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3-4 Locating Potential Micro Hydropower Sites

5-6 Pretty Abandonment - Oklahoma City Downtown Art District

7-8 Golden Coast Landscape Design

9-10 Oklahoma City University: An Urban Ecology Restored

11-12 City of Guthrie, Oklahoma

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Locating Potential Micro Hydropower Sites on Lake Thunderbird Watershed through InVEST Reservoir Hydropower Model and Map Algebra Hydropower is energy that comes from the force of moving water. Although it fell out of favor during the late 20th century due to the disruptive ecological and social effects of large impoundments, hydropower enjoyed a revival by 2013. As international institutions tried to find solutions to economic development which avoided adding substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere (Schneider 2013). Hydropower has accounted for twenty percent of worldwide energy production. Micro hydropower systems are very flexible and can be deployed in a number of different environments. Compared to the large dam, microhydro systems pose minimum damage to surrounding natural environment. The objective of this research is to investigate the geophysical feasibility of hydropower in Lake Thunderbird watershed and locate the potential sites for micro power system within the City of Norman.

Figure 1: Conceptual diagram of the water balance model used in the hydropower production model.

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Figure 2: Stormwater Masterplan Norman 2004

The feasibility of micro hydropower is dependent on how much water flow the source (creek, river, stream) has and the velocity of the flow of water. (Research Institute for Sustainable Energy 2010) The InVEST Reservoir Hydropower model estimates the relative contributions of water from different parts of a landscape, offering insight into how changes in land use patterns affect annual surface water yield and hydropower production. (The Natural Capital Project 2012) (see Figure 1). According to 2009 Norman Stormwater Masterplan, in this research, the water flow amount was calculated for each sub-watershed of Lake Thunderbird watershed (See Figure 2). The model runs on a gridded map. It estimates the quantity and value of water used for hydropower production from each sub-watershed in the area of Lake Thunderbird watershed. The water yield model is based on the Budyko curve and annual average precipitation. The annual water yield Y(x) for each pixel on the landscape x as the equation 1.

Equation 1: where, l x is the land cover type for pixel x, AET(x) is the annual actual evapotranspiration for pixel x and P(x) is the annual precipitation on pixel x.

The evapotranspiration partition of the water balance, AET(x)/P(x), is an approximation of the Budyko curve developed by Zhang et al. (2001), which is described as equation 2. Equation 2: R(x) is the dimensionless Budyko Dryness index on pixel x, defined as the ratio of potential evapotranspiration to precipitation (Budyko 1974) and w(x) is a modified dimensionless ratio of plant accessible water storage to expected precipitation during the year.

Hydropower is one of the largest producers of electricity in the United States. Micro hydropower systerms are very flexible and can be developed in a number of different environments.

As defined by Zhang et al. (2001), w(x) is a non-physical parameter to characterize the natural climatic-soil properties, which is described as equation 3 (The Natural Capital Project 2012) Equation 3: AWC (X) is the volumetric (mm) plant available water content. The soil texture and effective rooting depth define AWC(x), which establishes the amount of water that can be held and released in the soil for use by a plant.

As defined by Zhang et al. (2001), w(x) is a non-physical parameter to characterize the natural climatic-soil properties, which is described as equation 3. (The Natural Capital Project 2012) Based on the equations above, the required data are collected through various sources (see table 1). According to the accuracy of the data, we convert all the layer into raster gis with each cell 30’ x 30’. After running the model in ArcGis-InVEST, the hydropower value are generated for 36 sub-watersheds and ten points that have most water flow through are selected, which are mapped in table 2. In those ten points, three of them are located in the urban area and seven of them are located in the rural area. TABLE 1 (INPUT DATA) SOURCE DATA PRISM group at Oregon State University 1. Precipitation Climatic Research Unit. 2. Evapotranspiration 3. Root restricting layer depth SSURGO:http://soils.usda.gov/survey/geography/ssurgo 4. Plant Available Water Content SSURGO:http://soils.usda.gov/survey/geography/ssurgo City of Norman 5. Land use/land cover City of Norman 6. Watersheds 7. Sub-watersheds City of Norman The Natural Capital Project 8. Biophysical Table NASA (http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gdem-wist.asp) 9. DEM TABLE 2 (RESULT) POINT LOCATION COORDINANCE WATER YIELD VALUE RIVER POINT point 1 point 1 (2872428,4217897) 3237509 Trib 2 to East Little River point 2 point 2 (2843299,4209631) 23172994 Ten Mile Flat Creek point 3 (2868245,4213440) 20102348 Clear Creek point 3 point 4 (2850630,4218881) 18167984 Upper Little River point 4 point 5 point 5 (2564555,4214207) 17184305 Jim Blue Creek point 6 (2863177,4214502) 16252887 Lower Dave Blue Creek point 6 point 7 (2862046,4218635) 15895399 Lower Little River point 7 point 8 point 8 (2852550,4206876) 15303154 Bishop Creek point 9 point 9 (2855255,4221194) 14234217 Upper Mid Little River point 10 point 10 (2875626,4217553) 12128945 East Little River 1

