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QUOD ERAT DEMONSTRANDUM quod erat demonstrandum


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Det här är en bok om tecknet ampersand. Jag kallar det så. Vissa kallar det och-tecken eller et-tecken och vissa för et-ligatur. Varför finns det inget bestämt svenskt ord för tecknet i någon svensk ordlista? Det har funnits i svensk skrift sedan vi slutade använda oss av det gotiska alfabetet. Det är över 200 år sedan. Detta är en av frågorna jag ställt mig i den här boken som är mitt examensarbete i design på HDK. Vad vill jag säga med mitt arbete? Den frågan har jag fått ett flertal gånger. Arbetet har inte sin grund i att jag vill säga något speciellt. Hela boken är mer en fascination av det lilla. För hur något så litet och obetydligt som ett kompletterande tecken till det latinska alfabetet kan ha en så rik historia att det kan användas som indikator på hela den västeuropeiska skriftens utveckling de senaste 2000 åren. Eller hur nästan varje yrkesprofessionell med anknytning till skrift har någon sorts egen relation till det. Vare sig det gäller grafiska designers, typografer, kalligrafer, författare eller lingvister. Boken är mer nyfiket undersökande och historiskt forskande än en guide för hur man bör eller inte bör använda sig av det. Tänk på det. Edvin Thungren 2011


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Ordets historia Det finns flera skrönor om var ordet ampersand kommer ifrån. Vissa menar att det döptes efter uppfinnaren Ampére som skulle ha skrivit sina och-tecken på det viset och att det därför kallades för ‘Ampére’s and’. Andra menar på att det härstammar från ‘Anvers and’. Anvers var dåtidens namn på Antwerpen och därifrån kom många av de engelska böckerna och tryckpressarna. Det egentliga ursprunget såg med största anledning ut som följande: Ordet ampersand kommer från engelskan där det dök upp i slutet av 17-talet. Vid den tiden var tecknet så utbrett att man antagit det som den 27:e och sista bokstaven i alfabetet och där stannade det till början på 1900-talet. Detta fick som följd att när skolgossarna rabblade sina alfabet avslutades dom alltid med ‘ex wy zed and per se and’. Per se var en benämning man satte på bokstäver som kunde vara ord i sig själva så som exempelvis ‘I’. Per se and betyder alltså och för sig självt. När man rabblade det snabbt lät det som ampersand och började följaktligen kallas för det inom kort. Tecknets historia Själva tecknet som det ser ut idag härstammar från ligaturen för e+t. En ligatur är en sammanskrivning av två bokstäver med målet att det skall ge snabbare skrift. Men historien för och-tecknet började inte så. Den började en mörk och kuslig natt i antikens Rom då Ciceros frigivna slav Tiro började uppfinna en skrift med tecken och förkortningar för att göra anteckningar på vaxplattor. Tiros skrift satte standard för stenografin och den skulle sätta spår långt in i modern tid. Inte minst genom hans och-tecken som numera kallas för en tironsk sjua. BILD Mot slutet av antiken, runt 300 efter kristus började det gamla skriftsystemet fasas ut till förmån för den modernare kursivskrift som var anpassad för papyrus och pergament och i mångt & mycket liknar dagens skrivstilsform. Ligaturer användes flitigt till alla möjliga olika bokstavskombinationer och förkortningar. Som följd blev skriften mer och mer oläslig och på 800-talet beordrade därför Karl den Store att språket & skriften skulle reformeras. Resultatet av reformen kallas för den Karolingiska Minuskeln. Den bygger på


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många äldre komponenter men är mestadels en stilisering av den yngre romerska kursiven. Till förmån för klarhet och lättläsbarhet togs alla ligaturer bort utom en; et-ligaturen. Inledningsvis användes ligaturen generellt och kunde till och med ses överlappa ordgränser såsom: BILD Dock förändrades användningen successivt och på 1100-talet hade användningen nästan enbart gått över till att vara ett tecken för ‘och’. Förvandlingen syns också i att tecknet går från e+t ligaturen till mer av en ‘krumelur’. BILD Runt 1200 sker en total förändring i samband med konstens brott från Romansk till Gotisk stil. Skriftes utseende förändras och ett antal tecken från innan den karolingiska minuskelns tid tas in. Ett av dessa, den tironska sjuan tar över et-ligaturens roll helt.


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7: tironic seven / &: et-ligature antiquity common writing 7 tiros’s stenographic system for vax plates, old roman italic i.e. 7 for ‘and’. &

late antiquity early middle 7 “tironic 7“ can appear in margins et.c. ages c. 300-750 common writing young roman & ligatures normal shortening method, & for et (‘and‘) one of many ligatures in use. italic

750–1200 carolingan mi- 7 the 7 very rare, appears momentarily in colloquial language. often use of 7 in colloquial nuscle in europe language. insulated writings to begin with & erases most ligatures except & which becomes standard. on the brittish & alternates with 7 in latin texts. islands. 12th century splitting between 7 the 7 reappears and is used both in latin and colloquial speaking carolingan and gothic writing & & falling from grace. weird shapes. few examples i.e. icelandic.


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7: tironic seven / &: et-ligature 1200–1400 gothic writings 7 the 7 reappears and is used both in latin and colloquial speaking &

& falling from grace. weird shapes. few examples i.e. icelandic.

from c. 1400 humanist writing 7 the 7 is removed from humanist writings as it’s *typically gothic* spreads from italy based on the & the et-ligature is reinstated as typical for the carolingan minus“antique“ writing (in practice = the carolincle, base for new gan writing) printing styles, the “antiquas“ from c. 1500 humanist writ- 7 the 7 is still used in gothic writing and fraktur style, even for colloquial language and. ings and the (also in irish writing and printing) antiqua are further spread in latin and roman & the et-ligature comes with humanist writing and the antiqua. often used for ‘and‘ in languages; gerroman languages, seldom in the germanic manic languages languages still uses mostly gothic writing and fraktur styles 17th century humanist writ- 7 the 7 still exists in gothic writing and fraktur ing / antiqua becomes popular & the et-ligature starts spreading even in england in england


