention Hall when he was fifteen. “ • “Snow White had nearly all the narrative features-the tyrannical parent, the sentence of drudgery, the promise of a childhood utopia-and incorporated nearly all the major themes of his young life, primarily the need to conquer the previous generation to stake one’s claim on maturity, the rewards of hard work, the dangers of trust, and perhaps above all, the escape into fantasy as a remedy for inhospitable reality.” • Walt was standing at the front lit by a single spotlight in the otherwise dark space. Announcing that he was going to launch an animated feature, he told the story of Snow White, not just telling it but acting it out, assuming the characters’ mannerisms, putting on their voices, letting his audience visualize exactly what they would be seeing on the screen.” 218 • Concerns about: audiences sitting through the film, audiences accepting a voice emanating from a drawing would have any emotional investment in drawings, finances. • Snow White would not be rushed, even if that meant disregarding the original schedule. It would percolate for as long as it took the film to brew. •

Leila Mills 3) Walt Disney’s World of Fantasy a) Bailey, Adrian. Walt Disney’s World of Fantasy. New York City: Everest House, 1982. Print. • “The other major influence in Walt’s life was undoubtedly his father. From all accounts Elias Disney, a Canadian of Irish ancestry, seems to have been a humorless, insensitive man, singularly lacking in foresight and application, forever changing jobs and moving house. He was also a stern disciplinarian to his four sons and daughter.” 23 • “The person closest to Walt in their childhood years and who would eventually become Walt’s business partner, was his elder brother Roy, who said in reference to Walt’s industriousness, ‘As long as I can remember Walt has been working. He worked in the daytime and he worked at night.’ 23 • “Hard work, the fear of failure, the desire to succeed and establish his own persona and a permanent home, these influenced and shaped Walt Disney’s future” 25 • The birth of the animated cartoon occurred during the first ten years of the 1900s, one of the most inventive decades in history. 26 • From early on Walt had shown an aptitude for cartoon drawings, and to perfect his technique he took lessons from professionals such as Carey Orr, famous political and editorial cartoonist of ‘The Chicago Tribune’, and had collected a gag file while attending performances of vaudeville and burlesque. 37 • Eventually built up a sufficiently impressive portfolio to secure himself a job with the art studio of an advertising agency, Pesmen-Rubin, who offered his fifty dollars a month, an attractive offer since young commercial artists worked for crusts of bread in order to gain experience and collect a portfolio of published drawings. 37 • He quit Film Ad, and teamed up with Ubbe Iwwerks to produce a series of films which they called Laugh-O-Grams, a series of short cartoons, based-oh, so loosely – on several of Grimm’s fairy tales. • Sight gags – humor that relied almost entirely on visual action-were vital to the cartoons of the silent era, as they were to the movies of Chaplin, Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd” • Disney produced fifty-seven Alice Comedies, before they were phased out in favor of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. • Disney fired from Universal by Charles Mintz. “Charles Mintz had unwittingly done Walt a great favor; Disney swore that never again would he lose control over his interests. • He would make the world’s first sound cartoon…pg 60 • With the production now divided between the Mickey Mouse series and the Silly Symphonies, Walt Disney hired more animators, including Ben Sharpsteen, who would later win recognition for his work on Snow White. • The various degrees of movement between one key pose and another (bear in mind that each frame of film is represented by one drawing) were done by the assistant

