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Civil Caseloads

Trial Courts

Summary • State court civil caseloads comprise tort, contract, real property, small claims, mental health, probate, and civil appeals cases. • Approximately 18 million incoming civil cases were reported in state courts in 2007, an increase of about 800,000 cases (4.6%) from the previous year. • Civil cases represented about 18 percent of all incoming cases in state trial courts in 2007.

Special Recognition: The Case for a Civil Cover Sheet: Spotlight on Kansas

• Monetary disputes (contract and many small claims cases) typically account for 70 percent of civil caseloads, but can range from 60 to 85 percent depending on the state.

Kansas Four of five civil cases in Kansas are contract cases Civil Caseload Composition in the Kansas District Court, 2007 Incoming Cases

Case Type Contract

The Case for a Civil Cover Sheet: Spotlight on Kansas State court data have little value for cross-state comparisons if they are not defined and collected consistently everywhere. Since its inception in the mid-1970s, the Court Statistics Project (CSP), with guidance from the Conference of State Court Administrators (COSCA), has championed a national model for state court data collection designed to promote meaningful comparisons. Beginning with the State Court Model Statistical Dictionary, first published in 1980, and continuing through the current State Court Guide to Statistical Reporting, comprehensive and evolving sets of case types and status categories have been defined and submitted for use by all state trial and appellate courts. To date, virtually every state has implemented at least part of the national model and some states have gone to great lengths to adopt it in its entirety.

Percent of Civil Caseload

143,864

Probate/Estate

9,595

Small Claims

9,450

Tort Mental Health Real Property

3,806 2,849 850

Other Civil* Grand Total Civil

12,013 182,427

78.9% 5.3% 5.2%

• Contract caseloads rose sharply in 2007, whereas torts continued a prolonged decrease.

2.1% 1.6% 0.5% 6.6%

* Other Civil includes civil appeals, writs, non-domestic relations restraining orders, and tax cases.

Contract Caseload Composition in the Kansas District Court, 2007 Incoming Cases

Case Type

Percent of Contract Caseload 72.8%

Seller plaintiff (debt collection) 104,742 Landlord/tenant - Unlawful det. 14,537

Under the leadership of State Court Administrator and former chair of the CSP-COSCA Statistics Committee, Dr. Howard Schwartz, the trial courts of Kansas made a commitment to implement the entire civil component of the Guide soon after its release in 2003. This effort was facilitated by a “Civil Information Sheet” mandated by Kansas Supreme Court rule to accompany every civil case filed with the clerks of court . The form permits concise and uniform case-level information about the amount demanded, case type, jury request, and the parties and attorneys involved. The case type portion of the form is essentially verbatim from the Guide and in fact permits even greater detail than is outlined therein. To improve case type categorization accuracy and to expedite the filing process, the court asks the attorneys to fill out the form rather than the clerk of court.

Mortgage foreclosure Landlord/tenant - Other

10,294 1,796

Fraud Buyer plaintiff

310 216

Employment - other Employment - discrimination Other contract Total Contract

93 11

10.1% 7.2% 1.2% 0.2%

• Many states are struggling to clear their civil caseloads, possibly as a result of increased contract filings and tightening resources.

0.2% 0.1% 0.0%

11,865 143,864

8.2%

Tort Caseload Composition in the Kansas District Court, 2007

Kansas began reporting its Guide-compliant civil caseload for data year 2006 (the data featured here are from data year 2007). Presently unsurpassed by any other state, Kansas reports new filings and reopened caseloads for 36 of the 38 civil case types outlined in the Guide. It is one of only three states (along with New Jersey and Wisconsin) that reports an intentional tort (e.g., assault, vandalism) caseload and also one of only three states that reports a premises liability caseload. The latter—also known as “slip and fall” cases—were identified in the 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics/National Center for State Courts collaboration Civil Justice Survey of State Courts as the third most common type of tort trial in state courts after automobile and medical malpractice trials. Kansas’ data is consistent with this finding. Yet, despite these relatively high rates of occurrence, Kansas, Iowa, and Mississippi are the only states to report complete premises liability caseloads.