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7: tironic seven / &: et-ligature 18th & 19th century 7 the 7 disapears even from the fraktur; new triumph of the fraktur styles have &-ligature antiqua: only germany left on & the et-ligature is very common in english, gothic ground the word ampersand appears

20th century the antiqua 7 triumphs even in germany & the et-ligature spreads via english

21st century fraktur style is 7 only ireland has kept the 7 only “decorative” & & everywhere for ‘and,‘ specially in programming languages


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ampersand, max caflisch When creating a new typeface, a designer can inject the most artistic flair into the ampersand character. The term ampersand, as Geoffrey Glaister writes in his “Glossary of the Book,” is a corruption of and (&) per se and, which literally means “(the character) & by itself (is the word) and.” The symbol & is derived from the ligature of ET or et, which is the Latin word for “and.” One of the first examples of an ampersand appears on a piece of papyrus from about 45 A.D. Written in the style of early Roman capital cursive (typical of the handwriting of the time), it shows the ligature ET. A sample of Pompeian graffiti from 79 A.D. (fig. 1) also shows a combination of the capitals E and T, and is again written in early Roman script. Later documents display a more flowing, less formal Roman lowercase cursive, which evolved into our italic, and the appearance of a ligature et (fig. 2) becomes more frequent. While the connection between the capital letters E and T was initially formed by writing quickly, later calligraphic manuscripts show the middle part of the E, consisting of semicircles, joined to the T by a more intentional, flowing horizontal line. Eventually, this tight combination began to look like one symbol (fig. 3). By the time scribes developed Carolingian minuscule about 775 A.D., the ligature had become a standard part of their repertoire (fig. 4). Depending on the writing speed or the calligrapher’s concern for perfection, from the eighth century on, the combination of the letters E and T resembled the ligature that was adopted with the invention of printing in the early 15th century (fig. 5). The lefthand portion of the ampersand is either a lowercase e or a capital E consisting of two semicircles. The oblique upstroke, often with a drop-shaped terminal (fig. 6), might be a leftover from the horizontal stroke in E or e, or it might have been one of the lines connecting to the next character, a technique preferred by calligraphers to increase the flow of writing. Compared to the italic form, the roman version of the ampersand in general shows only a meager remainder of the t-stroke (fig. 7). Today, the & symbol is incorporated into the design of every new font and is a part of every existing roman alphabet. The variations


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of the ampersand are manifold, particularly in italics. Apart from the straightforward &, which appears in the roman style, italic-style ampersands - influenced by calligraphy - show livelier forms. Some typefaces have especially beautiful ampersands; the illustration (fig. 10) shows italic ampersands for Garamond, Minion, Janson, Meridien, Baskerville, and Caslon. With the appearance of slab serif and sans serif typefaces in the 19th century, typefounders preferred the roman version of the ampersand (&), in italic as well as roman styles (fig. 11). There are many interesting variations of the ampersand, such as those created by the talented Ludovico degli Arrighi, the Renaissance writing master (fig. 8), and Robert Granjon, the gifted 16th century French type designer (fig. 9). The new Poetica typeface family, which was designed by Robert Slimbach of Adobe and based on Cancelleresca, the commercial writing hand used during the Italian Renaissance, offers a rich collection of 58 different ampersand characters (fig. 12). Ampersand usage varies from language to language. In English and French text, the ampersand may be substituted for the words and and et, and both versions may be used in the same text. The German rule is to use the ampersand within formal or corporate titles made up of two separate names; according to present German composition rules, the ampersand may not be used in running text. In any language, the ampersand’s calligraphic qualities make it a compelling design element that can add visual appeal and personality to any page.


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unicode U+0026 & ampersand (38decimal, HTML: & &)


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U+FE60 ﹠ small ampersand (HTML: ﹠) U+FF06 & fullwidth ampersand (HTML: & in block Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms) U+214B ⅋ inverted ampersand (HTML: ⅋)


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qwerty/qwertz/azerty There are different ways of typing & on your computer depending on what keyboard settings you’ve got. Not included: alt Gr + C Hungar ian


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keyboard shortcut: shift + 6 Austrian, Bosnian, Croatian, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Faroese, Finnish multilingual, German, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portuguese (Portugal), Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish (Spain and Latin America), Swedish, Swiss, Turkish. shift + 7 Albanian, Canadian french & multilingual, Czech, Irish, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Romanian, United Kingdom, United States. & (1) French, Belgian


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anatomi 1. ben 2. serif 3. arm 4. fot 5. mage 6. loop


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I N F O Udigniet laut ommolup taerovidenis mintiis in rehendit, sandips aeribus exere reperum que vita seque quiscimet que porioratis maximperest, in rernatur? Endias res adi berem del minte vel istrumq uundeniscil id quodiores aliquibus que quibus am duciisque dolupta quos atur alitem volupta tectur andigni blaborem repro esequo imus. Eheniscit aspidestis vel moluptios volorerior aut ommolor rorpos dolorepudis serciis aut la ditatum landuciae doluptatis rehenihil eicae pro est, offictionse est eumqui quid mo consecabo. Musam quam hicae qui offic te re volorem etum et acero evelic te quunditat. Bea nullorem nemporp oreicia ndanimus, quodit ventis ditatur? Qui ipitat molorepedit, quis auta ad ut audamenis ero tem explibusdae iundes sanienda conet dipsum in res qui quis sum inctis aut apis dolestio esti unt as erum hitaeru mquatur, invelita verunt esti re niam id mos ea qui ventia nonsecera iunt errum acest officientur, quam explique latenes etur, nimpore ribus, omnihil ium eos eicatis sumquatint atius dis quidesc ipsundae derio mod qui cum es quam facius, quam sedis eum, od utem nis alic to cone occuptatias es re, quam con nobiscienis expedis resed quatior umendae ipsum que perit porro molo et lacia nectate ndipis dolores ad magnihil id et quas dessecessita incipiet autate et delloritat ex eatur rescia qui non coreper chiciur, occae. Itam fugia nosto odit voluptatem hillumquam quid et, nobit aut perferion pos magni cum, nihiciet ommoloris et voloruntio ipsundelenem et elesciis serita dolorest ipsam aboreiur, omnimol orepel ellupicte vendam acepera consequ ostem. Bus dus. Ucipicium aceperum, offic tem volor soluptas quae sim rempos vel eaqui vel maximil luptaquatque lab illandaepe sed quam, asped magnis dolumqui di ut que di od molorerchil ipiet minctio runtota doluptat voles et pa quaectionet audaeceaque pratium reperitis nos dolora aut qui vel molore escillab iliquia dolorem-


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porum et, santio. Et doloreprem et, que voloreperum fugit, simpore simus. Emolese nostruptati te labo. Bus explis etus am nectem. Nam dolores ciusam vento entum, occusam, nonsequae officiisit odit ma solupta tisimi, voluptur?