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animators, called ‘in-betweeners’, and other artists who tidied up each drawing – ‘clean up men’- as it came off the drawing board. It was inevitable that the nest technical advance would be the introduction of color, and equally inevitable that Disney would be the first to use it. The Technicolor Organization, formed in 1915, had perfected a two-color dye transfer process and in 1933 produced a three-color subtractive process that could photograph the image through a tri-color filter on to a single strip of film. It was not only perfect for cartoons, but as far as Disney was concerned, it came along at the right moment. Technicolor granted Disney a two-year exclusive deal. Walt Disney was about to make history with the first full color cartoon, and it premiered at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre in Hollywood, on July 30, 1932. Began by hiring Don Graham, an art teacher from LA as a permanent staff member. Studio had expanded to include additional story and gag writers, eighty-five animators and assistant animators, inkers and painters, an orchestra, and several departments of technicians. Leica reel- combined the pencil test and story sketches with the soundtrack to give a more accurate definition of the progress. Top directors and animators such as Ben Sharpsteen, Art Babbitt, David Hand and Wilfred Jackson not only played a major role overseeing and directing the production of the feature film, but worked on cartoons at the same time. During the five years that Snow White was in production, animators made more than five million drawings and sketches, using five hundred miles of paper! The Queen was originally portrayed by Disney story men as a ‘vain, batty, comedy type’. Then as ‘high collar, stately, beautiful’, and finally as a ‘cold, tiger-woman type’. Right from the early days of planning the animators and technicians were confronted by special problems: because of the immense amount of detail that went into every scene of Snow White , animation drawings had to be bigger than usual, which meant that each stage of processing had to be rescaled to adapt to the new format. Problem: Disney wanted depth and realism in his animation scenes but how do you get depth on a single image? Solution: multiplane camera. “Imagine a series of four or five identical rectangular frames, each holding painted pane of glass, positioned in the form of a long box, with spaces in between to create depth. Each pane (or glass plate) has a painted aspect of a scene or animated figures set up in a series of planes, rather like a toy theatre with stage set. The panes are rigged to move in any direction on the lateral place, the camera is likewise capable for infinite adjustment. Snow White is reputed to have cost one and a half million dollars, and grossed over eight and a half million at the box office.

4) How Walt Disney Cartoons Are Made

Leila Mills a) Disney, Walt, dir. How Walt Disney Cartoons Are Made. R.K.O Radio Pictures Inc., 1938. Film. <>. b) Going to use from 1:30 to 5:37. c) 1:30 to 1:50 for the writers, gag men, and animators. d) 1:55 to 2:14 for the director e) 2:13 to 2:30 for the animators f)

2:45 to 2:55 camera department

g) 3:25 to 3:45 inking department h) 3:45 to 4:00 Color department i)

4:00 to 4:15 painting department


4:18 to 4:29 background painting

k) 4:30 to 4:50 master camera of Technicolor l)

4:51 to 5:20 sound effects

m) 5:20 to 5:38 composers

5) Snow White 70th a) b) The film was in production for three years and employed more than 750 artists. The studio ultimately changed the way that animation would be made. Many of the principles and procedures of animation today were developed for and utilized in the creation of Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs seventy years ago. Snow White’s pan sized backgrounds would hold more characters than ever before. The multiplane camera was invented to create the illusion of depth for this film. And a new three whole punch seed was used rather than the previous two hole seed to keep the drawings pegged to the animator’s board in more perfect register. The drawing is made for every character frame of an animated film. Each drawing is placed on a cell which is then inked and painted. Meanwhile another artist will create a background for the scene. The painted cell is placed over the hand painted background on frame at a time at a rate of 24 frames a second. Essentially this is how the magic of animation is created.

6) The Making of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

Leila Mills a) Boone, Andrew. "The Making of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs." Popular Science. Jan 1938: n. page. Web. 18 Nov. 2011. <>. 7) Disney’s First Princess Remembers Becoming Snow White a) Champion, Marge. "Disney’s First Princess Remembers Becoming Snow White." Disney Insider. Sep 2009: n. page. Web. 18 Nov. 2011. <>.

“Because cartoon characters have a large head in proportion to their bodies, they had this football helmet with a couple of holes punctured into it and her black hair painted on it for me to wear. By noon, I was practically fainting under those lights with this helmet on and it also inhibited my movement a great deal. So they finally took that off and just put a ribbon around my hair.”

"Everybody thought [the idea of a full-length animated movie] was crazy! But they were in love with it, and so was I – I was brought up on 'Three Little Pigs' and Mickey Mouse. We just had no idea the success that 'Snow White' would have.”

"I can see all of my movements in the character of Snow White! That was the way I moved and the way I danced. The interesting part is, when they first showed me the storyboards, Snow White looked a little more like Betty Boop – little tiny waist and big round eyes with eyelashes. And, by the time they started drawing me, the eyes had become almond-shaped. The hair was not my color, because I was sort of ashblonde – but everything else, the nose and particularly the waistline, is like me. She was a much more real human character when they finished than she was originally imagined.”

8) Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs a) Wikipedia contributors. "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs." The Disney Wiki. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Web. 15 Nov 2011. <>.

b) (Wikipedia contributors ) •

Contemplating venturing into the feature-film format since the early 1930s, toying with the idea of a feature, considering Babes in Toyland (Disney was unable to do this because is was earmarked for Laurel and Hardy by RKO), Rip Van Winkle, or a combination animation/live-action adaptation of Alice in Wonderland.

Disney later wrote that Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was an inevitable and necessary step forward in order for the studio to advance; short subjects, even successes like Three Little Pigs, did not provide the studio with a significant profit.

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In 1934 Disney estimated the film's budget at $250,000; he was forced to mortgage his house when this eventually ballooned into an impressive $1.5 million.

As Disney had stated at the very beginning of the project, the main attraction of the story for him was the Seven Dwarfs, and their possibilities for 'screwiness' and 'gags'; the three story meetings held in October and attended by Disney, Creedon, Larry Morey, Albert Hurter, Ted Sears and Pinto Colvig were dominated by such subjects.

Disney had suggested from the beginning that each of the dwarfs, whose names and personalities are not stated in the original fairy tale, could have individual personalities. The dwarfs names were chosen from a from a pool of about fifty potentials, including Jumpy, Deafy, Dizzey, Hickey, Wheezy, Baldy, Gabby, Nifty, Sniffy, Swift, Lazy, Puffy, Stuffy, Tubby, Shorty and Burpy. The seven finalists were chosen through a process of elimination.

Walt Disney encouraged all staff at the studio to contribute to the story, offering five dollars for every 'gag'; such gags included the dwarfs' noses popping over the foot of the bed

Disney was concerned that such a comical approach would lessen the plausibility of the characters and, sensing that more time was needed for the development of the Queen, advised in an outline circulated on 6 November that attention be paid exclusively to “scenes in which only Snow White, the Dwarfs, and their bird and animal friends appear.”

For the rest of 1934 Disney further developed the story by himself, finding a dilemma in the characterization of the Queen, who he felt could no longer be ‘fat’ and ‘batty’, but a ‘stately beautiful type’

Art Babbit, an animator who joined the Disney studio in 1932, invited seven of his colleagues (who worked in the same room as him) to come with him to an art class that he himself had set up at his home in the Hollywood Hills. Though there was no teacher, Babbit had recruited a model to pose for him and his fellow animators as they drew. These ‘classes’ were held weekly; each week, more animators would come. After three weeks, Walt Disney called Babbit to his office and offered to provide the supplies, working space and models required if the sessions were moved to the studio. Babbit ran the sessions for a month until animator Hardie Gramatky suggested that they recruit Don Graham; the art teacher from the Chouinard Institute taught his first class at the studio on 15 November 1932, and was joined by Phil Dike a few weeks later. These classes were principally concerned with human anatomy and movement, though instruction later included action analysis, animal anatomy and acting. Grim Natwick, who had trained in Europe. The animator’s success in designing and animating Betty Boop for the Fleischer cartoons showed an understanding of human

