LED professional Review (LpR) - Mar/Apr 2021 - LpR#84

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ISSN 1993-890X

Review

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Key Experts Shed Light on UV-C Disinfection

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New LiFi Communication Standards Open Market Access

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Hiroyoshi OGAWA, NICHIA COMMENTARY Jan DENNEMAN, Good Light Group LED TECHNOLOGIES Multi-Chip, Outdoor, Surgical ECODESIGN Replaceability of Modules INTELLIGENCE 13-Bit Color Controller

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INTERVIEW

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NICHIA Celebrates its 65th Year of Continuous Innovation

Mar/Apr 2021 | Issue

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The Global Information Hub for Lighting Technologies and Design



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EDITORIAL

Innovation United with Sustainability I am particularly pleased to give you a short introduction to this new LED professional Review (LpR) release. We address some critical topics ranging from light sources to design aspects, communication subjects, and actual implementations in this issue. Inventions and technological progress are the basis for innovation. However, we also know that all developments – today more than ever – must be determined towards quality and, above all, sustainability. In this context, we were pleased to interview Mr. Hiroyoshi OGAWA, President and CEO of NICHIA. We also took the opportunity to send our congratulations on the occasion of NICHIA’s 65th anniversary. The topic of sustainability is complex and has many facets. One viewpoint is interchangeability, as prescribed by the new EU directives and discussed in the article about Replaceability. In cooperation with LightingEurope, we attained chief experts on UV-C disinfection, who provided us with the latest insights in this field. Wireless communication, and LiFi in particular, is a fascinating subject. Now, with standardization plans, there is further momentum towards market implementations. You will also find the link to the LiFi seminar from the International Solid-State Lighting Alliance published on LpS Digital in this release. In addition to all that, we present two specific new developments in the LED sector: New LEDs for outdoor applications and innovations in multi-chip LED packaging. Smart Controls and Surgical Lighting articles complete the range of topics for technical developments and specific applications. Finally, I would like to express my sincere thanks to all our contributors. Enjoy your read and stay healthy! PS: Call for Papers for the LpS Digital 2021 is open. Take the opportunity to submit your idea for a paper or present your latest innovations . Yours Sincerely,

Siegfried Luger Luger Research e.U., Founder & CEO LED professional, Trends in Lighting, LpS Digital & Global Lighting Directory Photonics21, Member of the Board of Stakeholders International Solid-State Lighting Alliance (ISA), Member of the Board of Advisors Member of the Good Light Group and the European Photonics Industry Consortium

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© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021


The Most Efficient and Reliable LED solution for Outdoor

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CONTENT

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OVERVIEW

NICHIA’S 65th ANNIVERSARY – INTERVIEW 22 Hiroyoshi OGAWA, President and CEO of NICHIA

4 EDITORIAL

COMMENTARY 8 Good Light is as Important as Good

compiled by Editors, LED professional

Food and Good Air

by Jan DENNEMAN, Chairman of the Good Light Group

Hiroyoshi OGAWA Jan DENNEMAN

ECODESIGN 30 Replaceability of Light Sources and

NEWS

Separate Control Gears

10 International Lighting News

by Carsten MÖLLERS, Dipl.-Kfm., CEO of Green Gems; Werner MOTZ, Electrical Engineering Technician & Master at BASF

LIFI SEMINAR 20 LpS Digital – Conference & Exhibition

DISINFECTION 36 UV-C: Disinfection Benefits, Safety,

Comfort and Proof Points

by Georg NIEDERMEIER, Dr., EHS Professional at OSRAM; Armin KONRAD, Dr., Senior R&D Director at LEDVANCE; Lukas KASTELEIN, Ing., Standardization and Regulations Professional at Signify LiFi Seminar organized by the International SSL Alliance (ISA). State-of-the-art LiFi lectures including the keynote lecture by Professor Harald HAAS.

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© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021


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OVERVIEW

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

CONTENT

OUTDOOR LIGHTING

42 A Closer Look at LiFi Standardization by Musa UNMEHOPA, Head of Ecosystems and Alliances for LiFi at Signify

54 New LED for Outdoor Lighting by Markus HOFMANN, DI, Senior Key Expert for General Lighting at Osram Opto Semiconductors

LED TECHNOLOGY 58 Multi-Chip LEDs

Musa UNMEHOPA

by Sam ROGERS, Content Writer and Editor at Ushio; Fumihiko ODA, Dr., SSL Sales Strategy Deputy Manager at Ushio

COLOR CONTROLLER 48 13-Bit RGBW Color Control for Accurate

High-Quality Architectural & Stage Lighting

by Keith SZOLUSHA, LED Driver Applications Manager at Analog Devices

SURGICAL LIGHTING 62 Why High-End Surgical Lights Have

Become Imperative Invasive Equipment by Ashish GUJARATHI, MBA, SEO Analyst at Allied Market Research

66 ABOUT | IMPRINT

ADVERTISING INDEX 1 2 3 5 9 11 13

LpS Digital Cree LED Helvar Seoul Semiconductor Röhm Cree LED Instrument Systems

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15 17 18 29 35 41 46

LIGITEK Toplite Trends in Lighting LpS Digital Repro-Light LightingEurope International Solid-State Lighting Alliance

47 European Photonics Industry Consortium 53 Sustainable Eye Health 64 Global Lighting Directory 65 LED professional 67 LED professional Review 68 Aalborg University Copenhagen

© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

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COMMENTARY

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JAN DENNEMAN

Good Light is as Important as Good Food and Good Air Scientific studies make very clear that good light is crucial for our health and well-being. Good light does more than enable us to see. It is the most important “zeitgeber”for our brain and body and synchronizes our internal circadian clock. Why are the scientific findings so often not being applied in practice and must we all spend our lives in biological darkness?

Jan DENNEMAN Jan DENNEMAN is Founder and Chairman of the Board of the Good Light Group as well as Honorary Ambassador of the Global Lighting Association. The Good Light Group is a non-profit organization that promotes the use of Good Light indoors. Good light is daylight or electric light with comparable beneficial effects. Jan has more than 40 years of experience in executive roles in sustainability, innovation and business development and held senior innovation and marketing roles at Philips Lighting (now Signify) during the industry’s transition to LED and Intelligent Lighting Systems. He founded several international consortia, such as the Global Lighting Association, Zhaga Alliance, the Connected Lighting Alliance and LightingEurope. Jan was President of the Global Lighting Association from 2007-2017 and President of LightingEurope from 2013-2017.

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In every issue of this magazine authors write interesting articles about the nonvisual effects of light. Subjects like human centric lighting, circadian, daynight, biophilic or integrative lighting. But in the market you hardly see these themes executed. Indoor lighting practices have not evolved with scientific insights. The focus is on providing light that is good for vision, sometimes on creating atmosphere and foremost on energy efficiency. The lighting levels are too low and too static to have any positive impact on the human circadian clock. More than five billion people spend their lives indoors. Why this continued focus on energy efficiency and not, with the same urgency, a focus on the health and well-being of users of indoor lighting as well? There are many specialists in this field working for lighting companies and lighting design studios. They give excellent presentations and publish valuable insights. On their websites you can read about the importance of light for wellbeing. But it does not penetrate further. Their customers, real estate companies, facility managers, building installation engineers, etc. are not well informed about the crucial influence of light for health and well-being. The users of buildings, over five billion people that live, work, learn, care, study, etc., daily in electric light have no clue at all. Users think that light is good when it is good for visual tasks and when it is pleasant for the eyes. Nobody taught them how good light can influence their health and well-being. Why does the general public know so little about the health effects of light?

Why doesn’t the industry massively focus on the well-being aspect of good light and start a ’light and well-being revolution’? Let’s assume that the main reason for the existence of the lighting industry is to provide people with good lighting. Not only sustainable, but good. People understand that good food is important. It improves body and health. People also have an understanding of what good food is. The same goes for good air. People have an understanding of what good air is: no fine dust, no smoking. They know what it brings them.

“Good light is as important as good food and good air. Educate your customers and the public that good light is an easy way to improve health and well-being.” JAN DENNEMAN

Let’s make this happen for good light as well, so everybody knows how important good light is. Explain that good light enables better sleep, more daytime energy, better moods and improvements in our resistance to several diseases. Explain what good light is. It is daylight or electric light with comparable beneficial effects on the brain and body. Explain that indoor lighting needs to be at least five times more intense and more dynamic than in current lighting practices in order to be good. Make good light a priority and show it by demonstrating exemplar solutions for good light. Educate your customers and the public that good light is an easy way to improve health and well-being. Good Light – Good Life. "

© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

J.D.

Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021



NEWS

BUSINESS

Osram Invests in UV LED Specialist Bolb With its investment in the California-based UV-C LED specialist Bolb Inc., Osram is further expanding its technological know-how of disinfection applications with UV-C light. The future cooperation between the two companies in the field of research will accelerate the industrialization of highly efficient and high-performance UV-C LEDs. Unlike previous solutions, LED-based disinfection systems require very little space and can be installed directly at the point of use - such as in water taps, washing machines or ventilation systems. Space-saving disinfection solutions make an important contribution to combating the coronavirus. According to Allied Market Research, the market for UV disinfection solutions is currently worth around one billion euros. This figure is expected to quadruple by 2027. Market researchers also expect the share of UV-C LED solutions to grow steadily.

“Osram already has various UV-C light solutions for disinfection, including LED and traditional technologies. The strategic investment in Bolb strengthens our know-how in the UV-C LED field and gives Osram a leading position in the market for disinfection with non-visible light.” OLAF BERLIEN, CEO OF OSRAM LICHT AG

Currently, the majority of UV-C disinfection applications are based on conventional lighting technologies, usually mercury vapor lamps. Compared to these traditional lamps, UV-C LED technology has the potential to consume significantly less energy, while still providing the high light output required. The collaboration between Osram and Bolb promises to overcome this technological hurdle. Thanks to a unique technological

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INTERNATIONAL LIGHTING – Business

building block for UV-C LEDs, Bolb is already succeeding in achieving outstanding efficiency values that are far ahead of other products available on the market. “With Osram’s decades of experience in the development and manufacturing of semiconductor-based products, this partnership sets the course for Osram and Bolb to lead the market for UV-C LEDs,”said Ulrich Eisele, head of Fluxunit, Osram’s venture capital unit.

Glamox has Acquired UK­based Wireless Lighting Controls Company Global lighting specialist Glamox has acquired 100 percent of the shares in UK-based company LiteIP Limited. LiteIP is located in Southampton and designs, manufactures and supplies wireless lighting control systems.

Similar to the many advantages LEDs provide for conventional lighting applications versus traditional lighting technologies, UV-C LEDs promise a variety of benefits for manufacturers of disinfection solutions. These include lower energy consumption, long lifetime and significantly simplified system design due to the compact size of the light sources. "

Wästberg Announces Investment by XAL Wästberg, the Swedish lighting company founded by Magnus Wästberg in 2008, has announced a new partnership with XAL, the Austrian lighting specialists. The move sees Magnus Wästberg and XAL buy-out the founding shareholders and XAL becoming the sole minority partner in the business. Wästberg has collaborated with some of the world’s leading architects and designers including David Chipperfield, Ilse Crawford, Sam Hecht and Kim Colin of Industrial Facility, Inga Sempé, Oki Sato, Jasper Morrison and John Pawson and XAL’s investment is a strong endorsement of Wästberg’s position as an independent, design-focussed lighting company. More importantly the arrangement signals a step change in the evolution of Wästberg, giving the brand immediate access to the R&D, production and distribution resources of one of best technical lighting producers in the world. Magnus Wästberg remains as Wästberg’s CEO and the majority stakeholder in the business and Wästberg will remain an independent company and brand, which will continue to be headquartered in Sweden. The deal will also see Wästberg produce the majority of their lamps in XAL’s state of the art production facilities in Austria and Slovenia and XAL’s sales teams represent the Wästberg brand in key markets. "

David HUNT, Managing Director Glamox Luxonic and David LIPPOLD, Managing Director LiteIP

“This is a milestone for Glamox, and we are taking an important step to strengthen our strategic position as a smart lighting solutions provider.” RUNE MARTHINUSSEN, CEO OF GLAMOX

“Glamox will support LiteIP and its growth plans in terms of technology development strategy and global expansion. LiteIP will remain an independent, wholly-owned subsidiary within the Glamox Group, welcoming customers both inside and outside the Glamox Group. The brand name of LiteIP will also remain in place,”said Mr. Marthinussen. LiteIP has an attractive, proven lighting control system and technology that are highly valued by its customers. Over the last decade, the company has developed a strong position within lighting controls in the UK lighting market. The ability to make simple intuitive solutions for customers has enabled LiteIP to compete with larger companies within the lighting industry The Lighting Control Systems market is fast growing, and attractive to combine with luminaire supply. Glamox meet these demands, and will continue to invest in this going forward to also meet future customer expectations. LiteIP’s Managing Director David Lippold is excited by the new opportunity: “Our system has evolved over a decade from a simple idea to become one of the most widely used control systems for commercial lighting in the UK. It’s simple, it works, and it’s time to take it to the next level. Glamox is a highly successful

© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021


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INTERNATIONAL LIGHTING – Business

NEWS

New Name. New breakthroughs. All LED. We have a new name but we still have the same expert design assistance, superior sales support, and the broadest portfolio of application-optimized LEDs that you know so well. Already producing industry leading lumen density, intensity, efficacy, optical control, and reliability, our new name demonstrates

www.cree-led.com

our unrelenting focus on advancing LED technology.

international business with a focus on engineering and quality. They have recognized lighting controls as a business driver, and we are delighted to be part of their ambitious plans to become a leader in this area. The international opportunities will also strengthen our offering to our core UK customer base of luminaire manufacturers and specialist controls companies, all with a focus on energy saving and environmental impact.” "

New President Elect For The Society of Light and Lighting (SLL) Congratulations to Ruth Kelly Waskett who has been named President Elect of The Society of Light & Lighting. Following a four-year Vice Presidency, in May 2021 Dr Kelly Waskett will become President. She hopes to lead the Society as it aims to tackle challenges within the industry, highlight the importance of a well-rounded perspective, and promote how light and daylight can be used as an integrated tool. Coming from a rich background in engineering, lighting design and academia, Dr Kelly Waskett is dedicated to showcasing how daylight can bring buildings to life and the positive impact it has on our health and wellbeing.

Ruth Kelly WASKETT

“I’m really looking forward to playing a part in spreading the message about the power of light in making us healthier and happier.” RUTH KELLY WASKETT, PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY OF LIGHT AND LIGHTING (SLL)

Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021

The Society of Light and Lighting (SLL) is a division of CIBSE that works with the world of light, lighting and its design or application. "

HLB Lighting Design – Barbara HORTON Retires, Carrie HAWLEY to Serve as CEO HLB Lighting Design has announced that Barbara Horton, CLD, FIALD, Senior Principal and Co-Chief Executive Officer has retired. Barbara will continue to work as a consultant for the firm and serve out her term on the Board of Directors through the end of 2021 to ensure a seamless transition. Senior Principal Carrie Hawley, IALD, MIES, LEED AP will assume the role of sole CEO following Barbara’s retirement.

Barbara HORTON and Carrie HAWLEY

For the past 40 years, Barbara has served as a leader and mentor to HLB staff and the greater industry. During her tenure, HLB grew to 15 Principals/Owners, with over 90 team members located in seven offices across North America, serving clients world-wide. She has guided the firm through a successful ownership transition, its first acquisition, and created a culture of design excellence with a focus on the business of design. She has been working side-by-side with firm leadership and co-CEO Carrie for the past year in preparation for her retirement and the continued legacy of HLB.

my career has been an honor through the lighting journey. The CEO has many responsibilities, but the greatest one is to be the Chief Enthusiasm Officer. Carrie Hawley has the historical foundation and perspective of the future to continue the work we’ve started and take HLB through the next 50 years,”said Barbara. In her new role as the CEO of HLB Lighting Design, Carrie brings 25 years of lighting design expertise and leadership at HLB, with a portfolio of award-winning projects with renowned clients both nationally and internationally. “I am humbled and excited to take on this responsibility and step into the enormous shoes that Barbara has filled as CEO for the past 29 years,”said Carrie. “Our firm has a strong culture of strategic planning and innovation, both in lighting and in business, and I am immensely excited to continue to grow this culture and elevate the profile of lighting design in the world today.” Carrie joined HLB in 1995 as a member of the New York office, working under the guidance of Barbara and quickly ascending to positions of greater responsibility. In 2001, Carrie spearheaded the business plan and development of eLumit, a web-based lighting product search engine and specification tool. In 2007, she developed a strategic plan to open HLB’s fourth office in Boston and was named a Principal of the firm. She has been an active member of HLB’s Board of Directors since 2011 and will assume the role of Chairman of the Board in concurrence with her move to CEO. “This is a huge moment in my career, and I am looking forward to leading our team as we continue to advance our industry and shape inspiring, innovative, sustainable and healthy environments through lighting design,”said Carrie. "

“We’ve planned for this succession transition from the first day I was honored to take on the role of CEO in 1992. The success of the firm does not lie with one person, but with all the people we empowered to bring their imagination and entrepreneurial spirit to build our firm’s reputation. Working-side-by side with so many of our great leaders throughout

© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

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NEWS

Studio N Announces New MD Dubai’s Studio N announced the appointment of Lama Arouri as Managing Director. Arouri joined Nulty in 2020 as business development director and has over ten years experience working in the lighting industry. With her experience spanning both industrial and architectural lighting, Arouri will bring both strategic planning and local market knowledge to her new role. Alex Holler will step down as Managing Director of Studio N in March 2021. “I am thrilled to be joining Studio N at an exciting time in the company’s development. My focus will be on driving continued growth for the business, as well as positioning Studio N as the first choice in delivering lighting consultation.”says Lama Arouri.

lighting controls products, growing market share, and executing the digital transformation of the business. Trevor has over 27 years of experience in the building technology industry and recently served as Senior Vice President of Acuity Brands’ Digital Lighting Networks business. “Trevor is a proven leader with an outstanding reputation for driving performance and for cultivating strong relationships within our Independent Sales Network. I’m excited to have him in this expanded role as he executes on our vision to transform and grow our business,”said Mr. Ashe.

“Trevor has successfully led and grown our lighting controls business, a key driver for our future.” NEIL M. ASHE, CHAIRMAN, PRESIDENT, AND CEO OF ACUITY BRANDS

Lama AROURI

“In her previous role at Nulty, Lama played a pivotal role in generating new business. She is a natural fit to lead Studio N to greater heights and I’m delighted to have her on board.”Paul Nulty, Founder. Studio N has gone from strength to strength since its inception in 2018. Despite the pandemic, 2020 was a busy year for the practice, with a range of lighting schemes delivered across multiple sectors. From the Salero Restaurant in Bahrain to the Moda retail store in Jeddah, there has been considerable and exciting growth. More recently, it was announced that Azizi Developments, a leading private developer in the UAE, has appointed Studio N to incorporate façade lighting into the architecture of Creek View I, an exciting mix-use landmark currently in development. "

Acuity Brands Announces Trevor PALMER as New President of Acuity Lighting and Lighting Controls Business Acuity Brands, Inc. announced Trevor S. Palmer was appointed President of the Company’s lighting and lighting controls business (ABL). Effective March 1, 2021, Trevor assumes responsibility for driving innovation across the Company’s lighting and

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INTERNATIONAL LIGHTING – Business

Trevor S. PALMER

Richard K. Reece will take on the combined role of Executive Vice President of the Company and Vice Chairman of ABL. In this role, he will continue to partner with Neil on corporate and business development activities and he will work with Trevor to deepen Acuity Brands agency engagement across our Independent Sales Network and to ensure a smooth transition of our ABL business. "

ISELED­Alliance Welcomes Five New Members Well-known electronics companies from many industrial sectors are expanding the potential of innovative LED technology. The ISELED Alliance announces that with Alps Alpine, Grammer, Harvatek, OSRAM Continental and Yanfeng five more members have joined the industry alliance. Thus, the open industry alliance currently comes to 38 companies. These cover the entire value chain in order to establish ISELED as a standard system solution (ecosystem). The ISELED Alliance aims to create a comprehensive ecosystem around ISELED technology. Expanding the originally ISELED

protocol with the development of the ILaS bus concept (ISELED Light and Sensor network) will further broaden the applications which will benefit from the innovative and cost-efficient technology. With ILaS not only LED elements, but also other components such as matrix LED lights, sensors and actuators can in future be controlled in large numbers via a simple two-wire connection. ”Covering a broad range of different industry segments the Alliance members give ISELED technology ever greater dynamism. Meanwhile the ISELED technology is supported by several leading LED manufactures, microcontroller vendors and Tier 1 automotive system suppliers,” stated Robert Kraus, CEO of Inova Semiconductors and one of the founders of the ISELED Alliance. “Against this background, the ISELED Alliance is delighted to welcome the five new members that will expand the ISELED ecosystem and make it even more powerful.”

“Meanwhile the ISELED technology is supported by several leading LED manufactures, microcontroller vendors and Tier 1 automotive system suppliers.” ROBERT KRAUS, CEO OF INOVA SEMICONDUCTORS AND ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE ISELED ALLIANCE

“Alps Alpine Europe GmbH is very grateful for joining the ISELED Alliance. As a leading partner for the global automotive industry, we are proudly serving a high diversity of top-edge technology solutions. Dynamic controllable illumination is a key-enabler towards increased safety, comfort and perceived value. Already implementing ISELED technology, it is still just the beginning of a new era of functional integration for what we call ‘Digital Cabin’,”said Sascha Kunzmann, Vice President Engineering Division, Alps Alpine Europe GmbH. „Personally, I have been following the development of ISELED technology very closely since the first publications in 2016. In the meantime, a very complete ecosystem has

© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021


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INTERNATIONAL LIGHTING – Business

NEWS

formed, driven by the ISELED alliance, which enables the industry to simplify its entry into complex RGB ambient lighting. On behalf of Grammer I look forward to intensive exchange within the alliance,” commented Dr. Marco Redwitz, Director global R&D electronics / mechatronics, Director advanced development, Grammer AG. OSRAM Continental, a joint venture between the technology companies OSRAM and Continental headquartered in Munich, combines modern lighting technology with electronics and software to offer a broad portfolio of intelligent, innovative lighting solutions for the automotive industry. ”We are pleased as OSRAM Continental to now be part of the ISELED alliance. Through our expertise in the field of light projection, ISELED’s focus on ambient lighting can be significantly expanded. Together, with the other partners, we want to broaden application fields for smart LEDs further to better serve the growing interest and market demand for the technology,” said Dr. Christoph Gärditz, Head of Interior Lighting, OSRAM Continental. Yanfeng is a leading global automotive supplier, focusing on interior, exterior, seating, cockpit electronics and passive safety, and is exploring new business actively. “ISELED Alliance has created a great ecosystem to develop this innovative technology. Yanfeng is bringing strong capabilities in interior, exterior, and electronic integration to define and enable the next level of lighting and HMI integration into all surfaces in the vehicle interior. ISELED and ILaS are great enablers for our smart cabin vision. We are pleased to be part of the ISELED Alliance now and look forward to promoting the benefits of this technology. Using our global presence as well as our deep knowledge of all markets and especially in China, we will also help to accelerate the acceptance and penetration of ISELED on this market,”says Christophe Pincemin, Director Product Line Lighting at Yanfeng Technology. ”Last but not least, the ISELED Alliance is pleased to welcome another heavyweight to its membership, Harvatek, one of the leading manufacturers of semiconductor chips and LEDs,” adds Robert Kraus. About the ISELED Alliance The ISELED Alliance is an open industrial alliance with the objective of developing a comprehensive ecosystem –i.e. a complete system solution for innovative automotive lighting –based on ISELED technology. Meanwhile, ISELED products from several manufacturers, including a complete demo kit, are available. Further information and an overview of all members is available on the website of the ISELED Alliance: "

Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021

© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

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NEWS

With additional custom encryption and specific access keys security can be even more specifically controlled.

