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The ManUfactured House Lee B. Burdett, Jr.


Table of Contents

2


Chapter 1: Design Theorem

Project Summary ..................................................................................... Page 54

Thesis Statement ..........................................................................................Page 2

Bibliography ............................................................................................. Page 55

Precedents ....................................................................................................Page 3 Labor Efficient Construction..................................................................Page 4 Cost Efficient Design ...............................................................................Page 8 Designed for Mass Customization ..................................................... Page 12 Contributing Literature ........................................................................... Page 16 Analysis and Early Project Goals ........................................................... Page 17

Chapter 2: Design Analysis Production Analysis ................................................................................ Page 20 Production Analysis Fault ...................................................................... Page 25 Marketing Analysis .................................................................................. Page 27 Refined Analysis and Project Goals ...................................................... Page 29 The Design Idea ....................................................................................... Page 31 Re-Invent the Wall (Product Overview) ............................................... Page 37 Re-Invent the Floor (Product Overview) ............................................. Page 38 Re-Invent the Ceiling (Product Overview) .......................................... Page 39 Framing the idea ...................................................................................... Page 40 Site Connections ...................................................................................... Page 41 Goals in Action ........................................................................................ Page 45 target the masses and significant subcultures ................................... Page 46 make it affordable ................................................................................. Page 48 incorporate sustainability .................................................................... Page 49 design for simplicity ............................................................................. Page 50 address lifecycle cost analysis .............................................................. Page 51 provide an answer to financial commitment .................................... Page 52 react to mobile integration .................................................................. Page 53


Chapter 01

4

Design Theorem


Thesis Statement

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Since the dawn of modernism, the goal to produce inexpensive

prefabricated architecture has been vastly unreachable. Many have come close, but none have been successful.

Through thorough analysis of these precedents, and by making use of contemporary

materials and production methods, marketing strategies can be developed to finally make this theory practice.

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Precedents

8


Designed for Mass Customization

Cost Efficient Design

Labor Efficient Construction


Labor Efficient Construction

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Keck Crystal House George Fred Keck

Data Year: 1934 Number Built: 1 Square Footage: 1,800 Cost: $3,500 Cost in 2013: 61K Cost per SF: $34 Construction Type: Steel, Glass Technical Innovations: Open Floor plan, All Glass House

Marketable Aspects

Unmarketable Aspects

1) Structure allows for open floor plan. 2) Keck’s four point manifesto A) Open plan in relation to costs effectiveness. B) House serves owner. C) Passive heating & light. D) Mass production, individual expression, affordability. 3) Architecturally redeeming. 4) Ability to be moved from location to location.

1) Standardized form. 2) Standardized appearance. 3) Completely unconventional idea of what a house is. 4) Unable to be customized. 5) Expensive materials. 6) Not marketable. 7) Disobeyed his own manifes ....to.

Take-Away

Take-Away

1) Used over and over as a precedent. 2) Manifesto speaks volumes.

1) Unsuccessful and never replicated. 11


Wichita House Richard Buckminster Fuller

Data Year: 1945 Number Built: 1 Square Footage: 1,000 Cost: $6,500 Cost in 2013: 85K Cost per SF: $85 Construction Type: Steel, Aluminum Technical Innovations: Delivered as a whole single unit, sold per pound

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Marketable Aspects

Unmarketable Aspects

1) Was rather affordable ($75 sqft adjusted to inflation). 2) Efficient design 3) Architecturally redeemable. 4) Assembly process mini- ....mized cost and maximized ....precision. 5) Delivered as a complete ....unit. 6) Unparalleled interior flow.

1) Standardized form 2) Standardized appearance 3) No ability to customize features. 4) Not marketable 5) Public was not ready for an “inhabitable machine”. 6) Delivered as a complete ....unit.

Take-Away

Take-Away

1) True testament to a factory built house.

1) “Never saw the light of day.”


Cellophane House Kieran Timberlake Associates

architonic.com

Data Year: 2008 Number Built: 1 Square Footage: 1,500 Cost: $450,000 Cost in 2013: 488K Cost per SF: $271 Construction Type: Steel, Cellophane Technical Innovations: Use of sustainability, delivered and assembled in chunks.

Marketable Aspects

Unmarketable Aspects

1) Very easily shipped. 2) Customizable in nature. 3) Easy assembly. 4) Architecturally redeeming. 5) “Green� 6) Almost completely prefab- ....ricated.