AWC (X)

The objective of this research is to investigate the geophysical feasibility of hydropower in Lake Thunderbird watershed and locate the potential sites for micro power systerm within the City of Norman

R (X)

water yield of each pixel on the landscape

AET (X)

Sub-watersheds

GIS LAYERS 1. Precipitation 2. Evapotranspiration 3. Root restricting layer depth 4. Plant Available Water Content 5. Land use/land cover 6. Watersheds 7. Sub-watersheds 8. Biophysical Table 9. DEM

water yield for sub-watershed on the landscape

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So, Why do we not use these vacant and abandoned buildings to build an art district which can generate much more revenues than now and , increase public awareness in Oklahoma City?

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site’s unique waterfront location and creates the first of a series of planned ferry stops that link together a variety of outer borough cultural destinations.

ALL ABOUT $

SWOT Analysis of the Oklahoma City Downtown Art District

LOCATION

CASE STUDY Domino Culture Factory The Domino Culture Factory located in the East River waterfront in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. This project rebuilds an abandoned sugar factory. The original factory dates back to 1856 and once the epicenter of sugar processing in the U.S. since closing in 2004, the site and its building have stood empty. This project seeks to promote the regeneration of the existing factory buildings creating a world-class cultural destination combining public and private programming. It is divided into two general zones and encompasses a green energy technology center, educational, community and hotel-driven programming to the south with publicly accessible private museum space, exhibition and theater space to the north. The entire site is accessible to the public; buildings linked together to large green areas and a new waterfront boardwalk and sculpture park. A marina along with a planned ferry stop emphasizes the

This art district attracts much more people and generates a lot of revenues for local government every year.

798 Art Zone 798 Art Zone , or Dashanzi Art District, is a part of Dashanzi in the Chaoyang District of Beijing that houses a thriving artistic community, among 50year old decommissioned military factory buildings of unique architectural style. Beginning in 2002, artists and cultural organizations began to divide, rent out, and re-make the factory spaces, gradually developing them into galleries, art centers, artists’ studios, design companies, restaurants, and bars. It became a “Soho-esque” area of international character, replete with “loft living,” attracting attention from all around. Bringing together contemporary art, architecture, and culture with a historically interesting location and an urban lifestyle, “798” has evolved into a cultural concept, of interest to experts and normal folk alike, influential on our concepts of both urban culture and living space.

DISCRIPTION

The Problem Quantified • An estimated 12,000 buildings in Oklahoma City have been vacant six months or longer. • More than half of these have been vacant two years or longer. • The City spends approximately $6.5 million annually for services (police, fire, and animal welfare) attributable to VABs. • The City loses nearly $20 million in potential revenue every year because of VABs. • VABs reduce the value of neighboring homes by 12 to 29 percent, depending on proximity, resulting in an estimated $2.7 billion reduction in real estate value city-wide.

CONCEPT & ANALYSIS

According to a recent study, there are more than 12,000 vacant and abandoned buildings (VABs) scattered through the city. The empty buildings generate little revenue from property or sales tax, while requiring an increase of city services through police, fire, animal welfare and code enforcement. Russell Clau, the Oklahoma City’s planning Director, addresses that these buildings cost the city roughly $6.5 million a year to respond to extra police and fire calls.

CASE STUDY

CONCEPT & ANALYSIS

Nowadays, more and more art lovers and culture cravers are attracted to architectural wonders, would-theaters, art museums and music venues in Oklahoma City. Most of these art attractions are located near Oklahoma City Downtown. So, Why do we not build an art district in Oklahoma City Downtown and improve Oklahoma City’s art air stronger?