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I N F O Udigniet laut ommolup taerovidenis mintiis in rehendit, sandips aeribus exere reperum que vita seque quiscimet que porioratis maximperest, in rernatur? Endias res adi berem del minte vel istrumq uundeniscil id quodiores aliquibus que quibus am duciisque dolupta quos atur alitem volupta tectur andigni blaborem repro esequo imus. Eheniscit aspidestis vel moluptios volorerior aut ommolor rorpos dolorepudis serciis aut la ditatum landuciae doluptatis rehenihil eicae pro est, offictionse est eumqui quid mo consecabo. Musam quam hicae qui offic te re volorem etum et acero evelic te quunditat. Bea nullorem nemporp oreicia ndanimus, quodit ventis ditatur? Qui ipitat molorepedit, quis auta ad ut audamenis ero tem explibusdae iundes sanienda conet dipsum in res qui quis sum inctis aut apis dolestio esti unt as erum hitaeru mquatur, invelita verunt esti re niam id mos ea qui ventia nonsecera iunt errum acest officientur, quam explique latenes etur, nimpore ribus, omnihil ium eos eicatis sumquatint atius dis quidesc ipsundae derio mod qui cum es quam facius, quam sedis eum, od utem nis alic to cone occuptatias es re, quam con nobiscienis expedis resed quatior umendae ipsum que perit porro molo et lacia nectate ndipis dolores ad magnihil id et quas dessecessita incipiet autate et delloritat ex eatur rescia qui non coreper chiciur, occae. Itam fugia nosto odit voluptatem hillumquam quid et, nobit aut perferion pos magni cum, nihiciet ommoloris et voloruntio ipsundelenem et elesciis serita dolorest ipsam aboreiur, omnimol orepel ellupicte vendam acepera consequ ostem. Bus dus. Ucipicium aceperum, offic tem volor soluptas quae sim rempos vel eaqui vel maximil luptaquatque lab illandaepe sed quam, asped magnis dolumqui di ut que di od molorerchil ipiet minctio runtota doluptat voles et pa quaectionet audaeceaque pratium reperitis nos dolora aut qui vel molore escillab iliquia doloremporum et, santio. Et doloreprem et, que voloreperum fugit, simpore simus. Emolese nostruptati te labo. Bus explis etus am nectem. Nam dolores ciusam vento entum, occusam, nonsequae officiisit odit ma solupta tisimi, voluptur?


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robert slimbach

> What is your view on the ampersand sign? I see it both as a functional and decorative form. Tt is also one of the few glyphs that can be personalized within most formal fonts without too many design restrictions. > How do you use & vs. and? In normal typographic settings I tend to limit its use to phrases and titles that may benefit from an added decorative embellishment. I tend not to use it in running text as a substitute for “and� except when it is part of an established title or phrase. With chancery italic fonts, and other calligraphic styles, I feel there is a bit more latitude to use the ampersand more often in conjunction with swash letters and alternate forms. > Do you see any difference between your use of the ampersand sign compared with others, both nationaly and internationaly? I sense that the conventions for its use are fairly well defined and consistently applied throughout the world. However, there may be exceptions that I’m not aware of. > Are you using the ampersand sign different now compared to the beginning of your careeer? No, not really.


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> Why do you think the ampersand is so common on book covers? Probably because the ampersand is commonly incorporated into book titles. It is a wonderful decorative device that can add personality to display titles. > Do you have any favorite designs of the ampersand; custom or part of a typeface? I’ve always liked Hernann Zapf’s ampersands in Palatino. I also like the style of ampersand used by Nicolaus Jenson and Cluade Garamond. > Do you have any advice for someone designing an ampersand? Because the ampersand is an “et” ligature, designers should remember to retain some trace of these two letters is the design. Also, I think it is wise to stick to a variation of a historical style in most cases. > What is your view on the future use of the ampersand considering text messages and computer writing? As long as text is entered manually on small input devices, shorthand symbols like the ampersand will most likely persist. > Would there be any point in making a new lower case ampersand adapted for longer texts? Even though I don’t see a great need for one, in the right hands a lowercase ampersand might be effectively applied to longer texts. A small cap version of the larger standard form might work well in this case, or perhaps a lowercase et-style adapted to upright fonts.


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Varför tror du att ordet ampersand varken står med i Svenska Akademiens Ordlista eller Nationalencyklopedien? De vet inte vad det är för någonting. Det är ju inget ord, bara ett tecken. Missuppfattad latin, och missuppfattningar uppskattas kanske inte. Vad är din inställning till ampersandtecknet? Att det inte ska användas i löpande text i stället för “och”. Eric Gill ansåg dock att man (i engelsk text) borde använda det. Men han hade fel. Ser du någon skillnad på användandet av ampersandtecknet i Sverige och Internationellt? Vet ej. Hur använder du dig av & vs. och? Jag använder & bara i kortare texter eller som estetiskt element. Använder du dig av ampersandtecknet annorlunda idag jämfört med början av din karriär? Nej, jag har aldrig slösat med det. Varför tror du att ampersandtecknet är så vanligt på bokomslag? Jag tror det har med formatet att göra, stora grader, smalt utrymme = svårt att få med många ord på bredden. Kan vara snyggt ibland också. Har du något favoritutförande av ampersanden, specialdesignat eller del av ett typsnitt? Adobe Garamond kursiv, Galliard kursiv, Baskerville kursiv. För ampersand-freaks finns ju typsnittet Poetica, som liksom Adobe Garamond är tecknat av Robert (CHRISTER BER DIG HJÄLPA TILL MED EFTERNAMNET HÄR!!!!). Det innehåller bland annat en font med enbart (!) ampersander, 54 stycken om jag minns rätt. Har du några tips till den som vill formge ett ampersand? Det bör framgå att det är en sammansättning (ligatur) av e och t.