1) Standardized form. 2) Standardized appearance. 3) Unconventional ideology ....of a home for most people. 4) Not very marketable. 5) Very expensive. 6) Inability for custom form.

Take-Away

Take-Away

1) Good precedent for future projects.

1) No copies made

openbuildings.com

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Cost Efficient Design

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Case Study House No. 8 Charles & Ray Eames

loc.gov

Data Year: 1949 Number Built: 1 Square Footage: 2,500 Cost: $20,000 Cost in 2014: 200K Cost per SF: $80 Construction Type: Steel, Glass, Asbestos Technical Innovations: Only used off-the-shelf elements

Unmarketable Aspects

Marketable Aspects

1) Not designed to be replicated. 2) Modulated appearance. 3) Not easily customized.

1) Every piece was ordered from a catalogue, or industrial manufacturer. 2) House was fairly inexpensive. 3) Relatively easy to assemble. 4) Asked the following questions: -How cheap is space? -How industrial is the construction industry. -How light is steel.

Take-Away

Take-Away

1) Designed for themselves explicitly.

1) Aimed to answer some important questions. 2) Offered an alternative to anyone wanting a do-it-yourself home.

blog.wanken.com

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Westchester 2 Bedroom The Lustron Corporation

lustron.org

Data Year: 1947 Number Built: 3,000 Square Footage: 1,000 Cost: $8,500 Cost in 2014: 90K Cost per SF: $90 Construction Type: Steel, Porcelain Technical Innovations: 8 Day Assembly, sold as an industrial product, packaged onto a truck.

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loc.gov

Marketable Aspects

Unmarketable Aspects

1) Extremely long lasting materials. 2) Exemplary production, packaging, and construction methods. 3) Very inexpensive. 4) Low maintenance materials. 5) Very marketable.

1) Architecturally inept. 2) Has appearance of a typical run-of-the-mill home. 3) Included furnishings did not always function properly. 4) Inability to be customized.

Take-Away

Take-Away

1) Thousands of these were built, so fairly successful.

1) Frowned upon by most architects.


Maison Tropicale Jean ProuvĂŠ

woont.com

Data Year: 1952 Number Built: 3 Square Footage: 1,000 Cost: $16,500 Cost in 2013: 145K Cost per SF: $145 Construction Type: Steel, Aluminum, Glass Technical Innovations: Double skin, easily re-packaged and shipped worldwide

Marketable Aspects

Unmarketable Aspects

1) Universally marketable. 2) Easily shippable worldwide. 3) Inexpensive design. 4) Easy assembly. 5) Potential to be built on any terrain. 6) Ability to be dis and reassembled. 7) Low energy consumption.

1) Standardized form. 2) Standardized appearance. 3) Not customizable. 4) Not esthetically or function- ....ally suitable for all Climates.

Take-Away

Take-Away

1) Great potential for low income and emergency housing.

1) Not many produced flickr.com

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Designed for Mass Customization

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jetsongreen.com


Moduli 225

Kristian Gullichsen & Juhani Pallasmaa

blog.jp

lineasdetrabajo.com

Data Year: 1969 Number Built: 6 Square Footage: 1,000 Cost: $12,000 Cost in 2014: 76K Cost per SF: $76

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Marketable Aspects

Unmarketable Aspects

1) Very Customizable. 2) Can be built on a variety of terrains. 3) Architecturally redeeming. 4) Very simple and quick assembly. 5) Strong and long lasting structure.

1) Standardized appearance. 2) Extremely modular. 3) Not marketable enough

Take-Away

Take-Away

1) Successful idea, unsuccessful execution

1) Appeals only to certain people.

Construction Type: Steel, Aluminum, Glass, Wood Technical Innovations: Simple and modular in nature

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Water Block House Kengo Kuma & Associates

Data Year: 2008 Number Built: 0 Square Footage: 1,000 Cost: $20,000 Cost in 2014: 22K Cost per SF: $22 Construction Type: Water, Plastic Technical Innovations: Use of water (high density) as a wall.

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Marketable Aspects

Unmarketable Aspects

1) Conceptually outstanding. 2) Unlimited configurations. 3) Very inexpensive. 4) Very easy assembly 5) Easy to ship worldwide

1) Standardized form 2) Standardized appearance 3) Not appealing to most ....people.

Take-Away

Take-Away

1) Conceptually its mostly there.

1) Commissioned, but never built, only conceptualized.


