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3. Photons are "things" in themselves. To suppose that a photon "travels" independent of the matter that produced it first assumes knowledge of what a "photon" is, a presumption Einstein was cautious to avoid. Whether viewed as a wave or a particle, light may be considered an interaction between elements of matter rather than an independent "thing". D. G. Ashworth and Roger Jennison explained the Compton Effect by means of electromagnetic interactions, without the need for "light quanta'", and the Photoelectric Effect can be treated analogously _ Rather than demand that light exists in quanta, one may suppose that the interactions between particles are quantized. This way of thinking places the "quantum" with the particle, as understood by Poincare, rather than with space, as proposed by Einstein. As "ohloziston" Foundations of SciAcca

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was to oxygen, so an analogy between the creation (annihilation) of a photon and the annihilation (creation) of a bifurcation or saddle point in an _ -~1"."tr.omagneticfield can be demonstrated with toroidal particle models-

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assumption 3