Page 1

LINKING WORDS


Key: E.1) 2.nevertheless (,), 3.however(,), 4.despite, 5.despite, 6.yet,7.on the contrary(,), 8.although E.2) 2. although/in spite the fact that, 3.althought/ in spite of the fact that, 4.Despite/In spite of, 5.nevertheless, /even so, / however, 6. Despite / In spite of . 7.Although /even though / In spite of the fact that. 8. although / though / even though / in spite of the fact that


Key: E.3) 2. In spite of the Fac. That /although / thought / even though. 3. On the contrary, 4. while/whereas 5. On the one hand/ on the other hand 6. whereas/while/but 7.whereas/while/but 8. on the contrary E.4) 2. the high price of petrol, 3.he is very serious, 4. the cold weather, 5. we stayed till midnight, 6. I´ll eat something anyway, 7. we may miss it, 8. she does not have much to do, 9.the product is not very good, 10. we have decided to buy a new car


Key: E5) 2c,3c,4a,5a,6b,7c,8a E6) 2. others can´t stand them, 3. they were short of money, 4.having been warned, 5.most people don´t like him, 6.hardly eat out at all, 7.I enjoyed every page, 8.I wouldn´t like to teach them.


Key: E.7) 2. because/as/so that, 3. In order to, 4. As/Since/Seeing that/Because, 5.because of / due to/ on account of / owing to, 6. Since/ As / Because/ Seeing to, 7. so as to / in order to, 8. Because of / Owing to / Due to/ On account of, 9. because /since/ as, 10. Seeing that/ Since /As E.8) 2. I have a complaint about your product, 3. help us do our school projects, 4.she was too busy to study, 5.the bus strike, 6.she could get round more easily, 7.they love their food, 8. the strike


Key: E.9) 2c,3a,4b,5a,6a,7a,8c E.10) 2c,3b,4b,5c,6c,7b,8a


Key: E11) 2c,3b,4a,5b,6a,7b,8a E.12) 2.they have been punished,3.smokers have difficulty finding places to smoke,4.Paul bought lots of things, 5.he was fined, 6.they are going to discuss the proposal, 7.his illness, 8.the teachers have decided to give more tests


Key: E13) 2. In my family… as a result our phone bill.. 3. the fact that the jacket was… 4. My brother is … whereas my sister… 5. to a shopping centre …, there are many small shops, 6. he´s old,.. 7. the doctor advised her to stop.., she hasn´t .. 8. I took … so that I could make .. 9. My sister is … whereas I´m not, 10. of driving .. he was given .. 11. such as telephone 12. Everyone…on time except for Jack E.14. 1.whereas/Because/for example, 2.but/Therefore/First/then, 3. Although/because/ Moreover. E.15) 2.he´s feeling cheerful, 3. we still find it difficult to speak, 4. it is very useful, 5.she wants to start driving lessons soon, 6. I can do some exercise, 7. lend her money, 8.plenty of clothes, 9. it is very healthy / I meet lots of nice people, 10. I don´t have any money. E.16)1.Teníamos hambre pero tuvimos que esperar a que llegara todo el mundo,2.Odio las golosinas mientras que a mi hermano le encantan,3.Aunque me quedé dormida llegue a clase a tiempo,4.Tuvo que llamar a su esposa, por consiguiente me preguntó si


podia utilizar mi móvil,5.No salimos de casa ya que estaba lloviendo,6.Va a seguir trabajando a pesar de su edad,7.Compramos un diccionario nuevo para que pudieramos buscar las ultimas palabras tecnológicas,8.Dejaron el coche en casa y por consiguiente tuvieron que cargar con las bolsas de la compra todo el dia

Key: Cloze: 1. in,2.although, 3.violins, 4. more, 5.because/as/since, 6.although, 7.ago,8.the, 9.as/since/because,10.and Spot the Error: 1. In spite of the rain.. 2.Despite the difficult.. 3. such as jazz… 4. Except for Ronny… 5. because it rained / because of the rain, 6.because she was.. 7. in order to work, 8. Although he was very rude…