SOLUTIONS

World Forum The Hague World’s First Congress Center to Install Trulifi Signify, the world leader in lighting, and World Forum The Hague, leader in hosting high-profile conferences, announced the world-first installation of Signify’s Trulifi in a congress center, ensuring that future conference guests can enjoy the benefits of safe, secure, reliable and high-speed connectivity via light rather than radio waves. World Forum in The Hague, the Netherlands, is known for hosting some of the most high-profile conferences in the world such as the Global Conference on Cyber Security, World Press Freedom Conference and Climate Adaptation Summit 2021. The first installation concerns one meeting room with the potential for more.

“Although World Forum The Hague has a highly secure WiFi network, an increasing amount of our clients is cautious to work with WiFi due to the growing number of security breaches we see in the news. With Trulifi we can now offer our high-level clients a broadband connection that is wireless, both reliable and secure.” MARIJE BOUWMAN, DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS, SAFETY & SECURITY FROM WORLD FORUM THE HAGUE

”We are delighted and proud that World Forum The Hague is using Trulifi by Signify. This illustrates the relevance this relatively new technology for wireless connectivity can provide to congress centers around the globe. With this implementation we’ll show how Trulifi is fast, secure and reliable and performs at the top of the market,” said Olivia Qiu, Chief Innovation Officer for Signify. "

World Forum The Hague

World’s Largest Bluetooth® Mesh Lighting Control Installation The 17 floors office building consisted of 3,685 Bluetooth mesh McWong TruBlu lighting controllers (installed in fixtures). Utilizing the TruBlu web app, EMC designed the project with 43 areas and 708 zones.

LiFi USB access key

The content of some of the events that it hosts can be highly sensitive. That means that World Forum The Hague wants to do whatever it takes to provide visitors and participants the assurance that their data is routinely and rigorously secured, and the venue has become a front runner in Safety & Security. Their measures are reviewed ahead of every event and adjusted if needed. Trulifi by Signify offers the perfect addition, ensuring meeting rooms are equipped with highly secure, reliable and high-speed wireless connectivity, while providing users with the same standards for ease of use and comfort as with other wireless technologies. LiFi is a wireless technology, but instead of radio waves, light waves are employed, ensuring the network is strictly limited inside each room.

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INTERNATIONAL LIGHTING – Business, Solutions

The Idea Energy Management Collaborative (EMC) specializes in providing leading-edge LED Lighting and Technology solutions averaging 12,000 projects a year for a broad range of multinational retail, commercial, industrial and specialized customers. Now, beyond just

lighting, EMC is a leading designer of lighting technology for Smart Buildings and provides professional commissioning services for IoT applications. EMC was contracted by their client to look for ways to add state-of-the art networked lighting control providing customized lighting, scheduling, and dimming capabilities with the goal of optimizing tenant spaces, employee work environments, and futureproofing their clients Class A 22-story, 470,317 square foot property. Partnering with Silvair technology partner McWong International, EMC designed a luminaire level lighting control solution enabled to provide occupancy, scheduling, and vacancy control scenario’s commonly used in tenant office and open spaces with the objective of maximizing efficiency while taking into consideration how users interacted with their individual spaces. The Solution Silvair is a technology provider to partners such as McWong International, who develop interoperable SIG qualified Bluetooth mesh wireless lighting control solutions. For this project, Silvair partner McWong International provided its TruBlu™ solution, including the Bluetooth mesh device that was integrated directly into each luminaire. This particular device was McWong’s PSCI-RD-DC0-BLE-SR, which is a low voltage Bluetooth mesh enabled PIR/ALS Sensor controller with 0-10V output to an LED Driver. These luminaires, installed with McWong’s TruBlu Bluetooth mesh wireless PIR/ ALS sensor controller, by-passed the existing electrical lighting circuitry eliminating the need to pull additional wires. This also allowed installers to keep the customized ceiling tiles in place and reconfigure when needed using McWong’s TruBlu software tools rather than getting above the ceiling to pull and connect physical wiring. The Project The project itself consisted of 3,685 Bluetooth mesh McWong TruBlu lighting controllers (installed in fixtures). Utilizing the TruBlu web app, EMC designed the project with 43 areas and 708 zones. This work was accomplished off-site using the TruBlu web app from McWong, Silvair’s technology partner, which provides tools for project creation, design, and configuration all prior to on-site commissioning. The control scenario’s were configured for either occupancy, vacancy, manual, or by schedule. Configuration was easily customized or replicated for each zone based on the space requirements. Once the project was fully designed, EMC provided on-site commissioning utilizing the branded McWong TruBlu commissioning tool. This cloud connected app, pulls down the already created configuration and uploads to the installed devices during the commissioning process. As the crew progresses through the commissioning process, the project manager is able to view “live”progress through the McWong TruBlu reporting feature. This feature

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provides real-time status reports so that progress can be monitored and issues can be identified and quickly remedied. The Results EMC provided turnkey project management throughout the project, which expanded in scope to include installing 3,685 luminaires. Each luminaire was equipped with a single DLC-certified McWong Bluetooth mesh controller. In addition, the building owner requested to add control to existing luminaires in additional spaces accounting for an additional 225 Bluetooth mesh nodes added to the project. Highlighting the power of the Bluetooth mesh interoperable standard, these additional components were seamlessly added to the network lighting control system and worked inter-operably with the luminaire lighting controllers. Enabled by McWong TruBlu network lighting control features, EMC deployed vacancy and occupancy scenario’s for most of the project zones and in addition configured the high-end trim to as low as 60%. This combination of scenario’s and settings provided an expected energy savings in excess of 75% over and above that gained by LED’s alone. As space needs change the new system can be wirelessly rezoned as needed to accommodate future reconfigurations of floor layouts. To date this is the largest SIG standard Bluetooth mesh lighting control installation in the world, confirming its useability for large node lighting control projects. "

Hospitality COB Series Ideal for Hotels and Restaurants Luminus devices introduced its new Hospitality COB Series. With LES sizes ranging from 6mm to 22mm, and lumen output from 500 to 5000 lumens, the Luminus Hospitality COB series is the smart choice for beautiful, warm

Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021

light with excellent color rendering and precise 2 step SDCM color control standard. As LEDs have been adopted into indoor illumination applications over the past decade, the industry has reached impressive cost and energy efficiency goals, but for Luminus, the focus has always been on taking the quality of light to new heights. Luminus now further establishes their leadership position with the Hospitality COB Series, with high color rendering, precise chromaticity control, and warm CCTs specifically designed to deliver comfortable lighting scenes in hotels, restaurants, and other applications where warm, quality of light is essential.

NEWS

especially on human skin. The 4000K ANSI color space is even centered slightly above the BBL, which further raises the possibility of your standard LEDs from other suppliers producing that undesirable green tint. The Luminus Hospitality COB Series also leverages unique phosphor and chip combinations to deliver 90 or 95 CRI minimum, high R9 values, and industry-leading TM-30-15 & TM-30-18 specifications. Sr. Global COB Marketing Director, David Davito, adds “while this COB series was created for the hospitality industry, we’re finding that the 2-step color control, excellent color rendering, and attractive warm tones on human skin also appeal to lighting designers for retail shops and other public spaces.” For a full list of features, applications and benefits visit ."

Chromaticity Bin Structure

What makes the Hospitality COB Series different from other warm light sources? Luminus engineers teamed up with global hospitality lighting customers to identify unique “xy chromaticity”targets just slightly below the black body locus (BBL) where the warm tint provides a comfortable environment for humans without any “greenish”tint which might be present with typical industry standard lights. Until now, the lighting industry has largely followed the CCT chromaticity “bins”defined by ANSI which are centered on the BBL at nominal, warm CCTs of 2700K, 3000K, and 3500K. This means that half of the light sources will be above the BBL and half below, and those above will lean toward a greenish tint, which is extremely unattractive,

Lighting and Bacterial Disinfection in One – Lumitronix Presents LED Module With Dual Function The Swabian LED technology company Lumitronix has developed a three-row LED module equipped with the NF2W585AR-P8 LED from world market leader Nichia, which was launched in January 2021. Due to the long-lasting corona pandemic, the attention for effective concepts in the area of surface hygiene has strongly increased. While the effect of UVC (approx. 250 - 280 nm) is already established on the market, little is known about the inactivating effect of visible light. Although it has already been proven in

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several studies that visible light also has an inactivating effect against pathogens.

Example of a linear luminaire over a reception desk at a doctor’s office –Source: Shutterstock.com

In this context, the Swabian LED technology company Lumitronix has developed a three-row LED module equipped with the NF2W585AR-P8 LED from world market leader Nichia, which was launched in January 2021. The NF2W585AR-P8 measures 4 x 3.6 mm, uses a special combination of phosphor and chip technology and reaches a wavelength of approximately 405 nm at peak. The spectrum of the LED created by this special mixture is thus able to provide general illumination on the one hand and at the same time ensure the inactivation of bacteria.

“At Lumitronix, disinfection with UVC radiation is a special focus and so various standard modules with UVC LEDs have already been launched on the market in the previous months. We therefore see the inactivation of bacteria with visible light as a useful supporting measure for selected applications in the field of sterilisation methods.”

comparatively high irradiation doses and a long irradiation time. In practical applications, this can be realised by continuous operation. The new 3x11 module is equipped with 33 LEDs in a colour temperature of 4000 K and its layout is compatible with various common 3x11 optics, such as the Florence rod lens from Ledil. The three-row arrangement of the LEDs reduces glare and enables homogeneous illumination. Thanks to the efficient multichip technology, the light output of 1749 lm per module is remarkable. The LED strip is designed in the Zhaga standard and can therefore be installed in existing luminaires with little effort. Possible areas of application for the new 3x11 LED module are pendant luminaires or linear luminaires that are/will be installed in highly frequented areas in e.g. hospitals, waiting halls, meeting rooms or supermarkets. It is important that the luminaires are placed above the critical areas so that as much light as possible reaches their surfaces. In addition, continuous operation of the light sources is necessary to support successful inactivation of bacteria and germs. However, chemical cleaning must still be carried out. "

Signify and Innovative Bioanalysis Validate Effectiveness of Signify’s UV­C Lighting on Disinfecting the Air Signify together with Innovative Bioanalysis, a CAP, CLIA, AABB Certified Safety Reference Laboratory in Costa Mesa (California) have conducted research that validates the effectiveness of UV-C disinfection upper air luminaires on the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

CHRISTIAN HOFFMANN, CEO OF LUMITRONIX

How does this specific spectrum work? Bacteria contain so-called photosensitizers that absorb light with a wavelength of 405 nm and can thereby generate radicals from oxygen. This reactive oxygen species (ROS) can then attack bacterial structures from within and inhibit their reproduction. The official press release from Nichia provides more information on the effectiveness of the LED spectrum. In contrast to UVC radiation, visible light (380 780 nm) is generally considered harmless. However, cleaning with visible light requires

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Test results show that UV-C disinfection upper air luminaires inactivated 99.99% of SARS-COV-2 in the air of a room within 10 minutes

The UV-C disinfection upper air luminaires inactivated 99.99% of SARS-CoV-2 in the air of a room within 10 minutes, and the virus was below detectable levels at 20 minutes.

would expect UV-C disinfection lighting to have a similar impact on the various genetic mutations of (SARS-CoV2),”said Sam Kabbani, Chief Scientific Officer at Innovative Bioanalysis.

“These test results illustrate the effectiveness of our UV-C disinfection upper air luminaires and the important contribution they can make towards fighting the coronavirus and future viruses. It shows how UV-C lighting for upper air applications can be a successful preventive measure for organizations as they seek ways to provide their guests, customers and employees virus-free environments.” HARSH CHITALE, DIVISION LEADER DIGITAL SOLUTIONS AT SIGNIFY

Signify in 2020 increased the production of its UV-C light sources eight-fold in support of the fight against the coronavirus and acquired GLA to complement its portfolio with luminaires for upper-room air disinfection. Since then the company has installed UV-C disinfection upper air luminaires in several locations, including retailers EDEKA Clausenin Germany, dm in Slovakia, and Rugby Union Club Harlequins in the UK. The height at which the luminaires are installed, in combination with the luminaires’ design, allows the system to disinfect air as it circulates a space, even when there are people present. Mechanical ventilation and/or natural convection moves the disinfected air back into the lower part of a space. Additionally, shielding and optics in the luminaires are designed to prevent accidental exposure to UV-C radiation for the people underneath them. For more than 35 years, Signify has been at the forefront of UV technology, and has a proven track record of innovation and strong application expertise in UV-C lighting. Signify’s UV-C lighting is designed, installed, and used according to the product-specific safety instructions, and manufactured using well-controlled industrial processes. UV-C light should always be used by professionals in accordance with the safety requirements and instructions. "

“Based on the understood method by which UV-C exposure deactivates pathogens, we

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INTERNATIONAL LIGHTING – Solutions, Trends

Nichia’s Latest UV­C LED Disinfection Efficacy Proven to Combat Viruses NICHIA, a leading global LED manufacturer, further demonstrates its commitment to innovation and improvements to global well-being with the public launch of its newest deep UV LED, the NCSU334B. At a peak wavelength of 280 nm, NICHIA’s deep UV LED outperforms other commercially available UV-C LED’s, regardless of wavelength, in output, efficiency and lifetime. At the same time, new independent research confirms they are also best-in-class for disinfection performance against SARS-CoV-2 virus.

NICHIA’s UV-C LED technology was extensively tested at Tokushima University to demonstrate its bacteria and virus disinfection efficiencies. Experiments conducted by the university’s Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences confirmed that irradiating SARS-CoV-2 with NICHIA’s NCSU334B for 30 seconds, with 51mJ/cm2, exhibited 99.99% inactivation (as per Figure 1 below), a key activation log to achieve. Additionally, the experiment was operated based of the NCSU334B’s binned input power and conditions of 1.7mJ/cm2 and 5 cm distance. There remains adequate room to reduce the time or increase the dosage depending on the conditions or the design of its working distance, the number of LEDs or the input power. For example, when designing with half the working distance, the performance increases 4 times. Reflecting its leadership team’s commitment to serve global markets, NICHIA has scaled up its investment in R&D and manufacturing capacity for its UV LED solutions. Now in mass production, NICHIA’s NCSU334B at 280 nm achieving industry-leading output, efficiency and lifetime. It delivers a typical irradiance of 70mW with a wall-plug efficiency (also known as radiance efficiency) of 3.6%, an improvement of 27% compared to its predecessor. With a hermetic seal, the solution also provides long lifetime performance, especially at peak temperatures and humidity levels.

absorption spectrum of the DNA/RNA. However, NICHIA has demonstrated that 280 nm delivers the highest virucidal power as it has a very strong irradiance, wall-plug efficiency and lifetime, all at practical operating conditions vs. many other unreasonable claims in the market. Indeed, data highlights that the virucidal power of the 280 nm LED is approximately 1.3 times (127%) that of 265 nm LEDs. The 280 nm LED also delivers a lifetime ten times longer than a 265 nm LED. Generally, the advantageous compact size of LED-based UV-C solutions means that they can be directly integrated within disinfection applications in restricted spaces including industrial applications, water purifiers, air conditioning systems and more. UV-C light is making a significant contribution to combatting viruses and bacteria, simplifying traditional methods. For example, to obtain a high viricidal effect (i.e. 4-log) when using an alcohol solution for disinfection (containing 77– 81% ethanol), surfaces need to be sufficiently wetted with the substance or require significant effort and time, often times beyond 30 seconds. Used in conjunction with such measures, NICHIA’s 280 nm deep UV LED can offer a high viricidal effect while saving time and effort.

NEWS

TRENDS

microLED Displays for Augmented Reality MICLEDI Microdisplays is a technology leader in the field of microLED display technology for Augmented Reality headsets. The company was spun-out of imec, a world-leading research and innovation hub in nanoelectronics and digital technologies, in 2019 in collaboration with imec.xpand. The new funding will enable the company to transition from the pilot line technology development to product design and subsequently to the manufacturing phase. More specifically, this will include: • Demonstration of native RGB microLED displays based on MICLEDI’s proprietary reconstitution approach for defect-free, foundry compatible III-V semiconductors on 300mm wafers; • Preparation of the technology IP for foundry transfer and manufacturing; • Launch of the product development phase (incl. system level ASIC work with Augmented Reality companies, and qualification/test activities).

NICHIA’s focus on innovation is making a significant contribution to global safety and security. While the company succeeded in 1997 to develop and mass-produce deep UV LEDs, it is continuously looking to improve its products. After many years of accumulated research into the technology of crystal growth and package structures with efficient heat dissipation, NICHIA plans to announce further expansion of its UV-C portfolio soon. Following the positive Tokushima University studies, NICHIA contributed many prototype hand-held UV irradiation devices to both the Tokushima Prefecture and Tokushima University. This exciting Press Conference and news was captured by media throughout Japan. Further information about the Tokushima University research and NICHIA’s NCSU334B 280 nm UV-C LED solution is available from the NICHIA website. Additionally, contact your NICHIA representative or for additional information. "

While traditional UV-C technologies, such as low-pressure mercury vapor lamps, were limited to a 254 nm peak, the most efficient wavelength to disinfect bacteria and viruses is known to be 260 nm due to the peak Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021

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Join the Lighting Design Community

In addition, the company is extending its supply chain engagements, and strengthening the team with more product development expertise. “The MICLEDI team is very excited to welcome FPIM and KBC Focus Fund as new investors. We laid the foundation for this important milestone in 2020 thanks to the vision of our team, imec’s technology and the trust, guidance and support of our seed investors imec.xpand, PMV, and Fidimec,”said Sean Lord, CEO of MICLEDI Microdisplays.

“This new investment will allow us to accelerate towards future microLED displays that will enable the much-anticipated and exciting era of consumer Augmented Reality.” SEAN LORD, CEO OF MICLEDI MICRODISPLAYS

About MICLEDI Microdisplays is a fabless developer of microLED displays for the Augmented Reality (AR) market. Our technology is based on an innovative combination of III/V materials processing, 3D integration and 300mm Si based processing combined with a proprietary ASIC to provide a self-contained, compact monolithic AR display with high image quality and power efficiency. FPIM (SFPI-FPIM) is the sovereign wealth fund of Belgium, driving long-term and sustainable economic and social prosperity. SFPI-FPIM acts as a trusted partner in helping Belgian companies to become a reference in their industry by providing smart capital solutions. KBC Focus Fund is a €50 million venture capital fund that invests in advanced technologies with a particular emphasis on semiconductor, nanotechnology and IoT. It focuses on Western-Europe where well-known expertise centers are located. KBC Focus Fund leverages on the network and expertise of KBC Group. It is managed by KBC Securities, which has a solid knowledge of the tech ecosystem in Belgium and beyond with experienced teams in M&A, Corporate Finance, and Research & Sales. "

Micro LEDs for Medical Applications The team of Prof. Sekiguchi of Toyohashi University of Technology and ALLOS Semiconductors have engaged to realize high efficiency nitride-based micro LED chips for novel in-vivo neutral application.

This new investment will allow us to accelerate towards future microLED displays that will enable the much-anticipated and exciting era of consumer Augmented Reality”- says Sean Lord, CEO of MICLEDI Microdisplays.

Stay up-to-date

“FPIM is proud to participate to MICLEDI’s ambitious yet realistic dream to develop in Belgium super-bright micro displays for next generation Augmented Reality (AR) glasses based on innovative and advanced technology (collaboration with IMEC) and that will impact the everyday use of AR“adds Koen Van Loo, CEO of FPIM.

www.trends.lighting

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“MICLEDI really ticks lots of the boxes and is 100% in the domain our fund focuses on. Its world class experts and management team make it one of the few places in the world where this complex Microled technology can be developed. We are happy to assist the Micledi team in their journey towards a world class company in the Augmented Reality domain “- says Koen Schrever of KBC Focus Fund.

Micro LED neural electrode probe fabricated by Prof. Sekiguchi’s group integrating ALLOS’ high crystal quality and strain-engineering epiwafer technologies

Since their evolution in the 1990s, nitride LEDs have made inroads into our daily lives, saving energy and enabling many new applications. They are known for their ubiquitous use in numerous illumination applications and the emerging micro LEDs are famous in particular for use in super large TVs or groundbreaking augmented reality displays as well as robust automotive displays.

