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Anthropometry Revision 改写人体测量学 Lee Wen 李文

For my father.

With special thanks to Zhou Bin, He Liping, Jiang Jing, Wu Ren Guang, Lin Cheng Ying, Yan Cheng, Kai Lam, Jeremy Hiah, Chua Chye Teck, Jason Lim And all my relations

Copyright © 2008 Lee Wen, Singapore All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without prior permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review.

Published in conjunction with “Anthropometry Revision”, solo exhibition by Lee Wen at SooBin Art Int’l Singapore 10 to 27 September 2007 With the support of

ISBN 978-981-05-9112-0

Contents 目录 Lee Wen 李文

何军在他的工作室 He Jun in his studio, 2008


Life Is Yellow 生命是黄色的 Lee Wen 李文

The day is blue silence is green life is yellow light traces lines that never end And I linger, transfixed by indifference!

日子是蓝色的 沉默是绿色的 生命是黄色的 光线描出 永不终止的线条 而徘徊不去的我, 因淡漠而凝滞不动!

-Yves Klein 1


Art is a manifestation of human consciousness, and artists with imagination give a radical possibility for the future. However it is still within limitations of our capacity as mere mortals that we endeavor and hopefully endure for posterity. The shifting contexts of history does not allow all that we create or postulate a permanent harmonized relevance no matter how sturdy our intentions may be. And yet it is these very changes that one beckon and effect in tempo with the times that makes the work of art revolutionary.


Klein was dissatisfied with painting or perhaps he foresaw how painting was losing the ‘indefinable’ essence as commanded by his protagonist Eugene Delacroix: ‘The merit in the picture is the indefinable ’, that first led him to the ultramarine monochromes. 2 Nevertheless he was more a conceptualist than an abstract painter of blue monochromes. Not only was Klein misunderstood to be an abstract painter; it is also a mistaken notion that he had a predilection for the colour blue alone. Had he lived on beyond his untimely early death at age 34, conceptual approaches on the other two favored colours, pink and gold might gain more prominence in his oeuvre. 3 Painting reigned supreme at the time that Yves Klein made his proposition towards an immateriality of art. His was a spiritual intervention against the odds of rising American capitalism, consumer materialism, as the art world gravitates towards the industrial and political power of post-war U.S., which unfairly placed him below echelon with his contemporaries. Since his 1961 disappointing reception in New York’s prestigious, trendy Leo Castelli Gallery, subsequent posthumous showings hardly helped recover Klein from the snubby, self-absorbed American attitude. 4

性。然而,一面努力,一面抱有流芳百世的希望,还是作为凡人的我们所能 做到的。不管我们如何用心不变,历史发展的变幻无常却总让我们所创造或 设定的一切无法长久地跟上时代、与世共谐。这种无常的变化,在艺术家配 合时代的节奏加以召唤及实现之下,偏偏又是艺术作品展现革命性的契机。 克莱因对绘画是有感于不足的。他或许预见到绘画正在失去他推崇的德拉克 洛瓦所掌握的-也就是当初引领自己走向群青单色画的-那种“难以言喻” 的神韵(所谓“图画之佳,在难以言喻之处”)。2 无论如何,与其说他是 个创作蓝色单色画的抽象画家,毋宁说他其实是个概念派艺术家。克莱因不 仅被人误解为抽象画家,事实上,认定他只偏爱一种颜色(即蓝色)也是一 种错误的认识。倘若他不曾在34岁时英年早逝,而是多活了一段时间,他以 另外两种喜爱的颜色―粉红及金色―为主的概念画法,想必会在其作品中渐 渐显得更为突出。3 当年伊夫.克莱因提出着眼于艺术无形性的主张,正值绘画称雄之时。战后 的美国展现着雄厚的工业与政治实力,成为艺术界大势之所趋;克莱因面对 崛起的美式资本主义与消费物质主义,如此提出力挽狂澜的精神诉求,却只 有欠公允地被人评为那个年代艺术家中的下品。1961年,他的作品在纽约 素享盛名而又时髦的里欧.卡斯特利画廊,只获得令人失望的反应。此后的 几次遗作展,基本上也没能改变美国人自我专注、看扁克莱因的态度。4

After almost a good half century closing off to the outside, China, as the world’s largest communist country having embraced global capitalism, concurrent with her armies of traditionally, skillfully trained artists absorbing at a hurried pace the previously ignored progressive ideas in art, painting once again regained dominance. No doubt a marriage of extreme polarities in history and culture helped reinstall the Delacroixian dimension of the indefinable within the framed pictures. The resulting art market boom of laissez-faire speculation typically spurred by the growing, heady nouveau riche population face a danger of distorting the welcome resolution. In order to counter effete prejudices brought upon by reckless vagaries of human laxity less we descend further into the travesty and consequence of art losing its autonomy, it is then essential to mediate and re-instigate the indefinable values of art via a re-investigation of Klein’s radical intervention. I have chosen the work particularly pertinent to our contemporary time of Yves Klein’s repertoire, ‘Anthropometries of the Blue Epoch’. Some may not see it as his most popular, successful or strongest work. The Wall and Fountain of Fire enthralled the public at Krefeld and his own delight with the response spurred him to follow up with the series of fire paintings. Through these, according to his apologist, Pierre Restany, Klein found his all-powerful style. 5 Although I would concur with the merits and importance of these works in Klein’s cosmogony and context, nevertheless pardon my cynicism due to fire’s intrinsic seductive characteristic to easily charm and overwhelm, my inclination remains with ‘Anthropometries of the Blue Epoch’ as a strategic reminder to reclaim art’s autonomy, especially in relationship to the current scenario we are in. Although Klein claimed to have overcome the problematics of art, conceivably it was an incomplete conquest. It was Pierre Restany who gave the name, which Klein subsequently adopted, calling the series ‘anthropometries’. 6 The use of this name is at once poetically illuminating as it is problematically self-contradictory. The battle according to Klein’s prescription was to break away from lines, forms, contours and compositions through colour, blue in this case, that one may be dispatched into and become in total identification with space hence freedom. 7 One suspects Klein’s romantic notions overlooking political sensibilities. Anthropometry was originally created by French law enforcement officer, Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914) as a systematic collection and classification of mug shots against grids of measure in order to identify captured criminals long before fingerprinting was invented. 8 Any body imperfections were noted in detail to be used as a checklist of physiognomic indicators, as criminals are deemed to be more likely to be having malformations deviating from normality. Not only was Anthropometry used in the belief that criminality could be predicted according to the body type, later developments saw scientific racism employed to show ways in which races were inferior to others and the advocacy of eugenics policies.

时至今日,世界最大的共产国家-中国在经过几乎整整半个世纪的封闭岁月 以后,奉持环球资本主义,国内大批受过优良传统训练的艺术家快马加鞭地 吸收着过去被人忽视的进步艺术理念,绘画也随之再次攀上主导地位。毫无 疑问,德拉克洛瓦式“难以言喻”的内涵在有框图画中得以再次确立,在一 定程度上得力于历史和文化上种种两极交泰。结果,艺术市场上出现了大量 的自由投机买卖。这股热潮主要由增长中的、意气风发的新贵阶级所推动。 它使得原本可喜的矛盾调和面临被扭曲的危险。放纵的人心不顾一切的疯狂 与诡变无常,足以产生了无生气的偏见。为了抗衡这种偏见,为了不让艺术 再往下沉沦、尝到丧失本身实质与自主性的恶果,我们有必要再度审视克莱 因激进的逆流路线,由此入手,传导并再度发扬艺术“难以言喻”的价值。 我在伊夫.克莱因的画作当中,选了一幅特别契合我们眼前这个时代的杰 作:《蓝色时代的人体测量术》。或许有的人不认为这是他最受欢迎、最成 功或者最具实力的作品。《墙壁与火焰喷泉》曾经在克雷菲尔德让大众着 迷,画家也为这样的反应感到鼓舞,往下跟进而画出了一系列的火焰画。据 为他辩解的皮尔.勒斯坦尼所言,克莱因通过这些作品,找到了自己力度浑 厚的风格。5 虽然我承认,这些作品就克莱因《宇宙的产生》和他的艺术语 境而言自有其价值与重要性,但请恕我待以冷眼:火焰在本质上具有诱惑心 灵的特性,原本就容易使人入迷、深有所感。我始终倾向于把《蓝色时代的 人体测量术》视为一种策略性的提示。它提醒我们要夺回艺术的自主性-尤 其是针对我们当前所处的局面。 虽然克莱因自称已经克服了艺术的疑难问题,我们不难想像那只是不完全 的征服。画作系列的名称-“人体测量术”,是皮尔.勒斯坦尼所取的,后 来为克莱因所采纳。6 取名如此,既有一种富于诗意的说明作用,又不无问 题地呈现了某种自我矛盾。根据克莱因的论述,画家的斗争,旨在通过色彩 (在他个人,具体为蓝色)脱离线条、形体、轮廓和构图,从而融入空间之 中,与它完全同化,达到自由的境界。7 我们怀疑:克莱因的浪漫设想忽略 了某些政治情感。 人体测量术原本是法国执法人员亚方斯.贝蒂荣(1853-1914)所创立的。 在指纹侦察法尚未发明的年代,这套学问讲究以测量网格为背景,拍摄脸部 照片存档,并对这类照片加以系统收集及分类,以辨明被捕罪犯的身份。 8 有异于常的生理畸形,据说在罪犯身上较常出现;因此凡是身体上有任何缺 陷,无不详细记录,列成面相特征标示单,供一一核对。运用人体测量术的 人们相信:按照身体类型,可以预测某人将有犯罪行为。这套方法后来发展 成科学种族主义,被用来显示种族之间的优劣,并且成为鼓吹优生政策的依 据。

Klein’s use of nude female models as ‘living brushes’ harks back to painting’ s patriarchal traditions unless paraphrasing Richard Huelsenbeck’s ‘dada is the police of the police’ 9 it could be a Dadaist humorous dig at the police discriminatory scrutiny and privileging idealized body types. Klein spoke of individual action and creation by way of imagination and sensibility in order to attain physical and spiritual freedom. At the same time he eloquently advocated working in co-operation and communality to bypass art integrating into real life. 10 And yet he kept his distance, immaculately dressed donning pristine white gloves while pointing out instructions authoritatively to his models. In this light I hasten to push the anarchical tendency further by working together with fellow performance artists, indiscriminating towards gender or body types. My proposal would also involve the replacement of blue with yellow instead, a colour closer to my own trajectory and context. It is not a matter of the specific colour of blue, which would allow entry into the immaterial pictorial zones of sensibility. Immaterialization, not dematerialization 11 is the ultimate goal, ‘to rebound in one prodigious leap, from the brink’ 12 , the road back to the indefinable and the mystery of life experience. The use of yellow is not in divergence, but in fact concomitant, if not of utmost necessity in our present situation. After all is not yellow a derivative of gold, one of Klein’s favored colours in his chromatic trinity, and as he said: ‘life is yellow’. At least for now.

克莱因以裸体女性模特儿作为“活画笔”,看似有父权制绘画传统之风,但 也可能只是发扬理查德.胡森贝克所谓“达达是警察的警察”这一说法,9 发 挥达达主义式的幽默,针对警察具有歧视性的侦查方式以及他们对理想化身 体类型的给予特免,加以嘲讽。克莱因曾谈到:个体的行动与创造行为,可 通过想像力和敏锐的感觉,成就肉体与精神的自由。同时,他又雄辩地提倡 合作与集体团结,以避免艺术被融入现实生活之中。10 但是,他终究保持了 一定的距离,一身洁净无垢的穿着,一面戴着无比洁白的手套,一面以权威 的姿态,向他的模特儿比划着给予指示。有鉴于此,我不愿更进一步推展作 品中的反规范倾向,故此与其他的行为艺术家一起合作,不分性别、体型。 此外,我的建议也将涉及以黄色取代蓝色。前者较为贴近我个人的艺术历程 和语境。归根结底,能否进入画面感受的无形境域,并不在于是否采用蓝色 这个特定颜色。终极目标是无形化(immaterializaion),而不是非物质化 (dematerialization);是“以一次巨大的跳跃,从边缘反弹”11,是回归 “难以言喻之处”以及生命体验之玄奥的道路。用黄色,不仅不偏离我们现 今所处的境况,反而是因其促成,甚至是因其而绝对不得不如此。实际上, 黄色不正是脱胎于克莱因所喜爱的三色之一-金色吗?正如他本人所言, “生命是黄色的”。至少目前是这样。12

Notes 注释 1 Yves Klein, Overcoming the problematics of art: the writings of Yves Klein/ translated, with an introduction by Klaus Ottoman. Paris, Spring Publications, 2007 p.11 伊夫.克莱因著,克劳斯.奥托曼翻译并撰写绪言:《克服艺术的疑难问题:伊夫.克莱因文集》,巴黎春天出版社2007年版,第11页。 2 Ibid. p. 21 and p. 47 n.30 同上,第21页、第47页n.30。 3 Pierre Restany, Yves Klein: fire at the heart of the void. Paris, Spring Publications, 2005. See Fire and Gold, p. 18-21 and Fire and Blood: the colour pink and its place in the chromatic trinity, p. 22-27. 皮尔.勒斯坦尼:《伊夫.克莱因:空心之火》,巴黎春天出版社2005年版。见<火与金>(第18-21页)、 <火与血:粉红以及它在三色当中的位置>(第22-27页)。 4 Ibid. p.43; John Canaday, ‘I Got the Klein Blues’, The New York Times, February 5, 1967; Benjamin Buchloch,H.D. Klein and poses. (artist Yves Klein)(Into the Blue), Artforum International; 6/22/1995 同上,第43页;约翰.卡纳戴:<我染上了克莱因的蓝色忧郁>-见《纽约时报》, 1967年2月5日;H.D.本杰明.布克洛克:《克莱因与姿势(画家伊夫.克莱因)(进入蓝色)》,国际艺术论坛,6/22/1995。

5 Pierre Restany, Yves Klein: fire at the heart of the void. Paris, Spring Publications, 2005 p.39-51 皮尔.勒斯坦尼:《伊夫.克莱因:空心之火》,巴黎春天出版社2005年版,第39-51页。 6 Weitemeier, H. Klein. Cologne: Taschen, 2001. p.51-55

H.维特梅尔:《克莱因》,科隆市塔斯辰2001年版,第51-55页。 7 Yves Klein, Overcoming the problematics of art, Paris, Spring Publications, 2007, p. 19-21, p. 71-78 伊夫.克莱因:《克服艺术的疑难问题》,巴黎春天出版社2007年版,第19-21页、第71-78页。 8 Wikkipeadia Anthropometry (July 17, 2008) 维基百科“人体测量学”条目,见年7月17日)。 9 Wikiquote Dada July 17, 2008 维基语录“达达”条目,见年7月17日)。 10 Yves Klein, Overcoming the problematics of art, Paris, Spring Publications, 2007, p. 74-78 伊夫.克莱因:《克服艺术的疑难问题》,巴黎春天出版社2007年版,第74-78页。

11 As opposed to ‘dematerialization’ with its improbable claim and resistance against art object production and commodification, advocated by Lucy Lippard in, Six Years: The dematerialization of the art object from 1966 to 1972, New York: Praeger, 1973. 相对于露茜.利帕所倡导的“非物质化”(dematerialization)以及其相关的、怪异的论断和反对艺术物品之制造/商品化的说法; 详见露茜.利帕:《六年:1966至1972年间艺术物品的非物质化》,纽约普拉哲1973年版。 12 Yves Klein, Overcoming the problematics of art, Paris, Spring Publications, 2007, p. 71 伊夫.克莱因:《克服艺术的疑难问题》,巴黎春天出版社2007年版,第71页。

“I am not a performance artist, this is not a work of art” 我不是行为艺术家,这不是艺术品

Performance ASIATOPIA, Bangkok, Thailand 1998 Photography: Koh Nguang How

Out of The Blue...Comes Yellow: Chromatic Ambivalence and The Archive In Lee Wen 从蓝到黄:李文作品中的色彩矛盾与档案 Adele Tan 陈韦纯

Journey of a yellow man 一个黄人的旅程 Performance City of London Polytechnic April 1992, London

Colour is dangerous. It is a drug, a loss of consciousness, a kind of blindness – at least for a moment. Colour requires, or results in, or perhaps just is, a loss of focus, of identity, of self. A loss of mind, a kind of delirium, a kind of madness perhaps. But not always, and not for everyone. At the other end of the spectrum, so to speak, there is colour of another and altogether less cataclysmic and dangerous kind: cosmetic colour. – David Batchelor 1


The ‘yellow man’ and the person of Lee Wen are by now virtually synonymous: the artist, the performance and the ethnic appellation all participate in a chain of mutually substitutable signifiers. The yellow man is a shape-shifter, occupying a different evocation in each place he has travelled, from holy man in India to an avatar of royalty in Thailand. 2 With his series of Journey of a Yellow Man performances begun in 1992 when Lee was studying at the City Polytechnic in London, the colour has been consistently deployed throughout Lee’s performative tactics. But let us be aware that this interchangeability is not without its cost, for each time the colour yellow is mentioned the spectre of its violence is also raised. Is it any wonder that this should be the case when ‘jaundice’, the yellowing of the skin due to excess bile, also connotes the perception of bitterness and resentment? But who is the subject of this jaundiced view? We have been told of the glory of the sun, the Yellow Emperor and the mighty Yellow River, but the ‘coloured’ adjective applies equally to prurient smut and the derogatory bracketing of Asians.