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female anatomy, and when Walt Disney hired Natwick he was given female characters to animate almost exclusively. Was eventually given the task of animating Snow White herself. Though live action footage of Snow White, the Prince and the Queen was shot as reference for the animators, the artists animators disapproved of rotoscoping, considering it to hinder the production of effective caricature. None of Babbit’s animation of the Queen was rotoscoped; despite Graham and Natwick’s objections, however, some scenes of Snow White and the Prince were directly traced from the live-action footage. At this time, Disney also encouraged his staff to see a variety of films. These ranged from the mainstream, such as MGM's Romeo and Juliet (to which Disney made direct reference in a story meeting pertaining to the scene in which Snow White lies in her glass coffin), to the more obscure, including European silent cinema. The influence of German expressionism (examples of which exist in Nosferatu and The Cabinet of Dr. Calligari, both of which were recommended by Disney to his staff) can be found in Snow White (as well as the two films to follow it), particularly in the scenes of Snow White fleeing through the forest and the Queen's transformation into the Witch. The latter was also inspired by 1931's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, to which Disney made specific reference in story meetings. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs premiered at the Carthay Circle Theater on December 21, 1937 to a widely receptive audience. RKO Radio Pictures put the film into general release on February 4 1938, and it went on to become a major box-office success, making more money than any other motion picture in 1938. It is estimated that more people saw the film on it's general release than Star Wars. In fact, for a short time, Snow White was the highest grossing film in American cinema history; it was removed from that spot by Gone With the Wind in 1940. Certain scenes in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, particularly those featuring the Witch, are regarded as some of Disney's most frightening moments; British censors considered the film frightening enough for young viewers to have to be accompanied by an adult. Animators such as Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston, felt that Walt Disney restrained his animators from creating such a terrifying villain again. Later films such as Pinocchio, Fantasia, and Bambi would receive similar accusations for their frightening and intense sequences. For his achievement in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Walt Disney received a full-size Oscar statuette and seven miniature ones, presented to him by Shirley Temple; the film was deemed "as a significant screen innovation which has charmed millions and pioneered a great new entertainment field." The movie was also nominated for Best Music, Score.

9) Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

Leila Mills a) "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 19 Oct. 2011. <>. •

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, American animated musical film, released in 1937, that established Walt Disney as one of the world’s most innovative and creative moviemakers.

Considered to be Disney’s greatest film achievement.

Walt Disney was already a respected name in the film business when he undertook his biggest gamble to date: to produce the first full-length animated feature film from an American studio.

Literally hundreds of technicians labored on the expensive production to the extent that it became known as “Disney’s Folly.” Upon its release, however, the film was an immediate box-office sensation and earned praise from no less than the groundbreaking Russian director Sergey Eisenstein, who called it the greatest movie ever made.

In 1939 the film was honored with a special Academy Award, recognizing it as a “significant screen innovation which has charmed millions and pioneered a great new entertainment field for the motion picture.”

Superb animation, voiceover work, and production values set the standard for all future Disney animated films.

10) A Whole New World? The Evolution of Disney Animated Heroines from Snow White to Mulan

a) Yzaguirre, Christine. "A Whole New World? The Evolution of Disney Animated Heroines from Snow White to Mulan." 1.1 (2006): n. page. Print. b) (Yzaguirre ) •

The Walt Disney Company: A Timeline To better compare and analyze Disney’s animated heroines, one must have a basic understanding of the company’s background. Below is a time (Walt Disney Company, 2004) of what I believe are milestones throughout the history of the company, complete with plot summaries of the films that are included in this study. 1923- Brothers Walt and Roy Disney form the Disney Brothers Studio and create a series of short animated films called The Alice Comedies.

Leila Mills 1928 – Steamboat Willie debuts, Disney’s first animated film with sound effects and dialogue. It also introduces the world to Mickey Mouse. 1929 – The Disney Brothers Studio becomes Walt Disney Productions. 1937 – Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Disney’s first full-length animated film, is released. 11) Disney releases Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

a) “Disney releases Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.” 2011. The History Channel website. Nov 08 2011, 1:49 •