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INTERNATIONAL LIGHTING

Nitride LED for medical application Beyond the obvious illumination applications, nitride LEDs are also increasingly proving helpful in medical applications. For example, nitride LEDs emitting UV light are employed to fight viruses like COVID-19 by disinfecting surfaces. Another example is Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan using nitride micro LED technology to build medical brain/machine interfaces. Prof. Hiroto Sekiguchi’s group has developed a neural probe to study brain functions using ALLOS’ micro LED epiwafer. To avoid brain damage, high-efficiency of micro LEDs is key in order to reduce harmful impact from heat coming from conversion losses. Furthermore, for micro LEDs extreme precision is needed. GaN-on-Si to overcome manufacturing challenges For this novel medical application, manufacturing challenges had to been overcome, where ALLOS’ GaN-on-Si technology plays a key role. In particular, it was important to integrate nitride LED technology –the ’GaN’ in the GaN-on-Si –with mature and precise silicon industry processes in order to achieve highest accuracy and reliability standards –the ’Si’ in the GaN-on-Si. Commenting on the challenges, Prof. Sekiguchi said: “We need to achieve extreme precision and reliable results. Only industry-grade silicon processing equipment – as we fortunately have at our university –can deliver such processing results. Thus, using ALLOS’ GaN-on-Si epiwafers which can be processed on silicon lines was the right choice.”Adding to Prof. Sekiguchi’s assessment, Dr. Atsushi Nishikawa, CTO of ALLOS said: “With our CMOS line ready GaN-on-Si technologies we unlock the benefits those silicon lines bring –including scalability to 200 and 300 mm for low cost and the exceptionally high reliability and yield levels required for all micro LED applications.” Further information you can read in the article ( ) by authors from Toyohashi University of Technology and ALLOS Semiconductors in the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 60, 016503 (2021)) and contact us directly. "

EVENTS

deLIGHTed Talks Good Light – Good Life May 11th , 2021 The Good Light Group together with the Society of Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms (SLTBR), the Daylight Academy (DLA), International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) and Luger Research (LR) are organizing the webinar “deLIGHTed talks”explaining the how good light indoors contributes to health and well-being.

NEWS

Lectures • Relevance of Daylight for Humans | DLA by Mirjam MÜNCH, Dr. Centre for Public Health Research, Massey University Wellington, New Zealand • Light as a Key Factor to Human Health | SLTBR by Corrado GARBAZZA, MD Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Switzerland; Transfaculty Research Platform Molecular and Cognitive Neurosciences MCM, University of Basel, Switzerland • Case Study of a School Project | IALD by Julia HARTMANN, Dipl.-Ing.(FH) Interior Design, IALD, CLD CEO and Creative Director at lightsphere, Switzerland • Good Light for Healthy People with Daytime Activity | GLG by Annette STEINBUSCH, MSc. S&R Manager Light Quality at Signify, The Netherlands

Date/Time/Registration • Date/Time: May 11th , 2021 from 03:00 PM - 04:30 PM (CET) • Registration: Free of charge

This webinar will take place as part of UNESCO’s International Day of Light 2021 event. "

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LIFI SEMINAR

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THE FIRST DIGITAL LIGHTING CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION

LpS Digital – Conference & Exhibition LpS Digital is the brand new, unique, and first, digital lighting conference and exhibition available to viewers 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. LpS Digital presents current, high-quality content about lighting technologies, design and applications, and acquaints the viewers with the latest trends in product developments and applications.

Experience the Future of Light

Lighting Industry & Technology Channel

Like the LED professional Symposium +Expo and Trends in Lighting Forum &Show that took place at the Festspielhaus in Bregenz/Austria every year since September, 2011, LpS Digital is meant to approach and support the complete value chain in the global lighting industry. When it comes to Technological Design, LpS Digital’s goal is to provide Corporate Managment, Technical Management, R&D and Production/QM within the global lighting manufacturing industry with top notch technical knowhow, primarily on a component level. In terms of Lighting Design, LpS Digital will show best practice for Architects, Lighting Consultants, Electrical Consultants, Lighting Designers, Lighting OEMs, IT/IoT System Integrators and students. The editors focus on Human Centric Lighting, Connected Lighting, Smart Controls, Internet of Things, Light as a Service and much more.

With the Industry/Technology channel, over 30,000 contacts in the lighting sector are targeted and addressed. The optin databases are highly selective, highly qualified and address key persons in the respective channel.

Unique Global Reach in the Lighting Sector VIRTUAL CONFERENCE The authors of contributions accepted by the program management will be invited to give a presentation and, if appropriate, to write a qualified article. Each presentation will be announced to the industry and/or design channel contacts and followers immediately after publication. VIRTUAL EXHIBITION Virtual exhibitors have the possibility to present their products and/or services. The maximum length of the presentation is 20 minutes. Each product/service video is announced to the industry and/or design channel contacts and followers immediately after publication. 20

• • • • •

Supporty by

Magazine: 30,000 Newsletter: 27,000 Online: 30,000/month Twitter: 22,000 LinkedIn: 11,700

Lighting Design Channel With the Design channel, over 30,000 contacts in the lighting sector are targeted and addressed. • • • •

Magazine: 30,000 Newsletter: 15,000 Online: 5,000/month LinkedIn: 4,600

Benefits for Conference Authors • Global, highly-qualified target group • Knowledge transfer at a high level • Ideal platform for expanding the network

Benefits for Virtual Exhibitors • Global, highly-qualified target group • Immediate promotion of innovations and novelties • Participation in the LpS/TiL Awards • Highly efficient promotion at no risks

© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

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THE FIRST DIGITAL LIGHTING CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION

LIFI SEMINAR

LiFi Seminar – International SSL Alliance on www.LpS-Digital.global

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NICHIA’S 65th ANNIVERSARY –INTERVIEW

HIROYOSHI OGAWA

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NICHIA Celebrates its 65th Year of Continuous Innovation – Hiroyoshi OGAWA, President and CEO of NICHIA

Hiroyoshi OGAWA Hiroyoshi OGAWA is President and CEO of NICHIA Corporation. He has worked at the family business for close to 30 years. He graduated from the University of Tokyo.


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HIROYOSHI OGAWA

NICHIA’S 65th ANNIVERSARY –INTERVIEW

Today, advanced LED technologies are essential in many areas, such as lighting, automotive, displays, horticulture, but also in the field of medicine and disinfection. NICHIA has pioneered today’s LED technologies that have transformed so many industries and businesses around the world. This year marks the 65th anniversary of NICHIA’s foundation. We were delighted to discuss NICHIA’s history, achievements and outlook with the company’s President and CEO Hiroyoshi OGAWA.

LED professional: First, we would like to thank you very much for allowing us to conduct an interview during NICHIA´s 65th anniversary celebrations. We would also like to congratulate you and NICHIA on your remarkable anniversary. It is only fitting that our first question is about NICHIA. Can you give us a brief history of the company, and your career? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: Thanks for your interest in NICHIA. The business was founded in 1956 by my grandfather, Nobuo Ogawa, and this year is our 65th anniversary. After graduating from university in Tokyo, I worked for one of the major consumer electronics manufacturers in Japan for several years. When NICHIA decided to commercialize blue LEDs, I moved back to Tokushima to support my family´s business. Since then, I have seen how NICHIA´s LEDs have changed the world. While NICHIA is generally recognized as an LED company, my grandfather specialized in pharmaceuticals and chemicals, so NICHIA was purely a chemical manufacturer for its first 30 years. Nowadays, NICHIA´s business consists of two core areas: optoelectronics products such as LEDs and laser diodes, and chemical products. NICHIA´s very first product was a type of calcium compound, which was a raw material in medicines and used limestone locally available in Tokushima. The company´s next phase was to develop phosphors. The combination of several calcium compound products brought NICHIA into this field. Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021

Then, the quest for light led NICHIA to create the world´s first high-brightness blue LEDs and world’s first white LEDs, and later laser diodes and UV LEDs. Meanwhile, in the field of chemicals – the company´s original business –the diversification from phosphors to cathode materials for secondary batteries and magnetic materials was achieved by using NICHIA´s core technologies of high-purity chemical synthesis and fine powder handling. In this manner, we have been expanding our areas of expertise for 65 years. When I look back through our history, there have always been obstacles and difficulties to overcome. However, we have succeeded in developing and commercializing many valuable products that can improve all of our lives. I am grateful not only to our customers, but also to our predecessors, employees, and everyone in the local community who has accepted and supported NICHIA. LED professional: The culture and corporate philosophy are central building blocks of any company. What would you say is the essence of NICHIA? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: Well, as a matter of fact we have a motto that all members in each office recite every morning: “Let´s study. Let´s think deeply and work hard. And let´s create the best products in the world.”This sounds rather simple or straightforward, but clearly represents NICHIA´s corporate culture and leadership philosophy. In other words, NICHIA values the honest efforts of all employees. We work diligently to tackle

challenges and grasp opportunities together as one team. NICHIA does not pursue short-term profit. While focusing on the fundamental essence of materials and technology, we pursue honmono – the best quality in the world. Honmono is a Japanese word that originally means something true, real or genuine; it also embraces products, work, manufacturing and people that are of the highest quality, professional and sincere.

“While focusing on the fundamental essence of materials and technology, we pursue honmono – the best quality in the world. Honmono (ほんもの) is a Japanese word that originally means something true, real or genuine.” HIROYOSHI OGAWA

LED professional: NICHIA is the world leader in the LED business. How would you describe the recipe for success that has put NICHIA in front? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: As I mentioned before, I believe that our success can be attributed to the continuous pursuit of development centered around the core root of materials and technology. We have maintained an honest and persis-

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HIROYOSHI OGAWA

tent commitment to meeting the demands of the market, while still honoring our belief in and fundamental respect for true development and innovation. LED professional: We would also like to address your product portfolio. How is the LED business segmented into product lines and geographical regions? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: In terms of our LED portfolio, we segment the business into several categories, with three primary pillars making up the largest percentage of our LED business, all of equal importance to the company. First, there are LCD backlights for smartphones, tablets and so on. Then there are LEDs for automotive applications –the interior and exterior of vehicles.

Figure 1: LEDs are widely used in displays ranging from large-screen applications to mobile devices such as smartphones

Finally, LEDs for general lighting applications, which covers a wide range of commercial and consumer applications. Plus there are other fast-growing LED segments for NICHIA, such as UV LEDs, and stable markets, such as displays. While we do supply our LEDs globally, we focus on the main regions of Japan, China and Europe/Americas. LED professional: The lighting industry has been undergoing a significant transformation since the transition to LED technologies. Also, there have been innovations through digitalization and connectivity. Where do you now see the main focus in lighting applications, and how should the lighting and components industries react? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: LEDs have changed the light source market drastically. In spite of the opportunity presented by LEDs, there has been almost no change in the lighting fixture market for which LEDs are used. The entire lighting industry has still not moved on from the idea of simply replacing conventional light sources with LEDs. We would like to see the market take better advantage of LEDs, develop lighting spaces that are comfortable to all, and ultimately focus on developing lighting fixtures that can be achieved only with LEDs, not with conventional light sources. To achieve this ultimate goal, we will continue to pursue the ideal light source, form and quality. It is essential to offer the type of value that has never existed before, for exam24

Figure 2: One of the main focuses of LED technology is illumination for the general lighting, automotive, horticulture and medical sectors

ple in the form of health. As people are spending more time indoors –and especially during the global Covid-19 restrictions –there is a strong focus within the LED industry on commercializing lighting that can regulate the body clock, the so-called circadian rhythm. This is just one example of the value LEDs can bring that the industry can take advantage of. There are many more that we hope to see implemented, as the industry expands beyond simple replacements. LED professional: Nowadays, the efficacies of white LEDs are at a very high level. Is there room for further developments? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: While the discussion of LED efficacy has unfortunately been the dominant trend for the past

decade, perhaps we should say it has almost matured, despite the many other significant benefits of LEDs. However, this trend of focusing only on efficacy has evolved over the last couple of years. While efficiency is of course essential, the discussion is now focused more on the combination of efficiency with a high quality of light, with implications for color rendering, or how things look under the lighting. The function of light, for example to adjust circadian rhythm, has also been a focus. I believe it is still possible to improve efficiency in this context, both at the individual LED and system levels. For example, NICHIA´s newest mid-power general lighting packages, which we started introducing to global customers at the end of 2020, were developed for

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a balance of color quality and efficiency. Utilizing the technology of our partner company, we eliminated the efficiency gap between 80 and 90 CRI. We were able to commercialize a 90+ CRI LED with the same efficacy as the equivalent 80 CRI LED, which has garnered much attention from the industry, as this gap was a primary obstacle to implementing higher-quality light solutions. We will continue to strive for efficiency improvements paired with the quality of light and the function of light.

Figure 3: Laser technology is considered one of the next big and future steps in innovation

We will also work on research and development that has potential for technological innovations that realize further efficiency improvement, focusing on the true nature of light –that it behaves as a particle and as a wave at the same time. LED professional: Since you have mentioned “quality of light”several times, could you tell us more about what this means? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: For over a quarter of a century, since white LEDs began to revolutionize the lighting market, the most important theme has been efficiency. To replace the conventional light sources that had already been widely adopted in society over many years – equivalent efficiency at least, or preferably even better efficiency – was required. In addition, the power shortages caused by the 2011 earthquake in Japan and the resulting Fukushima nuclear power plant accident became a major trigger for the penetration of LEDs in the lighting field: “efficiency”and “energy-saving” were seen as their primary advantages. However, for that reason, perhaps too much emphasis was put on efficiency, and LED lighting may have sacrificed the color rendering properties and the natural appearance of colors that had been achieved with many fluorescent lamps and halogen bulbs. As I mentioned earlier, it is now time to turn our attention to the quality of light with LED lighting, given that efficiency has reached a point of maturity, and while our lifestyles have been forever changed by Covid-19. One of NICHIA´s solutions is a product I highlighted before, which achieves excellent color rendering and efficiency simultaneously. Additionally, NICHIA´s development of LEDs

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Figure 4: Quality aspects are a central part of the LED mass business, especially with regard to failure rates, color rendering quality and life time

Figure 5: Today’s mass LED business is primarily built on phosphor-based white LEDs, which are highly optimized in terms of spectral properties

with an emphasis on circadian rhythm is an achievement that addresses this pursuit of exceptional light quality and light functionality. While we increasingly work from home and stay indoors for a greater period of time, we need to continue to pursue the provision of light that makes our surroundings look more natural, colorful and

uplifting. Lighting that brightens a person´s face in person or via virtual meetings results in a more lively conversation. It is important to enrich our lives with light that energizes our soul and soothes our body as we rest each day. By harnessing all the expertise from LEDs and phosphors cultivated over many years, NICHIA is in a position to deliver a quality of light that has never existed before.

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HIROYOSHI OGAWA

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Hiroyoshi OGAWA

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LED professional: UV LEDs, and especially UV-C LEDs, are the next big topic and the hope for extending the business. Are there any updates you can share with us about this product group? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: Certainly, the UVC area is attracting attention due to the Covid-19 pandemic. I think UV-C LED is important technology both in terms of contributing to society, and new business possibilities. NICHIA has been a leading supplier of UV LEDs for over 20 years, although the primary success has been in UV-A markets, specifically for resin curing and sensors. However, as the performance and lifetime have improved, interest in and expectations of UV-C LEDs, especially with regard to sterilization, have increased –this was the case even pre-pandemic. Now, Covid-19 has further boosted that interest in and expectations for UV-C LED solutions. Unfortunately, as UVC technology is still in its infancy, the market has been flooded with many unreliable, low-performance products. NICHIA believes that it is critical to develop strong and reliable UV-C LED solutions that take advantage of the germicidal benefits of the technology, but without sacrificing reliability. Just in the past quarter, NICHIA has commercialized two industry-leading UV-C LEDs that succeed in combining high performance and a long lifetime. We know the future for UV LEDs remains strong, and we are excited to continue expanding our portfolio. We are honored to have our products utilized in new fields, contributing to a safer and more secure society.

has, in my opinion, been simply replacing conventional light sources. Of course, those replacements were meaningful, and I am proud that it has contributed significantly to society in terms of energy-saving and other aspects. Still, we as an industry can do so much more. As of today, we will reexamine and pursue the true essence and purpose of LEDs, as well as laser diodes, another core pillar of NICHIA´s optoelectronics business. We will introduce revolutionary light sources for lighting, automotive and other applications in terms of design, function and quality of light, which only NICHIA can achieve.

NICHIA’S 65th ANNIVERSARY –INTERVIEW

LED professional: Sustainability is a key topic that affects us all. How does NICHIA address this issue in general, and specifically for products? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: First and foremost, by increasing the efficiency of LEDs and improving the efficiency of production processes, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions can be greatly reduced. Also, waste and maintenance costs can be reduced by extending the life of LEDs. Making contributions to society through actions like these is central to our sustainability efforts. Moreover, we provide a comfortable and safe work environment for employees, and

Figure 6: Located at the foot of the Yatsugatake Mountains, overlooking Suwa Lake, the Suwa Technology center is the development base for advanced products

LED professional: NICHIA has very successfully introduced products in general lighting, automotive lighting, displays and UV to the market. What strategic product directions can we expect from NICHIA in the future? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: In 1993 NICHIA transformed the world with an innovation that would forever alter the global energy landscape –the invention and commercialization of the blue LED, soon followed in 1996 by the white LED. While this transformation has meant a lot to the industry and the world, as I previously mentioned, I fear we are not fully taking advantage of the technology and what it has to offer. Most of the LED lighting that has emerged in the last quarter-century

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Figure 7: One of NICHIA’s several huge production facilities in Japan (Tatsumi-Plant in Tokushima)

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we avoid environmental pollution within NICHIA and our supply chain. The use of renewable energy in running our business is also central to our ethos, which is why we are installing solar power generation systems in our plants. LED professional: We are living in challenging times. With that in mind, what visions for the lighting sector will guide you and NICHIA in the coming years? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: Again, one area of focus is in the UV field, as sterilization becomes increasingly important to control the spread of Covid-19. We are also considering the fusion of UV and general lighting. “Health”remains an essential trend. The quality of light and the role of lighting will remain critical in the future, especially as lifestyles change. People are likely to spend extended time at home, in an artificial lighting environment, and this will in turn disturb circadian rhythms. Our introduction of the “Light so Good”portfolio includes several different solutions to address these key challenges, including Optisolis™ [1], Vitasolis™ [2] and our game-changing 2-in-1 tunable white single LES LED. Additionally, with the elimination of efficiency gaps with 90+ CRI, NICHIA is continually proving itself as an innovation leader. We will strive to make a continuous contribution to improving the quality of life for wider society and our personal wellbeing.

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LED professional: In the last part of this interview, we would like to ask you about business in Europe. In recent years, a very strong applications and sales team has been established in Europe. How important is design-in service for customers, and what strategy will NICHIA pursue in this area in the future?

very closely with our customers so that we could respond to their needs directly and develop the market accordingly. However, over time, as LEDs have drastically changed the lighting landscape, we have modified our European sales model to work with distributors for certain customers, while also maintaining direct business with others.

Hiroyoshi OGAWA: As you know, for both automotive and general lighting applications, cutting-edge technologies are often generated within Europe and deployed worldwide. Therefore, we would like to contribute through the development of new technologies and new products from those initial stages, so that we can have the opportunity to create new products together with our customers and promote them all over the world. To achieve this, we have been making significant investments in the sales and applications teams in Europe. Design-in activities in Europe have strategic importance for the LED business of NICHIA globally.

In 2011, we started working with local European distributors with a strong regional presence. In 2016, after further recognizing the value that distributors bring, we started working with a key global distributor in addition to our network of local distributors. These are all great assets to NICHIA and complement our business strategy.

LED professional: In addition to serving its key accounts, NICHIA has excellent long-term relationships with major distributors. What future progress do you anticipate? Hiroyoshi OGAWA: Since the era of phosphors for fluorescent lamps and TVs (before our LED business even started), NICHIA has persevered with a direct business model. We worked

Given the current situation, it is not possible to interact with the whole LED lighting market by relying solely on communication with key accounts. Therefore, distributors help NICHIA to better understand customer needs, and direct us to take the best possible action. Indeed, they offer a market reach that is far greater than NICHIA [3] could deliver directly. Thanks to their cooperation, NICHIA´s name has become better known to small and medium-sized customers as well as designers, specifiers and end users. Our relationship with distributors has grown further through collaboration on technical seminars, product promotions, webinars, exhibitions and successful joint projects with customers. By harnessing these activities we will continue to serve the market´s needs with relevant technological innovations. LED professional: We would like to thank you very much for your time, and for giving us a glimpse into your company´s workings. We wish you and your family, and all your employees and their families, the very best for a successful and bright future. Hiroyoshi OGAWA: Thank you very much. "

References [1] [2] [3]

Figure 8: One of NICHIA’s R&D centers in Japan (Kanagawa Prefecture)

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THE FIRST DIGITAL LIGHTING CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION EXPERIENCE THE FUTURE OF LIGHT

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REPLACEABILITY OF LIGHT SOURCES AND SEPARATE CONTROL GEARS

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Replaceability of Light Sources and Separate Control Gears With the success of LEDs in general lighting, the time-honored separation of light sources (lamps) and luminaires has been discarded in the designs of LED luminaires. In mass-produced LED luminaires such as panels, downlights and high bays, the lamp and the luminaire have merged into one product. Large operators of commercial real estate, who have to ensure long-term facility operation, have always complained about this fact. A key justification for this design decision was the long life-time of LED light sources. Currently, however, a rethinking process is taking place, which is promoted by new regulations of the European Union.

Experience with the use of even highquality LED luminaires shows failure rates of 0.2% per 1,000 hours of operation, which cumulates to about 10% after 50,000 hours. The appropriate replacement of these defective luminaires poses major challenges for operators. The luminaire industry has so far reacted to these requirements only very hesitantly. Currently, however, a rethinking process is taking place, which is promoted by new regulations of the EU. The main goals of the EU’s Green Deal are CO2 neutrality by 2050 and the avoidance of waste and pollutants [1]. Disposable luminaires are just not compatible with these goals. The first steps in this direction are embodied in the new EU Regulation 2019/2020, which replaces the previous regulations on the environmentally friendly design of lighting products. This article looks at the regulatory requirements, the benefits of replaceable light sources, the types of replacements and the need for standards, available technical solutions, and the implications for luminaire design and the luminaire industry.

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Requirements of the European Union The EU considers the extension of the Circular Economy to established economic actors as a crucial contribution to the implementation of a climate-neutral and resource-efficient economy in which growth is decoupled from resource use. In this context, the ecodesign regulations of energy consumption-relevant products are being expanded to ensure that ecodesign is extended to as broad a product spectrum as possible and contributes to the circular economy. In addition to increasing energy and resource efficiency, the durability, reusability, replaceability and reparability of products are defined as key levers. Added to this is the avoidance of pollutants. For lighting applications, the EU has taken a first step in this direction with Regulation 2019/2020 EU, laying down ecodesign requirements for light sources and separate control gears [2]. The regulation no longer refers to lamps and luminaires, but more generally to light sources and containing products. Containing products can, for example, be luminaires but all other products that contain (removable) light sources and/or separate control gears, such as refrigerators. The scope of the regulation is thus considerably broader than before.