The ‘yellow man’ has appeared as a figurative image in his drawings, paintings, videos and photographs, in short, a representation. But the yellow man is also the literal pigment painted over his skin, the paint visually exacerbating the more ‘invisible’ mechanisms of racial chromatism, the colour more than just representing something (as in a metaphor) but also doing something, acting on us. It is Lee’s mimicry of the stereotype, but by redoubling it, he troubles it. In his artist’ statement from Journey of a Yellow man No. 5: Index to Freedom (1994), Lee perturbingly asks: ‘I am already yellow. Why do I paint myself yellow?’ 3 He gives a list of what the colour could potentially mean (the sun, the moon, gold, nobility and finally the colour of the persecuted and oppressed) but he has forgotten the other more radical function of the yellow paint as ‘indexical’, as suggested by his title. An index, according to the philosopher Charles Saunders Peirce, is defined by

间如此。色彩需要并导致丧失焦点、丧失身份、丧失自我,也 或者其本来如此。也可能让人神智混乱、谵妄、疯狂。但并非 总是如此,也并非人人如此。另一方面,可以说也存在着另外 的、更少灾难与危险的色彩:装饰色彩。

- David Batchelor 1

种族名称共同形成一条可相互替代的能指链。黄人是个变形人,在其所到各 地引发不同的联想—从印度圣人到泰国天神。2 在他的“黄人之旅”表演系 列始于1992年,当时他还在伦敦城市理工学院学习,黄色贯穿了他的整个 表演策略。但是我们要认识到,这一能指互换性并非没有代价,每次提到黄 色,人们心中就会升起对黄色暴力的恐惧。比如由此联想到因胆汁过剩而导 致皮肤发黄的“黄疸”,“胆汁质”带来的不满与敌意难道不会令人恐惧 吗?但这一“黄疸化视像”的主题什么?我们被告知,黄色代表阳光、黄 帝、可能还有黄河,但这个“有色”形容词同样用于表达色情淫秽、以及对 亚洲人的贬损。 “黄人”作为一个象征形象出现在李文的素描、绘画、录象和摄影中,简而 言之,成为一个代表。但是黄人也指他把黄色颜料涂在自己皮肤上,从而在 视觉上加剧了更加“不可见”的种族色差体制,这个颜色不仅是象征性地再 现,也真正影响到我们。他在模仿陈旧作品的同时,通过加入一层黄色, 给老东西带来麻烦。在“黄人之旅5号:自由索引”(1994)的艺术家陈述 中,他问道:“我已经是黄色的。我为什么把自己涂成黄色?”3 他就黄色 可能代表的东西列出一张单子(太阳、月亮、金子、高贵、以及被残害被压 迫),但他忘了黄色最基本的功能—即如他题目中的“索引”。哲学家查尔 斯·桑德斯·皮尔斯(Charles Saunders Peirce)认为,索引以其感官特征 而定义,这些特征将其与其它事物相联系,或使其直接指向其它事物,例如 美术画面可以索引到艺术家身体活动的痕迹。



以联系到我们在色彩物质性意义上能够接受的自由度(色彩的物质性不仅包 括折射到我们眼中的光,还包括颜料本身),它是艺术家娴熟的感官活动

Journey of a Yellow Man No. 2: the fire and the sun International Sculpture Symposium, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India Dec. 1992

an aspect of its sensory feature that correlates it with or points directly to something else, such as the painterly surface indexing the trace of the bodily activity of the artist. 4 To take the indexicality of yellow seriously, Lee could arguably be putting back into our reception the freedom within the materiality of colour (constituted within the dyes and paints in excess of the light refracted in our eyes) as that trace of the artist’s dexterous and sensuous application of paint, a performative that moves to resist the instrumental reason that seeks to categorise and stereotypify meaning. As Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno demonstrate in The Dialectic of Enlightenment , ‘representation is the vehicle of progress and regression at one and the same time’. 5 Representation thus being the overcoming of nature and instinct through reason in the production of the artistic self and also the denial of the gap between overweening consciousness and the enigmatic nature/Other. In other words, Lee’s actual presentation of the pigment on his body restores the colour yellow, at some level, to an obdurate, irreducible entity, a strange epidermal stain that cannot be so easily got rid of and it gets to us or inside us beyond a representative symbolism. In Splash (2003), Lee stands unflinching as pails of yellow paint are relentlessly hurled at his face and bare body. The yellow is aggressive. Fluid and sticky, the paint not only ravishes Lee’s face and body (at points acting like a suffocating miasma) but also the wall behind him, immersing the artist wholly into the yellowed-out video screen image by almost obliterating the contours separating his body-self from the background. The coloured paint appears not to obey boundaries but overruns and bubbles with entrapped energy. Colour segues from the surface of the artist to that of our own bodily reception and appeals to our affects. Could the question then be not to see beyond colour in the politically correct notion of ‘colour-blindness’ but to see the very work that colour performs?


That said, the colour yellow is ineluctably and heavily cathected to what it means to be a Chinese person. The colour has been used in Lee’s performances to negotiate his presence and position in the world but is at the same time one that is filled with psychic ambivalence – the simultaneous existence of contradictory tendencies, attitudes or feelings in the relationship to a single object, especially the coexistence of love and hate. For Melanie Klein, the notion of psychic ambivalence is central to us: love for the object is inseparable from its destruction and so ambivalence becomes a quality of the object itself. As such the ambivalent object is one and the same time perfectly benevolent and fundamentally hostile, so intolerable that the subject struggles against his predicament by splitting it into a good and bad


斯·霍克海默(Max Horkheimer)和西奥多·阿多诺(Theodor Adorno) 在《启蒙辩证法》中指出,“再现同时是进步和倒退的媒介”。



现成为对自然的征服和理性中的本能,这不仅体现于对艺术自我的创造,也 体现于否认横亘于傲慢的自我意识与深奥的自然/它者之间的鸿沟。也就是 说,李文身上的涂料在某种意义上,将黄色保持为顽固的、不可化约的实 体,一层难以摆脱的、怪异的表皮染色,它已经不仅仅是个再现性象征手 法,而是沾染我们渗进入我们。在《泼溅》(2003)中 ,李文赤裸身体, 无畏地迎接一桶桶泼到他脸上身上的黄色颜料。黄色具有侵略性。流动而粘 稠的颜料在他脸上身上肆意流淌(有时像令人窒息的毒气),也泼到他身后 的墙壁上,颜色消解了身体-自我与背景的边界线,最终在录象画面上将艺术 家完全浸没在一片黄色之中。这些有色颜料似乎没有服从边界,而是凭着不 可停歇的能量汩汩泛滥。颜色从艺术家皮肤蔓延到我们自己的身体感官,诉 诸我们的感情。我们是否可以不要再当政治正确的“色盲”那样无视肤色, 而是真正看看颜色的作用? 也就是说,黄色注定要以中国人为主要意义。李文在表演中用黄色传达他 的样子和他在世界上的位置,同时,这个颜色也充满了心理矛盾—即对同 一对象存在这相反的意图、态度或感受,特别是爱恨并存。梅兰妮 . 克莱茵 ( Melanie Klein )认为,精神矛盾性在我们的情感中占据中心位置:爱与 毁灭不可分割地投射到同一对象上,于是矛盾成为对象自身的特质。这个矛 盾的对象具有同一性,既和善仁慈又充满敌意,它让人如此难以忍受,于是 挣扎于这一困境的主体将对象分裂为好坏两部分。李文最早在伦敦把自己涂 术家的身份无可置疑,但是就他的个人经历和作为后殖民地居民的角度来 说,他又不是一个真正的中国人。李文讲英语,在英国上学,而他所生长 的新加坡也是不同于共产主义中国的发达资本主义社会。 6 对李文来说,黄 色绝对是个驯服的颜色,不是因为它有影射“中国佬”的贬义,而是因为 它暗示了新加坡与中国类似的威权政治。在他的近期作品“比你更中国” (2007-2008)表演系列中虽然不再表演黄人,却不仅戏仿了全球化品牌竞 争的潮流,也撕裂了中国与离散中国人群体在身份认同上的温情想象。 7 一 度明确的意识形态距离现在开始模糊,或者说,在对于新中国超级权力的

object. It was London which first surfaced yellow for Lee as an indicator of dislocation, as a ‘not quite’. It was evidence of his identity as an Asian artist, Chinese by descent yet not quite Chinese in terms of his own personal history and postcolonial subjectivity. Lee spoke and was educated in English and Singapore was an advanced capitalist society distinct from the Communist structures of China. 6 If anything, yellow is an uneasy colouration for Lee, not because of its manifest pejorative connotations of a ‘chink’, but because of the indicative proximity with authoritarian politics that conjoins Singapore with China. This comes to a head in his latest series of performances titled More China than You (2007-2008) which, although not performed under the aegis of the yellow man, parodies not only the competitive rush towards a global branding but also drives a rift between facile imaginary identifications with China amongst the diasporic Chinese communities. 7 The historical ideological distances that were once in place are now blurred or disregarded in the eventual courtship of the new Chinese superpower, the conflation of the neo-Confucian values with economic instrumentalism that blinds us to the conflicts and contradictions within the individual political systems. In his second version of the performance at the VITAL festival of Chinese performance art in Manchester, Lee made a paper boat with three small chopstick-effigies of Queen Elizabeth, Mao Zedong and Yusof Ishak, the latter two heads of state cut out from the dollar bills from China and Singapore. Printed sheets of paper declaring stock Chinese slogans from ‘Dominant One Party Rule’ to ‘One Party Two Systems’, from ‘Rule of Law’ to ‘Democracy’, were each held up to the audience before Lee crumpled the sheet up and tucked each ball of paper into his mouth, attempting a failed mastication before spitting it out onto his paper boat. The artist’s body in ambivalence is reflected in the gag-reflex, the words being easily spoken but less easily ingested and proving to be intolerable. And in extending this contradictory tug of affects into a relay with others, the audience was then asked to play a game of catch and throw with a Chinese cabbage as ball before Lee tied it to a roll of sticky tape and dragging the cabbage out onto the street together with the paper boat laden with an uncooked mackerel spiked through with the three effigies, which was later burnt as a ritualistic offering.

3. Splash #1 colour photograph 50.8cm X 60.96 cm (20in X 24in) September, 2003

Another product of the push-pull process of disavowal is Strange Fruit (2003), which shows the concatenation of his ‘yellow’ skin with other ethnic signifiers. Carrying an oversized kavadi -like body canopy made out of kitschy red plastic Chinese lanterns that hid from sight the upper-half of his body, Lee walked the streets of eastern Singapore and finally reached the sea, into which he submerged himself, disappearing into the water and leaving the lantern structure looking like a forlorn alien organism floating in the sea. The colour yellow and other stereotyped images are figured as ‘productive ambivalence’, as Homi Bhabha puts it, ‘that “otherness” which is at once an object of desire and derision, an articulation of difference contained within the fantasy of origin and identity’. 8 And as stereotype, this is ‘a form of knowledge and identification that vacillates between what is always “in place”, already known, and something that must be anxiously repeated’.9 For Lee to be Chinese needs no proof but as an artist in the global multiculturalist apparatus that preys on identity politics, he must constantly prove his participatory status by proving (through performing) something that can never really be proven. Lee’s ‘yellow on yellow’ is thus unlike Bruce Nauman’s Art Make-Up (1967-68) where he systematically masks the upper half of his body in different colours of paint – white, then pink, green, and then finally black – the title implying the creative making-up of an aesthetic

More China Than You #2 [我比你中国] Vital 07, Chinese Arts Centre, Manchester. 20 Nov.2007 Photo: James Champion

终极追逐中,这些意识形态距离已经被视而不见,新儒家价值观与经济工 具主义的融合使我们无视个体政治体系中存在的矛盾与冲突。 李文的第二次表演是在曼彻斯特 VITAL 中国表演艺术节上,他做了一只纸 船,上面有三个木棍雕像,分别是伊丽莎白女王、毛泽东和尤索夫·伊萨 (Yusof Ishak),后两个人的头像参照人民币和新加坡币上的肖像而作。 他准备了一些印好的中国式标语,如“一党专政”、“一国两制”、“法 律”、“民主”等等,先把每张标语展示给观众,然后将其揉成纸团,放 进嘴里咀嚼,可是怎么嚼也嚼不烂,于是吐到纸船上。吞咽-呕吐体现了 艺术家的身体矛盾性,标语上的词语说来轻松,但很难消化,最终证明是 令人无法忍受的。这一矛盾的感情挣扎随之牵扯到他人,李文邀请观众玩 一个游戏,要求观众把一棵中国大白菜像球一样相互抛接,如果在此过程 中,李文拿到大白菜,就会把白菜绑到一卷胶带上,并且连同纸船一起拉 到街上,纸船上的三个木棍雕像将一条生鲭鱼钉在船上,然后将这些东西 作为祭品烧掉。 另一件反复拒绝式的作品就是《奇怪的果实》(Strange Fruit) (2003),其中他将自己的“黄”皮肤联系到其它种族的能指上。looking like a forlorn alien organism floating in the sea.李文背着一个像大号赎罪 架一样的人形顶蓬,顶蓬由艳俗的中国塑料红灯笼做成,挡住了他的上半 身。李文从新加坡东部的街道走到海边,走进海中,将自己完全浸没到海 水里,只剩下灯笼的骨架漂在海上,仿佛被遗弃侨民的身体。黄色与其它 的典型形象成为霍米.芭芭(Homi Bhabha)所说的“建设性矛盾”, 他指 出,““另类”成为欲望和嘲笑的对象,它表达出起源和身份幻想中的差 别”。 8 它作为陈旧的典型,是“一种知识形式、辨别形式,在“各就各 位”的已知和必须焦虑重复的东西之间摇摆不定”。9 李文作为一个华人, 并不需要证明什么,但是作为一个艺术家,他身处以狩猎身份政治为己任 的全球多文化系统中,就必须(以表演手段)证明一些永远无法证明的事 情,才能来不断证明他的参与地位。因此李文“黄上加黄”不同于布鲁 斯.瑙曼(Bruce Nauman)的“艺术捏造”(Art Make-Up)(1967-68)。 布鲁斯·瑙曼把自己的上半身有序地饰以不同颜色—先是白色、然后是粉 色、绿色、最后是黑色—题目暗示对审美自我的创造性捏造,以及自我消

self, the playful exchange between self-erasure and exposure. In it Nauman is decidedly problematising the constancy of the location of identity, dematerialising the artistic-self within the various chromatic stages, but for Lee, the yellow is an unremitting reminder of an externally enforced codification, at times wholly absorbing and dissipating individualised artistic intent. The liberatory anonymity or infinitely indeterminate identity afforded to Nauman is therefore a luxury which Lee does not have and in fact masks and conceals the reality that colour possesses a power that fixes our gaze and perceptions. 10 Certainly Lee has not always performed with his yellowed-out body. He is quite often seen in his other everyman uniform of a white shirt (or black pullover), black trousers and black lace-ups, presenting himself as an ordinary mancog in the wheel of capitalism. In Is Art Necessary? What is Art For? (2002), Lee, dressed in his nondescript garb, carried on both arms two wing-like white boards each asking the questions posed in the work’s title. Like a downtrodden Icarus 11 , he stalked the pavements of the Esplanade Theatres in Singapore, asking passers-by to inscribe on his boards their responses to his questions. Outmoded figures of reference are also revitalised through Lee’s interventions, if only because he is so acutely aware of the cultural co-optation by the mainstream which reduces old countercultural positions into safe palatable ones. In Too Late the Hippie # 3 , performed also at VITAL 07, Lee put back into view that of the marginalised hippie from the 1970s, whose fashionably long tresses and drug-taking was a criminalised image in Singapore. Laying out a circle with archetypal tie-dyed cloths and a trough of water placed in middle, Lee proceeded to scatter bags of hair remnants over the cloths and into the trough, distributing afterwards picture-cards of the marijuana leaf which were irreverently captioned ‘This is Not a Leaf’ , in homage to René Magritte. And as he took to the trough and began to wash his hair in the water, Lee emerged not the hippie but that of the authoritarian Other, brandishing a pair of scissors and swishing its blades, threatening to cut the hair off his audience members. But this threat is precisely what needs to be recalled, in Lee’s terms, if only to instaurate the old challenge of the avant-garde against the burial of popular mass movements beneath the tame reception of commercialised knowledge. With this, I would place Lee’s everyman Icarus and hippie on the side of his yellow man and therefore, even in his ambivalence about yellow, Lee does not foreswear the re-application of it in diverse situations. The colour thus knows no closure but is that provocative smear on his skin that infects his audience – the colour is the thing that journeys. But are there other ways to think about the work ‘yellow’ performs in excess of cultural politics? In his latest performances Lee presses his yellow into a different service, none more so than in his Anthropometry Revision: Yellow Period (after Yves Klein) which is a considered re-enactment, or should I say reengagement, of Yves Klein’s then controversial but indelible Anthropometry of the Blue Epoch (1960) at the Galerie Internationale d’Art Contemporain in Paris. 11 As is well known, in a contrived late evening soiree, Klein directed three nude female models to sponge themselves with his signature International Klein Blue (IKB) paint and had two of them imprint their bodies against the large sheets of paper on the wall behind, climbing onto pedestals of different heights to create a rhythmic composition of silhouettes, whilst the third rolled and was dragged across the large sheet of paper covering the floor by the other two. They were accompanied by a group of male musicians performing Klein’s Symphonie Monoton-silence , which was twenty minutes of one-note music followed by twenty minutes of silence. Dressed pristinely in a white-tie tuxedo, Klein kept his distance from the ‘painting’ throughout the performance and was rather more besotted with orchestrating the bodily spectacle for a hundred invited members

除和自我暴露之间的游戏式对换。瑙曼坚决地将身份位置的持久性 作为一个问题,以不同色带将去除艺术自我的物质形态,但是对李 文来说,黄色不断提示着一个外在的强制律条,这个律条时不时地 就会把个性化艺术意图完全同化或者驱散。由此,瑙曼作品中解放 的无名氏或者无穷尽的模糊身份,成为李文无法拥有的奢侈品,事 实上,李文在遮掩这样一个事实—颜色有力量凝固我们的目光、决 10