The Oklahoma city Downtown Art district is divided into three parts: the galleria zone, the office zone and the commercial zone. The galleria zone comprises of three buildings is the main part of the design(the left and right are existing abandoned buildings; the middle one is already rebuilt) which will be used for art shows. The office zone contains two buildings which are used for management & maintenance. The commercial zone will be built as an entertainment area which contains some restaurants and some gift shops. The parking lots located at the east of the commercial area.

Oklahoma City’s VABs (vacant and abandoned buildings) program will provide a long-term solution for reducing and preventing vacancy, increasing property values, and revitalizing Oklahoma City neighborhoods. The local government will provide some financial supplies for improvement. This design seeks to promote the regeneration of the existing vacant and abandoned buildings creating a outstanding art district in Oklahoma city which could attract more people, increase OKC’s public awareness, and put Oklahoma city on the map. The goal is same as VBAs’. So, this design may get some financial supplies from local government that could be used in development. Costs: Land cost: $189,500,00 Construction: $89,000,000 Employee Cost: $98,850,000 Interest on loan: $88,798,000 maintenance: $91,833,400 Total Costs of First Year: $557,981,400 Revenues Financial Support: N.A. Entrance Ticket: $50,000,000 Restaurants and gift shop: $35,800,000 Galleria rent:$552,950,000 Total revenues: $638,750,000+

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Surrounding parks and OCU constitute a beautiful and harmonious environment in Oklahoma City Uptown. The design will use a bikable and walkable OCU Green Corridor to connect OCU, parks, and neighboring communities. It will improve connectivity, increase public awareness of OCU, compliant the OKC Green Way, and show OCU as a good sustainable example. The dashed line is the primary route and alternative route; the dark green areas are the existing parks. The potential corridor areas offers perfect natural environment with a large number of trees and significant shade.This primary trail route crosses through OCU campus, and then through the potential sustainable area, Swatek Park, Memorial Park, Crown Heights Park, Edgemere Park, Sparrow Park, Goodholm Park, and MilitaryPark; the alternative trail route goes along OCU’s front side which faces to NW 23rd, and then through OKC’s Art District.

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In order to make an attractive route for the OCU Green Corridor, security conditions should be considered along with the design. From Oklahoma City Police Department’s crime data, between May, 2012 and May, 2013, there were multiple crime locations. On the map, each color circle represents one kind of crime; the size of the circle represents the incidence rate at each location. This suggests that users of the trail may feel unsafe unless crime rates in the area decrease. While household income may be a factor in crime incidents, households of all income rates need opportunities for healthy recreation. There for the route of the trail seeks to connect areas of diverse income groups. The lighter colors represent lower household income areas, and darker colors represent higher household income areas. Excluding areas with a high crime rate, and lower income areas, we get the primary route and the alternative route. The alternative route goes through an area with a high crime rate. So, if we want to use this alternative trail route, Oklahoma City will need to improve the safety conditions by increase patrol times or increase security.

Proposal Pedestrian/Bicycle-Friendly Campus Edge: 23rd Street The new 23rd Street pedestrian design will be a part of the Green Trail, but also be a show piece as the university’s frontage to the community. The new design combines pedestrians, a two-way bicycle lane and stormwater treatment together to enhance OCU’s public face. The existing 23rd street frontage has no pedestrian sidewalk. Instead, there are two rows of parking and an access road. A row of parallel parking goes along with the 23rd street median. The new design removes the parallel parking and makes the space into a cycle lane. There will be an 8’ wide bicycle lane,15’ driveway and 45 degree angle parking. It also converts the median turf into rain garden and bioswales to capture stormwater and create wildlife habitat. The space between sidewalk and 23rd street, will keep the existing trees and plant more native stormwater plants, pollinater-friendly plants. The bioswale and pollinater-friendly plants can provide water and food for bees and butterflies. It will add color and texture to OCU campus and city’s uptown. Butterfly Garden Nowadays, people have begun work to preserve existing natural areas and to restore other areas that once served as home to wild animals and plants. OCU can also take part in this preservation and restoration movement by creating wildlife friendlier gardens. A beautiful and fun way to do that is to plant a butterfly garden. For biology students, who are interested in monarchs, a butterfly garden is an easy way both to see more monarchs and to contribute towards their conservation. Students will be able to watch not only monarchs but also many other butterfly species right on campus.