Incoming Cases

Case Type Automobile tort

2,314

Malpractice - Total Premises liability Intentional tort

60.8% 7.8% 4.9%

298 188 134

Product liability - Total Slander/libel/defamation Other tort Total Tort

Percent of Tort Caseload

3.5%

44

1.2%

19

0.5% 21.3%

809 3,806

The charts and table show some of the details that become available when a state reports its civil caseload in accordance with the Guide.

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

10

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

• Several states, chief among them Kansas, are leading the way in reporting near-complete civil caseload data. Others include Wisconsin, Missouri, and New Jersey.

Tort cases comprise only 2 percent of the Kansas civil caseload Kansas District Court Civil Caseload, 2007

Notes: n/a = not available.

New Filings

Reopened Cases

Total Incoming

Entries of Judgment

Clearance Rate

Percent Reopened

2,273 132 248 29 15 186 20 1 21 19 777 212 11 93 305 14,481 1,776 9,698 103,953 11,551 125 689 9,450 899 811 331 4,849 2,691 2,849 547 n/a 225 324 4,067 n/a 204 99 6,456 180,417

41 2 6 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 32 4 0 0 5 56 20 596 789 314 0 36 n/a 0 0 0 9 5 n/a 0 n/a 0 9 9 n/a 9 0 64 2,010

2,314 134 254 29 15 188 20 1 23 19 809 216 11 93 310 14,537 1,796 10,294 104,742 11,865 125 725 9,450 899 811 331 4,858 2,696 2,849 547 n/a 225 333 4,076 n/a 213 99 6,520 182,427

2,280 112 193 18 11 165 22 0 25 21 1,081 238 10 63 331 12,564 1,914 10,874 107,232 6,458 103 969 9,450 873 809 260 5,058 2,311 2,849 501 n/a 196 422 3,854 n/a 233 147 5,900 177,547

99% 84% 76% 62% 73% 88% 110% 0% 109% 111% 134% 110% 91% 68% 107% 86% 107% 106% 102% 54% 82% 134% 100% 97% 100% 79% 104% 86% 100% 92% n/a 87% 127% 95% n/a 109% 148% 90% 97%

1.8% 1.5% 2.4% 0.0% 0.0% 1.1% 0.0% 0.0% 8.7% 0.0% 4.0% 1.9% 0.0% 0.0% 1.6% 0.4% 1.1% 5.8% 0.8% 2.6% 0.0% 5.0% n/a 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.2% n/a 0.0% n/a 0.0% 2.7% 0.2% n/a 4.2% 0.0% 1.0% 1.1%

Total Incoming Civil Caseloads, 1998-2007 20

+18% 16

Distinguishes Civil subcategories in the Guide.

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

11

Millions

Civil Case Type Automobile tort Intentional tort Malpractice - medical Malpractice - legal Malpractice - other Premises liability Product liability - asbestos Product liability - tobacco Product liability - other Slander/libel/defamation Other tort Buyer plaintiff Employment - discrimination Employment - other Fraud Landlord/tenant - unlawful detainer Landlord/tenant - other Mortgage foreclosure Seller plaintiff (debt collection) Other contract Eminent domain Other real property Small Claims Guardianship - adult Guardianship - juvenile Conservatorship/trusteeship Probate/wills/intestate Other probate/estate Mental Health Appeals from admin. agency Appeals from ltd juris. trial court Other civil appeals Habeas corpus Non-dom. rel. restraining order Tax cases Writ involving prison conditions Other writs Total other civil Grand Total Civil

After a second brief period of decline in the past decade, civil caseloads are on the rise.