当然,李文并非在所有表演中都把自己涂黄。他表演时也常常穿最 普通的白衬衫(或黑色套头杉),黑裤子,黑系带鞋,让自己看上 去像是资本主义车轮上的一颗最普通的小齿轮。在《艺术是否必 要?艺术有什么好处?》(2002)中,李文穿着他那身毫无特点的 衣服,双臂带着像翅膀一样的白色板子,每个板子上都有作品题目 中提出的问题。他像坠落的伊卡洛斯一样,在新加坡滨海艺术中心 (Esplanade Theatres)便道,请路人在他的板子上写下他们对问 题的回答。在李文的介入下,过时的人物也重新焕发活力,他是如 此敏锐地意识到,主流层面的文化合作将旧有的反主流文化降到了 安全而可口的位置。同样在 07 年 VITAL 节日上表演的《嬉皮太晚 3 号》中,李文回头关注自1970年代以来被边缘化的嬉皮士,他们引 为时尚的长绺发和吸毒在新加坡都属犯罪形象。他把打好领带的典 型服装摆成一圈,中心放一个水槽,接着把一袋袋头皮屑撒到衣服 上和水槽里,之后分发把大麻叶的图片,图片上挑衅地注明“这不 是叶子”,以此向雷尼·马格里特(René Magritte)致敬。当他走 到水槽前洗头时,并不像个嬉皮士,倒像专制的“他者”,挥舞着 一把剪刀,刀刃飕飕带响,威胁着要剪下观众的头发。但唤起这种 威胁感正是他的目的所在。他希望恢复前卫运动的旧有挑战,来抵 制对流行大众运动的失忆和埋葬,以及对商业知识的驯服接受。就 这一点而言,我要把李文的普通人伊卡洛斯和嬉皮形象与他的黄人 形象相提并论。即便他对黄色有着矛盾的感情,也没有停止黄色应 用于多种不同的情境,使得这个颜色没有终结,而是在他皮肤上煽 动和感染着观众—也由此成为旅行的主角。 但是对于“黄色”表演作品,是否存在文化政治以外的思路?李文 的近期表演中对黄色另作它用,其中最典型的莫过于《人体测量术 修订:黄色时期(在伊夫。克莱因之后)》,它再次上演了,或 者说,是再次卷入了伊夫。克莱因 1960 年在巴黎国际当代艺术馆 (Galerie Internationale d’Art Contemporain)展览的《蓝色时代的 人体测量术》,这件作品当时虽饱受争议,却最终证明不可取代 12 如我们所知,在一个精心设计的午夜聚会上,克莱因指导三位裸女 模特用海绵涂上以他名字命名的国际克莱因蓝,然后让其中两人把 身体紧紧贴到墙上的大幅纸张上,他要求她们爬到不同的高度再贴 到纸上,以达到最终画面构图的节奏感,第三个模特在铺在地面的 纸张上翻滚,并且被另外两人拖拽过整个纸面。在此过程中,一群 男性乐师为其弹奏克莱因的“单调-静默交响曲”,乐曲总长 20 分 钟,只有一个音符,之后是20分钟的静默。克莱因身着朴素的无尾

of the art world elite in mandatory evening dress, who were alternately bored and shocked by it. The judo exponent and Rosicrucian mystic in Klein saw the human body as physical but replete with sensorial and spiritual energy and therefore available as potential ‘living brushes’ which he could direct albeit externally, allowing him to remain detached from his work whilst imbuing it with sensorial control. 12 The messy corporeality of the artist’s body is expunged by Klein’s hygienic methods, him preferring instead the passage into transcendental values even though achieved paradoxically through the phenomenological presence of flesh: It would never cross my mind to soil my hands with paint. Detached and distant, the work of art must be completed under my eyes and under my command. As the work begins its completion, I stand there — present at the ceremony, immaculate, calm, relaxed, perfectly aware of what is taking place and ready to receive the art being born into the tangible world. (Yves Klein, ‘The Chelsea Hotel Manifesto’, 1961) Having wrested Anthropometry of the Blue Epoch out from the sanctity of Klein’s archives, Lee proceeded to re-situate the performance in a Chinese context, conscientiously recalibrating every structural element. Anthropometry Revision: Yellow Period (after Yves Klein) was presented at Red & Grey Art Contemporary in Chengdu, China, in the afternoon of 13 April 2008. The potential for a revision of Klein was always already present through the parts which it had repressed, for as Judith Butler reminds us, ‘[w]hat is refused or repudiated in the formation of the subject continues to determine that subject. What remains outside the subject, set outside by the act of foreclosure which founds the subject, persists as a kind of defining negativity.’ 13 The directed passive bodies of the all-female group of models were thus replaced in favour of a more collaborative mode of performance comprising Lee, a female artist Jiang Jing and another male artist He Liping. The condition of volition and agency was also factored in when Lee asked Jiang if she would be comfortable performing naked, offering her the choice which she eventually declined by preferring to don a flesh-coloured fulllength leotard. Klein’s motivations and strategies of removing the artist’s hand, ego and intentionality, had however paradoxically dispelled the invested and affective states of the artist’s body (Klein did on occasion imprint his own body but we only see the final product, never his dirtied hand or body). To depersonalise is not to de-corporealise, and ironically, Klein’s purported disarming of artistic intentionality only reinstates the magisterial co-ordination of the

半正式晚礼服,在整个表演过程中与“绘画”保持 距离,百余位特身着正装晚礼服的艺术界精英应邀 前来观看,他们不是百无聊赖,就是大受惊吓,应 付这些人足以令克莱因头昏脑涨。克莱因具有柔道 情结以及玫瑰十字会式的神秘主义,他认为人体包 含的不仅仅是肉体,也充满感知与精神能量,因此 相信身体可以成为“活的毛笔”,使他既能够置身 于作品之外,同时又能通过对感觉的控制沉浸其 中。13 克莱因以卫生方法清洁污浊的肉身,他更喜 欢这一过程所体现的超验价值,尽管荒谬的是,这 一超验过程在就其现象学意义而言呈现为肉体: 我永远也不想让颜料弄脏自己的 手。我必须要置身事外并保持距 离,同时也必须让作品在我眼前, 根据我的指令完成。当作品完成, 我站在那里—出席仪式,完美,平 静,放松,完全了解现场状况,并 且准备好接受即将诞生到这个真实 世界的艺术。(伊夫.克莱因,“切 而西旅馆宣言”,1961) 李文摘去克莱因《蓝色时代的人体测量术》的神圣 光环,把它放在中国语境中表演,并且谨慎调整其 中每个构成元素。《人体测量术修订:黄色时期 (在伊夫.克莱因之后)》于 2008 年 4 月 13 日下午 在中国成都红与灰当代艺术空间上演。修订克莱因 的可能性其实已经潜藏于原作压抑其压制的部分之 中,朱迪斯·巴特勒(Judith Butler)提醒我们, “在主题中被否定或批判的东西仍然作为一种持续 的否定性定义,控制着该主题。”14 李文改变了原 方案中完全被动的三个女模特,代之以李文、女艺 术家蒋晶和另一位男艺术家何利平三人,于是模特 与艺术家之间有了更多的合作关系。模特执行艺术 家意志的设计也被打破,李文问蒋晶愿不愿意裸体 表演,并且让她自己决定裸体或穿衣,最终她决定 身着肉色紧身连衣库。克莱因的动机是去掉艺术家 的手、自我和意图,却荒谬地驱逐了艺术家自己的 身体,使之无法介入或影响作品(克莱因偶尔也用 自己的身体留下印迹,但在最终呈现的作品上,我 们从没见他弄脏自己的手或身体。)去个人化并非 去肉体化,讽刺的是,克莱因宣称消除艺术意图, 却只是恢复了男艺术家的专横指挥。修订版中,艺 术家李文不再是局外的控制者,而是与其他合作者 共同用身体作画。只有在他面对全部女性成员的民

6. Too Late the Hippie # 2 Vital 07, Chinese Arts Centre, Manchester. 20 Nov.2007 Photograh: Jason Lim

7. Is Art Necessary? What Is Art Good For? Performance/ Video. Collaboration with Heman Chong Singapore, 14 -24 November 2002

8. Give Peace A Chance: Redux

Lee Wen with Kai Lam, Installation / performance, Singapore 2006 乐队那一刻,他才是指挥,乐队中的五名成员各用 Photograph: Chua Chye Teck

Strange Fruit # 4 colour photograph, 50.8cm X 50.8 cm (20in X 20in) September 11, 2003

male artist. In his revisionist enterprise, Lee removed the artist from his position as an external point of control and restored his body as comingled with his other collaborators in the painting. The only point where Lee appeared to be conducting was when he was facing his all-female classical Chinese orchestra, which was engaged to have each of the five traditional Chinese instruments play one pitch of the five notes of the pentatonic scale. Lee’s ‘Pentatone Symphony’ made use of the five-note pentatonic scale of traditional Chinese music to not only contrast Klein’s Monotone Symphony but also to draw attention to the seven-note heptatonic scale of Western music. The questions that so exercised Lee about Klein’s performance were answered by Lee’s thorough sinicisation of the work, with the most salient revision falling on the use of Lee’s signature yellow paint in place of the IKB. Like Klein’s models, Lee, Jiang and He helped themselves to the pails of pigment and covered their bodies in paint, but unlike the French version which kept up some measure of restraint and was elegantly spare in the wall imprints, Lee’s enactment was more of the laissez-faire allover, and the performers became delightfully and messily coated in bright yellow.


If colour was previously in Lee’s performances a measure of discrimination in the cultural field, colour is now embattled within discrimination of an aesthetic and art historical kind, that is, the confrontation of two colours, yellow contra blue. Setting itself against Klein’s performance, Lee’s attempt nearly fifty years after brings another dimension, upending the first work in its unacknowledged dynamics of mastery and classification, the ordering of chaos in the setting of taxonomic boundaries. What cannot be denied here is the historically violent application of anthropometry as the science of bodily measurement according to physical traits as was developed by the German anthropologist Johann Blumenbach (1752-1840). It was in his On the Natural Variety of Mankind (1775) that he argued that there were five different races: Caucasian or white; Mongolian or yellow; Ethiopian or black; American or red; and Malayan or brown. Although no initial hierarchy of positions was intended, Blumenbach’ s ideas nevertheless formed the basis for comparisons to be made between physical differences and mental characteristics, the assumption being that people’s differences were encoded in the visible surfaces of the body rather than in social characteristics such as language, behaviour, dress or class backgrounds. 14 Klein’s Anthropometry can thus never be a neutral inscription of bodily surfaces onto other material surfaces and its title is necessarily implicated within the system of chromometrics through the physical description, measurement and classification of racially defined bodies, marking out the putative ‘primitive’ from the more ‘evolved’ races. 15 Colour as prejudice is also frequently prejudice against colour and in our typical associations with colour, we think it emotional, feminine, childish, irrational, unscientific, superficial and thus not serious. Hence, one upshot of Lee’s re-colouration of Klein is that irrational segregations are masquerading as rational divisions.

异》( 1775 )中提出人类可分为五个不同种族:高加索人种/白种

Other questions are also broached in the yellowy sincisation of Klein’s Anthropometry . In Lee’s opinion, the action of painting in his Chinese edition of Klein’s Anthropometry points an accusatory finger at the state of commercialised painting in China, or more precisely, the shrewd marketing of Chinese symbolic motifs in the global rise of contemporary Chinese art, the capitulation of art towards capitalism. This is the state of art that Lee is mired in. It is without that cleanliness of distance so cherished by Klein and thus utterly complicit in its trappings even as he tries to resist it. Lee also had to wrestle with the feasibility of replicating the taken-for-granted nudity in performance in the Asian context. It is here, I believe, that Lee is at his most subtle and provocative because the yellow is conjoined with the naked body and we are invested in the solicitous

交响乐”使用中国传统的五音音阶,不仅是为了对照克莱因的单音 交响乐,也是为了对应西方音乐中的七音音阶。李文用中国风俗彻 底改造了克莱因的表演,其中最突出的改变是用醒目的黄色取代了 国际克莱因蓝。他们三人就像克莱因原作中一样,把好几筒颜料涂 到身上,但是克莱因的法国版相对克制,墙上的画面优雅而稀疏, 李文版本的表演更加放任,演员们欢快而肆意地在墙上印满明黄。 如果说,颜色在李文早期的表演中是文化识别手段,那么在黄蓝 两色的遭遇中,颜色成为分辨审美和艺术史的手段。李文和克莱 因的原作对着干,试图在原作发表近半个世纪后带来另一个角 度,颠覆克莱因未曾意识到的控制欲,在分类学的边界上探索混 乱中的秩序。不可否认,德国人体测量学家布鲁门巴赫( Johann Blumenbach )( 1752-1840 )将历史上一度野蛮应用的身体测量 术发展为根据体征进行测量的身体测量科学。他《论人类的自然差 人;蒙古人种/黄种人;埃塞俄比亚人种/黑种人;美洲人种/红种 人;马来人种/棕种人。尽管布鲁门巴赫无意将人种分类对应于高 低贵贱,但仍然奠定了体貌差异与心智特点比较研究的基础,这些 比较研究假设,人的差异体现为可见的体征差异,而非诸如语言、 行为、穿着或阶级背景等社会性差异。 15 在这个意义上,克莱因的 《人体测量术》从来不是对人体外貌的中立描述,而是将其课题置 于比色体系之下,通过对种族意义上的身体进行描述、测量和分 类,得出越“进化”的种族越“原始”的假定。 16 色彩偏见常常体 现为对色彩的反对,我们常常认为与色彩有关联的是情绪化、女性 化、幼稚、不理性、不科学、浅薄,因此是不入流的。而李文对克 莱因作品的色彩改变带来一个结果,就是非理性的种族隔离装扮成 理性的划分。 把克莱因的《人体测量术》变黄也引出其它问题。李文认为,把颜 料弄到中国版《人体测量术》上的行为是对中国绘画商业化的谴 责,更确切地说,是指向在中国当代艺术的全球增长下,中国符号 艺术的疯狂营销,以及艺术向资本主义的投降。这就是李文陷入的 艺术环境,没有克莱因视若珍宝的距离,即便抵抗也仍然会陷入共 谋的陷阱。在中国版中,李文还必须把西方行为艺术中理所当然的 裸体移植到亚洲语境中。我想在这个问题上,李文的处理微妙而 刺激,涂在裸体上的黄色让我们想到赤裸、性、欲望。克莱因《人 体测量术》中的人体呈现为性感的身体,不仅展露出女性圆浑的乳 房、躯干和大腿,克莱因精心设计、反复调整的最终构图也像是男 性性器官的形状。然而在李文的《人体测量术修订》中,坚决的生 殖器崇拜被取代以李文及其合作者的平凡身体,特别是李文的身体 因为先天性脊柱侧突,显得极为虚弱。黄色在这里可能是个难以忍 受的颜色,它一旦出现,就可以有效地扰乱我们。爱与性应该在艺 术史中占有一席之地:在这个位置上,颜色没有充当文化密码,而 是负责将图景色情化。如果我们把题目中的“黄色时期”当真,那 么(在英文中)“时期”一词也指女性的经期,月经正是性感最强

Notes 注释 1

colour – in our nakedness, sex and desire. The bodily imprints of Klein’s Anthropometries readily index the sexual body, showing not only the round orbs of the female breasts, the torso and thighs, but curiously in Klein’s deliberate and repetitive composition they were also made to resemble the male sexual organs, principally in the shapes made by schoolboy dobbing. In Lee’s Anthropometry Revision however, the resolute phallic shapes are altogether substituted by the mortal flesh of Lee and his collaborators, in particular Lee’s fragile body which has been too unkindly ravaged by his congenital scoliosis. Yellow is perhaps here an instance of intolerable colour, one which rightly disturbs us as it does it work. For there should be a place for love and sex in art history : the place where colour is used to eroticise our vision instead of being a cultural cipher. And if we do take the ‘Yellow Period’ in the title seriously, a period is also recognisably a woman’s menstruation, a sexualised fertility that counters Lee’s earlier slightly hasty lament that the state of performance art has reached a ‘menopausal’ stage, his metaphor for the loss of reproductive function and a sense of failure or impotence against the status quo. 16 The ‘period’ does not mark closure or death, but flow, as is promised in the materiality of his yellow paint.


Lee’s bet is on the continuity and evolution of art but to do this he has chosen in his latest works to cast his focus squarely backwards onto performance histories. This is an unusual but apt gambit given that we are often told that Singapore is a place only of tomorrow but no yesterday. Lee's archival jaunt however began in fact not with Yves Klein but with John Lennon and Yoko Ono’s 1969 Bed-in , an anti-Vietnam War protest where the couple stayed in bed for a week in their hotels in Amsterdam and Montreal and sang their anthem Give Peace a Chance to the world’s media. In Lee’ s re-enactment in collaboration with a fellow Singaporean artist Kai Lam, Give Peace a Chance: Redux was staged as a bed-in at the concourse of the Singapore Management University in order to commemorate the fifth anniversary of September 11. Lee and Lam exhorted the crowds to join them in their demonstration for peace and pacifism whilst dressed in their pyjamas and armed with a guitar, and the signs ‘Hair Peace’ and “Bed Peace’ aloft over their bed. In Lee’s mind, this is not merely an idealist antidote to the current malaise of cynicism but the very importance of reviving histories for a generation which has no knowledge of real political strife or effective countercultural (op)positions. As Lee fabulously opined in the catalogue for FOI4 that ‘complacency is the luxury of the foolish and the future is not enough’, we can clearly see why Lee has returned to old digs and is querying the performance archive to bring forward previous considerations and working methods. 17 Much of this is guided by Guy Debord’s tactic of detournément, the recuperation which is one and the same time a subversion and a diversion away from the expected course or purpose. For Lee’s reprising of the archive is also very much a prising open and in ways using past iconic performances as reprisals against the defanged and coopted status of current art practices. In ending, we should return our sights to where we began, with the yellow man, and to acknowledge that colour is dangerous and dynamic, or rather taken as dangerous because it is potently dynamic.