Article 4 paragraph 1 of the regulation requires the replaceability of light sources and separate control gears devices in containing products with generally available tools without permanent damage to the product (and describes exceptions), paragraph 2 contains information on whether replacement can be carried out by end users or only by qualified persons or not and paragraph 3, their dismantling from containing products at end of life. For the information of whether the replacement of the light source or the separate control gear in containing products can be performed by the end user or only by qualified persons or not at all; LightingEurope has developed new pictograms (Figure 1) [3]. The Regulation will apply from 01 September 2021 and Article 9 of the Regulation already stipulates that the Commission will carry out a review against the background of technical progress by 25 December 2024 at the latest, particularly with regard to f) the definition of additional product requirements for resource efficiency in accordance with the principles of the circular economy, in particular with regard to the possibility of removal and the replaceability of light sources and control gear. Another important aspect of the regulation is the prohibition on market placement of most compact fluorescent lamps with integrated ballast from 01 September

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2021 and most T8 fluorescent lamps from 01 September 2023 from the definition of ecodesign requirements in Article 3 in conjunction with Annex II Table 1 (here energy efficiency requirements). This means that, as was previously the case with incandescent lamps and halogen lamps, widely installed light sources may no longer be placed on the market, which creates pressure to act, especially for large operators of real estate.

Pros and Cons of LED Light Source Replaceability Before the LED era, the replaceability of light sources was taken for granted as standardized and socketed lamps; lamps and luminaires were sold separately. Today, LED lamps with conventional bases (known as retrofits) continue to bridge the gap between the old and new worlds. This tradition was disrupted with the introduction of LEDs as a light source for general lighting. Particularly for professional mass applications, luminaires were introduced to the market with the LED light source permanently installed in the luminaire, such as panels, downlights and high bays. The luminaire industry has emphasized to operators the long life of the LED light source, and many operators have readily taken advantage of the significant energy savings and short payback periods. In recent years, LED luminaires have become more and more affordable, so that today they are, in some cases, below the price level of the old luminaire technology.

Figure 1: Replaceability of light sources and separate control gear

In addition to the regulations on product design (ecodesign), Directive 2011/65/EU on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances (the so-called RoHS II Directive) has a significant influence on the permissibility of placing products on the European market [4]. Due to their mercury content, fluorescent lamps are in the focus of the EU Commission, which is currently considering not extending or allowing to expire the exemptions for fluorescent lamps (Annex III) for the strict limit values of this directive (0.1% mercury (Hg) in homogeneous materials according to Annex I). In this case, most T5 fluorescent lamps and compact fluorescent lamps without integrated ballast will also be phased out.

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Operators have had to experience problems with adequate replacements when luminaires fail in the field, and as luminaire prices have declined, luminaire mounting and dismounting costs have become increasingly significant. The luminaire industry can sell a new luminaire at the end of the LED light source’s life; at best, the operator must bear the cost of this one entire new luminaire, as well as its disassembly and reassembly costs. Lacking an alternative, many operators had not considered the resulting opportunity cost. The specific arithmetic for the operator depends on numerous parameters, such as the lighting duration and the remaining useful life of the property. The longer the remaining useful life and the longer the lighting period per year, the more economical luminaires with replaceable lamps become for the operator. The calculation becomes more advantageous if the luminous flux loss of the installed LED solution and the efficiency increase of a new LED light source at a later replacement time are included. The above makes it clear that an operator of a property, thinking long term, should compare the Total Costs of Ownership (TCO) for both a solution with and without replaceable LED light source (and control gear) over a life cycle of the LED light source.

ECODESIGN

The actual assessment of the environmental impact of luminaires with replaceable light sources (and control gear) compared to non-replaceable ones is no less complex, as this has to consider the entire life cycle from the production phase to the use phase to the disposal phase (Life Cycle Assessment LCA). The results of such LCAs (e.g. from the Repro-light research project) show that the use phase has a significant impact on our environment, but that the replaceability of components and recyclability also play a role. Replaceable LED light sources must therefore not be at an efficiency disadvantage compared to non-replaceable light sources from an environmental point of view. Since the service life of the light source in practice rarely corresponds to the service life of the luminaire, two cases must be distinguished in the case of replaceable LED light sources. If the service life of the luminaire exceeds that of the light source, the light source has to be replaced and the question arises whether the old light source can be repaired or recycled. In the opposite case, the question of re-use of the light source arises. Beyond economic efficiency and environmental aspects, there are numerous other aspects that speak in favor of replaceable light sources. From the operator’s point of view, for example, the change in color temperature when there is a change of user (e.g. in the office) or change of season (e.g. in retail) can be of interest. For the luminaire manufacturer, product complexity can be reduced by the factors of color temperature and color rendering, depending on the type of replaceability of the light source, which can significantly increase the degree of prefabrication in the mass production of downlights, for example. Since the reform of the liability for defects under sales law in Germany on 01 January 2018 (§ 439 and § 475 BGB), luminaire manufacturers are obliged to bear the removal and reinstallation costs in the event of a defective luminaire. If the defect is due to the LED light source, the luminaire manufacturer can keep the defect removal costs low with the help of replaceable light sources and satisfy the customer quickly and easily by supplying replacements.

Different Types of Replaceability Regulation 2019/2020 EU distinguishes in Article 4(2) between the replaceability of light sources and control gear with commonly available tools by the end user or by qualified personnel. This refers to replace-

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ment in the field and not replacement at the manufacturer’s factory. Light source replacement at the manufacturer’s facility is a rare consideration due to disassembly and reassembly and round-trip transportation. The replacement of light sources requires that safety is guaranteed (protection against electric shock), the light source is protected against improper handling and damage (e.g. ESD) and the thermal, mechanical as well as electrical connection between the luminaire and the light source is guaranteed (cf. ZVEI information on the replaceability of LED light sources 2017 [5]). When light sources are replaced by the end user, these boundary conditions can only be guaranteed in practice by capped lamps. Otherwise, replacement of the LED light source at the point of use can only be carried out by qualified specialist personnel, provided that the manufacturer has provided for this via appropriate LED modules, which are connected via terminals or connectors, for example, and can be replaced without changing the operational, safety and application properties of the luminaire. For the operator, the cost of replacing the light source is a crucial factor, as this can easily exceed the cost of the light source. Therefore, it is not only the question of who can carry out the replacement that is important, but also how long the replacement will take in the specific structural situation. Here, LED lamps are likely to often have an advantage over LED modules. In addition to the question of whether the light sources can be replaced by the end user or only by qualified personnel, it is of considerable importance from the operator’s point of view whether standardized LED lamps and LED modules are used or not. With nonstandardized LED lamps and LED modules, the operator usually enters into a long-term dependency on one manufacturer. Under the two aspects of replaceability and standardization, the matrix for light sources is as shown in Table 1. Non-replaceable light sources are not listed. Light Source

Replaceable by End User

Standardized

Standardized LED Lamp Nonstandardized LED Lamp

Nonstandardized

Replaceable only by Qualified Persons Standardized LED Module Nonstandardized LED Module

Table 1: Replaceability and standardization of light sources

Standardization of LED lamps ideally relates to two aspects, the socket & lam32

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pholder system and the light source itself. Sockets of lamps and the lampholders in luminaires are standardized by the International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC). The international manufacturer consortium ZHAGA deals with the interfaces for LED modules and lamps, control gear and sensors, which are important for integration in luminaires.

Standards Advantages of Standards In the old world of conventional lighting technology, luminaires without standardized lamps were unthinkable. Until the inefficient lamps were phased out, operators could rely on being able to buy them again many years later. Lamp manufacturers were able to produce their lamps in high volumes at low cost because of the high degree of standardization. This situation has changed fundamentally with LED technology. Apart from LED retrofits (LED lamps with bases from conventional lighting technology), luminaire manufacturers have been able to push through luminaires with permanently installed LED light sources in commercial mass applications. With the return to the benefits of replaceable light sources in the interest of the environment and operators, the question of standardization again arises. The interoperability of LED lamps and LED modules between different manufacturers is the central argument for standardization. Standardization can also achieve economies of scale, which are consequently reflected in a low-cost supply of replaceable light sources. The resulting automated mass production promotes the quality of the light sources. Technical risks inherent in the light source are reduced by both standardization and replaceability. The higher volumes of standardized light sources make investments in product and process innovation attractive for manufacturers. Operators and luminaire manufacturers gain investment security and at the same time flexibility with standardized replaceable light sources. New business models such as Lighting as a Service (LaaS) or even reusability can gain a completely new dynamic through standardized replaceable light sources. All these advantages of standardizing replaceable light sources make a significant contribution to the sustainability of lighting solutions. Against this background, luminaire manufacturers will

have to deal with this topic in the future. In the following, we will show which LEDspecific standards are currently available for replaceable linear and point light sources.

Standards for Replaceable Linear LED Light Sources Linear light sources represent one of the most important forms in professional lighting. The most common conventional linear light sources are T8 fluorescent lamps with G13 base and T5 fluorescent lamps with G5 base. The decided end of most of the T8 fluorescent lamps on 01 September 2023 (see also [6]) and the impending ban of T5 fluorescent lamps poses great challenges to the operators. This makes the market’s need for appropriate solutions for standardized linear LED light sources all the more urgent. Currently, the standards available for linear LED lamps and LED modules are as shown in Table 2. Retrofit solutions based on the G13 base, for example, will not be discussed here. Linear Light Source

Replaceable by End User

Standardized

Linear LED Lamp Socket / Lampholder: GR6d Lamps: ZHAGA Book 14 e.g. R-Tube

Nonstandardized

Replaceable only by Qualified Persons Linear LED Module Terminal & Module: ZHAGA Book 21

Table 2: Standards for replaceable linear LED light sources

GR6d is an LED-specific socket & lampholder system for linear lamps according to IEC EN 61001-1 / AMD56:2017, which is designed for up to 2 A 250 V. It is a single-sided electrically contacted system where the mating holder is used for mechanical support and thermal length compensation. A push-in & push-out system simplifies the tool-free insertion and removal of the lamps, while for removal a retaining function still protects against unintentional falling out of the lamps. Electrical parameters (currents or voltages) are defined via a key system in the socket and base. Based on the GR6d socket & lampholder system, ZHAGA Book 14 defines, among other things, the mechanical interfaces for installing the lamps in luminaires. In particular, the defined lengths L60 (564 mm), L120 (1164 mm) and L150 (1464 mm), which are

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based on classic lengths of T5 fluorescent lamps, should be mentioned here. The ZHAGA Book 14 opens up the possibility of integrating light control into the lamps. By replacing suitable lamps, not only the color temperature but also the light distribution of luminaires can be changed as required (cf. Figure 3). The lamps in Figure 3 are self-cooling and the L60 length can easily accommodate 20 W of power per lamp, the L120 40 W and the L150 50 W. The glarefree versions of the lamps (UGR < 19 for 4H8H) achieve a system efficiency (incl. losses of the separate control gear) of up to 155 lm/W (4000 K, Ra 84, Rf 83, Rg 92, R9 16, 25 ◦C). This efficiency level is on par with today’s luminaires with fixed LED light sources. Such an L150 lamp can achieve more than 7500 lm luminous flux and is thus suitable for much more than replacing a luminaire with an 80 W T5 fluorescent tube (5700 lm at 25 ◦C), where the luminaire efficiency still has to be deducted.

Figure 2: GR6d socket & lampholder system

Figure 3: LOP26 & LOP15 lamps with GR6d socket and different light distributions

Figure 4: Linear LED module with connection element according to ZHAGA Book 21

GR6d based lamps from different manufacturers are now designed to have no glue, solder or cable connections. Therefore, the lamps can be disassembled with conventional tools and the circuit boards can be easily replaced; the lamp itself becomes repairable and very easy to recycle. Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021

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ZHAGA Book 21 was designed as a standard for linear LED modules that can only be replaced by qualified persons at the point of use (Figure 4). The connection element (board connector) enables toolfree removal of the board, which can be operated with max. 60 V 2 A (SELV). With ZHAGA Book 26 a non-SELV version is planned. The wiring is done on the back side of the connection element. As a rule, the circuit boards must be self-cooling. ZHAGA defines two board lengths of 2 ft (601 mm) and 4 ft (1219 mm) and a board width of 20 mm. For the 4 ft board, a gross luminous flux of max. 8800 lm is defined (at 1400 mA). The light-directing elements must be installed in the luminaire.

This table is not fully comprehensive but covers the main relevant standards.

Standards for Point-shaped LED Light Sources

ZHAGA Book 5 is a socket & lampholder system for point-shaped LED lamps with a total diameter of 69 mm, which is not standardized by IEC. The maximum system power is rated at approximately 40 W.

Point-shaped light sources are used in many downlights, track lights and spotlights. In functional buildings, single-ended compact fluorescent lamps (CLF) were widely used for such luminaires until the early 2010s. Strictly speaking, compact fluorescent lamps are not point-shaped but rod-shaped light sources because of their large dimensions. From 01 September 2021, compact fluorescent lamps with integrated ballast (CFLi, base E14, E27 etc.) will have to leave the market throughout the EU. Due to the harmful substance, mercury, contained in compact fluorescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamps without integrated ballast (CLF-ni, base G23, G24-d1, G25-q2, G7 etc.) are also threatened with such a ban (RoHS). This would generate an enormous replacement demand. For mounting COB LEDs in downlights, track lights and spotlights, ZHAGA Book 10 has become a widely used standard in the lighting industry. ZHAGA Book 10 describes two diameters of round mounting brackets for COB, D50 and D35. The smaller diameter of 35 mm is gaining in importance against the background of the miniaturization of LED luminaires. Unfortunately, COBs installed in this way are difficult to replace in the field, even by qualified specialists. This is due to the fact that the connection elements are not designed for replacement in the installation situation and to the challenge of restoring the thermal interface between COB and heat sink in this situation in a process-safe manner. Currently, the standards listed in Table 3 exist for replaceable point-type LED light sources without integrated control gear.

Point Light Source Standardized

Not-yet standardized

Replaceable by End User Socket & Lampholder: GH36d Diameter 50 mm Socket & Lampholder: GH27d Diameter 35 mm

Replaceable by End User ZHAGA Book 5 Diameter 69 mm

Table 3: Standards for replaceable point LED light sources

The GH36d socket & lampholder system picks up the 50 mm diameter defined in ZHAGA Book 10 and is standardized according to IEC 61001-1/A58-2018 (Figure 5). Socket and lampholder are electrically rated up to 2 A 150 V. The thermal management limits the maximum system power to approx. 35 W depending on the connected heat sink. The maximum power can be coded via corresponding keys. A twist & lock system allows the lamp to be easily inserted into or removed from the lampholder.

Figure 5: GH36d lampholder with corresponding LED lamp

A new open system for the lamp (Figure 6) allows easy insertion of commercially available COBs with footprints of 19 x 19, 20 x 24 and 17.85 x 17.85 mm, with the COBs held in place in a similar way to modern connecting elements. In this way, the manufacture of the lamp is simplified at every step of the value chain. The lamp system already has two interfaces for reflectors or optics with connection diameters of 50 mm and 40 mm. Against the background of the miniaturization of luminaires, the new GH27d system

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with 35 mm diameter has now been developed analogously to ZHAGA Book 10 (cf. Figure 7), which has not yet been standardized. It has the same design as the GH36d lampholder and lamp system and is available for commercially available COB with footprints of 13.5 x 13.5, 12 x 15 and 15.85 x 15.85 mm. The maximum system power is specified at 17 W due to thermal restrictions. Optics or reflectors can be connected via an interface with 35 mm connection diameter.

Implications for Luminaire Designs The standardized linear and point LED light sources presented here enable a simple modular luminaire design, with the help of which, end users or qualified persons can replace the light sources on site, and also, ideally, without dismounting the luminaire. For a coherent overall concept, modularization of luminaires must extend to other components. As already required by the 2019/2020 EU regulation, the second important replaceable component must be the separate control gear. And finally, optional sensors are also part of such a system as a third component, at least when they are installed in luminaires (containing products). On the one hand, standardization of control gear is less advanced than standardization of light sources. On the other hand, separate control gear is usually replaceable by qualified personnel. Some standardization of the dimensions and mounting points of control gear has taken place in ZHAGA Book 13. For the control of such devices, DALI-2 has brought an important advance in terms of cross-manufacturer interoperability of systems (IEC 62386). For the first time, DALI-2 also allows sensors to access the bus and communicate with the master, operating devices and other sensors (multimaster). Although DALI-2 Parts 251, 252 and 253 standardize the memory banks for inventory, energy monitoring and maintenance of luminaires, they do not yet take into account the aspect of replaceability of light sources and control gear.

Figure 6: GH36d lamp system for COB with upper part, lower part and lampholder

Programming of control gear has been standardized outside the DALI standard via the LED set standard (ZAHGA Book 22/23) and the NFC standard (ZHAGA Book 24/25). Fundamental aspects of the replaceability of control gear from an EMC point of view are currently being worked out within the framework of the ZHAGA TF-EMC. In view of the high hourly rates of qualified persons, the possibility of simple and, at best, tool-free replacement of operating devices is desirable. For this purpose, (coded) plug systems within a luminaire would be useful.

Figure 7: GH27d with D35 vs. GH36d with D50

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Such connector systems and interfaces are already defined for dedicated or retrofittable sensors. ZHAGA Book 20 describes these for indoor luminaires and ZHAGA Book 18 for outdoor luminaires. Both communication and power supply between control gear and sensor are standardized via the D4i standard within the DALI organization. The topics of control and sensor technol-

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ogy are gaining in importance, not least against the background of the EU’s Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 2018/844 [7], which stipulates a Smart Readiness Indicator (SRI) for buildings that also extends to the area of lighting. With the next amendment of the GEG, the German legislator will also have to implement this directive. The integration of the above aspects into the luminaire design contributes to maintainability, repairability, updateability and upgradeability, thus making luminaires fit for the future and, with a suitable design, also sustainable overall. The luminaire design thus determines the possibilities for circular economy in the area of general lighting, which will have an impact for decades. However, luminaire manufacturers should not see modular luminaire design exclusively as a contribution to the Circular Economy but should also recognize the opportunities that lie in a reduction in the number of variants, a reduction in inventories, rapid delivery capability via late stage configuration or even mix & match by the customer and, last but not least, an increase in customer satisfaction.

Summary and Outlook The Green Deal is the future project of the European Union to decouple economic growth from resource consumption and to become climate neutral by 2050. ”Do not think the Green Deal is a luxury we cannot afford, it is a lifeline out of the virus [...] Do not fall into the trap that COVID is an excuse to undo things.” stated the Vice President of the European Commission Frans Timmermans before the ENVI Committee of the European Parliament on 21 April 2020. The Circular Economy is the central building block of this project, for which the EU will hold all economic actors accountable. With the 2019/2020 regulation, the EU has taken the first steps for the implementation of this plan in the lighting market and has for the first time in Article 4 required the replaceability of light sources and separate control gear from 01 September 2021. Manufacturers can still circumvent this replaceability by justifying in their technical documentation why the replacement of the light sources and separate control gear would not make sense. However, according to Article 9 f), additional product requirements are already due in 2024, especially with regard to the possibilities of

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removing and replacing light sources and control gear. The luminaire industry would be well advised to correct the misguided development of LED disposable luminaires over the last decade and to actively shape the development of sustainable luminaires in the new decade. The earlier companies adapt to this, the more likely they are to benefit from this trend reversal. The article shows that suitable standards and products for replaceable light sources and separate control gear are already available. Others will follow. The first luminaire manufacturers are already offering corresponding modular luminaires. Numerous large operators have been demanding this step for a long time and are planning to align their investment decisions accordingly. However, the departure from the linear economy also urgently requires closer cooperation between all those involved in the value chain, such as planners, upstream suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, installers, contractors, facility managers, operators, recyclers and disposers. There are tremendous opportunities to develop new business models in the wake of this transformation. Technologies as such are rarely disruptive, but mostly the new business models that emerge from them. "

AUTHOR: Carsten MÖLLERS, Dipl.Kfm. Carsten MÖLLERS, born in 1968, studied economics at the WWU Münster with a focus on business informatics. Then started his career as a consultant with PWC, later interim management and managing director in the automotive supply industry. His current focus is on the development of companies in the field of Solid State Lighting and Internet of Things as well as the support of Open Source projects.

Repro-light is a European research project that aims to support the European lighting industry in moving towards a more sustainable and competitive future.

References [1] European Commission (2020): The European Green Deal. Communication of 11 March 2020. [2] European Commission (2019): Regulation (EU) 2019/2020 of 1 October 2020 laying down ecodesign requirements for light sources and separate control gears. Official Journal of the European Union, 15 Decembere 2019. [3] LightingEurope (2020): Guidelines for the application of Commission Regulation (EU) 2019/2020. Version 2 of 06 October 2020. [4] European Parliament and European Council (2011): Directive 2011/65/EU of 8 June 2011 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Official Journal of the European Union, 01 July 2011. [5] ZVEI White Paper (2017): The Replaceability of LED Light Sources. May 2017. [6] Mordziol, Christoph (2019): Abschied von der T8 Lampe (Departure from the T8 lamp). In: Elektro Praktiker 06/2019, 07/2019 and 10/2019. [7] European Parliament and European Council (2018): Directive (EU) 2018/844 of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency. Official Journal of the European Union, 19 June 2018.

Initiating Transformation in the European Lighting Industry

AUTHOR: Werner MOTZ Werner Motz, born in 1964, completed his training as a master electrician in Kaiserslautern and acquired an additional qualification as a technician in the field of environmental protection. Mr. Motz worked for 8 years in the electrician trades as well as in industry, where he gained relevant experience in the fields of electrical installation, switchgear construction and mechanical engineering. He joined BASF SE in 1989 and has since held various positions focusing on electrical engineering, electrical installations, lighting, fire protection and energy efficiency. Currently, he is active in interdisciplinary planning, installation and maintenance of measures and projects. In addition, he is responsible for a wide range of existing installations as an electrical installation supervisor (EAV). His special interest lies in the sustainable use of current lighting technologies.

www.repro-light.eu Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021

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UV-C: DISINFECTION BENEFITS, SAFETY, COMFORT AND PROOF POINTS

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UV-C: Disinfection Benefits, Safety, Comfort and Proof Points This article describes the benefits of UV-C disinfection technology in the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic. It addresses the history of and new insights into UV-C disinfection concerning SARS-CoV-2, and it also covers recent developments in standardization and certification efforts in support of the broader use of effective, appropriate and safe UV-C technology. More widespread use of UV-C disinfection technology in a wide range of applications should be encouraged in the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic. This battle is an urgent matter. Simultaneously, there is a longer-term interest at stake, as UV-C technology can be vital in mitigating and preventing many more current and future airborne diseases. COVID-19 will not likely be the last pandemic.