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Det är ett dekorativt tecken man sällan får använda, men jag gillar att teckna det när jag gör typsnitt. > Vad är det du gillar med att teckna ampersandtecknet? Det ska liksom siffrorna fungera med både versaler och gemener så det blir genast en liten annan typ av utmaning. Det finns också en del detaljer i ampersanden som gör att den lätt ser lite obalanserad ut. > Varför tror du att ordet ampersand varken står med i Svenska Akademiens Ordlista eller Nationalencyklopedien? För att det inte heter ampersand på svenska. > Ser du någon skillnad på ditt bruk av ampersandtecknet jämfört med andras nationellt och internationellt? Känns som det oftare används i USA. > Hur använder du dig av & vs. och? “&” i ordbilder, namn, rubriker kanske ibland.... “Och” används i övrigt för allt annat. > Använder du dig av ampersandtecknet annorlunda idag jämfört med början av din karriär? Nej.

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> Varför tror du att ampersandtecknet är så vanligt på bokomslag? För att det är ett billigt sätt att dekorera. > Har du något favoritutförande av ampersanden, specialdesignat eller del av ett typsnitt? Jag gillar nog det vanliga standardiserade & som vi ser mest, dvs den grundformen som finns i t.ex. Helvetica. Det känns lite overkill med det som mer ser ut som Et. > Har du några tips till den som vill formge ett ampersand? Ja, håll gärna tillbaka ambitionerna lite. Det blir lätt att man överdesignar “ampersanden”. I sin grundform är det tillräckligt dekorativt. > Skulle det finnas nåt värde i att försöka formge ett gement ampersand för löptext? Det är redan gement. Och versalt. > Tror du att ampersandtecknet kommer användas mer i framtiden med tanke på SMS och datorskrift? Nej. Kidsen skriver ju “o” när man vill uttrycka “och”?


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What is your view on the ampersand sign? I like it because there are so many variations (unlike other letters in the alphabet) Is it commonly used in South Africa?. Same as everywhere else Is there some sort of equivalent in the African languages that you know of? Not that I know of - so probably not Do you see any difference between your use of the ampersand sign compared with others, both nationaly and internationaly? Depends on the font being used. Are you using the ampersand sign different now compared to the beginning of your careeer? If I design my own lettering, then yes, its different, if not then I generally use the & in the font im using. Rarely do I substitute the & from another font. Do you think there will be an increase in the use of the ampersand with computer and cell phone written text taking over? Guess so, but also see increased use of the + sign Why do you think the ampersand is so common on book covers? Its not common anywhere Do you have any favorite designs of the ampersand; custom or part of a typeface? Pobabaly Caslon as its so decorative. A really ‘fuckoff’ ampersand Do you have any advice for someone designing an ampersand? Make sure it looks like one!


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I N T E R V J U Udigniet laut ommolup taerovidenis mintiis in rehendit, sandips aeribus exere reperum que vita seque quiscimet que porioratis maximperest, in rernatur? Endias res adi berem del minte vel istrumq uundeniscil id quodiores aliquibus que quibus am duciisque dolupta quos atur alitem volupta tectur andigni blaborem repro esequo imus. Eheniscit aspidestis vel moluptios volorerior aut ommolor rorpos dolorepudis serciis aut la ditatum landuciae doluptatis rehenihil eicae pro est, offictionse est eumqui quid mo consecabo. Musam quam hicae qui offic te re volorem etum et acero evelic te quunditat. Bea nullorem nemporp oreicia ndanimus, quodit ventis ditatur? Qui ipitat molorepedit, quis auta ad ut audamenis est ipsam aboreiur, omnimol orepel ellupicte vendam acepera consequ ostem. Bus dus. Ucipicium aceperum, offic tem volor soluptas quae sim rempos vel eaqui vel maximil luptaquatque lab illandaepe sed quam, asped magnis dolumqui di ut que di od molorerchil ipiet minctio runtota doluptat voles et pa quaectionet audaeceaque pratium reperitis nos dolora aut qui vel molore escillab iliquia doloremporum et, santio. Et doloreprem et, que voloreperum fugit, simpore simus. Emolese nostruptati te labo. Bus explis etus am nectem. Nam dolores ciusam vento entum, occusam, nonsequae officiisit odit ma solupta tisimi, voluptur?


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I N T E R V J U Udigniet laut ommolup taerovidenis mintiis in rehendit, sandips aeribus exere reperum que vita seque quiscimet que porioratis maximperest, in rernatur? Endias res adi berem del minte vel istrumq uundeniscil id quodiores aliquibus que quibus am duciisque dolupta quos atur alitem volupta tectur andigni blaborem repro esequo imus. Eheniscit aspidestis vel moluptios volorerior aut ommolor rorpos dolorepudis serciis aut la ditatum landuciae doluptatis rehenihil eicae pro est, offictionse est eumqui quid mo consecabo. Musam quam hicae qui offic te re volorem etum et acero evelic te quunditat. nectate ndipis dolores ad magnihil id et quas dessecessita incipiet autate et delloritat ex eatur rescia qui non coreper chiciur, occae. Itam fugia nosto odit voluptatem hillumquam quid et, nobit aut perferion pos magni cum, nihiciet ommoloris et voloruntio ipsundelenem et elesciis serita dolorest ipsam aboreiur, omnimol orepel ellupicte vendam acepera consequ ostem. Bus dus. Ucipicium aceperum, offic tem volor soluptas quae sim rempos vel eaqui vel maximil luptaquatque lab illandaepe sed quam, asped magnis dolumqui di ut que di od molorerchil ipiet minctio runtota doluptat voles et pa quaectionet audaeceaque pratium reperitis nos dolora aut qui vel molore escillab iliquia doloremporum et, santio. Et doloreprem et, que voloreperum fugit, simpore simus. Emolese nostruptati te labo. Bus explis etus am nectem. Nam dolores ciusam vento entum, occusam, nonsequae officiisit odit ma solupta tisimi, voluptur?