BURST*008

Jeremy Edmiston & Douglas Gauthier

Data Year: 2008 Number Built: 2 Square Footage: 1,500 Cost: $250,000 Cost in 2014: 271K Cost per SF: $180 Construction Type: Plywood Technical Innovations: Exclusively digital design and fabrication.

Marketable Aspects

Unmarketable Aspects

1) Fairly inexpensive to produce. 2) Very easy to assemble. 3) Easy to premanufacture pieces. 4) Customizable space.

1) Standardized form. 2) Standardized appearance. 3) Unreliable materials used. 4) Art somewhat lost in computer process. 5) Not very marketable.

Take-Away

Take-Away

1) This project provides a model with great potential to succeed if molded properly.

1) Cheaply made and constructed, may not ascertain longevity. 21


Analysis & Goals

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Goals R1 1) Target the masses and significant subcultures 2) Make it affordable 3) Incorporate sustainability 4) Acknowledge packaging and shipping 23


Contributing Literature Refabricating ARCHITECTURE Stephen Kieran, James Timberlake

Synopsis: This thought-provoking book presents a compelling argument for moving architecture from a part-by-part, linear approach to an integrated one that brings together technology, materials, and production methods. Using examples from several industries that have successfully made the change to an integrated component approach, these visionary authors lay the groundwork for a dramatic and much-needed change in the building industry.

-Google Books wordpress.com

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archtonic.com


Home Delivery

Barry Bergdoll, Peter Christensen, Ron Broadhurst

Synopsis: As the world’s population swells and the need for sustainable ways of living grows ever more urgent and obvious, prefabricated architecture has taken center stage. Even before our current predicaments, the mass-produced, factory-made home had a distinguished history, having served as a vital precept in the development of Modern architecture. Today, with the digital revolution reorganizing the relationship between drafting board and factory, it continues to spur innovative manufacturing and design, and its potential has clearly not yet come to fruition. “Home Delivery” traces the history of prefabrication in architecture, from its early roots in colonial cottages though the work of such figures as Jean Prouve and Buckminster Fuller, and mass-produced variants such as the Lustron house, to a group of full-scale contemporary houses commissioned specifically for the MoMA exhibition that this book accompanies. In addition to an introductory essay by Barry Bergdoll, Chief Curator in the Museum’s Department of Architecture and Design, this volume contains essays on prefabricated housing in Japan and in Nordic countries by Ken Tadashi Oshima and Rasmus Waern, respectively. It also includes focused texts on approximately 40 historical projects and five commissions, as well as a bibliography.

-Google Books

Bergdoll| Blog.com

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Chapter 02

26

Design Analysis


Production Analysis

28


Paradigm Shift

Dynamic Cost More for less

Suppliers to produce building components

Modern Manufacturing Methods Some architectural components are on par

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Theoretical Dysfunction

Explain that i believe that tier 1.5 is essential to the the m7ass customization factor, and that tier 1.5 is missing from kerian & timberlask’s translation.

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Marketing Analysis

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Analysis & Goals

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Goals R2 •Target the masses and significant subcultures •Make it affordable •Incorporate sustainability •Design for simplicity •Develop the “molecules” of the building •Address lifecycle cost analysis •Provide an answer to financial commitment •Acknowledge packaging and shipping •React to mobile integration1 33


The Idea

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Pre-Assembled Compoents What you need a team to build

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you can buy pre-assembled doors and windows, but you cannot buy pre-assembled walls‌ yet so, let’s look into...

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Reinventing the Wall

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Reinventing the Floor

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Reinventing the Ceiling

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Framing System

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Spot Footing

Contiuous Spread Footing Grade Beam Footing

This modular building system allows for almost any style of home to be built on almost any type of terrain. Additional site work may be needed, but all main types of site work will be catalogued for easy access and constructability.

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Inspired inpart by

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SIP Panels

Mark Goulthorpe’s Zero+House

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To Create The One Man Wall

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Plug & Play

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Goals in Action

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target the masses and significant subcultures: home variation

target the masses and significant subcultures: material variation

make it affordable

incorporate sustainability

design for simplicity

react to mobile integration

provide an answer to financial commitment

address lifecycle cost analysis 47


Target the masses and significant subcultures: Home Variation • A frame • American colonial Georgian colonial German colonial Hall & parlor house New England colonial Spanish colonial French colonial • Barraca • Barndominium • Bay- and- gable • Bungalow • Cape cod • Cape dutch • Yaodong • Chalet bungalow • Chattel house • Conch house • Contemporary • Cottage • Custom • American craftsman house • Creole cottage • Cracker house • Deck house • Dogtrot house • Eyebrow house • Farmhouse 48