See for yourself what the genius of Walt Disney has created in his first full length feature production,” proclaimed the original trailer for Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, released on this day in 1938. Based on the famous fairy tale by the Brothers Grimm, Snow White opened with the Wicked Queen asking her magic mirror the question “Who is the fairest one of all?” The mirror gives its fateful answer: Snow White, the queen’s young stepdaughter. Ordered by the queen to kill the young princess, a sympathetic woodsman instead urges Snow White to hide in the forest; there she encounters a host of friendly animals, who lead her to a cottage inhabited by the Seven Dwarfs: Sleepy, Dopey, Doc, Sneezy, Grumpy, Bashful and Happy. Eventually, in the classic happy ending viewers would come to expect as a Disney trademark, love conquers all as the dwarfs defeat the villainous queen and Snow White finds love with a handsome prince. Walt Disney’s decision to make Snow White, which was the first animated feature to be produced in English and in Technicolor, flew in the face of the popular wisdom at the time. Naysayers, including his wife Lillian, warned him that audiences, especially adults, wouldn’t sit through a feature-length cartoon fantasy about dwarfs. But Disney put his future on the line, borrowing most of the $1.5 million that he used to make the film. Snow White premiered in Hollywood on December 21, 1937, earning a standing ovation from the starstudded crowd. When it was released to the public the following February, the film quickly grossed $8 million, a staggering sum during the Great Depression and the most made by any film up to that time.Critics were virtually unanimous in their admiration for Snow White. Charlie Chaplin, who attended the Hollywood premiere, told the Los Angeles Times that the film “even surpassed our high expectations. In Dwarf Dopey, Disney has created one of the greatest comedians of all time.” The movie’s innovative use of story, color, animation, sound, direction and background, among other elements, later inspired directors like Federico Fellini and Orson Welles. In fact, Welles’ Citizen Kane features an opening shot of a castle at night with one lighted window that is strikingly similar to the first shot of the Wicked Queen’s castle in Snow White.Disney won an honorary Academy Award for his pioneering achievement, while the music for the film, featuring Snow White’s famous ballad, “Some Day My Prince Will Come” and other songs by Frank Churchill, Larry Morey, Paul J. Smith and Leigh Harline, was also nominated for an Oscar. The studio re-released Snow White for the first time in 1944, during World War II; thereafter, it was released repeatedly every decade or so, a pattern that became a tradition for Disney’s animated films. For its 50th anniversary in 1987, Snow White was restored, but cropped into a wide-screen format, a choice that irked some critics. Disney released a more complete digital restoration of the film in 1993. Its power continues to endure: In June 2008, more than 60 years after its U.S. release, the American Film Institute chose Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs as the No. 1 animated film of all time in its listing of “America’s 10 Greatest Films in 10 Classic Genres.” Shortly after Dumbo was released in October 1941 and became a successful moneymaker, the United States entered World War II. The U.S. Army took over most of the Disney studio’s facilities and had the staff create training and instructional films for the military, as well as home-front propaganda such as Der Fuehrer's Face and the feature film Victory Through Air Power in 1943. The military films did not generate income, however, and Bambi underperformed when it was released in April 1942. Disney successfully re-issued Snow White in 1944, establishing the seven-year re-release tradition for Disney features.

Leila Mills

Good Quotes: “I saw the handwriting on the wall. My costs kept going up and up, but the short subject was just a filler on any program. And so I felt I had to diversity my business. You could only get so much out of a short subject…I don't know why I picked "Snow White." The story is something I remembered as a kid. I once saw Marguerite Clark performing in it in Kansas City when I was a newsboy back in 1917. It was one of the first big feature pictures I'd ever seen. That was back in 1917…I thought it was the perfect story. It had the sympathetic dwarfs, you see? It had the heavy. It had the prince and the girl. The romance. I just thought it was a perfect story.” Walt Disney “The first duty of the cartoon is not to picture or duplicate real action or things as they actually happen, but to give a character life and action; to picture on the screen things that have run through the imagination of the audience and to bring to life dream-fantasies and imaginative fancies that we have all thought of during our lives or have had pictured to us in various forms during our lives… I definitely feel that we cannot do the fantastic things based on the real, unless we first know the real. This point should be brought out very clearly to all new men, and even the older men.” Walt Disney “I think that Walt was impatient with the restrictions of the cartoon. He strived for more and more realism, more naturalism in the features. He was always aiming at exceeding the limitations of the medium.” Ken Anderson, an art director “I had sympathetic dwarfs, you see? I had the heavy, I had the prince. And the girl. The romance.” Walt Disney “the cinema was ripped out of the silent era by the roots, and transplanted into new soil-richer but unfamiliar. Unable to adjust to the new conditions, some of the roots withered and died, and much strength was lost.” Kevin Brownlow, Visual Artifacts: Each image has a hyperlink attached that can be accessed by double clicking on the image. This was done to show the source of each image. Good Website to Use-

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Walt & Roy Disney

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Storyboard of the chase.

Leila Mills Adrianna Caselotti (voice of Snow White)

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Snow White Project Notebook  

A notebook filled with the information I gathered for the Snow White Project Documentary Script.

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