“绝经”比喻创造力丧失、无力反抗现状,17 这恰恰与题目中的“时期(月 经)”之意矛盾。 “时期”绝不意味结束或死亡,而会像李文的黄色颜料 一样流淌不息。

2 3 4

李文相信艺术的延续与发展,为了达到这个目标,他决定在近期作品直接回 顾表演史。我们常常听说,新加坡是个只有明天,没有昨天的地方,在此背 景下,李文的选题显得独特而聪明。李文档案重现之旅的起点不是克莱因, 而是约翰·列侬和大野洋子1969年的《床上和平运动》。在一场反越战抗

5 6

议中,他们两人在阿姆斯特丹和蒙特利尔旅馆的床上待了一个星期,向全 世界媒体唱他们的摇滚民谣《给和平一个机会》。李文与新加坡艺术家 Kai Lam合作,把这个作品重新演绎为《给和平一个机会:回家》。他们在新加


坡管理大学广场上安了一张床,以纪念911事件5周年。李文和Kai Lam劝观 众加入他们的和平示威,他们穿着睡衣,背着吉他,床头挂着“头发和平” 和“床和平”的横幅。 李文认为,没有什么理想方法能治愈当下犬儒主义 代人,重现历史就显得及其重要。李文在《FOI 4》图录中语出惊人,“自 满是愚人的奢侈,未来并不足够”,我们可以清楚地看出,他回到故纸堆, 从表演档案中查询以前的思考和工作方法。[18]其中的大部分工作采取了居 伊.德波(Guy Debord)的绕道策略,对这些作品的重现其实也是对预期进 程或目标的颠覆和转换。李文对历史作品的重现是开放式的表现,利用过去 的标志性表演谴责丧失锋芒、被拉拢和征用的艺术实践现状。最后,我们要 让目光回到黄人,我们需要弄清,这个颜色到底是真的危险且充满力量,还 是因为它充满力量而被认为危险。

8 9

David Batchelor, Chromophobia, Reaktion Books, London, 2000 p 51 David Batchelor, 《恐色症》, Reaktion Books, 伦敦, 2000 p 51 Joan Kee, citing Lee Weng Choy, in her ‘Envisaging hollowness in Singapore’, Art Journal, Vol. 60, No. 3, Autumn, 2001, p69 Joan Kee, 引自Lee Weng Choy, 见她的文章 “假想新加坡的空虚”, Art Journal, 2001 Lee Wen, ‘Journey of a Yellow Man No.5: Index to Freedom’, 4th Asian Art Show, Fukuoka Art Museum, 10 Sept – 16 Oct, 1994. 李文,“‘黄人之旅5号:自由索引”, 第4届亚洲艺术展,福冈艺术博物馆,1994年9月10日-10月16日。 Justus Buchler, ed, The Philosophy of Peirce, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1940, p108. See pp107-111 for a presentation of Peirce`s ideas on the index. However, as is pointed out, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to instance an absolutely pure index, or to find any sign absolutely devoid of the indexical quality. Justus Buchler 编,《皮尔斯哲学》,伦敦,Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1940, p108。见第107-111页,陈述了皮尔斯关于索引的观点。然而,如书中指出,很难例举出完全纯粹的索引, 或者找到完全不具索引性质的符号。 Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno, The Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans John Cumming, Continuum, New York, 1987 [1947], pp 34-5 Max Horkheimer和Theodor Adorno,《启蒙辩证法》,trans John Cumming, Continuum, 纽约, 1987 [1947], pp34-5 Woon Tien Wei, ‘Between Journeys: an Interview with Lee Wen’, Performance Research, vol 6, no l, 2001, p 4. Lee also broaches this anecdote about looking for Chinese portraiture and the only one he found was a painting by Wang Wei which only showed his back. Through this Lee deduced that the rare attempt at portraiture in Chinese painting is related to how the artist perceives himself in the artwork and that formed the motivation for Lee to continue with performance as his attempt to locate himself in his work. Woon Tien Wei, “旅途之间:李文访谈”, 《表演研究》, vol 6, no l, 2001, p 4. 李文也提到,他曾经想在国画里找些肖像画,但是只找到一幅王维的画作,而且其中只有他的背影。 李文由此推论,国画中的肖像很少在意艺术家如何看待艺术品中的自我, 这也成为李文继续在其表演作品中表现自我的动力。 The first performance was done at the Louisiana Museum of Art where he placed his head under a red tablecloth and hummed the Internationale (the revolutionary socialist anthem)while pushing a table up and down the space, getting gradually louder until exhausted. Lee later explained his performance title and proclaimed that the meaning of China/Zhongguo, the Middle Kingdom should be from the centre of the human heart rather than the centre of the world. He then made the word “中” (Zhong/Middle) on the red cloth with some tape and added Mao and Lee Kuan Yew’s portraits on the two halves of the word. In its third incarnation in Tokyo in April 2008, Lee wore a mask juxtaposing an image of the Olympic torch with the Tibetan motifs of sun and sky, in order to gloss the recent tensions in Tibet that have affected the Olympic torch relay. And instead of putting the paper slogans into his mouth, they were pinned to his back as he crawled through streets rolling a cabbage. Inherent in Lee’s exhortations are the hopes that the faddish interest in China exceeds that of political and economic interests and that we should be interested in improving international peace through inter-cultural exchange. 第一次表演是在美国路易斯安那艺术博物馆,他把脑袋放在一块红桌布底下,一边哼唱“国际歌” (社会主义革命歌曲),一边把桌子到处移动,越唱声音越大,直至耗尽全力。李 文后来解释了他的表演题目,指出中国的意思是中间的王国,这个国家应该存在于人们心灵的中心,而非世界的中心。 之后,他用胶带把“中”字贴到那块红布上,并在“中”字 两侧加了毛泽东和李光耀 的肖像。2008年4月在东京的表演上,他带的面具并列着奥运火炬和西藏太阳旗,以注解近期影响到奥运火炬传递的西藏紧张局势。他没有把标语纸带吞 到嘴里,而是别在后背上, 他背着标语在大街上一边爬行一边翻滚着一颗白菜。李文的劝戒在本质上是希望对中国热的关注超越政治经济利益,更多关注如何通过国际文化交流促 进世界和平。 Homi Bhabha, The Location of Culture, Routledge, London, 1994, p67 Homi Bhabha, 《文化的位置》, Routledge, 伦敦, 1994, p67 Ibid, p66 同上p66

10 The multiplicity that Lee wishes to inhabit but encounters constant inhibition is implicit in his fable cum artist’s message in the catalogue of the 4th Asia Art Show in Fukuoka, Japan, 1994. He tells of an eagle that has lived all of his life among the chickens and thought himself one of them until it was enlightened by another eagle that it could actually fly. In time it learnt the innate abilities of eagles but foolishly returned to the chicken coop wishing to share with his old friends his newfound skills only to be caught and had its wings clipped by the farmer boy who had initially stolen it as an egg from an eagle’s nest. 在1994年日本福冈第4届亚洲艺术展览图录的寓言+艺术家信息中中,李文暗示了他希望出现的多样性遭到持续的抑制。在他讲述的寓言中,一只鹰一辈子生活在鸡圈中,以为自己 也是一只鸡,直到它看到另一只飞翔的鹰才有所领悟。此后它很快掌握了鹰的天赋能力,却愚蠢地回到鸡圈,希望与老朋友分享它的新本领。于是当初把它错当成一只鸡蛋偷来的 农场小子把剪掉了它的双翅。 11 Klein’s first attempt at such a working method was at a dinner party at his friend Robert Godel’s apartment in Paris in 1958. A nude female was covered in Klein’s signature ultramarine blue paint (the IKB) and she dragged herself over a gigantic piece of white paper laid on the floor. Using her hands and body to spread the paint over the paper, she left the impression of her body in the texture of the paint. 克莱因最初尝试这样一种工作方法是1958年在他朋友Robert Godel公寓的晚宴派对上。一位裸体女性涂上了以克莱因命名的群青色(国际克莱因蓝),然后她把自己拖到地上一张巨 大的白纸上。 她用手和身体把颜料涂到纸上,最终她以颜料为材质留下了自己的身体印迹。

12 ‘Having had rejected brushes as too excessively psychological already earlier, I painted with rollers, in order to be remain anonymous and at a “distance” between the canvas and myself during the execution, at least intellectually ... Now, what a miracle, the brush returned, but this time it is alive: it was the flesh itself that applied the color to the canvas, under my direction, with a perfect precision, allowing me to remain constantly at an exact distance “x” from my canvas and thus continue to dominate my creation during the entire execution.’ See Yves Klein, ‘Le vrai devient réalité’ / ‘Truth Becomes Reality’, < > “毛笔的心理意义过大,所以我改用滚筒作画, 以保证不带个人特征,并且在操作过程中保持我与画布的“距离”,至少是思想上的距离...现在,毛笔奇迹般地回来了,但这次它 是活的,它就是肉体本身,沾上颜料,画到布上,这些身体在我的控制下,精准地完成画面,并且使我与画面保持了准确的“X”距离,由此也仍旧主宰了我的整个创作过程。”见 伊夫.克莱因,《真理成为现实》< > 13 Judith Butler, Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’, Routledge, London and New York, 1993, p190 朱迪斯.巴特勒,《重要的身体》, Routledge, 伦敦与纽约, 1993, p190 14 In his notes, Lee cites the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus rather than Blumenbach. Lee had in mind the father of taxonomy, the man who invented the classificatory divisions for scientific representation. Blumenbach, however, as an intellectual descendent of Linnaeus, entrenched Linnaeus’ methods further through the measured and observed human differences in skull size and shape as well as in skin colour. 李文的笔记中对瑞典植物学家卡尔.林奈乌斯(Carl Linnaeus)的引述多于布鲁门巴赫。李文记下他是分类学之父,发明了科学表述的类别划分。而布鲁门巴赫,作为卡尔.林奈乌斯 的聪明晚辈,通过以头骨尺寸、形状、肤色测量和观察人类,进一步巩固了林奈乌斯的方法。

15 See Anne Maxwell, Colonial Photography and Exhibitions: Representations of the ‘Native’, Continuum, London, 1999, pp38-41 见Anne Maxwell, 《殖民摄影与展览:“原住民”再现》,Continuum, 伦敦, 1999, pp38-41 16 See Lee Wen, Future of Imagination 4: International Performance Art Event, 27-30 September 2007, event catalogue, p8-9 见李文,《想像的未来4:国际表演艺术事件》,2007年9月27日-30日, event catalogue, p8-9 17 Lee is however by no means alone in such endeavours and he joins a line of artists who have tried to subvert Klein’s infamous action, in particular the feminists. Klein’s performance has been roundly chastised and rebuked by feminists, a number of them making a send-up spoof of the action. In Rachel Lachowicz’s Red Not Blue, 1992, Shoshana Wayne Gallery, Santa Monica, California, Lachowicz replaced Klein’s naked women with muscular men and his signature blue paint with red lipstick. She rubbed this over the model’s naked bodies and then dragged them across large sheets of paper placed on the floor. In Cheryl Donegan’s Kiss my Royal Irish Ass, 1993, Andrea Rosen Gallery, New York, Donegan performed a pastiche by wearing a green bra, a G-string and black engineer boots while she squatted in a puddle of green paint. She then pressed her paint-covered buttocks to sheets of paper on the floor to form a four-leaf clover pattern, the national symbol of Ireland. At the end of the performance, she sat on a chair and drank a pint of Guinness, another symbol of Ireland. 李文在这些努力中并不孤单。已经有许多艺术家、特别是女权主义者,试图颠覆克莱因的恶劣行为,李文加入了他们的行列。克莱因的表演受到女权主义者的有力谴责,若干女 权主义者还对他的表演作了滑稽模仿。雷切尔.拉科维茨(Rachel Lachowicz)创作的《红非蓝》于1992年在 加州圣塔莫尼卡的乔沙那韦恩海浪 (Shoshana Wayne Gallery)展览, 用肌肉发达的男人体取代了克莱因原作中的赤裸女性,用红色唇膏取代了原作中的克莱因蓝。她把口红涂在模特的裸体上,然后把他们拖过铺在地上的大纸。谢丽尔.多尼格 (Cheryl Donegan)于1993年在纽约安德里亚.罗森画廊(Andrea Rosen Gallery)展出了她的《亲亲我的皇家爱尔兰屁股》,她在这件戏仿作品中身着绿色胸衣、G-string内裤 、黑色 机车鞋,蹲坐进一桶绿色颜料中,然后把她沾满颜料的屁股移到铺在地上的纸上,形成一个四瓣叶子的爱尔兰国花三叶草图案。在表演的最后,她坐在椅子上,喝一品脱爱尔兰国 酒基尼斯。

Adele Tan is a writer and critic from Singapore. She is completing her doctoral dissertation at the Courtauld Institute of Art in London and is also Assistant Editor at the London-based journal Third Text. Her abiding interests include discourses on the body, performance, psychoanalysis and feminist practices. 陈韦纯(Adele Tan)是新加坡的作家、批评家。她在伦敦科陶德美术学院完成博士论文,并担任伦敦《第三文本》(Third Text)杂志的助理编辑。她在 学术兴趣主要包括对身体、表演、精神分析和女性主义实践的讨论。

“Journey of a Yellow Man No. 2: the fire and the sun” “International Sculpture Symposium”, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India Dec. 1992

Surfaces of The Political: Lee Wen 政治性事物的表面:李文 Ray Langenbach 雷.郎根巴赫

1. Signs

1. 符号

In the next few paragraphs I will touch a few of the surfaces of the complex and extensive body of work produced by Lee Wen over the past few decades. Like that of many other performance artists, Lee Wen’s work is based in what might be called a performance iconics, relying on the strategic deployment of visual and kinesthetic symbols and signs. His use of this emphatically semiotic convention positions Lee Wen’s works in a larger trend of recent Asian performance art, which I speculate derives from a braid of four cultural conditions, one contemporary and three rooted in tradition. Singapore performance art has been profoundly influenced by China’s glyphic writing, Peking Opera, and visual art tradition, by the Southeast Asian diaspora of India’s gestural language of dance and theatre throughout SE Asia, and by Japanese Butoh. Superimposed on these earlier sedimentations, is the need of cosmopolitan performance artists to find a way to communicate across linguistic boundaries.


These image + gesture based performances also carry certain encoded attributes derived from both Western and Asian performance traditions: the human body as signifier and signified, and as both economic sign and political agency. The Western tradition of gestural performances reaches back to the theatrical motifs of 18th century Realism, and 19th century Symbolism and Romanticism and, of course, the 20th century modernist avant-gardes. In South East Asia, performance art also recalls and restores elements from local folk and popular performance conventions, such as Kebyar, Wayang Kulit, Bangsawan, et al. Acknowledging the collision of these polarities–local/global, modernist/traditional, formal/contingent, and surface/depth– is fundamental to an appreciation of Lee Wen’s works.


Lee Wen uses many visual and sculptural signifiers, including animal hearts, live birds, dead chickens, eggs, tools, ping-pong, chains, guitar, boxes, buckets, and, with great regularity, yellow paint. The deployment of semiosis as performance strategy has been readily accepted by international audiences, while more articulated verbal performances are often lost in translation. By deploying signs and symbols rather than longer, coherent verbal dialogues or monologues, performance artists working internationally avoid the problems of finding adequate simultaneous translation, and the

谈论其中的几种表面。李文与其他许多行为艺术家一样,以或可称为“行为 指号”的机制作为创作的根本,依靠对种种视觉及动觉象征与符号的策略性 运用。有鉴于李文采用这套特别注重符号的形式,他的作品算是归属近期亚 洲行为艺术的一种大趋势。据我猜测,它的源头在于四种文化条件的交织- 一是当代的,其他三种则是源自传统。中国的象形文字、京剧和视觉艺术传 统,在东南亚散播开来的印度舞蹈 / 戏剧肢体语言,以及日本的舞踏,无不 影响了新加坡行为艺术。在这些早已落定的文化积淀以外,具有世界主义精 神的行为艺术家还需要寻找跨越语言障碍的沟通方式。 以“形象 + 示意动作 ”为本的表演,也带有源自西方及亚洲表演艺术传统 的某些编码特性:人体在此,既是能指,又是所指;既是经济符号,又是政 19世纪的象征主义和浪漫主义-当然还有20世纪的现代主义前卫派。在东 南亚,行为艺术则还重现及令人联想到克拜雅舞蹈、皮影戏、马来传统戏剧 以及其他本土民间流行表演形式的元素。要欣赏李文的杰作,在根本上就必 须承认这其中种种的两极碰撞-本土性 / 环球性、现代主义 / 传统、形式使 然者 / 偶然如此者,以及表面 / 深层等。 李文使用多种视觉及雕塑能指,包括动物的心脏、活鸟、死鸡、鸡蛋、各类 工具、乒乓球、铁链、吉他、箱子、桶,以及(经常出现的)黄色油彩。利 用指号过程作为表演策略,已是不难为世界各地观众所接受的了。反观言辞 滔滔的表演,则经常遇到翻译失真的问题。以国际观众为对象的行为艺术 家,在舍弃有连贯性的较长对话(或独白),改而运用符号与象征时,既无 须苦于寻求到位的同步翻译,也避免了翻译过程中难免出现的误译或误解。 此外,他们也避免了在表演进行中,看到欲会其意而不得的当地观众不耐烦 地走出去抽一口烟。然而,这一做法亦不无其弊。至少,它导致这样的现 象:默默无言的行为艺术家仅依赖相当有限的一套动作和道具,抽掉所有话

inevitable mis-translations or misinterpretations that go hand-in-glove with translation. And they avoid seeing irritated local audiences who cannot access their meanings walking out for a smoke in the middle of the performance. But on the down-side, this has resulted in the phenomenon of the muted performance artist who syphons all discourse through a quite limited lexicon of gestures and props, and is thusly buffered from having to engage in a complex and reasoned analysis of historical, political, social or philosophical phenomena. This sort of research-based intellectual labor is often displaced by simplistic knee-jerk politics and unresearched ersatz histories.

语,如此而免于就历史、政治、社会或哲学现象涉入 高度复杂的思辨分析。结果,以研究为基础的思想工 作往往于此荡然无存,取而代之的是过于简单化的机 械反应式政治,以及欠缺研究根底的伪历史。 不过,有些艺术家倒是运用了各类复杂的触觉指号和 动作,并且在表演中也不回避语言。比如李文,便是 如此。他在用上语言时,一般也将它呈献为指号,经 常是配合相应的行动,重复某些短句或标语。举例而 言,他1995至1997年间称为《鬼故事》的行为 / 装 1

置艺术系列 当中,就对新加坡常用的一句话-“杀 鸡吓猴”-加以重复使用及直观化,以此指涉政府的

Yet some artists, such as Lee Wen, have engaged a complex array of haptic icons and gestures, and have not shied away from the use of language in performance. When language is used, it too is usually presented iconically: repeated short sentences and slogans, usually running in parallel to analogous actions. Consider, for example, his series of performances/installations1 entitled Ghost Stories from 1995- 1997 in which he repeatedly used and visualised a phrase, commonly used in Singapore “kill the chicken to frighten the monkey” (杀 鸡吓猴 sha ji xia hou) as a reference to a strategy for government control. Lee Wen used the phrase as a signifier of repression in Singapore and other countries, such as Korea. In his words, it connotes: […] a typical way of social control. I used this as a visual metaphor for the extreme punishment of political detention without trial [….] social ostracism and […] extreme repression of freedom. I sometimes repeated the words in english (in mexico i used the spanish translation) during the performance like an incantation of an unhappy ghost. or sometimes it is suggested in objects i use. eg in the installation in Kwang Ju [Guangju] there were 16 bald chickens floating in formaldehyde in fruit preservation jars surrounding a long table with military blankets as table cloth and sounds of monkeys screams from under the table. or i chop up a chicken during the performance (in poland and mexico) while repeating the saying (Lee Wen, email correspondence 3/3/03, sic.). 1. “Untitled”, Aciones en Ruta, Mexico City and Encuentro Intl de Performance Yucatan, Merrida, Mexico.