UV-C is an established technology for disinfection. UV-C is a category of ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 100–280 nm. The short wavelengths between 100–200 nm, being absorbed in air after a short distance. Hence out of interest for air and surface disinfection [43,44]. Of high importance is the germicidal UV-C range between 200–280 nm. Throughout this article the terms used will be: ’UV-C’ and ’UVGI’, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. It is called germicidal, as UV-C is absorbed by the proteins, DNA and RNA of microorganisms. The absorbed UV photons causes changes in the structure of the proteins, DNA and RNA, rendering the microorganisms incapable of replication. Because they cannot multiply, they cannot cause disease. UV-C inactivates viruses and microorganisms such as bacteria, molds, spores, fungi, and yeasts. It is generated by well-known light sources manufacturing technologies, and is effective, sustainable and more environmentally friendly than several other disinfection means. Therefore UV-C is an up-to date and future-proof technology widely spread in application areas of high importance. The first observation that microorganisms respond to light was published by Ludwig Karl

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Schmarda in 1845 [1]. The germicidal effect of ultraviolet light was discovered by Downes and Blunt in 1877 [2]. They put solution-filled test tubes outside and discovered that sunlight could kill and inhibit the development of pathogenic bacteria. In 1935, Wells [3] demonstrated that UV-C, which had been used to kill microorganisms on surfaces and in liquids, could also be used to kill airborne infectious organisms. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Riley et al. [4,5] conducted a series of animal experiments that showed conclusively that intense UVGI in air ducts inactivates virulent M. tuberculosis in droplet nuclei. In 1975, Riley et al. aerosolized Bacillus CalmetteGuérin (BCG) into a model room and measured its disappearance with and without upper-room UV-C finding a sixfold increase in the disappearance rate in the rooms that had upper-room UV-C installed [6]. In the late 1980s, there was a renewed interest in UV-C due to the unexpected rise in tuberculosis (TB) and the emergence of multiple drug-resistant strains. In 2009 Escombe et.al [7] published a clinical trial using upper-room UV-C as an effective, low-cost intervention to prevent TB transmission in high-risk clinical settings. Mphaphlele’s paper [8] in 2015

showed that upper room germicidal UV air disinfection with air mixing was highly effective in reducing tuberculosis transmission under hospital conditions and included improved evidencebased dosing guidelines. Through the years, UV-C has been proven to inactivate, without exception, all microorganisms and viruses against which it has been tested [38,39,40,41], including, among others, those causing tuberculosis, influenza and SARS-CoV-1 [9].

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UV-C: DISINFECTION BENEFITS, SAFETY, COMFORT AND PROOF POINTS

The Scientific Basics of UV-C Germicidal Efficiency are Well Understood Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) is electromagnetic radiation which prevents microorganisms from reproducing by causing photochemical changes in nucleic acids. The wavelengths in the UV-C range are particularly damaging to microorganisms because they are absorbed by proteins, RNA, and DNA. The germicidal effectiveness of UV is typically represented by the graph shown below and originally published by Gates in 1930 [10]. The germicidal effectiveness spectrum with peak effectiveness at 265 nm coincidentally overlaps with the 253.7 nm peak of the lowpressure mercury UV lamps and UV LED 265 nm. Although the germicidal effectiveness can vary between species, the shown curve (Figure 1) for E. coli is a very typical curve for common pathogens. The first theoretical models describing the UV disinfection process and related decay models were described by Hiatt in 1964

[12]. The UV-C effectiveness is typically expressed as the percentage of microorganisms killed or inactivated by the UV-C irradiation [11]. Hereby, the k-value represents the ratio of the inactivation rate normalized by UV-C irradiance. Theoretically, the higher the k-value (i.e. the decay rate constant) for a target microorganism, the greater the susceptibility to UV-C and the more quickly the microorganism will be killed or inactivated by UV-C irradiation:

NU V = e−kD N0

where N0

NU V

D k

is the number of infectious microorganisms before UV-C exposure; is the number of surviving microorganisms following UV-C exposure; is the UV-C in J/m2 ; is the UV-C rate constant in m2 /J.

Figure 1: Germicidal efficiency of UV wavelengths for E. coli. [11] as function of the wavelength and the main UV-C wavelength of a low pressure UV lamp showing the germicidal effectiveness of such a lamp

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As indicated by the inactivation rate formula above, microorganisms exposed to UV-C irradiation typically undergo an exponential decrease. Another common metric to quantify the effectiveness of UV-C irradiation is the UV-C dose required to inactivate 90% of the initial population: D90. The corresponding D90 values for a wide range of microorganisms can be found in UVGI handbooks (e.g. Kowalski [11]) but also in standards like ISO 15714 [13].

Proof for Effectiveness of UV-C Against SARS-CoV-2 has Emerged As stated above, scientific studies have shown so far that all tested viruses are inactivated by UV-C, and SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is no exception. Indeed, on June 16, 2020, the National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories at Boston University presented research results [14] that validate the effectiveness of UV-C sources on the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2. Further proof of this, as well as research results on required dosage to achieve the desired disinfection level, is rapidly emerging, and reputable scientists and UV experts are corroborating the potential of UV-C to fight the current pandemic. The historic results of studies researching the effectiveness of UV-C in inactivating coronaviruses brings additional evidence on this aspect. One of the first quantitative measurements of the effect of UV-C on one of the coronaviruses was performed by Walker and Ko [15] in 2007. They performed experiments on coronavirus aerosols in a single pass test rig. They measured a k-value of 0.377 m2 /J for the Murine (Mouse) Hepatitis Virus (MHV) coronavirus. The relative high k-value measured for the MHV Coronavirus suggests that UV-C disinfection can be an effective tool for inactivating the coronaviruses that cause diseases such as SARS, MERS but also COVID-19. As a reference, the reported k-value for TB, by Riley, is in the same order of magnitude: 0.472 [6]. An overview of the key experimental UVC air and surface disinfection studies is shown in the Table 1.

Table 1: Overview of the key experimental UV-C air and surface disinfection studies

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This overview provides evidence that coronaviruses are as susceptible to UV-C disinfection when aerosolized as M. tuberculosis. Aerosolized viruses appear to be more vulnerable to UV damage than those sus-

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pended in a liquid or remaining on surfaces. In some studies, reported susceptibility values are even higher in liquids than shown in this table. This could be related, as also stated by Beggs [17], to the fact that liquids attenuate UV penetration. Note that, although the MHV Coronavirus used by Walker is not the same as the SARS-CoV-2 virus, it is to be reasonably expected that the coronavirus family genome similarities will induce a similar UV-C susceptibility [18].

UV-C Helps Mitigating Impact of the Current Pandemic Direct inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 through UV-C germicidal irradiation is a huge asset in the battle against the current pandemic, but there is more to this: in the challenges we face today, mitigating the spread of any infectious disease is of great value to society, and will positively impact its health, social and financial interests. Just imagine the benefits that the mere reduction of people being infected by the common flu during the current COVID-19 pandemic and specifically, during the flu season would bring: less demand on COVID-19 test capacity, less people being needlessly in quarantine, less people being unable to work, less workload demand on medical personnel and less hospitalizations, etc. UV-C technology can do exactly that: it also contributes to limiting the spread of the common flu. Recent insights also indicate that the severity of symptoms from the COVID-19 disease is likely to be correlated to characteristics of exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, where lower virus concentrations may lead to milder symptoms [19,20,21]. This relationship between the infecting dose (i.e. the viral inoculum) and the risk of disease severity has also been demonstrated for other viral infections like influenza and SARS [22].

Upper-room UV-C Systems and UV-C in Recirculating Air Disinfection Units Systems can Inhibit the Likely Airborne Transmission Route of SARS-CoV-2 Several studies indicate that airborne transmission is a significant factor in the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and of other viruses that cause diseases like SARS, MERS, and influenza [23,24,25]. 38

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Natural air flow resulting from movement, temperature changes and recirculating air-conditioning in indoor spaces contributes to the quick spreading of viruses like SARS-CoV-2. This is an obvious challenge in battling the virus, as air cannot be easily contained; however, the risks can be mitigated by applying UV-C to reduce the virus concentration in the air while at the same time preventing human exposure to UV-C irradiation. Indeed, both in-duct and upper-air disinfection systems leverage air flow models to provide the right UV-C intensities to achieve effective disinfection. Recently, both the WHO and CDC recommended [26,27] the use of upperroom UVGI systems as a supplemental air-cleaning measure to reduce the transmission of airborne bacterial and viral infections in public buildings, hospitals, military housings, and classrooms. It is recommended to use UV-C upper air disinfection luminaire solutions to achieve an average whole-room UV irradiance (fluence rate) of 5 µW/cm2 , providing confidence that pathogens including SARSCoV-2 will be inactivated effectively as this recommended fluence rate takes an engineering safety margin into account. Lower fluence rates (such as 1 µW/cm2 ) can be used but it will take longer to achieve similar effectiveness. Additionally, natural convection of air is a pre-requisite of any UV-C upper air disinfection luminaire solution.

UV-C Irradiation in HVAC Systems Keeps Cooling Coils Free of Infectious Biofilm in Heat Exchangers, Disinfects Surfaces and Disinfects the Air Flow Disinfection of HVAC1 cooling coil surfaces with UV-C removes fungal spores from the coils and prevents subsequent aerosolization [32]. Treatment within the air distribution systems can inactivate viruses and pathogens reducing the transference from one room to another.

Surface UV-C Disinfection Systems are an Effective and Established Method to Help Reduce Infection Rates Fixed and mobile UV-C surface disinfection units have been used for many years to reduce the incidence of infections, for 1

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

example in hospitals. Surface disinfection using UV systems has been successfully applied to quickly inactivate different types of pathogens, such as MRSA and spores [28,29,30,31]. Typically, UV systems for surface disinfection also disinfect the air directly and as such they perform simultaneous air and surface disinfection functions. In the study conducted by the National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories (NEIDL) at Boston University in a laboratory setting [14], UV-C sources irradiating the surface of a material inoculated with SARSCoV-2 with a UV-C dose of 76.4 J/m2 reduced the virus’ infectivity by more than 99% (i.e. D99 dose) to below detectable levels. If UV-C sources are fitted into UV-C surface and object disinfection products (such as UV-C luminaires, UV-C trolleys, or UV-C chambers), the same reduction of the virus infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces will be achieved as long as the same UVC dose of 76.4 J/m2 is achieved on each area of surface where the UV-C surface disinfection cycle is conducted.

Whole Room Direct Disinfection Below Exposure Limits in Occupied Spaces Low-output UV disinfection can be provided in a manner that is below exposure limits according to IEC 62471 to inactivate viruses and pathogens in air either as a primary method or in combination with the other methods. The source of limits is found further below.

Safe Use of UV-C is Enabled by Existing Standards and New Industry Guidelines The potential hazards to humans, animals and materials associated with the use of UV-C are well understood, and proper protective measures are described in standards and guidelines to prevent them.

The Hazards are Twofold – Irradiance and Ozone A first potential hazard is the irradiance hazard: too high levels of exposure to UVC can cause irritation of the cornea in the human eye (Photokeratitis) and /or a reversible reddening of the human skin (Erythema), and similar to other forms of UV radiations, long term over-exposure could be carcinogenic [20]. Because germicidal

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Figure 2: UV-C robot in action for disinfection in medical rooms. Image Credits: UBTech

UV rays are not visible to the human eye, no immediate effect will be perceivable by users, so this calls for a strict adherence to applicable irradiation safety standards and inherent safety measures that protect against over-exposure. Exposure limits for UV-C irradiance are given in the international photobiological safety standard, IEC 62471 [34], and products are categorized by this standard in risk-groups. Products classified in the highest risk group RG-3 are, in most countries, not allowed to be put in the market, unless they contain additional protective measures that prevent an excessive human exposure. For products with a risk-group in accordance with IEC 62471, depending on the UV-C source and application, safety measures may include, but are not limited to [7,22]: • Fully containing the source in a chamber or enclosure • Shielding to prevent direct exposure to people, pets, and delicate plants and materials • Access control or presence sensing to prevent operation of the source when a space is occupied • Interlock to prevent operation of the source when its enclosure is opened • Timer or other control to limit operating time corresponding to maximum irradiance guidelines not exceeding the max. permissible dose for 8h a day of 30 J/m2 • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as goggles, gloves, mask, shield, or dosimeter Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021

• Warning labels, installation instructions, operating manual, and training. Earlier in this pandemic, the Global Lighting Association (GLA) brought together industry experts and developed UV-C Safety Guidelines [35], which define protective measures as listed above. The guidelines assist light source and product manufacturers to ensure that UV-C products are manufactured, installed, and supplemented with instructions to always ensure safe use. For North America, the American Conference of Governmental Hygienists (ACGIH) published voluntary threshold limit values, as no regulatory UV-C limits are available, yet. For an 8-hour working day, a cumulative limit of 60 J/m2 for 254 nm UV-C has been outlined. A second potential hazard is the production of ozone (O3 ), which starts to occur at wavelengths below 240 nm and which at too high concentration levels can cause a toxic reaction in the human body [33]. The European Directive 2008/50/EC sets the limit to 120 µg/m3 . The International Standard IEC 60335 2-65“Household and similar electrical appliances - Safety - Part 265: Particular requirements for air-cleaning appliances”goes down to 100 µg/m3 . The widely used 254 nm low pressure discharge lamps, however, are designed to suppress wavelengths of 185 nm to avoid ozone production. Whereas further detailing of standards will be undertaken in the coming years – and IEC and other standards bodies have

started doing just that –the key safety requirements are adequately covered by existing regulations and the GLA UV-C Safety Guidelines. Also, certification bodies, such as UL or DEKRA, started to develop certification programs to released UV-C devices, based on luminaire safety requirements, extended with the UV-C guidelines of the GLA-paper.

Conclusion The efficacy of UV-C technology to inactivate pathogens (including those that are transmitted through the air or through contact with inoculated surfaces) in realworld settings is no longer in question. The fundamental viral inactivation theory and mathematical modeling have been established. Moreover, UV-C air and surface disinfection has proven its efficacy, during the last 50 years, in the inactivation of the pathogens that cause airborne diseases such as measles and tuberculosis [36,37], and recently for deactivation of for SARS-CoV-2 [42,41]. UV-C air and surface disinfection products and systems, if installed, commissioned, applied, and maintained following the applicable standards, evidence-based guidelines and user instructions, will bring safe mitigation benefits in almost any indoor place imaginable where people gather and spend time together: homes, offices, factories, schools, hospitals, homes for the elderly, public buildings, shops, hotels, restaurants, bars, fitness and sports centers, cruise ships, airplanes, trains, etc. "

© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

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AUTHOR: Georg NIEDERMEIER, Dr. Georg NIEDERMEIER works for OSRAM GmbH as Professional Expert in the department of Environment, Health and Safety. He is globally responsible for Productrelated Environmental Protection. Mr. NIEDERMEIER holds a degree in Biology and is a Doctor of Natural Sciences. He has been working for more than 14 years in the Lighting Industry and represents OSRAM GmbH in several Industry associations in the areas of chemical policies, sustainability and product related environmental topics, e.g. Task Force for UV-C disinfection technology at Lighting Europe.

AUTHOR: Armin KONRAD, Dr. Armin KONRAD is Senior Director at LEDVANCE GmbH. He has global responsibility and leads the R&D Traditional, the R&D Program Management Office and the Standardization team. KONRAD holds a degree in physics and a doctorate in natural sciences. He started his career at OSRAM, and has received several awards for outstanding product development and process optimization with international teams. KONRAD has more than 20 years of experience in the lighting industry, including over 15 years in development and consulting for UV products and applications. He is an active member in various associations, e.g. the Task Force for UV-C disinfection technology at Lighting Europe.

AUTHOR: Lukas KASTELEIN, Ing. Lukas KASTELEIN is a Standardization and Regulations Professional and has over 40

37 years of experience in the lighting industry employed by Philips Lighting / Signify. He holds a bachelor degree in applied physics. He is active in several IEC workgroups concerning light sources, control gears and luminaires. Within LightingEurope KASTELEIN is part of the UV-C disinfection Task Force.

[21]

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[1] Schmarda LK. Der Einfluss des Lichtes auf die Infusionsthierchen. Med Jahrbücher des k. k. Österreichischen Staates. 1845;54:257–70 [2] Downes A, Blunt R.P., “Researches on the Effect of Light upon Bacteria and Other Organisms”, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 26; 488, 1877 [3] Wells WF, Fair MG. “Viability of B. coli exposed to ultra-violet radiation in air.”, Science 1935;82:280-1. [4] Riley RL, Wells WF, Mills CC, Nyka W, McLean RL [1957]. Air hygiene in tuberculosis: quantitative studies of infectivity and control in a pilot ward. Am Rev Tuberc 75(3):420-431. [5] Riley RL, Mills CC, Nyka W, Weinstock N, Storey PB, Sultan LU, Riley MC, Wells WF [1959]. Aerial dissemination of pulmonary tuberculosis: a two-year study of contagion in a tuberculosis ward. Am J Hyg 70:185-196 [6] Riley RL, Knight M, Middlebrook G. Ultraviolet susceptibility of BCG and virulent tubercle bacilli. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976;113:413-8. [7] Escombe AR, Moore DAJ, Gilman RH, Navincopa M, Ticona E, Mitchell B, et al. Upper-room ultraviolet light and negative air ionization to prevent tuberculosis transmission. PLoS Med 2009;6:e43. [8] M.Mphaphlele, E.A. Nardell, “Controlled Trial of Upper Room Ultraviolet Air Disinfection: A Basis for New Dosing Guidelines”, Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 192, Iss 4, pp 477–484, Aug 15, 2015 [9] A.H. Malayeri, M.Mohseni, B.Cairns, J.R.Bolton, “Fluence (UV Dose) Required to Achieve Incremental Log Inactivation of Bacteria, Protozoa, Viruses and Algae”, (2016), [10] Gates FL. A study of the bactericidal action of ultraviolet light: III. The absorption of ultraviolet light by bacteria. J Gen Physiol 1930;14:31-42. [11] W.Kowalski, “Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation Handbook, UVGI for Air and Surface Disinfection”, 2009 [12] Hiatt C. 1964. “Kinetics of the inactivation of viruses.”Bact Rev 28(2):150–163. [13] ISO 15714, “Method of evaluating the UV dose to airborne microorganisms transiting in-duct ultraviolet germicidal irradiation devices”, Edition 2019-07 [14] N.Storm, L.McKay, S.Downs, R.Johnson, D.Birra, M.de Samber, W.Willaert, G.Cennini, A.Griffiths, “Rapid and complete inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by ultraviolet-C irradiation”, pre-print version [15] C.M.Walker, G.Ko, “Effect of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation on Viral Aerosols”, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 5460-5465 [16] F.M. Collins, “Relative Susceptibility of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria to Ultraviolet Light”, applied microbiology, Mar. 1971, p. 411-413 [17] C.V. Beggs, E.J. Avital, “Upper-room ultraviolet air disinfection might help to reduce COVID-19 transmission in buildings” [18] IALD Webinar LIGHTING DESIGN AND GUV TECHNOLOGY,

[19] Y.Liu, L-M Yan, L.Wan, T-X Xiang, A.Le, J-M Liu, et.al “Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19”, The Lancet Infect Dis, Volume 20, ISSUE 6, P656-657, June 01, 2020 [20] K.V.Argyropoulos, et.al, “Association of Initial Viral Load in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients with Outcome and Symptoms”, Am J Pathol. 2020 Sep; 190(9): 1881–1887

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[22] D.R.Hijano, J.B. de Cardenas, “Clinical correlation of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus load measured by digital PCR”, PLoS ONE 14(9): e0220908 [23] E.A.Nardell, R.R. Nathavitharana, “Airborne Spread of SARS-CoV-2 and a Potential Role for Air Disinfection”, JAMA. 2020;324(2):141-142 [24] L.Marr, S.Miller, K.Prather, C.Haas, W.Bahnfleth, R.Corsi, J.Tang, H.Herrmann, K.Pollitt and J.L.Jimenez, “FAQs on Protecting Yourself from COVID-19 Aerosol Transmission”,

[26] WHO guidelines on tuberculosis infection prevention and control (2019 update) [27] [28] J.Levin, L.S. Riley, C.Parrish, D.English, S.Ahn, “The effect of portable pulsed xenon UV light after terminal cleaning on hospital-associated Clostridium difficile infection in a community hospital. Am.J.Infect Control 2013;41:746-8 [29] C.Jinadatha. R.Quezada, TW Huber, JB Williams, JE Zeber, LA Copeland, “Evaluations of a pulsedxenon UV room disinfection device for impact on contamination levels of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. BMC Infect Dis 2014;14:187. [30] I.Hosein, R.Madeloso, W.Nagaratnam, F.Villamaria, E.Stock, C.Jinadatha, “Evaluation of a pulsed xenon UV light device for isolation room disinfection in a United Kingdom hospital”, Am.J.Infect Control 2016;44,e157-61 [31] JE Zeber, C.Pfeiffer, JW.Baddley, J.CadenaZuluaga, EM. Stock, LA Copeland et.al, “Effect of pulsed xenon UV room disinfection devices on microbial counts for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and aerobic bacterial colonies. Am.J.Infect Control 2018;46:668-73 [32] H. Mamane,“Impact of particles on UV disinfection on water and wastewater effluents: a review”, Reviews in Chemical Engineering 24(2):67-157 (2008) [33] World Health Organisation ambient (outdoor) air pollution https://www.who.int/news-room/factsheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health [34] IEC 62471:2006 “Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems” [35] “Position Statement on Germicidal UV-C Irradiation: UV-C Safety Guidelines”, which may be downloaded at: . [36] Perkins JE, Bahlke AM, Silverman HF. 1947. Effect of ultra-violet irradiation of classrooms on the spread of measles in large rural central schools. Am J Pub Health 37:529–537 [37] Wells W.F. 1955. Airborne Contagion and Air Hygiene. Cambridge,MA: Harvard University Press. [38] ”The History of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection,” [Online]. Available: . [39] ”UV Disinfection Products, National Lighting Product Information Program; Lighting Research Center; 21 Union Street; Troy, NY 12180-3352, December 2020,” [Online]. [40] ”Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation Handbook; UVGI for Air and Surface Disinfection; Wladyslaw Kowalski, 2009,” [Online]. [41] ”Storm, N., et al., ”Rapid and complete inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by ultraviolet-C irradiation,” Nature Sci Rep 10, 22421 (2020). [42] ”A. Bianco, et al., ”UV-C irradiation is highly effective in inactivating and inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 replication,” medRxiv 2020.06.05.20123463. [43] ”LightingEurope Position Paper on the benefits of using UV-C disinfection to combat COVID-19,” [Online]. Available:

. [44] ”LightingEurope: FAQs on UV-C Disinfection technologies (13. November 2020),” [Online]. Available:

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UV-C: DISINFECTION BENEFITS, SAFETY, COMFORT AND PROOF POINTS

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A CLOSER LOOK AT LIFI STANDARDIZATION

A Closer Look at LiFi Standardization There is a lot of interest in LiFi, the wireless communications technology which uses the light frequency range rather than the radio frequency range to transmit data. There are many exciting LiFi innovations taking place and there is a lot of important LiFi research going on. For example, we continue to improve the bandwidth of LEDs allowing us to reach gigabit transmission speeds in laboratory environments. But as we continue to push the boundaries of what is technologically possible, it is important to realize that the current generation of LiFi technology is mature enough to build the first commercial products. What we need to do now is grow the LiFi market.