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fredrik lindström Hej Edvin! Fredrik får flera förfrågningar liknande din varje vecka och måste tyvärr alltid tacka nej på grund av tidsbrist. Lycka till med uppsatsen! Hälsningar Vera milton glaser Dear Edvin, Regretfully, Milton cannot participate at this time. But thank you for thinking of him. Best, Scarlett Rigby


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stefan sagmeister Dear Edvin, Thank you very much for inviting me to be part of your project. I do think that this is a great idea. Unfortunately, I cannot participate. Right now I’m trying to put all the energy left over (besides the work for all our regular paying clients and my rather crazy traveling schedule) into our little documentary film. I am sure you’ll do a great job without us and will look forward to seeing it.

100 greetings from wonderful Indonesia, Stefan


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Ampersand ID Chart By Douglas Wilson


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octopus ampersand - toby triumph

and, the typeface - dara diliegro


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# Why use and when you can use &. # This is a campaign to encourage the use of the ampersand over the three character word ‘and’. The campaign is titled ‘why use and when you can use &.’ This was applied to a variety of products that were handed out as promotion for the form of the ampersand & its many forms within typography.


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font aid IV: coming together On Tuesday, January 12, 2010, a catastrophic earthquake occurred approximately 16 miles (25km) west of Port-au-Prince, the capital of Haiti. The earthquake caused major damage to Port-au-Prince and the surrounding area. The International Red Cross estimates that three million people were affected by the quake, with as many as one million Haitians left homeless. In order to raise funds to expedite relief efforts The Society of Typographic Aficionados (SOTA) announced the launch of Font Aid IV, a project uniting the typographic and design communities. Type designers, graphic designers and other artists from around the world were invited to contribute artwork to be included in a typeface created exclusively for the Font Aid IV effort. The theme was “Coming Together” which was represented though a font consisting entirely of ampersands. Coming Together was made available for sale, with all proceeds going to Doctors Without Borders.

Font Aid: a Brief History Swedish type designer Claes Källarsson conceived of the initial Font Aid project in 1999. More than 25 type designers participated in designing a collaborative font, with proceeds going to UNICEF to help war and disaster refugees. In 2001, SOTA became involved when Stuart Sandler was inspired by Källarsson’s efforts and initiated Font Aid II. This second collaborative charitable typeface was created to benefit the victims of the September 11 tragedies in the US. The font was made up of almost 100 question mark glyphs contributed by designers from over 20 countries. In 2005, SOTA and Building Letters joined forces in Font Aid III to unite the typographic and design communities in raising funds to expedite relief efforts in countries affected by the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamis. More than 220 designers worldwide submitted over 400 glyphs for the collaborative typeface. With your support, Font Aid can continue its efforts to assist others in dire need of aid.


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coming together 2010

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published in agreement with author craig conley.

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abc-and -Francis Green, West Wales Historical Records, 1926 This variation of Welch origin, establishes the ampersand as coming at the end of the alphabet, an “and“ after the “abc’s.“ amberesand -Manchester City News, Dec. 31, 1881 This spelling is derived from the French name for Antwerp, Anvers, a presumed origin of the symbol. ambersand -Jack Grapes, Onthebus, 1989. “When the ambersand (&) is looped in a high degree, there will be a protective, loyal nature present.” -Richard Dimsdale Stocker, The language of handwriting: A Textbook of graphology, 1904 amersand —Elizabeth Evans, Ring Lardner, 1979 “He uses the amersand, then the word and.“—Elizabeth Evans, Ring Lardner, 1979 amp —Clive Maxfield, The Design Warrior’s Guide to FPGAs, 2004 This is a term from digital circuit theory(combinational logic). “The “&” (ampersand) character is commonly referred to as an “amp”“ —Clive Maxfield, The Design Warrior’s Guide to FPGAs, 2004 ampassy —James Hooper, The Gentlemen’s Magazine, July 1892 This word is of Cornish origin. “The whole lot from A to Ampassy.“ —Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch, Shining Ferry, 1904 ampassy-and —Charles Earle Funk, Thereby Hangs a Tale, 1950 This word has been traced back to the English town of Corringham, Essex. am-passy-and


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—John Stephen Farmer, Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, 1903 This is a word from colloquial English slang. ampasty —Alfred Langdon Elwyn, Glossary of Supposed Americanisms, 1859 ampazad —John Stephen Farmer, Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, 1903 The “zad“ at the end of this word recalls the “zed“ or Z of the alphabet, traditionally followed by the ampersand (here shortened to “ampa”). This is a word from colloquial English slang. amper —The New Hacker’s Dictionary, 1991 This word is a shorthand in the hacking community. ampers —Douglas Macmillan, Word-lore, 1928 “Ampers is a corruption of “and per se.““—Douglas Macmillan, Word-lore, 1928 ampersamand —George Gibson Neill Wright, The Writing of Arabic Numerals, 1952 “Other generations may yet speak of an “ampersand and,“ and then of an “ampersamand.””—George Gibson Neill Wright, The Writing of Arabic Numerals, 1952 ampers and —Douglas Macmillan, Word-lore, 1928 “All the way through the alphabet to Z and Ampers And.“ —Donald Davidson, The Big Ballad Jamboree, 1996 amper’s and —Harry Alfred Long, Personal and Family Names, 1883 “Lumping together X,Y,Z and Amper’s and.“ —Jessie Bedford,