一种控制策略。这句话在李文手上作为能指,乃是指 代新加坡和其他国家(如韩国)所感受到的压抑。据 他所言,它意味着: [......] 一种典型的社会控制方式。我以此作 为一种视觉隐喻,指向出于政治动机、不予审 讯而将人监禁的极刑 [......] 、社会的排斥 以及 ......] 对自由的极端压抑。 我在表演中有时用英语重复这句话(在墨西哥 则是用西班牙语的翻译版),像个怏怏不乐的 亡灵般念念有词。有时,我是利用物件来加以 暗示。比如:在光州的装置项目中,就有 16 只光秃秃的鸡,浮在众多装有甲醛的蜜饯瓶 罐中。瓶罐围绕着一张长桌,桌面铺着军用毯 子,桌子下面传出诸多猴子的尖叫声。另一种 做法是:我在表演当中(在波兰和墨西哥), 一面反复说这句话,一面斩鸡。(李文2003年3 月3日电邮通信,原文如此) “杀鸡吓猴”借助了象征性处死和现实中政治性恐吓 之间的暧昧不明。猴子(老百姓)被警告:假如不把 警告当一回事,不纠正往后的行为,自己也必将死在 刀下。人们于是逆读因果-事先被警告而又心生恐 惧的民众,在当局有“必要”再进行任何起诉之前, 赶紧改变了自己的行为,从而免于遭遇像鸡那样的厄 运。这种具告诫性质的场面所带来的结果,是自我审

“Kill the chicken to frighten the monkey” works on the

查- 被政府视为化解社会毒素的解药,于此反而本身

2. “Almost untitled: swimming to motherland”, REACH OUTLYING 2005 Tipalive ambiguity between a symbolic execution and real political Taiwan International Performance Art Festival, Taipei,threat. TaiwanThe monkey (citizenry) is warned that it too will


come under the knife unless the warning is taken to heart 3. “Black Market international”, 13th Performance Artand Conference - “The Art of Action 111”, subsequent behaviours are altered. Causality is

列言语 / 动作譬喻。

Podewils‘schen Palais, Berlin, Germany Photo: Heman Chong


‘read’ backwards as the forewarned and frightened public avoids the chicken’ s fate by altering their behaviour before any successive prosecutions are ‘necessary’. The result of the cautionary spectacle is self-censorship a situation in which the antidote to what the government perceives to be social poison, becomes the poison. In Lee Wen’s performances this complex political ritual is lifted out of historical context and deftly distilled into a series of verbal-gestural tropes.

Ghosts Stories Installation Kwangju Biennale, Kwangju, South Korea September November 1995 Photo: Lee Wen

2. Surfaces In 1935, during the establishment of Nationalist Socialism in Germany, the German philosopher, Hans Freyer, wrote of how the German people had come to “experience the power, the magnitude, and the infinite depth of the political....” (Sluga 1993:88) The ‘depth of the political’ Freyer was referring to was the desire in post-depression Germany for wedding of politics with action, ideology and philosophy: a moment when thought and action, the spiritual and the physical would all come together with a sense of national identity to produce a new Germany. Tragically, the goal was as fascistic and as it was idealistic– an idealism founded on acts of discrimination and ethnic cleansing. By contrast, rather than Freyer’s idealistic modernist evocation of depth and naturalised ideologies of blood and earth, Lee Wen focuses on the postmodern surfaces of identity, the skin and the nation as cultural construction – as mask. This representation is no less idealistic perhaps, and often tinged with the romantic... but is always laced with irony. In a recent image from the performance, More China Than You #4 (2008), we see Lee Wen masking his body’s surfaces with banal objects and slogans of daily life, ideology and nation. But Lee’s most ubiquitous and resonant mask is the skin itself. In the Journey of a yellow man series, Lee Wen painted his body with yellow paint, exacerbating his genetic stereotype. 2 Of Han Chinese descent, Lee is of course no more yellow than black people are really black or whites really white. These are linguistic tropes used to mark and discriminate culturally constructed ‘races’ or ethnicities. They are ‘anthropometries’, that is, methods for measuring genetic differences. When performing, the painted body has the curious effect of altering the entire colour-scape around it. For example in this image of the Yellowman, all the surfaces become enhanced: the pinkness of the skins of these two “white” witnesses, the mottled bluegreen of the wall behind them, the sienna wood-trim, the grey of the sidewalk, the man’s double-breasted grey suit; the woman’s red-patterned top and black dress; his black hair; her grey hair. They stand at a discreet distance from the small hyper-ethnicised Chinese man, wearing only briefs. In this photo he ironically seems to have become the sign of the racial other as homunculus, suddenly exteriorized and fetishized. But a precarious new balance of subjectivity is struck, and the question arises whether he is their ethnic imaginary, or are they his (or both). It is as if, by limiting his naturally mottled skin colour to a single wavelength, Lee Wen becomes known to us. Uncanny and strangely recognisable, as if we had seen him before. No longer a body but an embodied trope, Lee’s body is transmuted into sign, returned to haunt us.

2. 表面 1935年,正当德国国家社会主义建立之时,德国哲学家斯·弗赖尔撰文提 到了该国民众如何“体会到政治性事物的威力、庞大以及无穷深度”(斯鲁 格:1993年,第88页)。弗赖尔所谓“政治性事物的深度”,指经历过大 萧条之后的德国渴望将政治结合行动、意识形态及哲学三者的欲求。这里求 的是思想与行动、精神与实体带着一份国家认同感聚合起来,产生一个新德 国的精彩时刻。可悲的是:这个目标不仅是理想主义式的,更是法西斯主义 式的。其理想主义其实是建立在歧视性行为和种族清洗之上的。 弗赖尔以理想主义式的现代主义精神召唤深度、召唤已融入本土的血与土的 意识形态。李文则不然。他的焦点所在,是后现代的身份认同的表面,是作 为文化构筑、作为遮掩的“皮肤”与“国家”。也许这样的表现方式依然是 理想主义式的,并且往往染上一丝浪漫色彩... 但它也总是掺杂着反讽意味。 在取自最近《我比你中国#4》(2008年)这项表演的一个图像中,我们看 到李文利用平平无奇的物件以及日常生活、意识形态和国家的各种标语,遮 掩身体。可是,李文最常展现、最能激起回响的遮掩,无非是皮肤本身。 在《一个黄人的旅程》系列中,李文用黄色油彩涂满身体,放大了他人对他 的基因特性的普遍成见。2 当然,具汉族血统的李文并不真是黄色的,正如 黑人不真是黑的,白人也不真是白的。黄黑白,只是语言上的譬喻,被人用 来标示及区别作为文化构筑的“种族”或种族特点。我们不妨说它们是“人 体测量术”,也就是测量基因差异的方法。涂上油彩的身体,在表演中产生 奇异的效应,仿佛能够改变它周围的整个色景。比如在这个“黄人”图像 中,所有的表面都因而提升了视觉效果:两个“白种”旁观者皮肤的粉红 色、他们身后墙壁的碧蓝斑驳、赭色的木质饰条、人行道的灰色、男子的双 排钮扣灰衣、女子的红色花纹上衣和黑色套裙、他的黑发、她的灰发。两人 谨慎地与那身材矮小、只穿着三角裤的、超种族化的华族男子保持距离。在 这幅照片中,黄色男子一下子显得外在化、恋物化,似乎已变成了一种带有 调侃意义的符号,是代表种族他者的小矮人。然而,某种不太稳当的主观性 平衡却于此重新形成;我们不禁要问:到底黄人是另外两人的种族想像,两 人是黄人的种族想像,还是两者皆是?在把本身本来就有点自然深浅的肤色 限制在单一波长的同时,李文仿佛因此而真正走进我们的认知仿佛我们曾经 在哪里见过他,这个又古怪又莫名其妙地似曾相识的人。李文的身体于是不 再是身体,而是一个实体化的譬喻,是转化成符号,再回来缠绕我们心头。

6. More China Than You # 4 [我比你中国] ‘Four Artists from Singapore’, 26cc, Rome, Italy July, 1, 2008 Photo: Kai Lam But isn’t this the very definition of the cliché? A sign that keeps reappearing, the all too easy metaphor that incessantly returns to haunt the collective mind? The Blue Man Group provides this sort of all too recognisable image, but in their implied physical perfection providing a post-fascist bourgeois ideal. Merely because of Klein’s use of blue, the Blue Man Group has also shown interest in the latter’s Anthropometry. So predictable…and cute. No real concept; just Blueishness. (As the Beatles put it, “Are you Blueish?”) The import of the Yellowman cuts deeper with its post-colonial hyperradicalization (see, for example the untitled collaborative performance with Helge Meyer and Marco Teubner at the 2nd Open Art Festival, Chengdu, Sichuan. The Yellowman was mutely and passively hanging from a pole like a half-dead or resigned slave, held over the shoulders by the two Germans, who walked around the town seeking to sell him back to the Chinese public.). Yet, perhaps because of its homogeneity the Yellowness also becomes a safe symbolic surface – a kind of utopianism of the skin + gaze. But there is something just under the unified and simplified Yellow surface that defies it: a painful rupture in homogeneity that recalls a former era of violent biometrics: the artist’s spine.

3. Spine Lee Wen’s spine: the aftermath of a late adolescent –early adult scoliosis is part of every Lee Wen performance. I want to ask, “How do we read Lee Wen’s spine in performance?” But it’s intimate relationship to the body of the viewer –in this case my body– refuses the use of the plural. I also suffered from an adolescent Scoliosis, but mine was caught early and improved with a brace and exercises. Lee’s spine was left to its own devices and curved in such a way as to produce a new radical symmetry, with the upper section of the spine curving right and the bottom balancing it to the left. While I experienced the rigid autocracy of the brace day and night, producing an indelible memory of a deep pain in the vertebra that would never entirely leave me, according to Lee Wen, his disease was not linked so much to pain as to an altered relationship to gravity and self-awareness. For both of us and millions of others with this disease, Scoliosis is linked with a mythology of monstrosity and hybridity, terrors of stigmatisation, social exclusion, difference, morbidity– the innocent but pitiable scape-goat figures of the Hunchback of Notre Dame and Frankenstein, but also the conniving and morally predator, Richard III, and the figure of an unnatural and unequivocal

7. Journey of a yellow man no.13: fragmented bodies/shifting ground The Third Asia-Pacific Triennale of Contemporary Art Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, Australia September 1999 Photograph: Andrea Higgins 可是,这不恰恰是“老套”的定义吗?一再出现的符号,丝毫不费心力的、 不断回来缠绕我们集体意识的隐喻,不正是陈词滥调吗?说起来,蓝人乐团 也同样呈现了这类令人感觉非常熟悉的形象,只不过他们所暗喻的实体完 美,彰显的是一种后法西斯中产阶级理想。蓝人乐团组合纯粹因为克莱因好 用蓝色,也对这位画家的《人体测量术》显露兴趣。多么可想而知又多么可 爱。这里没有任何真实的概念,只有“一点蓝色”的存在。(犹如披头四所 说的,“你是否有点蓝?”) 黄人的喻义,还因为本身的后殖民超激进化而显得更为深刻。(比如李文于 四川成都所举行的第2届“打开”国际行为艺术节上,连同赫哲·梅耶和马 克· 特布讷呈献的无题表演项目,便很能彰显这一点。 当时黄人沉默而被 动地垂吊在一根杆子上,像是个半死不活的人或者已经认命的奴隶。那两个 德国人把他扛在肩上,在城里到处行走,寻求将他再售卖给中国大众。)然 而,李文的黄,或许因为它的均匀,所以也成为了安全的象征性表面-某种 “皮肤+凝视”的乌托邦主义。剖开这层统一、简单化的黄色表面,底下又 何尝没有与其相悖的东西呢?底下正是撕裂均匀的创痛,有过去暴力性生物 认证时代的影子-是艺术家本人的脊椎。

3. 脊椎 李文的脊椎:青少年型脊柱侧凸的遗害,是李文每场表演的一部分。我想 问:“我们该如何解读李文在行为艺术表演中的脊椎呢?”但是作为观赏者 的我,自己的身体也与此关系密切,故此不免抗拒在发问中使用复数的“我 们”。我本人也曾受过少年型脊柱侧凸之苦,不过问题发现得早,最终通过 支架和运动获得了改善。李文的脊椎则是听其自便,弯曲到了出现全新对称 格局的程度-脊椎上段弯向右边,下段则弯向左边,互为平衡。根据我本人 的经历,日日夜夜完全受制于严酷的支架,会让人就椎骨的深度痛楚烙下不 可磨灭的记忆,终身难以全然忘怀。不过,据李文表示,他的病与其说联系 着剧痛,不如说显著地改变了他个人与地心吸力和自我意识的关系。对他、 我,还有千千万万同样患有这个病症的人而言,与脊柱侧凸相连的,是一整 套关于诡怪与杂种性的谬误传言;是被人烙上污点的恐怖遭遇;是被世人排 斥;是与他人不同;是病态;是钟楼驼侠及科学怪人一类既无辜又可怜的代

8. Untitled: yellow man In collaboration with System HM2T: Helge Meyer and Marco Teubner 2nd Open Art Festival, Chengdu, Sichuan, China 16 Aug. 2001 Photo: Arai Shin-ichi evil, Nosferatu. And it is linked to an abnormal medical mathematics of the body: measurements of the deformation from the norm, radical statistics and radical physics. The locus of Lee Wen’s spine in performance is not in his body but in the bodies and hermeneutics of the audience. So, to repeat my question above “How do we (each of us individually, including Lee) read Lee Wen’s spine in performance?” Thirty years after Susan Sontag’s Illness as Metaphor (1978) it is far too simplistic and problematic to think of Lee Wen’s spine as a metaphor. In contradistinction from a metaphorical interpretation, I speculate that the metrics imposed upon his body is more appropriately read through a historical biometric tradition that was deployed by Britain to measure and categorise its colonial subjects. In an 1868 article, J.H. Lamprey, Librarian of the Royal Geographical Society, in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Society , entitled ‘On a method of measuring the human form, for the use of students in ethnography’ , laid out his method for photographing colonial subjects, criminals and others of ethnographic interest, such as the working class. Lamprey’s and Thomas Henry Huxley’s 3 ‘Anthropometric Projections’ spurred the London Colonial Office in 1869 to request of all Colonial Governors that ‘photographs might be collected in the Colonies having much ethnographic value, and illustrating the peculiarities of the various races within the British possession’ (Cooper 1990: 60). Lee Wen’s Anthropometry Revision: Yellow period (after Yves Klein), now has produced an ironic hyper-ethnic re-staging of Yves Klein’s reference to a virulently racist system for the ethnographic imprinting of the bodies of colonial subjects. When Klein did his work in 1960, France was losing its last colonies. They were defeated by the Vietcong at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, and the Algerian War of Independence was beginning its final phase, leading to Algerian independence in 1962. Klein’s reference to colonial biometrics belies French colonialism, but also resonates with Singapore’s own colonial experience as part of British Malaya, where anthropometric photography was pioneered. The history and politics in this performance is played out at the surface of the body.

罪羔羊;此外又包括满腹阴谋的、道德上的猎食者理查三世,以及违逆自 然、绝对邪恶的妖魔诺斯费拉图。我们还可以说,它跟变态医学的人体数学 (对畸形与常态之间的差距加以测量的行为)、激进统计学和激进物理,都 有联系。 在行为艺术表演中,李文的脊椎其实不在他的身体内,而是在观众的身体和 诠释之中。故此,我必须如此重复我上面提出的问题:“我们(个别的每一 个人,包括李文自己)该如何解读李文在行为艺术表演中的脊椎呢?”苏 珊·桑塔格写出《作为隐喻的疾病》(1978年)至今已过了30年,我们今 天如果再把李文的脊椎想成是一种隐喻,未免过于简单化,也太有问题了。 相对于隐喻诠释而言,我猜想我们可以通过某一套生物认证历史传统,更恰 当地解读强加在他身体上的衡量标准。我指的是英国曾经用来测量其殖民地 臣民、加以分类的一套方法。 1868年,皇家地理学会的图书管理员J.H.蓝普瑞在《皇家人类学会学刊》上 发表了一篇文章,题为<论供学习人种志者使用的一种测量人类形体的方法 > 。文章陈述了他的一套拍摄照片的方法,拍摄对象为殖民地臣民、罪犯, 以及人种记录兴趣所在的其他群体(如工人阶级等)。蓝普瑞及赫胥黎


“人体测量术预测”,促使了伦敦殖民部在1869年要求所有的殖民地总督 “在殖民地内,对凡是极具人种记录价值、能显示属英国统治的各种种族怪 异之处的照片,加以收集”(库柏:1990年, 第60页)。 给殖民地臣民的身体打上印记的、具有强烈种族主义色彩的人种志式系统, 过去曾为伊夫·克莱因所指涉。如今,李文的《对人体测量术的修订:黄色 时代〔仿伊夫·克莱因〕》已针对他的指涉,注入反讽,打造出富有超种族 意味的重新表现。1960年,当克莱因埋头创作之时,法国正在失去它最后 的一批殖民地。法国人于1954年在奠边府被越共打败,而阿尔及利亚独立 战争亦开始进入最后阶段,最终导致阿尔及利亚于1962年取得独立。克莱 因对殖民时期生物认证的指涉,不仅是违逆法国殖民主义,对于新加坡也是 足以激发共鸣的。毕竟新加坡也走过一段殖民地岁月,过去曾隶属英属马来 亚,而那里正是人体测量术摄影的发源地。李文这项行为艺术表演所蕴含的 历史和政治,尽在身体表面上演绎成形。

Notes 注释 1



Ghost Stories was presented at the 2nd Nippon International Performance Art Festival, Tokyo and Nagano Feb1995 4th Asian Art Show, Tokyo, April 1995 3rd Castle of Imagination, Bytow, Poland, June 1995 1st Gwangju Biennale Gwangju, South Korea, 1995 (installation) Hand-Made Tales, The Black Box, Theatre Works, Singapore, 1996 (installation & performance) Simposio International De Escultura Mexico-Japon, Tuxtla Guttierez, Chiapas, Mexico 1997 (installation and performance) Sexta Bienal de La Habana, Havana, Cuba 1997 (installation) (Lee Wen, email correspondence 3/3/03) 《鬼故事》曾于下列场合呈献: 1995年2月在东京及长野举行的第2届日本国际行为艺术节。 1995年4月在东京举行的第4届亚洲艺术展。 1995年6月在波兰比托举行的第3届“幻想城堡”行为艺术节。 1995年南韩光州的第1届光州双年展(装置艺术项目)。 1996年在新加坡剧艺工作坊黑箱剧场的《手工故事》(装置与行为艺术项目)。 1997年在墨西哥恰帕斯州图斯特拉—古铁雷斯举行的墨西哥-日本国际文化讨论会(装置与行为艺术项目)。 1997年在古巴哈瓦那举行的第6届哈瓦那双年展(装置艺术项目)。(根据李文2003年3月3日电邮通信) In his catalogue essay for the Third Asia-Pacific Triennale (1999) writer, Lee Weng Choy described Lee Wen’s Yellowman trope: “While Lee Wen’s iconic imagery may seem rather obvious, what he articulates is a complex and multilayered negotiation of self-representation. As a Chinese, the all-over yellow paint exaggerates his own ethnicity, but rather than suggesting a straightforward embrace of Chinese-ness, his ‘performance’ of identity is ambiguous and playful. (Lee W.C. 1999) 撰稿人李文财在他收录于第3届亚太三年展(1999年)画册的文章中,如此描述李文的“黄人”譬喻:“虽然李文的指号意象或许明显了一点, 他所呈现的,却是对自我表现问题的 一种复杂的多层次解决方式。涂身全身的黄色油彩,夸张地显示了他作为一个华人的种族特点;但与其说它暗示了‘华族性’直截了当的拥护,不如说李文的身份认同行为’表演’ 模棱两可、具有嬉戏意味。” (李文财,1999年) Huxley, a strong supporter of Darwin’s theories, was Lecturer in Natural History (1854), at the Royal School of Mines and the Royal College of Science (later unified as the Imperial College of Science and Technology). 赫胥黎是达尔文的理论的大力支持者,曾担任皇家矿务学院(1854年)及皇家科学学院博物学讲师之职。(这两所学院后来合并为帝国科技学院。)