One important prerequisite for building the LiFi market is standardization, because this is the cornerstone for interoperability which in turn is an essential condition to lower the barriers to adoption. This encourages industry players to build competitive propositions, and to increase consumer confidence. In this article we will take a closer look at standardization aspects of LiFi.

Why Yet Another Wireless Communication Technology? Before delving into some of the technical details of the standards, let’s address this important question first. We all use wireless communication every day, do we really need another technology? The answer is yes, in fact we do. Radio Frequency (RF) based wireless communication technologies continue to evolve in an attempt to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for more data capacity. Each new generation of our mobile cellular communication systems (from 3G to 4G to 5G) and every new version of Wi-Fi (with Wi-Fi 6/6E as the latest and greatest version on the

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market) has brought us higher average throughput as well as higher peak data rates, reduced latencies, and further improved spectral efficiencies. In other words, we manage to squeeze more performance out of the available spectrum to match the growing demand. Nevertheless, the bandwidth available in the radio frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum is finite. We now see RF bands being repurposed or re-farmed. The recent authorizations by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and similar regulatory bodies around the world permitting use of Wi-Fi in the 6 GHz spectrum band is a good example of such re-farming. Regulatory bodies like the FCC forecast that mobile data demand will at some point exhaust the available RF spectrum. The use of the RF spectrum may reach saturation in the next one or two decades, depending on the growth rate of demand versus gains in spectral efficiency [1]. Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) technologies, like LiFi, can provide a solution to this so-called spectrum crunch. Whereas the total bandwidth available in the radio frequency spectrum is 300 GHz, the light spectrum spans as much as 700 THz from 1000 nm to 300 nm. There is no way that spectral efficiency gains can make up for that difference in available bandwidth. To meet increasing demands, we have to look to the optical spectrum for our future wireless communications needs [2].

Latest Development in LiFi Standardization The efforts to standardize LiFi communication have been focused on the lower layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, which is a conceptual framework used to specify how communication networks operate, and how connected devices are designed and need to behave. The lowest layer in the OSI model is the physical layer (PHY), which defines principally the physical and electrical characteristics of the network. Its main task is transmitting the raw bit stream over the physical medium. This physical medium can take many forms, ranging from copper wire, twisted pair, fiber optic cable, to a wireless medium (either RF or optical). Modulation and de-modulation of the bitstream is taken care of by the PHY. The Medium Access Control (MAC) layer specifies how a device gains access to the physical medium and controls permission to start data transmission. Access control is important to avoid contention or collision over the shared physical medium. The MAC assembles data into frames, validates the frames for correctness, and subsequently sends the frames to and receives the frames from another device on the same network. Flow control and any required frame retransmissions are the responsibility of the MAC.

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A CLOSER LOOK AT LIFI STANDARDIZATION

In the OSI model, the functions of each layer are clearly separated, where each higher layer uses and builds on top of the services provided by the layer below. The layers above the PHY and MAC in the OSI model are responsible for more advanced functions like routing through different networks, session management, and application behavior. This separation of concerns between the different layers in the OSI model makes it possible to define a dedicated PHY which is specific to the characteristics of the medium of choice, while reusing the functions of the MAC and higher layers. The two LiFi standardization initiatives we will discuss next make use of this principle.

ITU-T G.vlc The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies. Study Group 15 of the Telecommunication Standardization Sector within ITU (called ITU-T) is responsible for developing global standards for the infrastructures of optical transport networks, access networks, home networks and power utility networks.

den node problem may cause transmission failures due to collisions from two nodes inadvertently sending packets at the same time. As we have seen before, controlling access to the medium is the responsibility of the MAC. Several techniques exist to divide the shared medium across the interfering nodes, broadly divided into distributed (contention-based) and centralized (scheduled) methods. In contention-based systems, a node checks (or listens) if the medium is idle before it transmits any packets, to prevent collisions. Because of the hidden node problem in LiFi, nodes cannot detect (or see) each other, and therefore this check-before-send mechanism is not optimal for LiFi. However, the MAC for G.hn uses time division multiple access (TDMA), which is a scheduled method where the access point can allocate a different time slot to each node for its transmissions. G.hn has been adapted for LiFi, with the result being the G.vlc standard (officially numbered G.9991), where vlc stands for visible light communications. The G.hn MAC had already proven itself to be resilient and flexible enough to accommodate multiple PHY options and in addition uses a scheduled medium access technique that is very suitable for LiFi. So

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introducing an additional PHY based on G.hn, dedicated for optical wireless communication, was an attractive solution. The G.hn PHY uses Orthogonal FrequencyDivision Multiplexing (OFDM) as modulation technology to encode the digital data stream. OFDM works by dividing the bandwidth of the channel into smaller chunks (called subcarriers) and by modulating data on each of these subcarriers. In environments where different subcarriers may have different performance characteristics (Signal to Noise Ratio –SNR), always using the same modulation and coding scheme for all subcarriers may result in suboptimal throughput. That is because high-quality subcarriers (high SNR) will be underutilized, while low-quality subcarriers (low SNR) may not be usable at all. The PHY specifications in G.hn are designed to deal with uneven conditions on different frequencies of home wireline networks using the concept of adaptive bitloading, which allows substantial improvement of network performance by adaptively loading the different subcarriers based on their performance characteristics. In other words, more data (i.e. bits) should be concentrated towards the subcarriers with good frequency response, while low quality sub-

One of the standards recommendations developed by Study Group 15 is G.hn (formally numbered G.9960 and G.9961), which is a standard for home networking with data rates of up to 2 Gbit/s. Originally developed for communication over coaxial cables in the home, subsequent developments made the standard suitable for home networking communication over telephone wiring (twisted pair cabling), power lines, and plastic optical fiber. Or, expressed in terms of the OSI model introduced above, the G.hn standard defined different PHYs for coax, twisted pair, etc., all reusing the same medium-independent MAC specification which defines channel access. The MAC specification for G.hn is particularly useful for LiFi communication, as we will explain. This is perhaps a bit surprising, because G.hn home networking traditionally targeted wired devices whereas LiFi devices are wireless. LiFi devices can be portable and move around, which introduces challenges. Because of the directional, line-of-sight (LOS) nature of LiFi, an access point (e.g., integrated into a luminaire installed in the ceiling of a large office space) cannot detect the transmission of a neighboring access point. Similarly, an end point is unaware of the transmissions of another end point connected to the same access point. This so-called hid-

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Figure 1: LiFi technology is mature enough to build the first commercial products

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carriers should be loaded with less data. This adaptive bitloading mechanism turns out to be very suitable for LiFi transmissions, as LEDs have a low pass frequency response (i.e. performance of LEDs decreases at higher frequencies). As a result, the adaptive bitloading mechanism of G.hn can be reused beneficially for LiFi to ensure that data is preferentially loaded towards the high-quality subcarriers in the passband and away from the lower quality subcarriers that fall in the roll-off region of the LED’s response. All this work has resulted in a derivative standard, called G.vlc (G.9991), which as explained above reuses several key concepts of G.hn (G.9960/G.9961). And this has the very significant advantage that existing, proven and commercially available G.hn chipsets can be used for LiFi applications, which of course greatly facilitates time to market and lowers any barriers to market growth. ITU-T is also addressing issues unique to LiFi. In case a LiFi end point is positioned within the coverage area, or beam, of multiple LiFi access points simultaneously, its transmissions to one access point are a source of unintended interference to the other access points. This unintended interference problem can be solved by synchronizing the LiFi access points and coordinating scheduling across the access points. ITU-T is currently enhancing the G.vlc standard to support Interference management and handover of end points between LiFi access points [3].

Figure 2: LiFi end point

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A CLOSER LOOK AT LIFI STANDARDIZATION

IEEE 802.11bb The second LiFi standardization activity which we cover in this article is governed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Over a period of several decades, IEEE has developed and published a suite of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN). In particular the IEEE 802.11 series, commonly referred to as Wi-Fi (a brand for 802.11 promoted by the Wi-Fi Alliance® ), has been very successful and is in widespread global use today. Multiple successive generations of 802.11 have been published. The first generation was IEEE 802.11b, while the latest and perhaps most well-known members of the family are Wi-Fi 4 (IEEE 802.11n at 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz), Wi-Fi 5 (IEEE 802.11ac at 5 GHz) and Wi-Fi 6 and 6E (IEEE 802.11ax at 2.4 GHz/5 GHz/6 GHz). Like the ITU-T G.hn and G.vlc standards, the IEEE 802.11 standard encompasses protocol definitions for the MAC and PHY layers. As the use of Wi-Fi is so pervasive and ubiquitous, backwards compatibility with the large installed base of Wi-Fi devices is an essential and immutable design requirement for Wi-Fi. Backwards compatibility is promoted by keeping the MAC protocol specification as stable as possible across the many evolutions of the Wi-Fi standard when defining new PHYs with improved characteristics (e.g. modulation scheme, frequency band, etc.). Within the larger IEEE 802.11 Working Group, it is the 802.11bb Task Group which is responsible for incorporating the changes necessary for light communications into the base IEEE 802.11 standard. In particular, the 802.11bb Task Group aims to leverage the

existing 802.11 specifications for optical wireless transmission. For the PHY specification in the 802.11bb Task Group, at the time of writing this paper, two options are under development for communications across the optical channel. The first option maximizes the reuse of the PHY defined for IEEE 802.11ax. Some minor adjustments are required to ensure proper operation at wavelengths in the infrared spectrum. Keeping adjustments to a minimum is aimed at being able to reuse existing Wi-Fi 6 chips for LiFi products, and is expected to lower the barrier to mass market adoption of LiFi. As a consequence, mechanisms like adaptive bitloading are not available to account for the low pass frequency response of LED transmitters. To overcome this limitation, a second optional PHY is being developed which adapts the ITU-T G.vlc PHY for use in 802.11 systems. The advantage is higher spectral efficiency as a result of adaptation to varying channel conditions in the subcarriers, but a notable downside is the need for significant MAC adaptations and the need to develop new chipsets, which may raise the barrier to adoption.

“In order to ensure widespread market adoption of LiFi, interoperability between LiFi access points and LiFi end user devices is of key importance.” MUSA UNMEHOPA

As LiFi systems will have to negotiate which of the two optional PHYs will be used for data transmission (either based on IEEE 802.11ax or on ITU-T G.vlc), a third common PHY must be supported by all implementations to perform discovery and capability exchange. The Task Group has selected the 802.11a PHY for this purpose. The bandwidth and channelization for the common PHY and the 11ax-based PHY have been agreed upon. The common PHY has a bandwidth of 20 MHz with center frequency of 26 MHz. Setting the center frequency at this level keeps RF energy away from zero Hz to avoid problems with out-of-band noise rolling over and falling back in-band. The 11ax-based PHY supports channel bandwidths of 20 MHz, 40 MHz, 80 MHz, 160 MHz in the baseband frequency range 16 MHz to 336 MHz. The optical wavelength range is 800–1000 nm.

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A CLOSER LOOK AT LIFI STANDARDIZATION

How Many Standards Do We Need? We have discussed two standardization initiatives for LiFi, and one may reasonably ask why we need two standards to do essentially the same thing. However, the application space for LiFi is not uniform. LiFi could potentially address a broad and diverse set of market segments, with an expansive range of use cases. In RF-based wireless communications, we have 4G/LTE and 5G for cellular (mobile) communications, LoRa for wide area networking, Wi-Fi for local area networking, Bluetooth for device-to-device connectivity, and Zigbee for IoT applications. These multiple standards co-exist in a complementary manner, each fit-for-purpose and addressing the needs of their own specific target domain. A similar complementary coexistence may reasonably be expected for LiFi, where IEEE 802.11bb addresses fully networked solutions, while ITU-T G.vlc focuses on high throughput use cases. Ultimately of course, the market will decide whether both standards have a right to exist on the long term, whether they will converge over time, or whether one will become the de facto standard and the other remains locked into a niche.

Thoughts About Certification In order to ensure widespread market adoption of LiFi, interoperability between LiFi access points and LiFi end user devices is of key importance. While standards provide detailed specifications of expected behavior of a compliant implementation, the specification documents themselves can be lengthy and complex. Some features may be unclear or underspecified. Furthermore, design choices may differ from one vendor to the next. Similarly, each vendor may make their own decisions with respect to the implementation of optional features. To give consumers confidence in their LiFi purchases, a certification program will need to be developed to ensure that certified LiFi products from different vendors work with each other. Since LiFi standards re-use existing MAC protocols, much certification material is already available from organizations like the Wi-Fi Alliance (for IEEE 802.11) and the HomeGrid Forum (for G.hn and G.vlc). It could make a lot of sense to work together with these organizations to co-develop a certification program that includes the extra elements for the LiFi PHY layer.

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Compared to radio communications, LiFi operates much more in a line-of-sight manner. The optical properties of an optical front end (OFE) can be very much affected, or even defined, by optical components such as lens and filter arrays placed in front of the radiating LED or the receiving photodiode. This is important because different applications will require different optical performances. Consider, for example, a ceiling mounted LiFi access point, integrated in a luminaire. The optical performance required will depend very much on the height of the ceiling above the user –the higher the access point, the more focused the optical beam needs to be in order to guarantee the same level of performance for the user. It could be that certification needs to consider the intended application or purpose of the OFE under test. All of this means that we need to understand and specify optical front end performance in a rather different manner from a radio front end. The sensitivity of a LiFi optical front end can be expressed in terms of irradiance –the amount of modulated light that falls on a unit area. Similarly, the output of the OFE can be expressed as radiant intensity –the amount of modulated light emitted per unit solid angle. In both cases, since the OFE will be directional, these measurements need to take into account the beamwidth declared by the manufacturer. Optical transmitters also need to demonstrate compliance with eye safety standards, such as IEC 60825 and IEC 62471 and this also needs to be factored into the LiFi compliance program.

Conclusion In this article, we took a closer look at LiFi standardization. For new communication technologies like LiFi to become successful in the market, one important prerequisite is the interoperability between access points and end user devices. Such interoperability is based on strong standards. We discussed two standardization activities in the industry, i.e. ITU-T G.vlc and IEEE 802.11bb, and introduced some of the aspects that are specific to light communications. But standards alone are not sufficient. There must be a strong compliance program based on testing and certification. We outlined a number of certification considerations that come into play for optical wireless communication systems, like LiFi. "

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AUTHOR: Musa UNMEHOPA Musa is Head of Ecosystems and Alliances for LiFi, at Signify. Prior to joining Philips Lighting in 2013, he worked for Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, and Alcatel-Lucent. Musa has held senior leadership roles in various standards bodies, trade organizations and industry consortia, including chairman of the Technical Plenary of the Open Mobile Alliance, vice-chairman of the Board of the Zigbee Alliance, and Secretary General of the Zhaga Consortium. He also served on the boards of The Connected Lighting Alliance, the Emerge Alliance, and the Parlay Group, and is an advisor to several technology start-ups. Author of two technology books, Musa has been an invited keynote speaker and panelist at various industry events. His publications include numerous papers in technical journals and conferences. He holds two patents. Musa received a BSc. and MSc. degree in computer science from Twente University and MBA degrees from TIAS Business School and University of Bradford School of Management.

References [1] FCC Staff Technical Paper, “Mobile Broadband: The Benefits of Additional Spectrum,”Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Washington, DC, USA, Tech. Rep., October 2010. [2] “Why Would 5G Need Optical Wireless Communications?”, Tezcan Cogalan, Harald Haas, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, October 2017 [3] “Interference handling for LiFi”, Dries van Wageningen, Xavier Chatel, Marcos Martínez Vázquez, Antonio Salas Moreno

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A CLOSER LOOK AT LIFI STANDARDIZATION

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International Solid State Lighting Alliance (ISA) Who we are? ISA is a non-for-profit organization consists of regional alliances, association/society, leading companies and renowned universities in global Solid State Lighting (SSL) field. The Business of ISA members have covered the whole SSL value chain of upstream, middlestream and downstream of global SSL industry such as epitaxy, packaging application, materials and equipment, design system integration and testing etc. Currently, ISA has 82 members, representing more than 4000 individuals & organizations includes major players (such as Philips, Osram, Smsung, GE Lighting, Cree, Veeco, AIXTRON etc.). The output of which covers more than 70% that of global SSL industry. The ISA Board of Advisers consists of leading experts and academic “Founder” level experts, such as the inventors of blue LED, yellow LED, Red LED, and OLED. Amongst Professor Shuji Nakamura, the Laureate of Nobel Prize in Physics in 2014 is the Co-Chair of ISA Board of Advisors (BOA) and Professor Hiroshi Amano the Laureate of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2014 is the member of ISA BOA. The current president of ISA is Dr. Jianlin Cao, the former vice minister of Ministry of Science and Technology, China.

The Mission of ISA Cooperation with the global resources and efforts, ISA looks forward to fostering a more appropriate “eco-system” for the health development of the global SSL and its application. Echo the needs of the society with more added value services to the members. Strive to improve people’s living and contribute a sustainable human society.

The Major Work of ISA - ISA Technical Committee on Standardization (TCS) - Global SSL Industry Reports - International/Regional Cooperation on SSL - Global SSL Awards (Award of Outstanding Achievement for Global SSL Development; Award of Global SSL Showcase TOP 100) - ISA-ECC Smart Street Lighting System Specialized Committee - ISA LiFi Committee - Global SSL Forums and training workshops - The Secretariat of the BRICS SSL Collaboration Working Group Please visit www.isa-world.org for more information

Connect with ISA If you would like to join ISA or participate in ISA’s activities, technical workshops, international seminars etc. please contact the Secretariat at secretariat@isa-world.org.

The Secretariat: Address: No.1305, Block 2D, Zhongguancun IC Park, No. 9 Fenghao East Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China (100094) Tel: 86-10-62607581 Fax: 86-10-62607258 Email: secretariat@isa-world.org Website: www.isa-world.org

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COLOR CONTROLLER

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13-BIT RGBW COLOR CONTROLLER

13-Bit RGBW Color Control for Accurate High-Quality Architectural & Stage Lighting RGBW color LED systems have become an important tool for architectural lighting & stage lighting. While, at first sight, 8-bits seem to be fine for this task, practice showed that more bits were desirable to compensate for color deviations among LEDs for a consistent color appearance of installations and to provide even smoother transitions. Keith SZOLUSHA, LED driver applications manager with Analog Devices, proposes a 13-bit solution and shows how to easily design such a system with LT3964 [1] based on a 2 MHz dual 1 A buck LED driver demonstration circuit DC2424A using a single I2C bus. He also presents a free GUI to control the system and explains the I2C serial communication.

Red, green and blue (RGB) LEDs can be used in architectural and stage lighting systems to create brightly projected colors - with a white LED sometimes added to the RGB mix to extend the color range in hue, saturation, and brightness (Figure 1). Regardless of the number of color components, the brightness of each component color must be accurately controlled to achieve predictable colors, or compensate for color discrepancies amongst LEDs. The number of available colors depends on the number of resolvable brightness levels of each component color. A few systems offer resolution down to 1/256 (8-bit) of full brightness. Higher resolution is possible and yields more colors (Figure 2) and control.

Figure 1: A Cree XM-L RGBW high power LED can be driven by the proposed solution for accurate 1:8192 per channel dimming

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The most accurate way to control a wide LED brightness range is with PWM dimming control. LED drivers featuring internal PWM dimming clocks and digital registers (to set dimming ratios) are the best option for RGBW systems. For large and complicated systems - those with many different component RGBW LEDs - a serial communications bus enables on-thefly setting of these registers in digitally enhanced LED drivers.

Two Options to Drive RGBW LEDs Figure 3 shows two ways to drive and dim RGBW LEDs. The first, a matrix LED dimmer solution, was, until recently, the best way to digitally control a high-power array of RGBW LEDs. The second, a direct drive solution, is a more accurate, efficient, and lower ripple solution using four separate, digitally-enhanced LED drivers, one for each color (R, G, B, and W). In such a system, the LED current or PWM dimming of each individual LED or string is driven by its own LED driver and control signals, as shown in Figure 2. In the matrix dimmer solution, a single LED dimmer controls the PWM current for up to eight LEDs. The added requirements for this system are a high voltage line and a low output capacitor

buck LED driver to drive the string of LEDs. The high voltage rail might require an additional boost regulator and the LED current (from the low output cap buck) can have high ripple.

Figure 2: The I2 C-controlled RGBW LED driver enables unprecedented color control of high-power LEDs used in stage or architectural lighting installations. Driver solutions typically offer 8-bit color resolution. The solution enables 13-bit color resolution – easily achieved using the intuitive buck driver setup described in this article

Lighting systems with a large number of RGBW LEDs require a substantial number of drivers, and synchronization of the control signals to those drivers. The highest performance approach is to directly control each component LED with its own highperformance LED driver. In this method, the PWM dimming and the dc current and voltage of each and every LED can be controlled with the least amount of ripple and greatest predictability. This type of system is easy to implement using dual-buck LED drivers controlled via a serial bus.

© 2021 Luger Research e.U. | LED professional Review (LpR) | Lighting Technologies & Design

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13-BIT RGBW COLOR CONTROLLER

Dual Buck LED Driver with I2 C Dimming Control The dual buck LED driver with I2 C control and reporting is an ideal solution for driving multiple LEDs or strings of LEDs with high current and high bandwidth via serial communication. Buck regulators are inherently high bandwidth, and having two 36 V, 2 MHz, synchronous, and high frequency buck LED drivers in a single package, with integrated 2 A switches makes driving mul-

tiple channels of high current LEDs relatively easy. The I2 C serial communications capability simplifies both analog and PWM dimming for two independent high current LED channels supported by each driver, with up to eight different addresses on a single I2 C bus. For instance, the 2 MHz dual 1 A buck LED driver example circuit in Figure 4 features high efficiency and very small size. It can be altered to power up to 30 V of LEDs per channel from a 34 V to 36 V input - as shown in the data sheet with greater than 90% efficiency.