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English Children in the Olden Time, 1907 ampersand This spelling of the word dates back to the mid-19th century. “Ampersand is an “honorary“ letter. It used to be the 27-th letter in the alphabet“ —John Burkhardt, “Wordplay,“ 2002 “It is one of the worst things about our detestable time that this ancient ... thing “ampersand“ is forgotten“ —Hilaire Belloc, On, 1923 “Is this end or ampersand?” —Norman MacCaig, Collected Poems, 1985 “I envy the hyphen, the ampersand, whatever bargain they’ve made for beauty.” —Brenda Hillman, Fortress: Poems, 1989 ampersand-and —George Gibson Neill Wright, The Writing of Arabic Numerals, 1952 “Other generations may yet speak of an “ampersand and,“ and then of an “ampersamand.””—George Gibson Neill Wright, The Writing of Arabic Numerals, 1952 ampersandwich —Bill D. Rexwordpuzzle.blogspot.com, 2008 This is a crossword puzzles term, referring to an answer that contains a conjunction between two initials. amperstand —Anne Hemingway, The Colour of Love, 2004 “It was a beautiful gold ring with their initials, Y & L, in the center; instead of an amperstand, there was a small diamond.” —Anne Hemingway, The Colour of Love, 2004 ampersant Prof. Joynes, qtd. in Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, Vol.2, 1893 In this corruption of the word, the ending “ant“ seems to ignore its origin as “and.“ Prof. Joynes recalls saying “ampersant” “without the slightest idea... that it contained any trace of the word and” (qtd. in Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, Vol.2, 1893)


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amperse-and —Gilbert Milligan Tucker, American English, 1921 This spelling of ampersand appears in several Mother Goose rhymes. For example, “Z and amperse-and go to school at command“ (Mother Goose’s Melodies for Children, 1869). amperzand —James Hooper, The Gentlemen’s Magazine, July 1892 “My nice little amperzand / Never must into a word expand.“ — Punch, April 17, 1869 “Webster, moreover, advertises us that & is no letter—the goal of every breathless, whip-fearing, abcdarian’s various strife, the highsounding Amperzand, no letter! Mehercule!“ —Sylvester Judd, Margaret, 1845 amperze-and —John Russel Bartlett, Dictionary of Americanisms, 1848 This variation has been traced to the English county of Hampshire (—John Russel Bartlett, Dictionary of Americanisms, 1848) amperzed —Gilbert Milligan Tucker, American English, 1921 The “zed“ at the end of this word recalls the letter Z, traditionally followed by the ampersand (here shortened to “amper”). This is a word from colloquial American slang. ampezant —Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, Vol.2, 1893 The “zant“ at the end of this word recalls the letter Z, traditionally followed by the ampersand (here shortened to “ampe“). ampleasant —James Mitchell, Significant Etymology; or, Roots, Stems, and Branches of the English Language, 1908 In this pleasant-sounding variation, the ending “ant“ seems to ignore its origin as “and.“ ample-se-and —Wilfred Whitte, Is It Good English?, 1925 This is likely a Victorian-era contraction of “and by itself and,“ similar to ableselfa (“a by itself a”) (Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, Vol.2, 1893) ampsam


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—Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, Vol.2, 1893 This is a variation from Framingham, Massachusetts (Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, Vol.2, 1893) ampus —James Hooper, The Gentlemen’s Magazine, July 1892 This is a contraction of ampusand. ampusand —James Hooper, The Gentlemen’s Magazine, July 1892 “He thought it [the letter z] had only been put there to finish of th’ alphabet like, though ampusand would ha’ done as well.“ — George Eliot, Adam Bede, 1859 ampus-and —The Cambridge Review, 1882 The satirical periodical Punch invented a character called Mr. Ampus-Annd: “All Mr. Ampus-Annd will say when asked for his view is: “You tell me““ (1936). ampus-end —John Stephen Farmer, Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, 1903 This is an example of colloquial English slang. ampussy —James Hooper, The Gentlemen’s Magazine, July 1892 The “pussy“ has been likened to “a pussy-cat sitting up and raising its fore-paw!“ (Edward Walford, The Antiquary, Vol. XXXII, 1896). am pussy am —David Gibbs, Pentagram: The Compendium, 1993 ampussy and —John Stephen Farmer, Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, 1903 “I also found “ampussy and“ — I hardly know how to write it — remembered beyond the ocean.“ —Edward Augustus Freeman, Some Impressions of the United States, 1883


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ampussy-and —Charles Earle Funk, Thereby Hangs a Tale, 1950 ampuzzand —M.A. Lower, Notes and Queries, Sept. 7, 1850 amsiam —Charles Earle Funk, Thereby Hangs a Tale, 1950 The word is of Kentish dialect. “Amsiam: always thus called by children, and named after the letter Z when saying the alphabet.“ —Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1970 and-by-itself-and —Alfred Ainger, Notes and Queries, Dec. 2, 1871 “Ride behind the sulky of And-by-itself-and.” —Charles Lamb, Mr. H., 1807 and-parcy —A glossary of North Country Words, 1829 This is an expression from Northern English dialect. It is a variation of parcy-and. andpassy —John Stephen Farmer, Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, 1903 ““Andpassy” is the name that, as a boy, I used to hear given to this symbol.” —Vincent Stuckey Lean, Lean’s Collectanea, 1904 andpersand Bim Sherman, The Century, 1878 This spelling was suggested alongside ampersand in Gilbert Milligan Tucker’s American English, 1921. and-pussey-and —Miscallaneous Notes and Queries, Vol. XII, 1894 and-pussy-and —Abram Smythe Palmer, The Folk and their Word-Lore, 1904


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““And-pussy-and“ because its shape (&) suggests a pussy-cat sitting up and raising its fore-paw!“ —Edward Walford, The Antiquary, Vol. XXXII, 1896. ann passy ann —John Stephen Farmer, Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, 1903 This is a colloquial English expression. ann-pussy-ann —Edward Shippen, “Educational Antiques,” Pennsylvania School Journal, Sept. 1874 The ampersand “was allowed by some teachers to pass under the name “Ann-pussy-Ann,“ as I am advised by an ancient lady who never knew any other name for the character.” —Edward Shippen, “Educational Antiques,” Pennsylvania School Journal, Sept. 1874 anparse —Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1961 This is a contraction of “and per se,“ from Enlish slang. anparsil —Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1961 This variation has been traced back to the dialect of Leeds, in northern England (C. Clough Robinson, The Dialect of Leeds and Its Neigbourhood, 1862). anparsy —Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1961 This variation is an example of Yorkshire dialect (Marmaduke Charles Frederick Morris, Yorkshire Folk-Talk, 1892). anpassal ­—­­­­Samuel Dyer, Dialect of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1891 ­This is a contraction of “and parcel,“ from Yorkshire dialect. “Anpassal is the finish of the alphabet, and means, I suppose, and parcel“ (Samuel Dyer, Dialect of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1891). anpasty