Sources Blue Man Group Website (10.07.08) Cooper, Emmanuel (1990) Fully Exposed: The Male Nude in Photography, London and New York: Routledge. Lee Weng Choy, 1999, catalogue essay, The Third Asia Pacific Triennial, Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane: Australia. Sluga, Hans, 1993, Heidegger’s Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press Wikkipeadia scoliosis, (10.07-08) 参考文献 蓝人乐坛网站,见:。 以马内利.库柏:《全面曝光:摄影中的男性裸体》,伦敦与纽约罗德里奇出版社1990年版。 李文财:《第3届亚太三年展》画册专文,澳洲布里斯班昆士兰美术馆1999年版。 汉斯.斯鲁格:《海德格尔的危机:纳粹德国的哲学与政治》,马萨诸塞州坎布里奇哈佛大学出版社1993年版。 维基百科“脊柱侧凸”条目,见: (10.07.08)。

Dr. Ray Langenbach’s research focuses on the performance and politics of information dissemination, propaganda, and performance. He currently serves as Adjunct Professor, Finnish Academy of Fine Arts, Co-Head of the Department of Performance + Media, Sunway University, Kuala Lumpur, and Adjunct Senior Fellow, School of Contemporary Arts, University of Western Sydney. He regularly writes criticism and performance theory, performs, and convenes unsustainable international gatherings. 9. Anthropometry Revision 1, Digital Lamda Print, 2006, 101.6 cm X 142.24 cm

10. Anthropometry Revision 2, Digital Lamda Print, 2006 Tryptich, 101.6cm X 101.6 cm each

雷·朗根巴(Ray Langenbach) 赫博士的研究重点为信息传播的行为与政治、宣传,以及表演行为。他目前担任芬兰美术学院的兼职教授、吉隆坡双威大 学表演及媒体系的系主任之一,以及西悉尼大学当代艺术学院的副资深院士。此外,他也定期撰写评论和表演理论、参与表演,以及召开各种无法持续 的国际聚会。

The Extension of Form By Difference 延异的赋形 Dr.Zha Changping 查常平 博士

Two male nude artists and one female artist in maillot are printing their body’ s figure with yellow paint on canvases spread out on the wall and the floor in the studio gallery of Red and Grey Art Contemporary in Chengdu. At the end of time of their actions, they walked around on it and dragged each other’ s bodies in turn till the whole canvas on the floor is scraped into yellow. The complete process of performance lasted about 30 minutes accompanied with music played by five musicians. Each instrument played just one note repeatedly. The music group is made up of the musicians who played on five different traditional musical instruments of China. This is an artistic work of performance done on the 13th April, 2008, by Lee Wen, a Singaporean artist, who cooperated with two young Chengdu-based artists He Liping and Jiang Jing entitled Anthropometry Revision: Yellow Period (After Yves Klein) . In March 9 1960, at the Galerie International d’ Art Contemporain in Paris, the now famous International Klein Blue (IKB), a deep blue hue first mixed by the French artist Yves Klein was laid on three female nude models. They printed and painted themselves on the canvas on the wall and the ground, while the “Monotone Symphony” was being performed, with a nine-piece orchestra playing one single note. This is a performance of the French avant-garde artist of Yves Klein’s “Anthropometries: Blue Period.” The artist made an effort to have stood by, with suit and white gloves, in order to make his body not to be contaminated by anything from any social groups and individuals. However, his hidden will is ruling over the whole process of the performance, which was criticized by feminists in the 1980s that thought that Yves Klein’s performance intentions of domination, slavery, an onslaught of patriarchal aesthetics against female bodies. But Lee Wen radically responded and criticized this work. The way Klein had made use of the female nude models as paint brushes can be liken to how some Chinese artists of avant-garde inclinations had made use of some peasant workers in the cities as material while making their art works recently. Letting the peasant itinerant workers be stood up against the wall of a gallery as builders like some slaves, while waiting for being offered a price and looked on in the market similar to that in ancient times. The relationship is like that between slave owners and slaves in the ancient world as these artists supposedly conscious thinking individuals treated another human body of mind, flesh and blood as a mere object. This is a crucial reason for Lee Wen’s insistence on doing the performance in person. The artistic idea in the work of Yves Klein was to get rid of his own authorial hands and any subjective colors of emotion on the frame in order to have it un-individualized,

两位男性裸体艺术家与一位穿紧身衣的女性艺术家,把自己身体的轮廓用黄 色印制在铺放于墙面和地面的画布上,最后,前者索性拖着后者的身体在画 布上来回走动,直到整块画布被涂抹成黄色。全部表演过程,持续约 30 分 钟,伴随着乐团的演奏,只是每个乐器重复演奏一个音符。乐团由五个传统 中国乐器的演奏者组成。这是新加坡艺术家李文和成都的年轻艺术家何利 平、蒋晶合作、亲自参与实施的行为,名为“改写人体测量学:黄色时期 (后克莱因)”,时间为2008年4月13日。 1960年3月9日,三位女性裸体模特在身上涂抹著名的国际克莱因蓝,将其 印在墙面和地面的画布上, 9 个管弦乐器单调重复演奏一个音符。这是法 国前卫艺术家伊夫·克莱因( Yves Klein )完成的“人体测量学:蓝色时 期”。艺术家竭力处于袖手旁观状态,他身穿礼服领带、手戴白色手套,使 自己的身体不受社会和个人的任何污染,但其隐秘的意志主宰着整个行为 的实施过程,因而该行为在 80 年代受到女权主义者的批评,认为它意味着 父权制美学对女性身体的支配、奴役与宰割。 对此,李文有着更为激进的评论:当艺术家以女性裸体模特为画笔的时候, 如同近年一些中国前卫艺术家以民工为媒材来创作,让他们作为建筑工人站 立在美术馆墙边,如同古代市场上待人定价、观摩的奴隶,这是把有着心理 意识的人当作只有肉体生命的客体,由此形成了古代世界中奴隶主与奴隶的 关系。这也是为什么李文坚持自己参与创作的根本原因。克莱因作品的艺 术观念,是要免去艺术家动手,在画面上抹去主观情感的颜色,使之非个 性化,同时赋予画面一种非物质的、形而上的质素(according to Edward Lucie-Smith),但是,他并不可能彻底消除自己个人的艺术意志对于行为 作品的凌驾,不可能不在作品上留下自己的踪迹,因为,在一张曝光不足的 现场图片中,观众可以看到克莱因的一只手正从后面指挥一位模特的行动; 因为,艺术史最后记住的,还是克莱因本人的名字而不是那三位康健美丽的 裸体模特。她们仅仅是完成作品的媒材,和蓝色的颜料、画布之类物质性的 在者无本质区别。两个行为之主体的差异表现在:一是与艺术家共在的具有 意识生命的存在者,一是和艺术家异在的仅有肉体生命的生存者。实际上, 这向任何以行为为媒介的艺术家提出了一个 尖锐的问题:行为艺术家,能 够在作品的创作中消解自己的个人意志吗?如果不能,那么,在实施行为过 程中该如何保守人体媒材作为人的独特尊严,即使在艺术家与他人共同参与

while he tried to give it a ‘de-materialised’ and metaphysical element according to the review from Edward Lucie-Smith. However, he could not completely eliminate his personal traces and will of art ruling over the performance, as the can be seen in the photo and film documentations that he was in control of one of the models from behind. Furthermore in the history of art it is finally Klein’ s name to be remembered and not that of the three healthy and beautiful nude models’. The models are merely some materials to be used for the making of art works, and have no essential differences from other materials such as blue paint or canvas. The difference in the two performances is that both collaborators in Lee Wen’s are put on par in terms of free will and consciousness whereas Klein’s models were alienated from theirs. Actually, this will put forward an incisive question to any artist who chooses performance art as medium: can the performance artist remove his individual will from his creations? If not, how could one maintain a unique dignity using his own body as an art medium even when in the case of artist’s cooperation or collaboration with other persons? The canvas on the wall showed prints and traces of yellow human figures in Lee Wen’s works, while some blue or dark grey female figures are in the Klein’s works. Similarly the canvas on the ground showed a slabs of yellow in the former and blue in the latter’s. Through performance both of them had used the body as subjects of action revealing a physical and psychological survey. Their resulting differences from the performances as shown in the two colours of yellow and blue, could discern or signify the yellow human race visà-vis to the white with blue eyes, associating them with Klein’s effort to ‘immaterialize’ the Western tradition of culture since Renaissance. He studied Judo in Japan, was infatuated with the Jewish mysticism and the doctrines of Rosicrucian of the Fraternal Order, and suggested that artist should return to the real life which means that in his life he does not consider man as the center of the cosmos but the cosmos as the center of man. In other words, the ideas of Klein belong rather to the tradition of the Asian cultures where Lee Wen lives. The similarity of the conceptual backgrounds among their performances perhaps is the profound reason why Lee Wen chose Klein’s work as his object of performing with revision amongst innumerable performance art works since the 1960s. It is the ‘non-repeatability’ of performance art calls for such works to be commemorated in reiteration. But the artist in choosing a work occasionally from history could just appropriate it to fit into his own aesthetic taste, including monochromes or both male and females sexes and objectifying them within the cultural philosophy. Regardless of whether Lee Wen chose Klein’s work from the perspective of commemoration or that of the spirit of rational culture, which is characteristic of scientism and materialism with regards to Western modern times against which Klein had tried to negate, this in essence begs the question: can the artist completely transcend his cultural traditions to make works. The answer is no. That Klein considered the female nude model as actual representation of flesh and blood serving their physical function as “human paint brushes” in the process of performance are in part based on a cultural tradition in which man has been dominated and alienated as physical beings from the Western modern times. Moreover, the interpretation of the contemporary arts in Asian traditions is fated to be a complex pluralism and post-modernity. Looking at it as a complete unit, the cultural traditions of Asia in themselves are a pluralistic social system including Confucianism, Daoism, Shinto, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islamism, Judaism and Christianity. Even within Confucianism there are varied differences

的情形下? 在墙面画布上,李文的作品留下的是一块块黄色的人体形象,克莱 因的作品则为极度灰色的蓝色女性人体形象;而在地面画布,前者 为一块黄色,后者为一块蓝色。两件作品都是对行为主体的人体与 心理的测量。其行为结果的差异,表现为黄色与蓝色两种色域的差 异,即使把前者理解为黄色人种的象征,把后者诠释为蓝眼睛的白 色人种,进而让人联想到克莱因要将文艺复兴以来的西方文化传统 “非物化”的企图。他在日本学习柔道,他迷恋源于犹太教神秘哲 学和共济会纲领的玫瑰十字会的教义,他提议艺术家回归真实的生 活即在生活中不要以为人是宇宙的中心而要把宇宙当作人的中心。 换言之,在观念上,克莱因更多属于李文所在的亚洲文化的传统。 这种行为的思想背景在观念上的相似性,或许正是李文从1960年代 以来的无数行为作品中择取克莱因的行为来修正表演的深层原因。 行为这种艺术形态的不可重复性特征,呼求作品在重演中被纪念。 但是,艺术家并不会偶在地选择历史上的某个作品,他只会挪用符 合自己的单色审美趣味与男女两性共在的文化哲学的那些对象。无 论从李文选择克莱因的作品为纪念对象看还是从克莱因所要反叛的 西方近代以来以科学主义、物质主义为代表的理性文化精神看,这 实质上是要追问:艺术家能否完全超越自己的文化传统去创作? 答案为:“否!” 克莱因把女性裸体模特当作肉体生命的生存者,和她们在行为过程 中作为“画笔”的物性功能,这乃是西方近代以来把人当作物质性 的在者来支配的、异化的文化传统的一部分。 此外,当代艺术在亚 洲传统中的诠释,注定将是一种多元共生的、后现代性的诠释。因 为,亚洲的文化传统,就整体而言本身便是一个多元的事实体系, 包括儒教、道教、神道教、佛教、印度教、伊斯兰教、犹太教乃至 基督教。即使在儒教内部,也有中国、韩国与日本儒教等之间的区 别。亚洲的艺术爱者戴着这样的多元眼镜来看当代艺术,自然会得 出彼此相去甚远的结论,进而形成了一个彼此离心的族群。纵然是 相同的行为过程,因其发生的文化场景的不同而被赋予了不同的意 义诠释空间。 克莱因宣称 1940 年已经开始单色油画的实验。他 1960 年在巴黎国 际当代艺术画廊完成“人体测量学:蓝色时期”。画廊更多是展示 艺术作品的地方。克莱因的行为,是一件孤立的作品,不存在一个 和其他艺术形态相呼应的上下文。李文尽管在红与灰艺术当代画廊 实施行为,但是,该画廊所在的大环境为成都蓝顶艺术中心,一处 以生产绘画艺术为主的创作基地。在那里,像何多苓、周春芽、郭 伟、赵能智、吴建军、罗应龙等艺术家,在自己的作品中都融入了 对人体的再现。两件行为发生地点的这种差异,让我们不得不讨论 行为与绘画中的身体书写各自的含义。

within the Chinese, Korean and Japanese ones. When the Asian lovers for art put on such multi-dimensional looking glasses to read the contemporary arts, they will naturally draw many different conclusions from each other, forming non-centric groups amongst themselves. Though the processes of their performances may be the same, different interpretive significances and possibilities are given because of their different cultural scenarios. Klein claimed that he had begun to experiment with the monochromatic oil painting since 1940s. He performed Anthropometries: Blue Period at the International Gallery of Contemporary Art, in 1960 in Paris. The gallery is usually a place where artistic works will be shown. The performance of Klein is a solitary one in which there is no context of other artistic forms. Although Lee Wen’s performance was made in the warehouse studio space of Red and Grey Art Contemporary, located in Lan-ding Art Centre, a studio complex of artistic production in Chengdu where many oil paintings are produced. In the works of amongst the artists working there such as He Duoling, Zhou Chunya, Guo Wei, Zhao Nengzhi, Wu Jianjun, Wu Yinglong and so on, the body is profusely represented. The distinction of the places where Lee Wen’s performance and Klein’s happened makes us wonder about the significances of the writing and context of the body in both performance and painting.

p.4-13 Anthropometry Revision:Yellow period (after Yves Klein) details: - Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, He Liping, 13 April 2008, Red & Grey Art Contemporary, Cheng Du, China, Photography: Chua Soo Bin

As a subject matter or element of creation, the body in painting is one painted by brush, belonging to their immanent and organic part, and has a possibility to open up an exquisite aesthetics. It is a form expression of man’ s subjective life-emotion by artists, silently staying within the frame, expecting the correspondence and concern from the lovers for art, and lets us have an association with the spiritual instantaneous look at all kinds of people in reality. In the process of making a painting, the painter will pay more attention to how to represent exactly the image of the body, which he wants to express. Sometimes he has a subjective relation with the image, and put himself in its position to imagine its spiritual gesture in the frame in some concrete scenes or in empty backgrounds, while he has an objective relation with it, and regards it in the frame as an objective being to be surveyed, amended, scraped and coloured. However, if the body is used in performance as a material liken to that of a paintbrush, its exterior relationship with the created works, have the characteristics of variable, augmented aesthetics. In the process of making the performance, the spiritual life of the artist determines his physical form and movement, which schematically frames it within the created image. Once the performance is ended, like a painter after completing his paintings, the body of the artist will be separated from his works. In this sense, the performances of both Lee Wen and Klein are not a pure performance art in which the body is used as material and which directs to it, but an action painting in which the body is used as a material, because both of them left behind some object which could be collected in a gallery.

作为一种题材或创作元素,绘画中的人体是画笔下的身体,属于作 品内在的、有机构成部分,内含着开出细致美学的可能性。它是艺 术家对人的主观生命情感的图式表达,它静静地呆在画面里面,期 待着艺术爱者的回应与关注,使人联想到现实生活中各样人物瞬间 的精神情态。在创作绘画的过程中,艺术家考虑得更多的是如何把 要表达的身体意象准确地呈现出来。他时而与其处于主观的关系, 设身处地地设想画面中的身体在具体的场景中或抽空后的背景中的 精神姿态;时而处于客观的关系,把画面中的人体当作一个客观的 在者来审视、修改、涂抹、着色。行为中的身体作为媒材,却被当 作为一种题材或创作元素,绘画中的人体是画笔下的身体,属于作 品内在的、有机构成部分,内含着开出细致美学的可能性。它是艺 术家对人的主观生命情感的图式表达,它静静地呆在画面里面,期 待着艺术爱者的回应与关注,使人联想到现实生活中各样人物瞬间 的精神情态。在创作绘画的过程中,艺术家考虑得更多的是如何把 要表达的身体意象准确地呈现出来。他时而与其处于主观的关系, 设身处地地设想画面中的身体在具体的场景中或抽空后的背景中的 精神姿态;时而处于客观的关系,把画面中的人体当作一个客观的 在者来审视、修改、涂抹、着色。行为中的身体作为媒材,却被当 作画笔来书写,和作品处于外在的关系,其更多呈现为某种粗旷 的、流动的极致美学。艺术家在实施行为过程中的精神生命,决定 着他的身体运动的形式,而他的身体运动的形式决定着画面的图式 效果。一旦行为完成,艺术家的身体就和作品分离,如同画家在完 成绘画作品之后一样。在这个意义上,李文与克莱因的行为,都不 是纯粹的以身体为媒材又指向身体的行为艺术,而是以身体为媒材 的行动绘画。因为,它们共同留下了可以作为收藏对象的物件本 身。 另一方面,绘画中的身体,乃是不可被重复纪念的身体。任何艺术 家,如果以纪念的名义重复书写他人在绘画中所表达过的身体,那 么,他就丧失了作为艺术家的资格,即使在今天这个以复制为特征 的后现代多元社会。相反,行为艺术本身的一次性,决定了一些行 为作品只有在被重复表演中才能被记起。这相当于一幅绘画作品在 不同时间异地展出,因此,无论就其存在样态还是传播方式而言, 绘画还是属于空间艺术的范畴。相反,行为中的身体,是可被纪念 的、充满时间性的身体。

On the other hand, the body in paintings is that which could not be commemorated repeatedly. Even in our post-modern pluralistic society of today, which has the characteristic of replication, if any artist repaints the body that others had painted in the past in the name of commemoration, he will lose his qualification as an artist. On the contrary, the uniqueness of a performance in itself determines that some works of performance could be remembered only in the repetition of the performance. Similarly pictorial representation or an oil painting can be shown repeatedly at different times and in different spaces. Therefore, whether in the light of the presence of painting or of its form of communication, it should be seen as special categories of art. Thus due to the temporal attribute (in German: Zeitlichkeit ) of performance art the body in performances could be commemorated in time.