12 8 4 0 1998

2001

2004

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

2007

1


Over 18 million civil cases were processed in state trial courts in 2007 Total Incoming Cases in State Courts, by Jurisdiction, 2007 (in millions) Case Type Traffic Criminal Civil

Jurisdiction General Unified & General 1.8 14.3 3.4 6.7 4.7 7.9 3.1 4.1 1.0 1.4

Unified 12.4 3.3 3.2 1.0 0.4

Domestic Relations Juvenile All Cases

20.3

14.0

34.3

Limited 42.0 14.7 10.2 1.6 0.7

Total 56.3 21.4 18.1 5.7 2.2

Percent of Total 54.2% 20.7% 17.5% 5.5% 2.1%

69.3

103.7

100.0%

Small claims and contract disputes represent 70 percent of civil caseloads Civil Caseload Composition in 7 States, 2007 50%

19%

16% 6%

State

Contract

Small Claims

Probate

1.3%

1.2%

Tort

Mental Health

Civil Appeals

Real Property

Other

Kansas

79%

5%

5%

2.1%

1.6%

0.4%

0.5%

6.2%

Missouri

63%

5%

8%

5.1%

5.0%

3.5%

2.2%

8.1%

New Jersey

58%

6%

23%

8.0%

0.0%

1.3%

0.7%

2.0%

North Dakota

55%

16%

12%

1.5%

6.6%

0.8%

0.4%

8.0%

Utah

54%

28%

5%

2.2%

1.3%

0.7%

6.6%

2.8%

Connecticut

23%

36%

27%

7.0%

2.0%

0.9%

0.5%

3.7%

Wisconsin

16%

64%

7%

2.3%

6.9%

0.2%

0.4%

3.9%

Note: States in Bold have a unified court system.

2

3.9%

2.3%

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads


Court structure and caseload composition affect how civil cases are processed Distribution of Civil Caseloads in 16 States with Two-tiered Court Systems, 2007 100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

NJ

UT

VT

WA

FL

WV

HI

OH

■ General Jursdiction Courts

AR

DE

CO

AZ

KY

WY

ID

MI

■ Limited Jurisdiction Courts

Contracts are up, torts are down Contract and Tort Caseloads, 1998-2007 14 General Jurisdiction Courts 1,200

Contract caseloads grew by 11 percent from 2006 to 2007.

Thousands

1,000

+37%

800 600 400

-24%

200

Tort caseloads fell by 9 percent between 2006 and 2007. 0 1998

2001

2004

2007

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

3


Contract rates were nearly 9 times greater than tort rates in 2007 Incoming Tort and Contract Rates in 12 States, 2007 Incoming Tort Cases

Incoming Contract Cases

67,421

488,592

Kansas

3,806

143,864

Missouri

14,479

179,316

466

16,861

2,687

66,424

15,559

51,570

Mississippi

6,349

35,746

Puerto Rico

8,502

44,328

Wisconsin

6,808

45,140

Iowa

3,700

22,468

Hawaii

2,176

9,162

Minnesota

4,355

36,967

State New Jersey

North Dakota Utah Connecticut

Per 100,000 Population

153

Median 0

â– Tort Cases â–  Contract Cases

1,349 1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

Note: States in Bold have a unified court system.

4

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

5,000

6,000


Incoming Small Claims Cases in 33 States, 2007 State

Indiana 281,530 South Carolina 187,554 Iowa 103,107 Wisconsin 184,311 North Carolina 264,194 West Virginia 49,365 Oklahoma 98,444 Alabama 106,596 Connecticut 79,801 District of Columbia 12,335 New Mexico 39,414 Massachusetts 122,833 Rhode Island 19,453 Florida 324,407 Vermont Utah Illinois Idaho Wyoming Minnesota Arkansas Michigan North Dakota Ohio Maine New Jersey Arizona Nebraska Kentucky Washington Kansas Hawaii Missouri Median

Incoming Probate Caseloads in 33 States, 2007

Incoming Cases Per 100,000 Population

9,105 34,881 166,855 19,177 6,680 59,156 25,942 86,370 5,094 88,969 8,880 52,920 25,205 6,542 15,572 22,411 9,450 3,822 15,493

State 4,437 4,255

3,451 3,290 2,916 2,724 2,721 2,303 2,279 2,097 2,001 1,904 1,839 1,777 1,466 1,319 1,298 1,279 1,278 1,138 915 858 796 776 674 609 398 369 367 346 340 298 264 1,298