COLOR CONTROLLER

13-Bit RGBW Color Control Two LT3964 drivers are enough to drive a single or a string of RGBW LEDs at 1 A (or higher), as shown in Figure 5. Although RGBW color is commonly controlled with a 1:256, 8-bit resolution, the drivers can accomplish up to 1:8192, 13-bit, PWM dimming for each channel combined with 1:10 analog dimming - all controlled by I2 C. This direct drive approach allows for component RGBW LEDs to differ greatly in brightness and voltage - each channel is completely independent. In this example, a single Cree RGBW LED is driven by four channels, each with 1 A output. With a few digital register changes, the brightness and color control extends as far as 1:8192 PWM dimming and 1/10 analog dimming can provide for each red, green, blue, and white LED. The only real color limitation is the LEDs themselves. In fact, having so much control over color mixing allows for color correction of LEDs if desired.

Easy Syncing for Large Arrays and Low Ripple Operation The integrated synchronous power switches and 2 MHz switching frequency result in a very small solution size, with a small inductor and ceramic output capacitor for each LED channel. The CLKOUT and SYNC pins of the driver allow two ICs to synchronize, preventing unwanted beat frequencies, and maintain uniform timing of PWM dimming through serial communications. This eliminates the need for both ICs to be clocked from an external clocking source, simplifying the solution. Figure 6 illustrates the low ripple output current of this 4-channel, two IC solution in contrast to the higher ripple matrix LED dimmer solution referenced above. Clearly, the non-matrix, direct drive solution presents a cleaner LED current waveform than the matrix dimmer solution, which has higher ripple content due to small output capacitor(s).

Flexible, Intuitive Buck Scheme

Figure 3: Two ways to power and control color (component dimming) for a large RGBW LED array: (a) a matrix dimmer vs. (b) a direct drive solution. The proposed non-matrix solution features improved color control, solution efficiency, and lower ripple

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The driver is flexible enough to support systems that require more than four color components. The color gamut for RGB(W) LEDs is shown in Figure 7. When a wider color range is needed, two additional LED

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13-BIT RGBW COLOR CONTROLLER

elements such as amber, additional green, or even cyan LEDs can be added. To drive the additional component colors, simply tie another LT3964 into the same I2 C bus. Not all RGBW color mixing LED systems use monolithic RGBW LED chips. In some systems, separate strings of red, green,

and blue LEDs are built into larger, brighter fixtures. Strings of LEDs with different voltages can be driven by each LT3964 stepdown channel, as long as the LED string voltages remain below the input voltage. Strings of up to 30 V of LEDs at 1 A and greater can be driven by a single channel.

Figure 6: The 4-channel, two dual buck LED driver solution has low ripple current in contrast to the higher ripple matrix LED dimmer solution. It presents a cleaner LED current waveform than the dimmer solution Figure 4: The 2 MHz< dual 1 A (or more) buck LED driver demonstration circuit features a high efficiency and compact layout. It can be altered to power up to 30 V of LEDs per channel from a 34 V to 36 V input - as shown in the data sheet - with greater than 90% efficiency

Figure 7: The visible color gamut includes colors not available in the RGB color gamut. When an expanded range is required, two additional LED elements, such as amber, additional green, or even cyan LEDs can be added using the same I2 C bus

I2 C Serial Communications

Figure 5: Usually each RGBW component color is limited by the dimming resolution, typically 1/256, or 8-bit resolution. Much higher resolution is available with a LT3964-based solution that can accomplish up to 1/8192, or 13-bit PWM dimming for each channel combined with 1/10 analog dimming - all controlled by I2 C

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There are two options for controlling analog and PWM dimming with the LT3964 LED driver. One option is to directly drive the dimming pins with external voltages without using the serial bus. In non-I2 C mode, the CTRL1 and CTRL2 pins are driven with adjustable dc voltages for analog dimming of the LEDs and the PWM1 and PWM2 pins are driven with pulsed signals with duty cycles that correspond to the PWM dimming brightness of the LEDs. In this method, the LED PWM frequency is synchronized to the PWM pin inputs and the LED brightness and LED current duty cycle matches the PWM pin input pulses. In larger systems, generating a combination of PWM and

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analog dimming input signals for a large number of channels can be complex. The second and potentially more effective method is using a serial communications bus, such as I2 C to control each LED channel or string. The simple 2-wire I2 C bus is used to control the functions of eight different slave devices from a single master device such as a small microcontroller. Running at speeds of up to 400 kHz, the I2 C bus master only needs to generate three bytes to update each of the nine registers on the slave devices. There are four PWM registers, two analog dimming registers, a status enable register for setting faults, a status register for reading faults, and a configuration register for a few global functions. The three bytes of I2 C write commands include the address, sub-address, and data words. Figure 8 demonstrates the different I2 C write and read words used in the ICs serial communications.

LT3964 features 13-bit (1:8192) PWM dimming capability using I2 C. The PWM dimming duty cycle and frequency are set by writing to the two PWM dimming registers for each channel as shown in Figure 9. Figure 10 shows the resulting ILED waveform. It is easy to update up to 16 different channels (two channels each and eight addresses total) with a quick series of I2 C writes.

Figure 10: ILED waveform showing 1:8192 dimming

COLOR CONTROLLER

In addition to PWM dimming control, each channel features an 8-bit analog dimming register, which can be updated with a single write command. Analog dimming, if invoked, is typically used only down to about 1/10 dimming. More often, PWM dimming is used exclusively for RGBW color mixing - it is sufficient for accurate and repeatable color creation without adding analog dimming. Nevertheless, in systems requiring expanded control, dc LED current adjustment is a useful tool to have in the box. Other I2 C registers include fault protection setting and reading. The driver can report faults for each channel via its ALERT pin and I2 C status registers. The faults are only reported if the STATUS registers are individually enabled and a fault has occurred. Open LED, short LED, overcurrent, and overvoltage feedback faults for both channels can be enabled, reported, and read (Figure 9). They can also be disabled and ignored. Fault protection can be a critical part of any serial communications system.

2 MHz Demo Circuit and QuikEval It is easy to produce a prototype and evaluate an LED system with I2 C. Analog Devices has created a demonstration circuit that includes a graphical user interface (GUI) for testing the serial communications. This system uses the QuikEval™ program when hooked up to a PC through a Linduino® One demo circuit [2] via USB. A quick start guide for connecting and evaluating the demo circuit [3] is included in the manual for the demonstration circuit. In short, when connected to USB through a Linduino, the serial communications can be evaluated one command at a time.

Figure 8: The LT3964 I2 C serial communications use standard I2 C write and read words

Figure 9: The driver features 13-bit (1:8192) PWM dimming capability with I2 C. The PWM dimming duty cycle and frequency are set by writing to the two PWM dimming registers for each channel. Here, Channel 2 is set to 1:8192 dimming while Channel 1 is set to 128:256 analog dimming

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Figure 9, Figure 11, and Figure 12 show the easy to use GUI pages of the demo circuit. On each page, the register elements can be set, then updated over the I2 C serial bus. The analog and PWM dimming registers can be updated for each channel, as well as the status enable bits, the global configuration register, and the status enable bits. For each I2 C command sent over the bus, the interface shows the address, sub-address, and data bits generated. The registers can also be read back through the GUI read commands. If a fault occurs during testing, the GUI displays an alert signal in the upper left (Figure 13) and steps can be taken to examine the nature of the fault and to clear the fault though the STATUS and STATUS ENABLE registers. In a single RGBW system, there are two separate IC addresses needed (for four

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COLOR CONTROLLER

13-BIT RGBW COLOR CONTROLLER

LED components) on the I2 C bus. By default, the GUI sends all commands to a default address ’1100’, but this can be altered. The address is shown in the upper right of every page and can be changed by clicking on the digits. Thus the dimming and status registers of up to eight addresses can be controlled and read through the use of the GUI. Additionally, the digital word page of the GUI allows the user to enter any three addresses, sub-addresses, and data words manually and send them as an I2 C command. Users can consult the data sheet or the other pages of the GUI to generate read and write commands, which are shown in the serial data log at the bottom of the screen. Figure 13 shows how easy it is to tie together two off-the-shelf demo circuits with a ribbon cable for I2 C control using the GUI and a Linduino. The SDA and SCL 2-wire I2 C lines are shared on the bus and the alert signals are tied together with the Linduino ribbon cable. The ALERT pin of each LT3964 is an open collector pull-down, so the master can detect when there is a fault present on any IC. When this happens, the GUI displays a red ALERT flag circle in the upper left corner. Once a system fault is detected by the master microcontroller, an alert response protocol is followed to detect and/or clear the fault(s).

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Figure 11: The LT3964 DC2424A demonstration circuit can be controlled with a free GUI through QuikEval. On each page, the register elements can be set and then I2 C write or read commands can be sent with the press of a button through USB and a Linduino DC2026C demonstration circuit. The IC address bits can be set for any address and the GUI can communicate to many ICs at once

Figure 12: I2 C registers include fault protection setting and reading. The IC can report faults for each channel via its alert pin and I2 C status registers. The faults are only reported if the status registers are individually enabled and a fault has occurred. Open LED, short LED, overcurrent, and overvoltage feedback faults for both channels can be enabled, reported, and read. They can also be disabled and ignored

Fault Detection and Protocol The LT3964 has extensive fault protection. It smoothly handles both open and short failures of the LED string. It can also handle overcurrent faults to the output, which are not necessarily short circuits. When these faults occur, the ALERT fault flag of the IC asserts. When shared on the same bus, the ALERT bus line gets pulled low (asserted) when any of the drivers within a system experience a failure. The I2 C communications can be used to locate the IC with the fault first, and then diagnose the fault itself. The types of faults that can assert the ALERT flag can be set within the status enable register. A fault such as short LED or LED overcurrent can be enabled or disabled here. After an ALERT assertion, a broadcast read command is used to poll the slave ICs to find out which IC is asserting alert. In the case of multiple alerts, the IC with the lower address sends its address first. The next step is to read the STATUS registers of the faulted address. This should give enough information to diagnose the fault and to clear the fault flag. If the fault flag remains asserted, another broadcast read

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Figure 13: Two off-the-shelf DC2424A demo circuits can be connected and used to drive an RGBW LED or string of LEDs with a ribbon cable for I2 C control using the GUI and a Linduino

Figure 14: Complete digital control over high power RGBW LEDs using the LT3964 dual buck driver with I2 C serial communications. Two drivers are enough to drive a single RGBW LED - or string of RGBW LEDs at 1 A with accurate and precise dimming to produce predictably repeatable color content

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13-BIT RGBW COLOR CONTROLLER

COLOR CONTROLLER

command can check for subsequent faulted addresses. When the faulted addresses and the status registers have been read, the faulted status bits can be cleared by sending a write command to the faulty address. If the fault does not clear, it can be reported that service is needed, or the fault can be ignored by turning off the status bit enabling the fault.

Conclusion The LT3964 dual buck LED driver with I2 C serial communications can be used in computer-controlled lighting systems featuring a large number of high-power LEDs and LED channels. Two drivers are enough to drive a single RGBW LED - or string of RGBW LEDs - at 1 A with accurate and precise dimming to produce predictably repeatable color content. Evaluation is easy using the off-the-shelf demo circuit [3] and free QuikEval PCbased software. The shared I2 C 2-wire serial communications bus can be used to control up to eight addresses and 16 switching channels. Its wide input voltage range and compact, but powerful, integrated synchronous step-down switches can be used for up to 30 V of LEDs on each channel. Switching frequency capability up to 2 MHz enables compact designs and small inductors, which is important when the driver circuit is duplicated throughout large-scale systems that feature numerous LEDs and channels. "

AUTHOR: Keith SZOLUSHA Keith Szolusha is an LED driver applications manager with Analog Devices in Milpitas, CA. He holds a BSEE (1997) and an MSEE (1998) from MIT in Cambridge, MA with a concentration in technical writing.

References [1] LT3964 dual buck LED driver: [2] DC2026C: [3] LT3964 demo circuit DC2424A:

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OUTDOOR LIGHTING

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NEW LED FOR OUTDOOR LIGHTING

New LED for Outdoor Lighting Chip Size Package (CSP) LEDs have become the standard in many applications. Nevertheless, they don’t just have advantages. A new development addresses their drawbacks. Markus HOFMANN, Senior Key Expert for General Lighting at Osram Opto Semiconductors presents the company’s new Osconiq C 2424, describes the features that differentiates it from conventional CSP LEDs and compares it in applications with existing Osram LEDs like their CSP Oslon Pure 1010 or their ultra-high power 7070 or 5050 LEDs that are currently being used in such applications.

Over the past years many different LED types with various properties have been introduced to the market. The range of the LEDs is quite large, from mid-power LEDs in pre-mold packages to ultra-high-power LEDs in ceramic packages, each of them having their strengths in dedicated applications. Chip Scale or Chip Size Package (CSP) LEDs have gained lots of attention recently. One reason for this is the small optical surface, which provides reliable control of the light and smaller optics. This fact can reduce size and weight on system level, and therefore, help reduce logistic costs. Furthermore, CSPs can be clustered compactly to enable small color tunable light sources. However, CSPs do present some challenges as well. Handling CSPs during manufacturing can be more difficult than with standard LEDs. CSPs are more ESD sensitive than packaged LEDs, because they typically do not integrate an ESD protection diode. On top of this, the thermal design must be carried out very carefully to ensure that the CSP does not overheat. To combat these challenges, the new pre-molded LED combines the advantages of a CSP, such as small package outline and a small light emitting surface, with the advantages of standard LED packages, like simple assembly and handling. A detailed description of the LED package and the chip are provided later in the article. The thermal resistance of a single LED will be discussed, as well as a thermal analysis of LED clusters mounted on printed circuit boards. In addition, an optical analysis of single LEDs and LED clusters will be shown.

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Pros and Cons of CSPs A CSP has a small component outline relative to its chip area. Actually, the LED size is practically identical with the chip size. In order to achieve such a component to chip ratio, it is necessary to reduce the package material around the chip to an absolute minimum, or to eliminate completely. This results in some benefits for the user. The LED size and the light emitting area are small, resulting in a high luminance. When a surface emitting chip is used, the luminance is high, as there is almost no emission on the side of the chip. This allows the optical designer to reduce the size of the secondary optics. Small narrow beam optics (< 10°) with minimum losses are possible, and thus high center beam candela values can be achieved. This minimalistic LED design, on the other hand, presents some challenges for the LED user. The package around the chip serves as a“protective shell.”Because this protective shell is removed for some CSPs, they are more sensitive to mechanical damage. During the pick and place process and further processing of assembled modules, it is necessary to ensure that the LEDs are not damaged. Additionally, the package protects the chip from environmental factors like moisture or corrosive materials. So, the package also helps improve the robustness and lifetime of the LED. Moreover, the lack of space in the CSP does not allow the assembly of an ESD protection diode. This makes Chip Scale Package LEDs sensitive to ESDs that need to be treated as such during assembly and handling. The LED package also works as a first heat spreader, which distributes the heat from the chip. This functionality

must be taken over by the pad design and printed circuit board (PCB). Both design and materials have to be chosen carefully to ensure a proper heat transfer, especially when applying high thermal power to the CSP.

New LED Type The new developed LED package (Figure 1) takes advantage of building blocks from the automotive industry, where high luminance and small light emitting area, as well as high robustness and long lifetime are very important. The component has an outline of 2.4 x 2.4 mm. It combines the advantages of a CSP –the small component size, the small light emitting area and the high luminance - with the advantages of wellknown, high-power packages.

Figure 1: The new product family is designed for compactness and efficiency

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The following picture (Figure 2) shows a section of the new, advanced, compact LED package:

Figure 2: Section of the new LED package. A highly efficient, surface emitting chip (3) is attached to a plated leadframe (4). This leadframe is embedded in a thermal stable mold package (5). The chip is covered by an encapsulant (1, yellow color) using special silicone mixed with the latest converter technology to ensure long lifetime. Gold bond wires (2) are used to contact the chip on the top side. A dam (6) on the top side of the package is used to extract more light from the LED. The ESD diode (7) ensures ESD protection up to 8 kV

Figure 3: Comparison of the required space of secondary optics for CSP (top) and dome LEDs (bottom)

Optical Design Due to the small footprint of 2.4 x 2.4 mm and the small light emitting area of 2.1 x 2.1 mm, it is possible to use small secondary optics. This helps to reduce the needed space and overall system costs (Figure 3). A small and compact prototype (Figure 4) of a streetlight has been designed and built using the new LED. The prototype reaches a flux output of 10 000 lm using 32 LEDs in combination with off-the-shelve streetlighting optics. The efficacy of the whole system including the electronic driver is 125 lm/W. The prototype has an outline of 36 cm x 11.5 cm and a thickness of only 5 cm. The side view of the prototype shows the potential of the size and weight reduction with this new technology.

Figure 4: Compact 10 000 lm streetlighting prototype designed with 32 LEDs

An important feature of these CSP LEDs is the size and the small lighting emitting area, which allows them to be assembled in narrow clusters. Clusters of four pieces could replace ultra-high power 7070 or 5050 LEDs with more than 1000 lm light output, using the same optical size. The following simulation results show a comparison of a 7070 LED and a cluster with 4 (2x2) 2424 package LEDs using the same optics (Figure 5). The spacing of the LEDs in the cluster was 0.4 mm. Although, the optics was optimized for the 7070 LED, both beam patterns look similar. The “old”7070 LED package reaches an optical efficiency of 78%, while the cluster with the four new LED packages reaches an efficiency of 82%. Issue 84/Mar-Apr/2021

Figure 5: Light distribution of 1 x 7070 LED (left) and a cluster of 4 Osconiq C2424 LEDs (right)

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With a bigger number of LEDs in a cluster, even Chip on Board LEDs could be replaced. Figure 6 shows that the narrower the LED gap, the smaller the light emitting area and the higher the homogeneity. The cluster of

12 LEDs, shown in the above luminance picture, can be compared with different secondary optics. When using a smooth, narrow angle reflector, the LED pattern can still be observed in the far field. With a faceted reflector, this pattern is no longer visible (Figure 7).

Thermal Design Measuring the solder point temperature of a single LED is already challenging, but determining the LED solder point temperature in a cluster is even more difficult. Since the solder pads are “hidden”completely when the LED is assembled on a PCB, it is difficult to measure the solder point temperature Ts of the device. If the temperature Ts is measured for a single LED with a thermo-couple, the positioning of the thermo couple is very important. The following picture shows a simulation of the temperature distribution on the solder pads. Different measurement points show different temperatures (Figure 8, Table 1). The junction temperature of the LED can be calculated with the following formula

Tj = Tmp + If · Vf · Rth Jmp el

Figure 6: Luminance picture of LED clusters with different gaps between the LEDs

(1)

with Tj Tmp Rth Jmp el

If Vf

Figure 7: A faceted reflector (right) dissolves the pattern of the 12-LEDs array completely

is the Junction temperature; is the Measurement point temperature; is the Thermal resistance Junction to measurement point (electrical); is the LED forward current; is the LED forward voltage.

The thermal resistance values can be taken from Table 2. In a similar way, the temperature of the LEDs in a cluster needs to be determined. It is not possible to provide big copper pads for heat dissipation in the center of the cluster. For this reason, the thermal performance of the printed circuit board is important. The heat of the center LEDs needs to be transported directly through the board, making the thermal conductivity of the PCB the most important factor in managing the heat transfer. The thermal conductivity of the board needs to be good enough to manage the thermal power of the LEDs.

Lifetime and Robustness Figure 8: Temperature distribution on solder pad

Table 1: Simulation values Tmp at different measuring points

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The new LED package has been submitted to various reliability tests to prove the robustness of the device. Steady state life tests of up to 1500 mA and at 125 ◦C ambient temperature show that the component can withstand high operating conditions. Temperature cycles from −40 ◦C to 125 ◦C prove that it is suited for the high temperature difference which can occur in outdoor applications, like streetlighting.

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Table 2: Summary of the electrical thermal resistance values for various PCB designs

Tests at high humidity and in hydrogen sulphide atmosphere show that the component easily withstands harsh environmental conditions. Long-term steady state tests with a duration of more than 20 000 hours show that a lifetime of 100 000 hours and more can be achieved, even at high LED current and high operating temperatures.

Outlook LED technology has not only made major progress in terms of performance and service life, but also significant leaps in energy efficiency. Furthermore, the introduction of Chip Size Packages has brought several advantages and new possibilities for luminaire designers in lighting. The small size, the small light emitting area and the high luminance allow for small secondary optics. Nevertheless, the question arises as to where the technological journey is headed in the coming years. Can the streetlights of tomorrow be intelligent? By integrating a cluster of Chip Size Packages, or even micropixel LEDs with 1,000 or more individually controllable light points, simple projections, as well as classic lighting on the sidewalk are possible.

AUTHOR: Markus HOFMANN, DI Markus Hofmann is Senior Key Expert for General Lighting in the Illumination application engineering department at Osram Opto Semiconductors in Regensburg. After graduating from the University of Applied Sciences in Regensburg with a diploma in Electrical Engineering, he joined Osram Opto Semiconductors in 2000. At this time, he worked on LED technology and applications for automotive interior and exterior lighting. In 2008 he started to work for Osram GmbH as a technical project leader for LED retrofit lamps. Since 2015 he is at Osram Opto Semiconductors and works as Application Engineer for general lighting LEDs.

Dynamic light that follows pedestrians until they reach the next streetlight is also possible. Likewise, a combination of lighting with 5G technology has potential in urban areas where a platform supplied with electricity can be easily connected to other modules such as 5G antennas. "

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LED TECHNOLOGY

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MULTI-CHIP LEDS

Multi-Chip LEDs Last year, Ushio created its first ever Solid State Lighting (SSL) Global Team. Tasked with pooling expertise in the fields of engineering, sales, and marketing for LED and laser diode technology, the team comprises eighteen of the company’s most determined individuals from its regional headquarters in Europe, the U.S., and Japan. When focusing on LEDs specifically, Dr. Fumihiko ODA, SSL Sales Strategy Deputy Manager at Ushio Inc., forms a crucial bridge between the innovative engineers in Kyoto and Sam ROGERS, Ushio Europe’s Content Writer and Editor. Their comprehensive weekly discussions allow the team to share knowledge on the past and present of LEDs, as is done in this article, while mulling over new strategies and – most importantly – the route to the next big engineering advancement for customizable multi-chip LEDs.