Through the differing use of the body as material, performance art and painting could draw insights from each other. The difference between the two media in itself is not so important but more what kind of idea about the body could be formed with them, and what kind of thinking and philosophy on the body could be given to all art lovers. Lee Wen’s performance in Chengdu Nan-ding Art Centre has an irreplaceable symbolic significance for the artistic surroundings of Chengdu. It is not always necessary for performance art to belong to the historical avant-garde of being written on the street corners. Performance art could transcend the abyss of time and leave behind some trace in painting. As long as the creative activity of artists aims at experimenting with the arts, and as long as artists do not consider their own works as an unique standard of art, whether they choose any media as such, be it performance, installation, sculpture, new media, painting or they use any materials such as the body, the ready-made, lacquer for motorcar, sounds, and paint, they might sit together to discuss the artistic questions of culture about which they give themselves concern for each other, and share their spiritual life, conscious life as a creator of cultural life.


要的不是行为与绘画两种媒介的差别,而是在这两种不同的媒介中 究竟能否为现代人打开一种什么样的身体观念,以及它们会给一切 艺术爱者带来什么样的身体哲学的思考。李文在蓝顶艺术中心的行 为,对于成都的艺术生态具有不可替代的象征意义:行为,不一定 就必然属于转瞬即逝的街头前卫,也可以超越时间的虚无留下绘画 性的踪迹。只要艺术家的书写活动的目的是为了探寻艺术,只要艺 术家不以自己的作品为艺术的唯一标准图式,无论他选择行为、装 置、雕塑、新媒体还是绘画之类的媒介,无论他是否以身体、现成 品、汽车烤漆、声音还是颜料之类媒材,他们就可以坐在一起共同 讨论彼此关心的文化艺术问题,他们就可以作为文化生命的创造者

概言之,延异指李文的“黄色时期”和克莱因的“蓝色时期”处于 历时性的时间轴上的差异。它体现在两者的行为主体、行为结果、 行为背景之间,体现在行为与绘画之间的身体书写上;延异的赋 形,指李文的行为通过在上述几个方面和克莱因的行为保持差异进 而获取其独特意义的途径。 (2008-7-4一稿、7-11二稿于成都)

In sum, the meaning of différence in the title of this paper indicates the diachronic differences between Lee Wen’s Yellow Period (After Yves Klein) and Yves Klein’s Blue Period in the temporal axis, which are embodied in their subjects, resulting backgrounds and in the writing of the body between performance and painting. The extension of form by différence signifies a way by which Lee Wen’s performance gets its special significance through keeping these differences from Klein’s. (First manuscript written in July 4th, the second one in July 11th , 2008, at Chengdu.) Translated from Chinese by Dr. Zha Changping edited by Lee Wen.

Dr. Zha Changping, born in Chongqing, lives in Chengdu, is an art critic and humanities scholar. His research is based in English, Japanese, Greek and Hebrew languages, with a doctorate from Renmin University of China, Beijing. His research comprises art criticism, biblical studies, and history-logic. Recent publications include The Logic of Japanese History (Chengdu, 1995), History and Logic, The Cultural Logic of the Humanitology (‘Humanitology’ coined by Dr.Zha incorporating: humanit - as the root of the feminine noun and humanitas in Latin): a comparative study of art, religion and history. (Chengdu: Bashu, 2007), translations of Christianity and Western Thought (vol.1, Beijing: Beida, 2005), The Emperor System and Christianity in the Transformation of Modern Japanese Society (Beijing: Huaxia, 2007) and regularly publishes articles on art, religion and metaphysics. Dr. Zha is chief editor of Classical Translation Library of Christian Culture , Shanghai since 2006, and Guiyang-based Journal for Humanities and Art 《人文艺术》since 1999, which has a regular highlight on contemporary art and performance art. He is associate professor and teaches at Christianity Research Centre of Sichuan University, Institute of Daoism and Religious Studies. 查常平,笔名:西美正。1966年生于重庆市。中国中日关系史学会会员,中华美学学会会员。1983-1987,四川大学日本语言文学专业,获学士学位;1987-1990,四川师 范大学文艺学专业,获硕士学位;2001-2004 中国人民大学哲学系宗教学专业,获博士学位。1990-1995,四川省文史研究馆编辑;1993-1995,兼任成都科技进修学院、 成都外语学校日本语主讲,四川省劳务输出公司日本语翻译;1995-2001,《文史杂志》艺术编辑;2001-2004中国人民大学哲学系宗教学博士候选人;2004-2005,四川 省文史研究馆;2005-至今,四川大学基督教研究中心;1999-至今,《人文艺术》论丛主编。 人生定向:以信仰为基业、以学问为志业、以批评为事业、以教师为职业、 以翻译为副业。 学术方向:艺术评论 、历史逻辑、圣经研究、日本文化。 学术理念:以原创性的逻辑历史学阐释人类历史的逻辑,奠立汉语人文学术发展的内在根基。

ILY - International Lee Yellow 国际克莱恩蓝 Dr.Lukasz Guzek

卢卡兹.古泽博士 博士

In the year 1947 on a beach, under the blue, cloudless sky of the French Riviera in Nice, three friends divided the world between themselves: Arman took the Earth with its riches, Claude Pascal took the air and Yves Klein took the sky. They have remained faithful to this division: Arman in art, Pascal in poetry. Klein created IKB - International Klein Blue - his own blue. Blue is the expression of Klein’s deep metaphysical beliefs. However, it was not the type of metaphysics that separates life from the World and detaches the body from the spirit – on the contrary – it allows one to feel them. The three friends were united by one more thing – their inclination for judo. Klein reached the highest possible level of mastery for a European in this sport, studying it also in Japan. In the art of the Far East, e.g. in calligraphy, one can distinguish two levels (phases, or planes): preparation, which consists of summoning one’s inner strengths, and the performing gesture. In the art of the West, this division would correspond to two completely different or even contrasting tendencies – the expressionist tendency and the conceptual tendency. Klein united them by eliminating direct, ‘manual’ labour of the artist from the process of creating a work of art (a picture). Lee Wen pays special attention to this aspect of Klein’s art. At the same time, manual skills are basic for Western art, especially in the topic of nude, in which the concept of classical beauty used to materialize. In Klein’s art, the body functions by itself, body as body, and not only as a picture and representation. In relation to visual forms, it functions as the causative agent, replacing the artist, who takes the conceptual role. The title: ‘Anthropometries’ indicates a measuring unit for this kind of art. It is a human being – its physical and mental condition, which allows joining the visual form, the expression of gesture and its inner, conceptual basis. Klein’ s art combines in itself the East and the West and that may be why it still is a source of inspiration. ‘Anthropometries’ have features of a so-called ‘good gesture’. The concept of ‘good gesture’ in art was described by Brian O’Doherty in his book – ‘Inside the white cube” with reference to the choices that Duchamp made when arranging the space of International Surrealist Exhibition in Galerie Beaux – Arts in Paris in 1938. It especially referred to ‘1200 Coal Bags’. Duchamp ‘took what nobody wanted’ – the ceiling, which, in the context of the modernist ‘white cube’, means paying attention to the whole of space as the space of a work of art. O’Doherty says that a ‘good gesture’ is like an invention which is

1947 年,在尼斯“法国利维埃拉” 碧蓝无云的天空下,三个好友将宇 宙瓜分:土地归阿尔芒( Arman ),空气归克鲁德·帕斯卡尔( Claude Pascal),天空归伊夫.克莱因(Yves Klein)。他们都忠于各自的领域:尽 管他们的行业各异—阿尔芒从事艺术,帕斯卡尔写诗,克莱因创造了他自己 的蓝色—国际克莱因蓝,但都忠实遵守了当初划分的领域。 蓝色表达了克 莱因深层的形而上信仰。然而,这一信仰并未分离生活与世界、身体与精 神,正相反,它许可人感受所有这一切。 这三个好友因其对柔道的爱好而走到一起。克莱因在日本学习柔道,达到了 欧洲人在此项运动中的最高等级。在书法等远东艺术中常常可以显示出两个 层次(或者说阶段、水平):先在准备阶段召唤一个人的内在力量,然后再 摆出姿势。在西方艺术中,这一划分可以对应于两个截然不同乃至完全相反 的趋向—表现主义意图和观念意图。克莱因通过在艺术作品(画面)创作过 程中去除直接的“手工”劳动而统一了这两个意图。 李文特别从这个角度关注了克莱因的艺术。同时,西方艺术—特别是其人体 题材,一直以手上工夫为基础,古典美的概念从而被具体化。在克莱因的艺 术中,身体只作为身体自身,而不再具有画面或再现的意义。就其与视觉形

followed by many different applications. It also has meta-character for other gestures – it constitutes their basis which is so obvious and natural that in subsequent realizations it is taken ‘on faith’ and, in this way, ‘forgotten’. While re-enacting Klein’s gesture, Lee Wen introduces a series of changes in it. As a performer, Lee Wen carries out the gestures of pictorial expression by himself; he uses the yellow colour which results from the context of his own cultural specificity; Klein’s monochromatic painting was accompanied by monotone music (the orchestra plays one note), while here a traditional Chinese pentatonic (five-tone) scale is used; the artist Jiang Jing decided to perform in a costume, because she found nudity to be a cliché – too direct a link to models in ‘Anthropometries’. In his text, Lee Wen asked if it is possible to re-enact Klein’s gesture in the Asian context. It is not about the conformity with the original idea. The frames of ‘Anthropometries’ allow for the specific Asian character, which becomes visible in, e.g. the attitude to body in art, in public space. It seems, though, that an especially interesting element is the way in which the issue of expression of pictorial gesture, so important in the art of Asia, is artistically solved. The confrontation of pictorial gestures of the East and the West still seems to be an inexhaustible topic in art.

姿势中,构成这些姿势的基础,它自然而显著地构成其后各种姿势的基础, 于是在随后的显现中,它“单凭信仰”而出现,由此终被“遗忘”。 李文再次扮演了克莱因的姿态,并在其中引进一系列变化。表演者李文作出 了自己的画面传达姿态;他使用的黄色源自其特定的文化语境,克莱因以单 音调音乐(管弦乐队只发出一个音)伴奏其单色画,李文则用中国传统的五 音音阶伴奏;艺术家 蒋晶决定穿衣表演,因为在她看来,裸体已经成为陈 词滥调—它过于直白地联系着“人体测量术”模式。 李文在文章出提出,是否可能在亚洲语境中再次扮演克莱因的姿态。但他并 非要遵照克莱因原本的想法。“人体测量术”的框架允许具体的亚洲个性, 比如对公共空间中人体艺术的态度就体现了这一点。尽管,画面姿态的表达 似乎作为一个非常有趣的艺术元素,也作为亚洲艺术中的一个重要问题,已 经获得了艺术的解决,但东西方画面姿势的遭遇似乎仍将是一个未可穷尽的 艺术课题。

式的关系而言,它是“因”,视觉形式是“果”,从而在概念上取代了艺术 家的位置。 题目“人体测量术”暗示着人体成为这类艺术中的一个度量单位。单位是一 个人—包括其身体与精神状况,并结合以视觉形式、姿态传达、以及内心的 观念基础。克莱因的艺术本身就是东西方的融合,或许正因如此,至今仍然 成为人们的灵感之源。 “人体测量术”的特点是所谓的“好姿势”。布莱恩·欧多赫堤( Brian O’Doherty )在他的书中描述了艺术中的“好姿势”概念—“在白色立 方内”,参照杜尚在 1938 年巴黎巴黎美术学院画廊“国际超现实主义展 览”的空间选择。它特别提到“1200个煤袋”。杜尚“选择了没人要的地 方”—天花板,在现代主义的“白色立方”中,这个选择意味着将整个空间 视为一个关于空间的艺术品。欧多赫堤说,“好姿势”就像一个发明,会伴 随以许多不同的应用。“好姿势”还以自然而显著的方式显现于此后的其它

Dr. Lukasz Guzek received his Phd from Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland with focused research on performance and installation art. He published his thesis in a book entitled: ‘Installation Art. The question of the relationship between space and presentness in contemporary art’ . Guzek is also working in collaboration with Polish art magazine Obieg , and editorial commitee member of Quebec-based art magazine, ‘Inter’ . He is also actively involved as a curator, art historian and theoretician, author of numerous publications on contemporary art, foundermember of the Fort Sztuki Association, editor of an online contemporary art journal 卢卡兹·古泽博士获得以其表演与装置艺术研究获得波兰克拉科夫雅盖隆大学博士学位。他的博士论文《装置艺术—当代艺术中空间与呈现关系的问 题》亦获得发表。古泽也与波兰艺术杂志《Obieg》合作,并且是魁北克艺术杂志《Inter》的编委会成员。他还是一个活跃的策展人、艺术史学家和艺 术理论家,撰写了多部当代艺术著作,并且是艺术堡垒协会(Fort Sztuki Association)的创始成员、在线当代艺术杂志的编辑。

Works 作品

Anthropometry Revision 改写人体测量学 110 x 75cm acrylic on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶、何利平,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision 改写人体测量学 110 x 75cm acrylic on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶、何利平,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: JJ02 改写人体测量学: JJ02 110 x 75cm acrylic on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: JJ04 改写人体测量学: JJ04 110 x 75cm acrylic on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: JJ07 改写人体测量学: JJ07 110 x 75cm acrylic on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: JJ08 改写人体测量学: JJ08 110 x 75cm acrylic on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: HLP06 改写人体测量学: HLP06 110 x 75cm acrylic on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与何利平,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: HLP07 改写人体测量学: HLP07 110 x 75cm acrylic on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与何利平,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: HLP02 改写人体测量学: HLP02 110 x 75cm acrylic on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与何利平,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: HLP03 改写人体测量学: HLP03 110 x 75cm acrylic on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与何利平,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: LW09 改写人体测量学: LW09

Anthropometry Revision: LW07 改写人体测量学: LW07

110 x 79cm acrylic on paper

110 x 79cm acrylic on paper

Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China

Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China



Anthropometry Revision: LW08 改写人体测量学: LW08

Anthropometry Revision: LW04 改写人体测量学: LW04

110 x 79cm acrylic on paper

110 x 79cm acrylic on paper

Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China

Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China



Anthropometry Revision: B/W01 改写人体测量学: B/W01 140 x 75cm ink on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: B/W02 改写人体测量学: B/W02 140 x 75cm ink on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: B/W03 改写人体测量学: B/W03

Anthropometry Revision: B/W05 改写人体测量学: B/W05

140 x 75cm ink on paper

140 x 75cm ink on paper

Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China

Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China



Anthropometry Revision: B/W013 改写人体测量学: B/W08 140 x 75cm ink on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: B/W014 改写人体测量学: B/W014 140 x 75cm ink on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: B/W015 改写人体测量学: B/W015 140 x 75cm ink on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶,中国成都

Anthropometry Revision: B/W16 改写人体测量学: B/W16 140 x 75cm ink on paper Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China 李文与蒋晶,中国成都

Index 索引

LEE Wen Born in Singapore, 1957

Education 2006 MA Fine Arts, LaSalle-SIA College of the Arts, SINGAPORE 1992 City of London Polytechnic, London, UK 1990 LaSalle-SIA College of the Arts, SINGAPORE Solo Exhibitions: 2007 Freedom to Daydream, Mothers of Imagination, Your Mother Gallery, SINGAPORE 2004 Unframed¬7, P-10, SINGAPORE 2003 Stramge Fruit, The Substation, SINGAPORE 2002 Everybody Should Be Happy, Utterly Art, SINGAPORE 1996 Hand-Made Tales, The Black Box, Theatre Works, SINGAPORE 1995 Neo-Baba, VA-nishiogi Gallery, Tokyo, JAPAN 1993 Journey of a yellow man no.3: DESIRE, The Substation, SINGAPORE

Selected Exhibitions: 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004

“Small East Co-prosperity Restaurant 08”, Tokyo, JAPAN Intervene! Interrupt! Rethinking Art as Social Practice, University of California, Santa Cruz, USA Ket Noi : Vietnam-Singapore Performance Art Dialogue, Singapore Art Museum, SINGAPORE Performatica’08, Four Artists From Singapore, 26cc, Rome and La Casa Verde, Foligno, ITALY Blow!5- Performance Art Meeting between Singapore and Germany, Hildesheim & Ilsede, GERMANY National Review of Live Art 2007, Glasgow, SCOTLAND Perfurbance #3, “spiritual renewal”, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA Là-bas-> Hyper Center in Helsinki, FINLAND IX Międzynarodowy Festiwal Sztuki Akcji “Interakcje 2007” Piotrkow Trybunalski; Bielsko-Biała, POLAND Made In China, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art; Humlebæk, DENMARK Future of Imagination 4, 72-13, TheatreWorks, SINGAPORE Maju Jaya – CHAOS Dab!, Jogjakarta National Museum, Jogjakarta, INDONESIA Vital 07: essence of performance, Chinese Art Center, Manchester, ENGLAND LONG’ACTION 07- rencontres franco-chinoises d’art performance, Sète FRANCE M1 Singapore Fringe Festival 2006, SINGAPORE Satu Kali, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA The Future of Imagination 3, The Substation, Singapore Art Museum, SINGAPORE TROUBLE #2, halles de schaerbeek, Brussels, BELGIUM acción!06MAD - III Encuentro Internacional de Arte de Acción. Madrid, SPAIN Ctrl+Alt+Del, Singapore Management University Arts Fest 2006, SINGAPORE 4th DaDao Live Art Festival, Beijing, CHINA S+S, 1, ALL_2, Shenyang, CHINA 7a*11d International Festival of Performance Art, Toronto, CANADA DEFORMES, Primera Bienal de Performance, Santiago, CHILE Birds Migration: Indonesia International Performance Art Event [IIPAE] 2006, Jakarta, INDONESIA Episode5: 12-Hour Performance, Sound and Video Festival, SINGAPORE Performance Site, Myanmar 05, Borders:withIN withOUT, NICA, Yangon, MYANMAR National Review of Live Art, 2005 , Glasgow, SCOTLAND Crossing Time International, Dartington College of Arts, Totnes, Devon, ENGLAND 3 Encuentro Internacional de Performance, Institut Valencia D’Art Modern (IVAM), Valencia, SPAIN National Review of Live Art – MIDLAND 05, Perth, AUSTRALIA Stopover, Japan Singapore Performance Art Meeting, FronT Room Gallery, SINGAPORE Situations, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney, AUSTRALIA REACH OUTLYING 2005 Tipalive Taiwan International Performance Art Festival, Taipei, TAIWAN “UGNAYAN‘05”, 4th Philippine International Performance Art Festival (PIPAF), Manila, The Philippines Spaces and Shadows: Politics of fun, House of World Culture, Berlin, GERMANY Self-portrait Performativ, langaut, Golberode, Dresden, GERMANY BLURRR 5 biennial of performance art, Tel Aviv, ISRAEL Bone 8, Schlachthaus Theater, Bern, SWITZERLAND 130 Bank Gallery, 10th Anniversary Commemoration Exhibition, Kitakyushu, JAPAN National Review of Live Art, 2004, Glasgow, SCOTLAND Perform:State:Interrogate: Performance Studies international Conference (PSi#10), The Substation, SINGAPORE 2nd DaDao Live Art Festival, Beijing, CHINA Giving Water An Image, Hanoi University of Fine Arts, Hanoi, VIETNAM Sea Art Festival, Busan Biennale 2004, Pusan, S. KOREA Voice of Site, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, Tokyo, JAPAN Sustainable, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, Tokyo, JAPAN