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—Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1961 In the dialect of East Anglia, this word means “and past Y“ (even though the ampersand technically coems after the letter Z) (Robert Forby, The vocabulary of East Anglia, 1830.) an-pasty —James Mitchell’s Significant Etymology; or, Roots, Stems, and Branches of the English Language, 1908 This is a variation of the East Anglican word meaning “and past Y.“ anpusan —Edward Shippen, “Educational Antiques,” Pennsylvania School Journal, Sept. 1874 This is a “careless and hurried“ pronunciation of ampersand (Edward Shippen, “Educational Antiques,” Pennsylvania School Journal, Sept. 1874). anversand —Manchester City News, Dec. 31, 1881 This spelling presumes the ampersand’s origin in the printing presses of Antwerp (Anvers in French). aperse-and —John Stephen Farmer, Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, 1903 This is a contradiction of “and per se and.“ apersey —James Hooper, The Gentlemen’s Magazine, July 1892 This Scottish variant of ampersand also refers to a person of incomparable merit. apersie —James Hooper, The Gentlemen’s Magazine, July 1892 This is a variant spelling of the Scottish apersey, referring to a person of incomparable merit as well as to an ampersand. appersi-and —John Ogilvie, The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language,


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1883 apples-and —M.A. Lower, Notes and Queries, Sept. 7, 1850 This corruption of the word ampersand suggests that comparing variations of the word is like comparing apples and oranges. It is likely a Victorian-era contraction of “and by itself and,“ similar to ableselfa (“a by itself a“) (Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, Vol. 2, 1893). dingus —Time, Jan. 18, 1932 This word is used when the speaker can’t recall the word ampersand. “I have lived half-century without ever knowing that dingus—”&”— was called the ampersand!“ —R.H. John, Time, Jan. 18, 1932 do-jiggy —Karlen Evins, I Didn’t Know That, 2007 Language expert Karlen Evins calls the ampersand a “do-jiggy“ (I Didn’t Know That, 2007). This epithet is perhaps kinder than “thingumabob“ and certainly more precise than “whatchamacallit.“ doohickey —M.Loy, humor.darkfriends.net, Dec. 21, 2001 This word is a blending of doodad and hickey and is used when the speaker can’t remember the word ampersand. “I do so love the name of this doohickey. “Ampersand“ gives me a symbolistic lexiconical boner, it does“ —M.Loy, humor.darkfriends. net, Dec. 21, 2001 Emperor’s hand —William Shephard Walsh, Handy-book of Literary Curiosities, 1892 “The sign & is said to be properly called Emperor’s hand, from having been first invented by some imperial personage, but by whom deponent saith not.“ —William Shephard Walsh, Handy-book of Literary Curiosities, 1892


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empersi-and —John Stephen Farmer, Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, 1903 “A shrivelled, cadaverous, neglected piece of deformity, i’ the shape of an ezard or an empersi-and, or in short anything. “ — Charles Macklin, The Man of the World, qtd. in A Dictionary of Slang, Jargon & Cant by Albert Barrère, 1889 emperzan Pett Ridge, In the Wars, qtd. in The Romance of Words by Ernest Weekley, 1911 “Tommy knew all about the work. Knew every letter in it from A to Emperzan.“ Pett Ridge, In the Wars, qtd. in The Romance of Words by Ernest Weekley, 1911 empus-and —Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1961 This colloquial English expression recalls the Emperor’s hand variation. empuzad M.A. Lower, Notes and Queries, Sept. 7, 1850 This corruption of ampersand is also noted in Wilfred Whitten’s Is it Good English?, 1925 epershand —John Williams Clark, Early English, 1967 This Scottish equivalent of ampersand (The Encyklopedia Brittannica, 1911). eppershand —Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, Vol. 2, 1893 This is a variant spelling of the Scottish epershand. epse-and —Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1961 This variation is from colloquial English. et-per-se


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—Douglas Macmillan, Word-lore, 1928 This expression recalls the Latin roots of the ampersand. et-per-se-and —The Journal of American Folk-Lore, 1894 Literally meaning “et by itself, and,“ this expression recalls the Latin roots of the ampersand. hampersand —Harry Alfred Long, Personal and Family Names, 1883 This is an “English rustic“ variation of ampersand; it also means “empire’s end” (Harry Alfred Long, Personal and Family Names, 1883). man per se —William Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, 1602 Like apersey, this expression refers to a person of incomparable merit. parcy-and —Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1961 This is an expression from Northern English dialect. It is a variation of and-parcy (A Glossary of North Country Words, 1829). parseyand —Edward Peacock, A Glossary of Words in the Wapentakes of Manley and Corringham, 1877 From Northern English dialect, this is a variation of and-parcy (A Glossary of North Country Words, 1829). passy —Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1961 This is a reduction of passy-and passy-and —Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1961 This is a variation of andpassy percy-and