Incoming Cases Per 100,000 Population 2,253

New Jersey 195,718 Connecticut 60,514 Massachusetts 52,019 Vermont 4,767 Florida 136,766 New York 144,013 South Carolina 32,011 North Carolina 62,028 Ohio 74,969 North Dakota 3,578 Michigan 47,311 District of Columbia 2,735 Nebraska 8,152 Mississippi 12,286 Arkansas Montana Delaware Missouri Wisconsin Oklahoma Kansas Indiana Wyoming South Dakota Washington Alaska Nevada

11,732 3,695 3,314 22,085 20,727 12,905 9,595 21,444 1,671 2,480 19,283 1,819 6,351

Minnesota Colorado Utah Hawaii Arizona West Virginia Median

12,290 11,198 5,687 2,642 12,652 924

1,728 807 767 749 746 726 685 654 559 470 465 459 421 414 386 383 376 370 357 346 338 320 311 298 266 248 236 230 215 206 200 51 383

Note: States in Bold have a unified court system.

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

5


Incoming Mental Health Cases in 33 States, 2007 State

Incoming Real Property Cases in 15 States, 2007

Incoming Cases Per 100,000 Population

West Virginia Wisconsin Kentucky Iowa North Dakota Missouri Florida District of Columbia New Mexico Michigan Massachusetts Texas Oklahoma Washington

6,551 20,078 14,854 10,058 2,045 14,366 42,935 1,344 4,376 16,840 10,728 37,086 5,526 9,868

Delaware Alaska

1,311 991

Nevada Wyoming Connecticut Montana Indiana Kansas Arkansas Colorado Minnesota Vermont

3,580 721 4,411 1,103 7,305 2,849 2,626 4,459 4,425 478

Arizona Illinois Maine Utah Rhode Island Hawaii Ohio Median

4,745 8,757 893 1,557 566 607 5,051

State 362 358 350 337 320

244 235 228 222 167 166 155 153 153 152 145 140 138 126 115 115 103 93 92 85 77 75 68 68 59 54 47 44 140

Washington Utah Hawaii Missouri Puerto Rico Mississippi New Jersey Wyoming Tennessee Connecticut Kansas Wisconsin North Dakota

Incoming Cases Per 100,000 Population 23,210 8,212 2,518 6,373 3,393 2,425 5,913 184 2,010 1,140 850 1,060 119

Iowa

472

Oregon Median

294

359 310 196 108 86 83 68 35 33 33 31 19 19 16 8 35

Incoming Civil Appeals Cases in 16 States, 2007 State West Virginia Missouri Vermont Iowa New Jersey Connecticut North Dakota Hawaii Utah

Incoming Cases Per 100 Civil Cases

893

Minnesota Washington

897 1,589

Arizona Michigan Wyoming

1,554 3,519 144

Kentucky Wisconsin Median

6.4

5,498 9,917 781 2,358 10,759 1,905 258 214

526 453

3.5 3.2 1.4 1.3 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.8

Note: States in Bold have a unified court system.

6

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads


Increasing caseloads may be making it difficult for some states to clear civil cases Civil Caseload Clearance Rates in 27 Unified and General Jurisdiction Courts, 2007 Incoming Cases Unified Courts Clearance Rate

State Wisconsin North Dakota

289,733 30,879

Puerto Rico Iowa Kansas Missouri

116,765 169,338 182,427 285,178

Connecticut Illinois Median

154,769 659,495 85%

90%

95%

100%

105%

General Jurisdiction Courts Clearance Rate New York Massachusetts Arkansas Michigan

353,245 23,683 50,192 67,439

Ohio West Virginia Utah Alabama Tennessee New Jersey Washington

278,543 31,950 107,395 46,518 70,159 827,707 141,365

New Mexico South Carolina Arizona Vermont Texas Delaware Idaho

49,665 83,471 82,489 19,714 217,674 17,011 7,940

Kentucky Median

59,697 85%

90%

95%

100%

105%

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

7


Declining tort caseloads may be contributing to higher clearance rates Tort Clearance Rates in 27 Unified and General Jurisdiction Courts, 2007 Incoming Cases Unified Courts Clearance Rate