2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1990 1989

The Future of Imagination 2, Sculpture Square, SINGAPORE Aciones en Ruta, Mexico City and Encuentro Intl de Performance Yucatan, Merrida, MEXICO The Future of Imagination, The Substation, SINGAPORE 4th Asiatopia, Bangkok THAILAND “Alter-Native Dialogues”, Video/ Performance collaboration with James Luna, Tokyo, JAPAN Recontre Int’l d’art performance de Quebec 2002, LELIEU, Quebec, CANADA EXIT International Festival for Unusual Live Performances, Cable Factory, Helsinki, FINLAND 2nd Open Art Festival, Pengshan, Leshan and Chengdu, Sichuan, CHINA Theertha International Artists Workshop - 2001, Lunaganga, SRI LANKA Critical Response, Ivan Dougherty Gallery, University of New South Wales, Sydney, AUSTRALIA Expo 2000, Performance with Black Market International, Hanover, GERMANY TransEuropa -Theatre Festival 2000, Hildesheim, GERMANY Artists Investigating Monument - AIM projects, Raffles Landing Site, Singapore. Rånd, Festival der Regionen, Zuckerfabrik Enns, AUSTRIA The Third Asia Pacific Triennale of Contemporary Art, Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, AUSTRALIA Nokia Singapore Art 1999, Singapore Art Museum, SINGAPORE Construction in Process VI - The Bridge, The Artists Museum, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA Sub-Fiction, Werkleitz Biennale 1998, Tornitz & Werkleitz, GERMANY “3rd Asian Performance Art Series”, Tokyo, JAPAN Asiatopia, Bangkok, THAILAND ZUG. Flexible:X, Performance Art Operation Work, Dresden, GERMANY Simposio International De Escultura Mexico-Japon, Tuxtla Guttierez, Chiapas, MEXICO Sexta Bienal de La Habana, Havana, CUBA SeptFest Art Conference-Multi-culturalism, The Substation, SINGAPORE Recontre International d’art Performance Et Multi-media 1996, Quebec, CANADA Between the Visible and Invisible, Lahore International Arts Workshop, PAKISTAN 2nd Nippon International Performance Art Festival, Tokyo & Nagano, JAPAN Castle of Imagination, 3rd International Artists Meeting, Bytow, POLAND Kwang Ju Biennale,, Kwang Ju, KOREA MA: East West Study Project, Dusseldorf & Darmstadt, GERMANY Chiang Mai Social Installation, Chiang Mai, THAILAND 4th Asian Art Show, Fukuoka Art Museum, Fukuoka and Setagaya Art Museum, Tokyo, JAPAN 5th Fukui International Video Biennale, Tawara, Fukui City, JAPAN Sense Yellow, Concrete House, Nontburi, THAILAND International Sculpture Symposium, Gulbarga, Karnataka, INDIA TIME Show, Artists Village, Ulu Sembawang, SINGAPORE HAPPENINGS II, QU*ART Gallery, Hong Kong, HONG KONG C.A.R.E.: Concerned Artists for the Environment, Artist Village, Singapore Art Festival, SINGAPORE HAPPENINGS, National University of Singapore, SINGAPORE The Drawing Show, Artists Village, Ulu Sembawang, SINGAPORE

Awards 2008 2005 2002 1998

Artist-in Residence, Red & Grey Contemporary, Chengdu, China Cultural Medallion, Singapore Artist in Residence, La-Salle-SIA College of the Arts, Singapore Artist in Residence (Asia Europe Ministerial Meeting, Cultural and Arts Program) supported by Visiting Arts, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Gasworks Studios, London, UK

Selected Bibliography: Chin Hock Seng (1981) ‘Pop dog’ artist shares a dream The Straits Times, Singapore. May 9, 1981 Lee Wen, A Waking Dream- drawings and poetry, Select Books, Singapore, 1981 Ng Sek Chow Yellow reflections The Straits Times, Singapore, July 23, 1993 Chandrasekaran.S., Langenbach, R. & Lee Wen (1993) Local Performance Art, Democracy: Commentary. Journal of the National University of Singapore Society, Singapore, National University of Singapore Society (Vol.11 No. 2)

李文 1957年出生于新加坡

Swinson, James Lee Wen Connection / Location Third Text/ no.45 Winter, London 1998-99 - pp.95-97 Lee Weng Choy Artist essay on Lee Wen The Third AsiaPacificTriennale 1999 Catalogue, Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane Australia. Lee Weng Choy, (2000) Just What Is it that Makes the Term Global-Local So Widely Cited, Yet So Annoying? “Flight Patterns: picturing the Pacific Rim” catalogue Museum of Contemporary Art Los Angeles (A shorter version of this essay was first published in Artlink, Volume 20 Number 2, June 2000.) Woon Tien Wei Between Journeys: an Interview with Lee Wen Performance Research 6(l), pp.3 7 © Taylor & Francis Ltd 2001 Barragan, Paco The Art To Come Subastas Siglo XXI, Madrid 2002 Oon, Clarrisa Hello, yellow fellow The Straits Times, Singapore, October 21, 2003 Glenis Israel Senior Artwise 2 visual arts 11-12, Part 3 Asian Artists – contemporary, Chapter 14 John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, Sydney 2004 HO Tzu Nyen “strange fruit” Art Asia Pacific / Spring 2004 No.40 Gunalan Nadarajan, Russell Storer and Eugene Tan Contemporary Art in Singapore Institute of Contemporary Arts Singapore, LASALLE, Singapore 2007 Valentin Torrens, Editor Pedagogia De La Performance, Programmas de Cursos y Talleres Diputacion Provincial De Huesca, Barcelona, Spain, 2007

Public Collections: Singapore Art Museum, Singapore Fukuoka Asian Art Museum, Fukuoka, Japan Queensland Art Museum, Brisbane, Australia Affiliation: Honorary member of Artists Village, Singapore, Black Market International, (international performance art “group”) Artistic Director, “Future of Imagination”, International Performance Art Event, Singapore Guest Curator: UP-ON First International Live Art Festival, 2008 Cheng Du China. Guest Curator: DEFORMES 2008, Second International Performance Biennial, Santiago Chile

教育背景 2006年 新加坡拉萨尔-新航艺术学院美术硕士 1992年 英国伦敦市理工学院 1990年 新加坡拉萨尔-新航艺术学院 个展: 2007年 《做白日梦的自由,想像的母亲们》, 新加坡Your Mother画廊 2004年 《无框-7》, 新加坡P-10 2003年 《奇异果》, 新加坡电力站 2002年 《大家都应当快乐》, 新加坡Utterly Art画廊 1996年 《手工故事》, 新加坡剧艺工作坊黑箱剧场 1995年 《新峇峇》, 日本东京VA西荻画廊 1993年 《一个黄人的旅程3:欲望》, 新加坡电力站 展览选列: 2008年 “小东亚共荣餐馆08”, 日本东京 “介入!打断!-反思作为社会行为的艺术”, 美国加州大学圣克鲁斯分校 “连接:越南-新加坡行为艺术对话”, 新加坡美术馆 “Performatica 08:四位来自新加坡的艺术家”, 意大利罗马的26cc、福利尼奥的绿屋 “Blow!5-新加坡与德国行为艺术交流会”, 德国希尔德斯海姆、伊尔瑟德 2007年 “现场艺术国家评论2007”, 苏格兰格拉斯哥 “精神更生”(第3届都市行为艺术节), 印尼日惹 Là-bas->“超级中心”行为艺术节, 芬兰赫尔辛基 “互动2007”(第9届国际行为艺术节), 波兰别尔斯科-比亚瓦的彼得库夫-特雷布纳尔斯基 “中国制造”, 丹麦胡姆勒拜克的路易斯安那现代美术馆 “想像的未来4”, 新加坡剧艺工作坊72-13 “前进成功-CHAOS Dab!”, 印尼日惹国家博物馆 “活力07:行为艺术之精髓”, 英国曼彻斯特中华艺术中心 “长度作用07-法中行为艺术大会”, 法国塞特 2006年 M1新加坡艺穗节2006, 新加坡 “一次”, 马来西亚吉隆坡 “想像的未来3”, 新加坡电力站、新加坡美术馆 “麻烦2”, 比利时布鲁塞尔的斯哈尔贝克文化中心 “行动!06MAD-第3届国际行为艺术大会”, 西班牙马德里 “Ctrl+Alt+Del”(新加坡管理大学艺术节2006), 新加坡 中国北京 第4届大道现场艺术节 中国沈阳ALL_2 1号 “S+S” 加拿大多伦多 7a*11d 国际行为艺术节 智利圣地亚哥 “畸形:第1届行为艺术双年展” 印尼雅加达 “候鸟迁徙:印尼国际行为艺术活动[IIPAE]2006” 新加坡音响视频节 “第5集:12小时的演出” 2005年 缅甸仰光NICA 缅甸05“边界:里里外外”表演场地 苏格兰格拉斯哥 “现场艺术国家评论2005” 英国德文郡托特尼斯的达廷顿艺术学院 “跨越国际时间” 西班牙巴伦西亚现代艺术学院(IVAM) 第3届国际行为艺术大会 澳洲珀斯 “现场艺术国家评论-内地05” 新加坡FronT Room画廊 “中途停留”(日本-新加坡行为艺术交流会) 澳洲悉尼当代美术馆 “情势” 台湾台北 “不动:要动_2005台湾国际行为艺术节” 菲律宾马尼拉 “连接05:第4届菲律宾国际行为艺术节(PIPAF)” 德国柏林世界文化馆 “空间与阴影:乐趣的政治” 德国德累斯顿戈柏若德的Langaut艺术空间 “自画像”行为艺术项目 以色列特拉维夫 “BLURRR 5”行为艺术双年展 瑞士伯尔尼屠宰场剧场 “骨8” 2004年 日本北九州市 130 银行画廊10周年纪念展 苏格兰格拉斯哥 “现场艺术国家评论2004” 新加坡电力站 “表演:陈述:审问:人类表演学国际会议(PSi#10)” 中国北京 第2届大道现场艺术节 越南河内美术大学 “赋水以形” 南韩2004年釜山双年展 “海洋艺术节” 日本东京国立艺术大学 “场地的声音”

日本东京国立艺术大学 “可持续的” 新加坡雕塑广场 “想像的未来2” 2003年 墨西哥市 “途中行动”;墨西哥尤卡坦州梅里达 国际行为艺术大会 新加坡电力站 “想像的未来” 2002年 泰国曼谷 第3届Asiatopia国际行为艺术节 日本东京“另类/改变本土对话” 与詹姆斯•鲁纳合作的视频/行为艺术表演 加拿大魁北克市LELIEU艺术中心 2002年魁北克国际行为艺术大会 2001年 芬兰赫尔辛基电缆厂 “退场-国际特异现场表演节” 中国四川省彭山、乐山、成都 第2届“打开”国际行为艺术节 斯里兰卡鲁纳甘加 提尔塔国际艺术家工作坊2001 2000年 澳洲悉尼新南威尔士大学伊凡窦格提画廊 “临界反应” 德国汉诺威2000年博览会 与“黑市国际”合作的表演 德国希尔德斯海姆 “跨欧罗巴-戏剧节2000” 新加坡莱佛士登陆点 “艺术家探讨古迹-AIM项目” 1999年 奥地利恩斯的制糖厂文化中心 “边缘”区域节 澳洲布里斯班昆士兰美术馆 第3届当代艺术亚太三年展 新加坡美术馆 “诺基亚新加坡艺术1999” 1998年 澳洲墨尔本艺术家博物院 “施工中VI-桥梁” 德国托尼茨、沃克雷茨 “子虚”(沃克雷茨双年展1998) 日本东京 “亚洲行为艺术系列3” 泰国曼谷 Asiatopia国际行为艺术节 德国德累斯顿 “ZUG. 灵活:X-行为艺术行动工作” 1997年 墨西哥恰帕斯州图斯特拉—古铁雷斯 墨西哥-日本国际文化讨论会 古巴哈瓦那 第6届哈瓦那双年展 新加坡电力站 九月艺术节艺术会议-“多元文化主义” 1996年 加拿大魁北克 1996年国际行为艺术与多媒体艺术大会 巴基斯坦 拉合尔国际艺术工作坊“有形与无形之间” 1995年 日本东京、长野 第2届日本国际行为艺术节 波兰比托 第3届“幻想城堡”国际艺术家大会 韩国光州 光州双年展 德国杜塞尔多夫、达姆施塔特 “MA:东西方学习项目” 泰国清迈 “清迈社会装置” 1994年 日本福冈亚洲美术馆、东京世田谷美术馆 第4届亚洲艺术展 1993年 日本福井市田原 第5届福井国际视频双年展 泰国暖武里混凝土屋 “感觉黄色”联展 1992年 印度卡纳塔克邦的古巴加 国际雕塑讨论会 1990年 新加坡乌鲁三巴旺艺术村 “时光展” 香港QU*ART画廊 “事件II” 新加坡艺术村 新加坡艺术节“C.A.R.E.:关心环境的艺术家” 1989年 新加坡国立大学 “精彩事件” 新加坡乌鲁三巴旺艺术村 “素描展” 奖项 2008年 2005年 2002年 1998年

中国成都红与灰艺术当代的常驻艺术家 新加坡文化勋章 新加坡拉萨尔-新航艺术学院的常驻艺术家 常驻艺术家(亚欧部长会议文化与艺术计划)-由英国艺术访问署、英国外交及联邦事务部及伦敦煤气厂艺术工作室所支持

参考文献选列: 陈福成(译名)(1981年) <“波普狗”分享一个梦想> 见新加坡《海峡时报》(1981年5月9日) 李文 《醒着的梦:素描与诗歌》 新加坡Select Books 1981年版 吴石周(译名) <黄色思考> 见新加坡《海峡时报》(1993年7月23日) S•昌德拉瑟卡兰、R•兰根巴赫、李文(1993年)

<本地行为艺术、民主> 见新加坡国立大学校友会期刊《评述》(第11辑第2期)(新加坡国立大学校友会出版) 詹姆斯•斯维逊 <李文联系 / 地点> 《第三文本》/ 第45期,冬季号(伦敦,1998至99年)– 第95至97页 李永财 关于李文的艺术家专文 《1999年亚太三年展》画册 澳洲布里斯班昆士兰美术馆出版 李永财(2000年) <“环球本土性”这个词何以如此广为人用又如此令人恼怒?> 《飞行模式:想像太平洋沿岸地区》画册 洛杉矶当代美术馆出版 [本文的缩略版先前发表于《艺术连接》杂志第20辑第2期(2000年6月)。] 云天伟 <旅程之间:访问李文> 《表演研究》 6(l), 第3至7页(泰勒弗兰西斯有限公司2001年版权所有) 帕科•巴拉甘 《将来的艺术》 马德里21世纪拍卖出版社2002年版 Clarissa Oon <你好,黄色的老兄> 新加坡《海峡时报》(2003年10月21日) 格列尼斯•以色列 《Senior Artwise 2 (视觉艺术 11-12)》 第3部分“亚洲当代艺术家”(第14章) 悉尼约翰威立父子澳洲有限公司2004年版 何子彦 <奇异果> 《亚太艺术》/ 第40期,2004年春季号 古纳兰•纳达拉冉、拉塞尔•史托勒、陈维德 《新加坡当代艺术》 新加坡拉萨尔新加坡当代艺术学院2007年版 瓦伦廷•托仁斯(编辑) 《表演教学:课程与工作坊计划》 西班牙巴塞罗那韦斯卡省代表团2007年版 公开收藏: 新加坡美术馆 日本福冈亚洲美术馆 澳洲布里斯班昆士兰美术馆 团体归属: 新加坡艺术村荣誉成员 “黑市国际”(国际行为艺术“团体”) 新加坡国际行为艺术活动“想像的未来”艺术总监 中国成都2008年第1届UP-ON(向上)国际现场艺术节特邀策展人 智利圣地亚哥“畸形:第2届国际行为艺术双年展”特邀策展人






李文 Adele Tan Ray Langenbach/ Zha Zhangping Lukasz Guzek










新加坡斯民国际艺苑 中国红与灰艺术当代




Lee Wen


Chua Soobin

Essay Contributor

Lee Wen Adele Tan Ray Langenbach/ Zha Zhangping Lukasz Guzek

Graphic Design

Lu Yifei

Translation (English)

Ng Kum Hoon

Colour Separation

YOSHIDO Art Design


Sichuan RongSheng Art Printing co.,ltd


SooBin Art Int'l Singapore Red & Grey Art Contemporary Chengdu

Date of Publication

Aug 2008

SOOBIN ART INT'L 斯民国际艺苑 140 Hill Street #01-10/11/12 MICA Building Singapore. 179369 Tel. + 65 6837 2777 Fax. + 65 6339 7767

detail: Journey of a yellow man no.3: DESIRE 一个黄人的旅程3:欲望 Solo Exhibition, Installation and performance The Substation, Singapore 21-25 July 1993 Photo: Koh Nguang How

Copyright © 2008, by publishers, artist and authors.

ISBN 978-981-08-1343-7

Anthropometry Revision:Yellow period (after Yves Klein) - Lee Wen  

Catalog launched in Singapore on occassion of a private performance revisiting a second time Yves Klein's “Anthropometries” (1960) with refe...

Anthropometry Revision:Yellow period (after Yves Klein) - Lee Wen  

Catalog launched in Singapore on occassion of a private performance revisiting a second time Yves Klein's “Anthropometries” (1960) with refe...