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Faux chateau American foursquare Gablefront house The Georgian house Geestharden house Hall house Hanok I- house Indian vernacular Village hut Verandah house Traditional Izba Konak Laneway house Log home Manor House Mansion Manor Georgian Microhouse Minka Modern Patio house Ranch Queenslander Roundhouse dwelling Saltbox house

• • • • • • • • • •

Split level house Shotgun house Stilt house Snout house Tudor revival Tuscan Umgebinde Victorian Villa Wealden hall house


Target the masses and significant subcultures: Material Variation • Plastic Textured Colored Falsified material • Gypsum board • Wood Plywood Plank Laminated Stressed • Metal Plain Anodized Brushed Scuffed Perforated • Canvas • Glass • Glass • Lighted • Ceramic • Porcelain • Brick • Stone • Concrete • Seasonal • sound insulation • Graphic

• • • • • • •

Digital Fiberglas Carbon fiber Fabric Paper Photovoltaic Solar ivy

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Make it Affordable

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Incorporate Sustainability

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Design for Simplicity

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React to Mobile Integration

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Address Lifecycle Cost Analysis

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Provide an Answer to Financial Commitment

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Project Summary After thoroughly analyzing the nine precedents from “Chapter One: Design Theorem”, completing ample marketing research, and analyzing the leaders in pre-manufactured homes, I categorized all of the problems and successes to find the best solution to the pre-manufactured housing industry. This led me in the direction of modular easy to assemble housing panels with all utility lines built in, with an infinite array of material veneers and “plug-in” possibilities. The idea is that the standardized structure is the only piece of the house that would need professional installation. After the structure is built, anyone could install the panels with no need to hire a carpenter, plumber, electrician, HVAC personnel, etc. which would reduce the cost of construction considerably. I am not only proposing a new pre fabricated housing typology, but also a business plan as one cannot survive without the other. I am proposing a product to target the vast majority of the population, and a business plan that can increase the quality of archi-tecture internationally, additionally fostering emergency housing and ideal charity work.

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Bibliography Ashford, John L. The Management of Quality in Construction. London ; New York: E. & F.N. Spon, 1989. Print. Bergdoll, Barry, Peter Christensen, and Ron Broadhurst. Home delivery: fabricating the modern dwelling. New York: Museum of Modern Art :, 2008. Print. Bentil, Kweku K. Fundamentals of the Construction Process. Kingston, MA: R.S. Means, 1989. Print. Cho, Kyuman, and Makarand Hastak. “Time And Cost-Optimized Decision Support Model For Fast-Track Projects.” Journal Of Construction Engineering & Management 139.1 (2012): 90-101. Business Source Complete. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. Cohen, Edie. “Girl On The Go.” Interior Design 76.2 (2005): 146-147. Academic Search Complete. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. Farese, Lois, Grady Kimbrell, and Carl A. Woloszyk. Marketing Essentials. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2005. Print. Fuller, R. Buckminster. Critical path. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1981. Print. Herbers, Jill. Prefab Modern. New York: Harper Design International, 2004. Print. Herbert, Gilbert. Pioneers of Prefabrication: The British Contribution in the Nineteenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978. Print. Hinson, David, and Stacy Norman. “Designhabitat 2: Affordable Housing For Disaster Victims.” Phi Kappa Phi Forum 87.2 (2007): 9-13. Academic Search Complete. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. Kieran, Stephen, and James Timberlake.Refabricating architecture: how manufacturing methodologies are poised to transform building construction. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004. Print. McMahan, John. Property Development. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989. Print. Menassa, Carol, Feniosky Peña Mora, and Neil Pearson. “Study Of Real Options With Exogenous Competitive Entry To Analyze Dispute Resolution Ladder Investments In Architecture, Engineering, And Construction Projects.” Journal Of Construction Engineering & Management 136.3 (2010): 377-390. Academic Search Complete. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. Roldán, Francisco. “Modulation, Typology Of Frames And Adjustment To The Limits In The Classic Architectural Metrology.” Revista De EGA 20 (2012): 172-183. Academic Search Complete. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. Ting Huang, et al. “Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, And Threats Analysis Of Chinese Construction Companies In The Global Market.” Journal Of Management In Engineering 25.4 (2009): 166-176. Academic Search Complete. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. 57


The ManUfactured House | Lee B. Burdett, Jr.