Water is essential. Most butterflies obtain the moisture they need from the flowers they visit, but many species also enjoy a damp area

A mixture of perennials and annuals, including native plants is necessary for butterflies. Butterflies also prefer blossoms with large petals that provide a stable feeding platform. Annual and perennial flowers blooming at various intervals to provide a continuous nectar supply. Many native plants serve not only as nectar sources for adult butterflies, but also as host species for their earlier life stages. A single native plant bed, carefully designed and planted with larval host plants and nectar flowers, can be a center attraction for both but terflies and butterfly watchers. Butterfly gardens can be as simple as a few nectar plants. Just remember that creating butterfly habitat requires more than one season of planting, so be prepared to add additional plant species as time goes on.

Boundary of Design Site North -- Axel Line between Gold Star Memorial Building and Clara E. Jones Administration Building, and the extended section to N Kentucky Ave and N Blackwelder Ave South – 23th St West -- N Kentucky Ave East -- N Blackwelder Ave

OCU is adjacent to the 23rd St and there is a solid connectivity between the campus and adjacent communities. The environment, facilities, and planning of OCU influence the campus’ itself as well as the surrounding area. Sustainability is the point when we consider the redesigning during the plan-making. We hope we can bring positive changes through improving the stormwater management and water harvesting system, extending the green spaces, establishing ecological habitats and setting up safe environment for pedestrian and residents. Our design work mainly focuses on: (1) the southern part of the campus (2) the running and bicycle routes connect the campus and parks and communities nearby.

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Climate Analysis (Guthrie, OK) The best time for outdoor events in Guthrie is late March, early April and October. If outdoor events are planned during summer, shade and cooling infrastructure should be considered. Solutions that can change the microclimate, such as park lets, would help create more hospitable conditions in Guthrie. Solar Analysis (Guthrie, OK) This section discusses the solar patterns typical in Guthrie. We use solar and shadow patters to understand temperature fluctuations which are key factors that affect human comfort level. In addition, solar radiation patterns help identify locations that are particularly hot or cold. Once identified, this allows Guthrie to focus its efforts on particular spaces in order to improve the comfort level of visitors.

These dates are chosen because the day is as long as the night on the equinox Whereas the solstices represent the longest and shortest days of the year.

Solar radiation is always distributed at any time. The west and east oriented avenues will always receive much more sun light than other places, which indicates these avenues could be appealing to people in winter due to its warm environments, while also being frustrating to people in summer. Example: Temperature Changes in July 1st, In Guthrie, people pay much attention on summer temperature according to its events calendar in which a majority of events are hold during April to September. And we could see before 10:00am and after 16:00pm, the temperatures are relatively cool, but it will be very hot from 12:00am to 14:00pm.

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According to the solar and shadow analysis, hot and cool locations (red and blue, respectively) are identified for outdoor activities in Guthrie.

Shadow Analysis (Guthrie, OK) The sun rises in the east and cast its shadows towards the west in the morning. We pick 7:00 A.M. to represent the shadow in the morning because it is the time people commute to work. At noon, the sun is at its highest point in the sky and cast the shortest shadow of the day. In the afternoon, the sun continues to move west and begins to descend. We choose the shadow at 5:00 P.M. when most people finish work to go home to present the shadow in the afternoon.

This shade study utilizes a computer generated model with computer generated shadows. Three dimensional computer massing models were constructed of downtown Guthrie utilizing Auto Cad and Google Sketchup software. The parameters of longitude and latitude were established within the program for the project location in Guthrie, Oklahoma. The program then was used to generate shadow for the particular time period.

To find out the appropriate time and location for outdoor events in Guthrie based on perceptions of human comfort. Understanding the sun’s path over the course of a day at various times of year goes hand-in-hand with discussing Guthrie’s overall climate to help create event sites, times and designs aimed at making visitors to Guthrie feel welcome and comfortable. Our analysis includes three aspects: • climate analysis • solar analysis • shadow analysis

The shadow matrix shows avenues have more shadow coverage than streets.

The shadow analysis is based on an hourly basis for the four annual extremes: summer solstice on June22 , the winter solstice on December 22,the equinoxes on March 21 and September 21.

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Urban Planning Portfolio