State Missouri

14,479

Connecticut

15,559

Iowa Wisconsin

3,700 6,808

Puerto Rico Kansas Minnesota North Dakota Median

8,502 3,806 4,355 466 80%

90%

100%

110%

120%

130%

140%

General Jurisdiction Courts Clearance Rate New York Kentucky Arkansas New Mexico

56,053 5,308 5,088 3,798

Washington Tennessee Idaho Indiana Texas Ohio North Carolina

9,871 10,840 984 9,659 27,663 24,202 8,833

Arizona Oregon Florida Utah Hawaii Maryland New Jersey

11,303 6,740 40,817 2,687 1,385 10,333 67,421

Rhode Island Median

3,143 80%

8

90%

100%

110%

120%

130%

140%

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads


Contract Clearance Rates in 17 Unified and General Jurisdiction Courts, 2007 Incoming Cases Unified Courts Clearance Rate

State Connecticut Puerto Rico North Dakota Kansas Minnesota Wisconsin Iowa Missouri Median

51,570 44,328 16,861 143,864 36,967 45,140 22,468 179,316 80%

90%

100%

110%

120%

General Jurisdiction Courts Clearance Rate New York Utah New Jersey Tennessee Texas Oregon Arizona Kentucky Hawaii Median

14,179 66,424 488,592 6,340 45,771 66,368 15,972 45,480 1,357 80%

90%

100%

110%

120%

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

9


Kansas Four of five civil cases in Kansas are contract cases Civil Caseload Composition in the Kansas District Court, 2007 Case Type

The Case for a Civil Cover Sheet: Spotlight on Kansas State court data have little value for cross-state comparisons if they are not defined and collected consistently everywhere. Since its inception in the mid-1970s, the Court Statistics Project (CSP), with guidance from the Conference of State Court Administrators (COSCA), has championed a national model for state court data collection designed to promote meaningful comparisons. Beginning with the State Court Model Statistical Dictionary, first published in 1980, and continuing through the current State Court Guide to Statistical Reporting, comprehensive and evolving sets of case types and status categories have been defined and submitted for use by all state trial and appellate courts. To date, virtually every state has implemented at least part of the national model and some states have gone to great lengths to adopt it in its entirety. Under the leadership of State Court Administrator and former chair of the CSP-COSCA Statistics Committee, Dr. Howard Schwartz, the trial courts of Kansas made a commitment to implement the entire civil component of the Guide soon after its release in 2003. This effort was facilitated by a “Civil Information Sheet” mandated by Kansas Supreme Court rule to accompany every civil case filed with the clerks of court . The form permits concise and uniform case-level information about the amount demanded, case type, jury request, and the parties and attorneys involved. The case type portion of the form is essentially verbatim from the Guide and in fact permits even greater detail than is outlined therein. To improve case type categorization accuracy and to expedite the filing process, the court asks the attorneys to fill out the form rather than the clerk of court. Kansas began reporting its Guide-compliant civil caseload for data year 2006 (the data featured here are from data year 2007). Presently unsurpassed by any other state, Kansas reports new filings and reopened caseloads for 36 of the 38 civil case types outlined in the Guide. It is one of only three states (along with New Jersey and Wisconsin) that reports an intentional tort (e.g., assault, vandalism) caseload and also one of only three states that reports a premises liability caseload. The latter—also known as “slip and fall” cases—were identified in the 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics/National Center for State Courts collaboration Civil Justice Survey of State Courts as the third most common type of tort trial in state courts after automobile and medical malpractice trials. Kansas’ data is consistent with this finding. Yet, despite these relatively high rates of occurrence, Kansas, Iowa, and Mississippi are the only states to report complete premises liability caseloads.

Contract Probate/Estate Small Claims Tort Mental Health Real Property Other Civil* Grand Total Civil

Incoming Cases Percent of Civil Caseload 143,864 9,595 9,450 3,806 2,849 850 12,013 182,427

78.9% 5.3% 5.2% 2.1% 1.6% 0.5% 6.6%

* Other Civil includes civil appeals, writs, non-domestic relations restraining orders, and tax cases.