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—T.Baron Russel, Current Americanisms, 1897 This expression is from American dialect. perse —John Stephen Farmer, Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, 1903 Meaning “Standing by itself,” this is a reduction of “and per se.“ round and —Alexander A.Stewart, The Printer’s Dictionary of Technical Terms, 1912 In typesetting, the ampersand is “sometimes called the round and“ (Alexander A.Stewart, The Printer’s Dictionary of Technical Terms, 1912). semper and —William Halloway, A General Dictionary of Provincialisms, 1840 This colloquialism has been traced back to East Sussex, England. short and —Vincent Stuckey Lean, Lean’s Collectanea, 1904 This variation, used by typesetters, acknowledges the ampersand symbol as being a short form of “and“ (George Burnham Ives, Text, Type and Style, 1921). thingy —Robert J. Sawyer, Rollback, 2007 “Hey, ther’s that “and“ thingy again.“ —Robert J. Sawyer, Rollback, 2007 typewriter and —Lawrence Weiner, Bomb Magazine, Winter 1996 “You really think there’s a significance to the use of the ampersand which for years I called the “typewriter and.“ It’s like the choice of saying “They are not,“ or “They ain’t.“ They’re both correct, but they both connate a different placement within society.“ —Lawrence Weiner, Interviewed by Marjorie Welish, Bomb Magazine, Winter 1996


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zempy zed —James Mitchell, Significant Etymology; or, Roots, Stems, and Branches of the English Language, 1908 This variation celebrates the ampersand’s alphabetical proximity to the letter Z. zumpy-zed —Abram Smythe Palmer, Folk-Etymology, 1882 This colloquialism draws attention to the ampersand’s alphabetical proximity to the letter Z. zumzy-zan —John Stephen Farmer, Slang and Its Analogues Past and Present, 1903 This is a colloquial English expression.


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R E G I S T E R Udigniet laut ommolup taerovidenis mintiis in rehendit, sandips aeribus exere reperum que vita seque quiscimet que porioratis maximperest, in rernatur? Endias res adi berem del minte vel istrumq uundeniscil id quodiores aliquibus que quibus am duciisque dolupta quos atur alitem volupta tectur andigni blaborem repro esequo imus. aboreiur, omnimol orepel ellupicte vendam acepera consequ ostem. Bus dus. Ucipicium aceperum, offic tem volor soluptas quae sim rempos vel eaqui vel maximil luptaquatque lab illandaepe sed quam, asped magnis dolumqui di ut que di od molorerchil ipiet minctio runtota doluptat voles et pa quaectionet audaeceaque pratium reperitis nos dolora aut qui vel molore escillab iliquia doloremporum et, santio. Et doloreprem et, que voloreperum fugit, simpore simus. Emolese nostruptati te labo. Bus explis etus am nectem. Nam dolores ciusam vento entum, occusam, nonsequae officiisit odit ma solupta tisimi, voluptur? Bea nullorem nemporp oreicia ndanimus, quodit ventis ditatur?


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R E G I S T E R Udigniet laut ommolup taerovidenis mintiis in rehendit, sandips aeribus exere reperum que vita seque quiscimet que porioratis maximperest, in rernatur? Endias res adi berem del minte vel istrumq uundeniscil id quodiores aliquibus que quibus am duciisque dolupta quos atur alitem volupta tectur andigni blaborem repro esequo imus. aboreiur, omnimol orepel ellupicte vendam acepera consequ ostem. Bus dus. Ucipicium aceperum, offic tem volor soluptas quae sim rempos vel eaqui vel maximil luptaquatque lab illandaepe sed quam, asped magnis dolumqui di ut que di od molorerchil ipiet minctio runtota doluptat voles et pa quaectionet audaeceaque pratium reperitis nos dolora aut qui vel molore escillab iliquia doloremporum et, santio. Et doloreprem et, que voloreperum fugit, simpore simus. Emolese nostruptati te labo. Bus explis etus am nectem. Nam dolores ciusam vento entum, occusam, nonsequae officiisit odit ma solupta tisimi, voluptur? Bea nullorem nemporp oreicia ndanimus, quodit ventis ditatur?


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R E G I S T E R Udigniet laut ommolup taerovidenis mintiis in rehendit, sandips aeribus exere reperum que vita seque quiscimet que porioratis maximperest, in rernatur? Endias res adi berem del minte vel istrumq uundeniscil id quodiores aliquibus que quibus am duciisque dolupta quos atur alitem volupta tectur andigni blaborem repro esequo imus. aboreiur, omnimol orepel ellupicte vendam acepera consequ ostem. Bus dus. Ucipicium aceperum, offic tem volor soluptas quae sim rempos vel eaqui vel maximil luptaquatque lab illandaepe sed quam, asped magnis dolumqui di ut que di od molorerchil ipiet minctio runtota doluptat voles et pa quaectionet audaeceaque pratium reperitis nos dolora aut qui vel molore escillab iliquia doloremporum et, santio. Et doloreprem et, que voloreperum fugit, simpore simus. Emolese nostruptati te labo. Bus explis etus am nectem. Nam dolores ciusam vento entum, occusam, nonsequae officiisit odit ma solupta tisimi, voluptur? Bea nullorem nemporp oreicia ndanimus, quodit ventis ditatur?


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R E G I S T E R Udigniet laut ommolup taerovidenis mintiis in rehendit, sandips aeribus exere reperum que vita seque quiscimet que porioratis maximperest, in rernatur? Endias res adi berem del minte vel istrumq uundeniscil id quodiores aliquibus que quibus am duciisque dolupta quos atur alitem volupta tectur andigni blaborem repro esequo imus. aboreiur, omnimol orepel ellupicte vendam acepera consequ ostem. Bus dus. Ucipicium aceperum, offic tem volor soluptas quae sim rempos vel eaqui vel maximil luptaquatque lab illandaepe sed quam, asped magnis dolumqui di ut que di od molorerchil ipiet minctio runtota doluptat voles et pa quaectionet audaeceaque pratium reperitis nos dolora aut qui vel molore escillab iliquia doloremporum et, santio. Et doloreprem et, que voloreperum fugit, simpore simus. Emolese nostruptati te labo. Bus explis etus am nectem. Nam dolores ciusam vento entum, occusam, nonsequae officiisit odit ma solupta tisimi, voluptur? Bea nullorem nemporp oreicia ndanimus, quodit ventis ditatur?


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Conley, Craig. Ampersand, Lexington, KY, 2011 Hedlund, Monica. Konsten att säga och, installationsföreläsning för professur, 2002 Heine, Arne. Arnes alfabet E, Populär Kommunikation 6/08


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WIP 2 And per se and  

bachelor work about the ampersand WIP.

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