The development of LED has been a long and arduous process, yet in the same vein as the SSL Global Team, it stands as a truly international example of human ingenuity. Over the years, significant breakthroughs have come from lands as diverse as the U.K., U.S., Russia, and Japan [1,2]. The journey started in 1907, with the discovery of electroluminescence, but 100 years would pass before LED lighting became a viable option for the average consumer. The 1960s and 70s saw the proliferation of infrared (IR), visible red, green, yellow, violet, and orange LED chips, and finally, Shuji Nakamura’s coveted and affordable blue LED chip hit the market in the early 90s. This bright blue breakthrough meant the primary colors needed for a multi-chip, white LED package were finally a possibility and a world-changing movement toward superior efficacy began. In 2007, the U.S. government made a pledge to phase out incandescent bulbs in favor of LEDs and lead the way to energy consumption reform [3] which, by 2021, could amount to worldwide savings in the billions of dollars. Once the major hurdles of viability and cost efficiency were diminished, the floodgates were opened. The 80s and 90s saw the industry flourish as the technology once held by a select group of early industry players went truly global. Through the amalgamation of various SSL divisions being swapped between different companies across the globe, manufac58

turers now rely less on ties to external suppliers and focus on carrying out the entire LED production process internally [4]. The key LED manufacturing stages are as follows: • • • •

Substrate material input Epitaxial wafer and chip processing Completed chip(s) LED package assembly: Includes multiple chip integration, heatsinking, and lens fitting

Choosing Between Single-Chip and Multi-Chip LED Solutions It is now possible to emit one to three wavelengths from a single package; chips are available in 20 nm increments (shorter than 1000 nm) or every 50 nm (longer than 1000 nm). From ultraviolet, through visible, to short wavelength infrared (SWIR), various chip and package types are available, bringing new freedoms to combine features and precisely optimize the characteristics of each package. Multi-chip solutions may contain more diodes than a single-chip package, but this does not make them bet-

ter by default. Instead, the intended application and system design become central and allow manufacturers to recommend the perfect solution to each client. Singlechip products are suited to applications which require a high degree of freedom and flexibility. If a design team wants to change the wavelength or output power, they need only replace the relevant package, thereby shortening the development and evaluation period. If a design calls for a variation of wavelengths within the same system, the engineer can integrate packages of different wavelengths into the device at the same time. Multi-chip products can deliver several wavelengths from the same sized package as the single-chip version, making them ideal for systems that need to be economical with space. Optical considerations can also be a reason for choosing multi-chip. For example, if you wanted to illuminate the same point on a sample with multiple wavelengths, you would need to deliver multiple wavelengths from (almost) the same emission point. This is one of the main benefits of multi-chip LED technology. The added versatility of having multiple diode types in one package has allowed manufacturers to offer tried-and-tested multi-chip combinations as standard, while also giving clients the opportunity to create their own recipes for the perfect LED package. With the possibility to customize wavelength(s), package type, viewing angle, as well as number of chips and/or photodiodes, there are over certified 1,500 multi-chip construction combinations [5].

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Standard and Customized Multi-Chip LEDs Standard multi-chip LED products fall into the mold type and SMT package ’families’. Able to simultaneously emit two or three wavelengths of light, these LEDs are perfectly suited to low-power applications such as vital sign sensing and other critical medical instruments. Mold type LEDs are known as the archetypal standard for narrow angle light emission; however, this style of LED possesses a rather large package height. When space is a little tighter, SMT LEDs are the preferred standard, thanks to their shorter package height taking up less room (Figure 1). For a higher, multi-color output power application, such as automatic number plate recognition (ANPR), multi-chip SMBB packages are recommended, while the ceramic EDC LEDs come in when an even smaller footprint is required. The photodiodes integrated into customized packages allow sensory measurement and analysis alongside the light emitting capabilities. LED packages such as this can be fitted with a selection of lenses which can narrow the angle and increase the radiant intensity of the light [6] (Figure 2).

or not the level of oxidation is a cause for concern [7]. Typically, the 660 nm and 940 nm emitters are packaged with a single photodiode and are activated alternately. To obtain a clear picture of the differences in absorption, developers can design a flexible lighting pattern in which each chip can be activated for a different length of time. The resulting

LED TECHNOLOGY

LED package can be perfectly attuned to the needs of the end-user. In the case of heart rate monitors, green wavelengths of approximately 525 nm are preferred as the light absorption of hemoglobin peaks at this wavelength. Furthermore, multi-chip LEDs allow wearable sensory equipment to be substantially reduced in size, thanks to fewer LED packages, a smaller footprint, and a flexible lighting pattern (Figure 3).

Figure 1: This example shows several multi-chip standard wavelength combinations that are currently available for mold type and SMT LED packages

Applications Multi-chip LEDs in Medical Science and Analysis Many multi-chip LED applications fall into the fields of measurement and inspection. By examining blood with added reagents, the human body, or crops, information on composition and content can be extracted by detecting the light reflected or transmitted by the object; therefore, photodiodes have become a revolutionary staple of multi-chip LED applications. Blood oxygen saturation measurement, or oximetry, commonly monitors the light absorption of arterial blood when exposed to certain wavelengths, typically 660 nm visible-red light and 940 nm IR light. The iron-rich protein responsible for distributing oxygen throughout the human body as red blood cells, hemoglobin, absorbs more of the IR wavelength when in a fully-oxidised state (oxyhemoglobin –HbO2 ), while reflecting more of the visible-red light than deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyhemoglobin – Hb), and vice versa. The difference in absorption facilitates the analysis of whether

Figure 2: Some applications require higher radiant intensity which can be accommodated with narrow radiation angles. The chart shows some options for different radiation characteristics

Figure 3: Comparison of multi-chip LED design options for vital sensing applications including sensors

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LED TECHNOLOGY

Specimen Diagnostics with LED Sensing Technology Testing of specimens, such as blood and urine, plays a vital role in analysis and is mostly carried out through a process called fluorescence spectroscopy. This analysis allows professionals to analyse the amount of differing compounds present within a sample. Fluorescence spectroscopy involves the application of electromagnetic radiation to a solution in order to excite the electrons of compounds present within it. The transfer of energy causes electroluminescence, a phenomenon in which electrons within a substance are stimulated and emit light. While this emerging technique is non-invasive in nature, it is building a solid reputation in the rapid diagnosis of certain cancers. Traditionally, fluorescence measurement was dominated by metal halide, mercury, xenon lamps, and then lasers; however, the tiny footprint of high-power, multichip LEDs is allowing these processes to downsize. LEDs last for a long time and have a miniscule footprint compared to conventional alternatives, but their main advantages are minimal heat production, near-monochromatic wavelength emission, and zero ozone production. These factors are crucial to the development of medical devices. Multiple reagents, which are compounds used in the test analysis, are used to extract a large amount of information from a specimen. Each reagent interacts with a different wavelength of light; therefore, an LED with multiple excitation wavelengths will be required. The most common are 405 nm, 525 nm, and 640 nm. In 2020/21, one medical multi-chip LED has become very well-publicised - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Although there are several methods of detecting the novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the PCR test is the most universal and is regarded as the most reliable. The method involves taking a small part of viral DNA and repeatedly replicating it in the hope of being able to detect the same genetic material in another sample. PCR tests are extremely sensitive, so the virus can still be detected if the patient does not yet carry a large amount of it in their system. The virus is not necessarily detectable immediately as there must be enough of the virus present in the nose and throat at the moment of sampling. PCR tests are believed to be most effective from around one to two days before symptoms of COVID-19 begin to manifest [8].

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MULTI-CHIP LEDS

Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) LEDs for Machinery Applications SWIR LEDs, combined with a sensor, excel in the measurement of water and sugar content in processed foods, fruits, and vegetables. The use of SWIR in combination with an SWIR camera system has grown in recent years. As with oximetry, wavelengths with and without absorption of the target compound are combined within a single, multi-chip LED package. Water has a high absorption rate in the 1450 nm region, while sugar absorbs more light in the 1480 nm to 1650 nm range [9]. Multi-chip LEDs provide the accurate simultaneous illumination required for precise measurements in this field. Every material, whether organic or manmade, has a different molecular and chemical composition. Different structures reflect or absorb SWIR rays to varying degrees and this enables us to teach machines to identify items in a sorting process. Many organic materials absorb most of the rays

in the 1000 nm to 1750 nm wavelength range. More rays are absorbed by materials with high moisture content, like fruit and vegetables, and will appear darker to an SWIR imaging device; by contrast, materials or substances that reflect more rays will appear brighter to the same device. This type of spectroscopy can be used to detect and measure water content to separate fruit from foreign objects on a production line, or to differentiate between the various polymers present in a plastic recycling facility. SMBB type SWIR LED packages are especially suited to in-line sorting applications. An apple on a conveyor belt may have a bruise under the skin which is not visible to the human eye, but SWIR can reveal this defect to the sensor and trigger autonomous removal from the production line. This moisture detection ability even allows the ripeness of various produce to be measured and taken into account when being organised for distribution. Compatible with single or multi-chip packages, a gallium arsenide (GaAs) 1050 nm chip, for example,

Table 1: Typical LEDs and their specification for the before described applications such as in-line sorting applications or measurement of water and sugar content in processed foods, fruits, and vegetables

Figure 4: One of today’s most advanced multi-chip packages in development may contain up to 8 independently driven LED chips in a tiny 2.2 x 2.9 mm package

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MULTI-CHIP LEDS

is capable of a record optical output power of 700 mW at 1 A (continuous wave, CW), or 1200 mW at 2 A (pulsed). This optical output power can reach up to 3700 mW when opting for three pulsed chips and an optional ceramic insulator in the same package [10] (Table 1). Other uses for these LEDs include CNC machine tools, robots, ophthalmoscopes, and position detection equipment.

Outlook While new LED breakthroughs are still happening with regularity, the speed at which they occur is no longer measured in decades. With many market players developing new products, the immediate future is looking promising. Ushio’s innovative engineering team in Kyoto, Japan, has a new type of customizable product in development that can incorporate up to eight different light emitting or sensory chips into a single package (Figure 4). Dr. ODA is excited about the potential significance of the new, tiny package, “This package type could revolutionize sensory device design by allowing systems to simultaneously or independently emit several wavelengths, as well as host multiple photo-detection chips in one tiny footprint. The miniscule 2.9 mm by 2.2 mm package will feature independently driven chips and is expected to be integrated into vital and spectral sensors, as well as taking part in many established color sorting and quality inspection applications. “The growth of LED has been driven by many hands since the beginning, so we like to see that the relationships between LED producers, device manufacturers, and end-users are still growing closer. While the development of 8-in-1 technology is at an early stage, it brings a unique opportunity to listen to the industries that have a need for such a dynamic tool and to share inspiration. By listening to each other and sharing knowledge, that is how you end up with innovations that can change the world for the better.” "

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AUTHOR: Sam ROGERS After working in the UK film & video industry and the Equity Capital Markets division of a Big Four corporate accounting firm, Sam ROGERS left Britain to become a freelance copywriter. He specialized in the research and analysis of ethics in arenas such as banking, the restitution of wartimelooted art, and global coffee production. Since 2019, ROGERS has worked alongside Agata MICHALAK to share the indepth knowledge of Ushio’s technical expertise, with particular attention to cinema projection, ultraviolet pathogen inactivation, and semiconductor technology.

LED TECHNOLOGY

About Ushio With roots stretching back over 100 years, Ushio was incorporated in 1964 and has since established itself as a global lighting specialist and a pioneer of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light applications. From its humble beginnings in Japan, Ushio has concentrated on applying light to life sciences, visual imaging, and electronics. The Ushio group has grown to 5,590 employees across 57 global locations, with major offices serving Asia, EMEA, and the Americas. The origin of Ushio’s LED business began when Epitex Inc. was established in 1989. Their first product was a silicon carbide (SiC) blue light emitting diode, before making high-speed, high-power IR LEDs as their primary product. In 2008, Ushio acquired Epitex to strengthen its ‘LEDs for OEMs’ business and, in 2016, merged it with the laser diode division acquired from Hitachi. In 2020, Ushio’s primary business absorbed the SSL division to achieve the end goal of becoming a one-stop lighting solution provider.

References [1] LED Lighting Info. 2020. When LED Lights Were Invented? A Brief History of LED Lighting. Available at: [Accessed 27 January 2021]. [2] Edison Tech Center. 2021. LED Lights - How it Works - History. Available at: [Accessed: 27 January 2021]. [3] United States Congress. 2007. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Available at: [Accessed 20 January 2021] [4] USHIO OPTO SEMICONDUCTOR. Corporate Profile. 2021. Available at: [Accessed: 1 February 2021]. [5] Ushio Europe. 2021. LEDs | Light Emitting Diodes –Solid State Lighting. Available at:

AUTHOR: Fumihiko ODA, Dr. Dr. ODA studied Material Sciences at Osaka University, in his native Japan, before completing his Ph.D. in laser generation based on synchrotron radiation, at the same institution. ODA-san joined Ushio Inc., in 2010. Alongside establishing himself as a key strategist within the Solid State Lighting division, he also spent three years sharing his technical expertise as the Group Leader of Ushio’s SSL Module Development division.

[Accessed: 1 February 2021]. [6] Ushio Europe. 2020. Blood, sweat, and tears: the innovation behind Ushio’s multi-wavelength LED packages. Available at: [Accessed: 1 February 2021]. [7] Jubran, A. 2015. Pulse oximetry. Crit Care 19, 272. Available at: [Accessed 20 January 2021]. [8] RIVM (Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. 2021. COVID 19 - Testing. Available at: [Accessed 20 January 2021]. [9] Jing-Yau Tang et al. 2016. Dual-wavelength optical fluidic glucose sensor using time series analysis of D (+)-glucose measurement. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55 106601. Available at: [Accessed 29 January 2021]. [10] Ushio Europe. 2020. Ushio sets 1,050 nm SWIR LED output power record with 700 mW chip. Available at: [Accessed: 1 February 2021].

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Why High-End Surgical Lights Have Become Imperative Invasive Equipment Surgical lighting is certainly one of the most critical considerations in an operating theatre. Surgeons nowadays, tend to call on much more than ordinary lighting fixtures while carrying out a surgery. The article explains why lights should deliver a sound infrastructure that allows top quality imaging and control. Lighting should also offer an avant-garde control set-up that can fine-tune multiple systems in the chamber. Simultaneously, the lights should not exude much heat so that the staff can work in a completely temperature-controlled environment. In a nutshell, surgical lights should definitely be full of equipment that guarantee perfect visibility in operating theatres.

By the year 1960, the use of halogen tubers amplified the extent of light available on the operating bench to a significant extent- almost to 100,000 lx, which is comparable to sunlight on the beach at noon. Three decades later discharge lamps escalated the available light to 200,000 lx! But this didn’t really create a satisfactory outcome as it led to eye fatigue, restricting the surgeons’ efficiency level. In the last few years, surgical lights with LEDs have come into play and proved their proficiencies in multiple ways. Using less energy, these lights effectively yield cooler radiance that gives doctors the much-required visibility they need to get through a diagnostic process. The excellence of a surgical light is reliant on the extent of useful light found inside the void. This is a state of equilibrium between the volume of light and the capacity to manage shadows. The two main types of shadows are contour shadows and cast shadows. When cast shadows inhibit the prominence and brightness, contour shadows help one weigh up the volume and depth. Good lighting equipment diminishes cast shadows while improving

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the contour. Cast shadows are generally swayed by the outward veneer of the light source, how light is propelled toward the operating area, where it is most desirable, and the number of light sources. More light battens perk up the shadow dilution, enhancing visibility for the surgeon.

Shadow Control LED light heads are not only whiter and more constant, they also offer better shadow control than that of the halogen fixtures. A halogen structure takes in a multi-layered indicator and a single bulb. Each surface is of a distinctive shape and is positioned at a different distance from the bulb. These differences can create unwanted plugs within the light texture. In an emblematic LED light head, it takes each fixture to get to the entire spot. These distinctive spots are then accurately overlaid, so no matter how many LEDs are gummed up or occluded, the spot remains consistent. As obstructions in the form of surgeons’ heads come up in the light field, the configuration does not change. The consistency and uniformity of LED light make sure that the surgeons are not preoccupied by shad-

ows navigating through the pattern. In fact, some surgeons have said that when using LED fixtures, there is absolutely no need to put on their headlamps.

High Quality Light Surgical lights, also known as operating lights are mostly used in operating theatres to offer top-grade lighting to run seamless errands. From the emergency room to labor & delivery rooms, this light equipment is found where ever surgical trials are performed. They are extensively used by medicos, surgeons, and other medical experts. A surgical light irradiates the operative spot on a patient for precise and distinct visualization while carrying out a surgery. These lights are exclusively crafted to operate for extended periods without emanating excessive heat. Especially when it comes to dispensing optimal visualization during surgical procedures, these high-end surgical lights are more than necessary. Wallmounted, ceiling-mounted, or floor baseddepending on the model, a surgical light can also be used in all three alignments.

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HIGH-END SURGICAL LIGHTS

Safe Heat Management In order to avert tissue desiccation, it’s always essential to ensure safe heat management. Heat can be weighed up in two stances: at the light head and at the light blotch. Excessive heat can lead to discomfort for the surgeon, and can desiccate the patients’ bare tissue. While LED lights do not create harmful infrared rays, some heat still tends to linger. Good quality surgical lighting equipment will reduce heat to increase comfort of the patients.

Unadulterated White Color

Fail-Safety Requirements in the Operating Room Fail-safe equipment is exclusively made to make sure that no safety hazard prevails at the surgical site. It guarantees that radiance and adjustability are preserved, offering central fluorescence of not less than 40,000 lx. Single luminaries without required protection against light disruption under a Single Fault Condition are certainly not fail-safe. A beam with two trivial luminaries with distinct convertors, fuses, cabling, and seal rings would be fail-safe.

SURGICAL LIGHTING

The modern lighting fixtures are highly pliable and come up with ease of control. These lightings are contrived in a way so that they can be either mounted on a wall or placed tactically on the floor. The example of head gear style lights can also be cited that are set on the surgeon’s head to provide him with better vision. The lights are mobile as well. Also, the better the movement is, the more superior the outcome of the whole system would be. The OR light manufacturers produce a huge variety of LED examination lights so that lives in the operating theatres are not threatened in any way. Poor lighting systems can be harmful for the patients.

One of the most prominent features of a high-end LED surgical light is how unpigmented the spot is. Standard or conventional halogen corms are typically yellow, with integral color temperatures around 3200 K. (Kelvin). Manufacturers tend to ameliorate and work on this yellowness by using costly coatings. They try to eliminate the yellow light, which elevates the color temperature to a desired extent. Although this filtering makes the light more neutral in color, it remains less than perfect. Also, the varnishes and glazes used are very tough to apply at a consistent pace, so light head to light head color inconsistency is very high.

Accurate Color Rendering Ability

Figure 1: Cardiac Surgery is projected as one of the most lucrative segments (Credits Allied Market Research)

The highly precise and accurate color rendering ability of these surgical lights is the major factor that have made them a preferred choice in the medical domain. The Color Rendering Index tends to delineate how precisely a light lets an individual make proper discrepancies between elusive differences in color. Most halogen fixtures happen to have a high-level CRI, but it emphasizes only on how perfectly one can envisage pastel colors. LED technology, however, makes all of this filtering superfluous. LEDs can be intended to only give off light within the discernible range. And there is absolutely no need to filtrate IR because it isn’t formed in the first place. This, in turn, has allowed a number of LED manufacturers to upturn their R9 values to a considerable degree. This way, surgeons can instantly notice how red colors become more bold, aiding them in better tissue identification and easy diagnosis.

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Figure 2: Surgical light example

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SURGICAL LIGHTING

Also, the wellbeing of the surgical unit gets affected by inapt lighting. Therefore, it is highly important to make sure that each operating room has proper lighting. Adequate and good quality lighting paves the way for good treatment and a good reputation of nursing homes.

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Published by LED professional & Trends in Lighting

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HIGH-END SURGICAL LIGHTS

Also, when it comes to better tissue discrimination, the contribution of topquality surgical lights is huge. When they turn out to be highly comfortable for the surgeon, they also tend to provide the finest color rendition, thereby proving to be a win for all. A number of surveys & trials have been conducted and it was revealed that high quality surgical lighting systems actually offer superior tissue discrimination with CRI of 95+. A CRI can be defined as a quantifiable measure of the capability of a light source to divulge the colors of several objects staunchly in comparison with an idyllic or perfect source of light. More simply stated, it is the very dimension of light in regards to how exactly it impacts the aspects of color. Light sources with a desired level of CRI come with every potential to be a perfect supporter in color-critical applications such as operating theatres or neonatal care.

View of the Theatre for the OR Team Paving the way for an array of surgical advantages for the OR team, these lights allow the OR unit to get a better view of the monitors, distribute important tasks, and move around the chamber as required. Operating theatres are slowly incorporating a lot of technological developments that necessitate proper lighting in the first place.

Lower Reflections and Improved Contrast In the last few years, several top graded monitors and displays have made their way into operating theatres, offering the best of services. Surgical lights not only significantly reduce reflections, but also make sure there is no room for poor contrast that could otherwise lead to errors.

Conclusions The operating theater is a demanding environment that calls for accuracy, efficacy, adeptness, communication, experienced surgeons, healthcare experts, and superior lighting. However, several improvisations are being integrated at a constant pace and in time it’s expected that the illumination will become even smarter in the medical field, thereby ensuring a safer environment for both the surgical unit and the patient. The global surgical lights market [1,2] is expected to grow at a significant CAGR from 2020 to 2027. An increase in the number of health centers, a rise in investment in operating room infrastructure, and a surge in the elderly population fuel the growth of the market in more than one way. Moreover, emergence of regulatory sanctions for high-end surgical lights has supplemented the growth even more. At the same time, increasing availability of products and rising demand for highly upgraded surgical lights boost the market to a considerable degree. On the other hand, excessive cost of CFL & LED lights and several intricacies triggered from rapid usage of the fixtures are anticipated to curb the growth to some extent. However, exclusive advancements in technology and an increase in awareness about optimum patient care have almost toned down the impeding factors and created a plethora of opportunities for the frontrunners in the sector. " AUTHOR: Ashish GUJARATHI, MBA As a SEO Analyst at Allied Market Research, Ashish GUJARATHI is responsible for making reports, data analysis, data forecasts, handling consults and ad-hoc client requests and diligent with strong problem solving to build information products aligned with client’s requirements. He has 3.6+ years’ experience in primary & secondary market research, business analysis, market trend mapping & forecast, and competitive Intelligence. Ashish has gained his MBA at the Dr.Vikhe Patil Foundation’s Centre for Management Research and Development.

References [1] According to Allied Market Research: [2]

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