Contract Caseload Composition in the Kansas District Court, 2007 Case Type

Incoming Cases Percent of Contract Caseload

Seller plaintiff (debt collection) 104,742 Landlord/tenant - Unlawful det. 14,537 Mortgage foreclosure 10,294 Landlord/tenant - Other 1,796 Fraud Buyer plaintiff Employment - other Employment - discrimination

310 216 93 11

Other contract

11,865

Total Contract

143,864

72.8% 10.1% 7.2% 1.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0% 8.2%

Tort Caseload Composition in the Kansas District Court, 2007 Case Type Automobile tort Malpractice - Total Premises liability Intentional tort Product liability - Total Slander/libel/defamation Other tort Total Tort

Incoming Cases Percent of Tort Caseload 2,314 298 188 134 44 19

60.8% 7.8% 4.9% 3.5% 1.2% 0.5%

809 3,806

The charts and table show some of the details that become available when a state reports its civil caseload in accordance with the Guide.

10

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

21.3%


Tort cases comprise only 2 percent of the Kansas civil caseload Kansas District Court Civil Caseload, 2007 Civil Case Type Automobile tort Intentional tort Malpractice - medical Malpractice - legal Malpractice - other Premises liability Product liability - asbestos Product liability - tobacco Product liability - other Slander/libel/defamation Other tort Buyer plaintiff Employment - discrimination Employment - other Fraud Landlord/tenant - unlawful detainer Landlord/tenant - other Mortgage foreclosure Seller plaintiff (debt collection) Other contract Eminent domain Other real property Small Claims Guardianship - adult Guardianship - juvenile Conservatorship/trusteeship Probate/wills/intestate Other probate/estate Mental Health Appeals from admin. agency Appeals from ltd juris. trial court Other civil appeals Habeas corpus Non-dom. rel. restraining order Tax cases Writ involving prison conditions Other writs Total other civil Grand Total Civil Notes: n/a = not available.

New Filings

Reopened Cases

Total Incoming

Entries of Judgment

Clearance Rate

Percent Reopened

2,273 132 248 29 15 186 20 1 21 19 777 212 11 93 305 14,481 1,776 9,698 103,953 11,551 125 689 9,450 899 811 331 4,849 2,691 2,849 547 n/a 225 324 4,067 n/a 204 99 6,456 180,417

41 2 6 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 32 4 0 0 5 56 20 596 789 314 0 36 n/a 0 0 0 9 5 n/a 0 n/a 0 9 9 n/a 9 0 64 2,010

2,314 134 254 29 15 188 20 1 23 19 809 216 11 93 310 14,537 1,796 10,294 104,742 11,865 125 725 9,450 899 811 331 4,858 2,696 2,849 547 n/a 225 333 4,076 n/a 213 99 6,520 182,427

2,280 112 193 18 11 165 22 0 25 21 1,081 238 10 63 331 12,564 1,914 10,874 107,232 6,458 103 969 9,450 873 809 260 5,058 2,311 2,849 501 n/a 196 422 3,854 n/a 233 147 5,900 177,547

99% 84% 76% 62% 73% 88% 110% 0% 109% 111% 134% 110% 91% 68% 107% 86% 107% 106% 102% 54% 82% 134% 100% 97% 100% 79% 104% 86% 100% 92% n/a 87% 127% 95% n/a 109% 148% 90% 97%

1.8% 1.5% 2.4% 0.0% 0.0% 1.1% 0.0% 0.0% 8.7% 0.0% 4.0% 1.9% 0.0% 0.0% 1.6% 0.4% 1.1% 5.8% 0.8% 2.6% 0.0% 5.0% n/a 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.2% n/a 0.0% n/a 0.0% 2.7% 0.2% n/a 4.2% 0.0% 1.0% 1.1%

Distinguishes Civil subcategories in the Guide.

Examining the Work of State Courts: An Analysis of 2007 State Court Caseloads Trial Courts: Civil Caseloads

11

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