RELATIVE CLAUSES: Defining Relative clauses: (D) The information in the relative clause is essential to know who or what we are talking about. was fined E.g. The man who / that stole my car Relative clause e.g The coat which / that Maria is wearing is just worn-out relative clause Pronouns: Who / which / that / when / where / whose. Pronouns can be omitted if they are functioning as Object, but they cannot be omitted if they function as Subject. Whose cannot be omitted. e.g He gave me a present the day (when / that) I celebrated my birthday e.g This village is the place (where) I was born e.g This is the village where I was born e.g the book whose author is a former British Prime Minister belongs to Simon Non-Defining Relative Clauses: (ND) The information in the relative clause is not essential to identify the who or what. It can be deleted and we still know who or what we are talking about. The relative clause is indicated by the use of commas before and after it. e.g. The intermission, which lasts ten minutes ,comes halfway through the film relative clause e.g. Obama , who is visiting Spain , countries are at their best.

said that relations between the two

Pronouns: who / which / when / where / whose. They can never be omitted. The difference between (D) and (ND) is important because they can change the meaning of a sentence: e.g I´ve got two sisters who are living in New York at the moment. (I can have more than two sisters) e.g I´ve got two sisters, who are living in New York at the moment. (I´ve got only two sisters) EXERCISES 1.Which of these sentences are Defining or Non-Defining? Put commas in ND . 1. Peter who I had seen earlier was not at the party. 2. Have you read the book which I gave you? 3. Mary who has been listening to our conversation looks angry. 4. The house which we wanted to buy was too expensive 5. Did you know the person who stole my handbag? 6. My old house which you wanted to buy is now in bad condition 2.Complete these sentences with a ND relative clause from the list (a-g). a. whose husband is unemployed b.where the Beatles first played c. which will be opened tomorrow d. where I usually park e. which was delayed for 20 minutes f. where we used to go for holidays g. who works in the office next to mine


1. The new conference centre, ---------------------------- , was designed by Norman Foster 2. John Smith, --------------------------- , has decided to ask for early retirement. 3. The 7.30 train, ----------------------------------- , has just left. 4. Star Street, ---------------------------------, has been closed to traffic. 5. The Cavern, -----------------------------, is one of the most visited places in Liverpool 6. My sister , --------------------------, has just got a job as a waitress. 7. The lovely fishing village of Elie, ------------------------------- , is now a large noisy town.

3.Join the following sentences using a relative. Omit the relative when possible 1. The firm is sending me to New York. I work for this firm 2. She´s wearing a fur coat. It must have cost her a lot of money. 3. The knife is very sharp. I cut the bread with this knife. 4. The secretary types very well. Her name is Mary. 5. I like this dress. Ann is wearing it. 6. The farmer works very hard. His house is by the river. 7. The house is not in very good condition. I´m living in it. 8. The bed was too soft. I sleep in this bed. 9. I borrowed some money from Janice. I lost it. 10. Michael is one of my oldest friends. He has just gone to live in Canada. 11. I´ll be staying with Paul. His brother is one of my closest friends . 12. Mary is going to Italy next week. You met her long ago. 13. The bed has no mattress. I sleep on this bed. 14. Romeo and Juliet were two lovers. Their parents hated each other. 15. I was sitting on a chair. It suddenly collapsed. 16. This is the story of a man. His wife suddenly loses her memory . 17. I was waiting for a man. He did not turn up


19. Tom was tired and wanted to stop. He had been driving all day. 20. The man said Tom was out. He answered the phone. 21. The bar was so noisy that I couldn´t hear the person at the other end of the line. I was telephoning from this bar.

22. She was dancing with a student. He had a slight limp 23. The man was sitting at the desk. I had come to see this man. 24. Ann felt quite fresh and wanted to go on. She had been sleeping in the back of the car. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH 1. ¿Es esa la chica a la que le diste la flor? 2. Esta es la pelota con la que los niños estaban jugando. 3. El vestido que llevas puesto es muy elegante. 4. Estoy buscando un banco que me preste el dinero. 5. El viejo que vive enfrente acaba de jubilarse. 6. La revista que me prestaste no tiene información fiable. 7. Esa es la señora a la que robaron el bolso. 8. ¿Quién es Paul? Es el chico con el que comparto piso 9. ¿Conoces a la mujer que está esperando el autobús.? 10. ¿Es ese el tren que para en Reading? ANSWERS 1) 1.Which of these sentences are Defining or Non-Defining? Put commas in ND . 1. Peter, who I had seen earlier, was not at the party.ND 2. Have you read the book which I gave you? D 3. Mary ,who has been listening to our conversation, looks angry.ND 4. The house which we wanted to buy was too expensive D 5. Did you know the person who stole my handbag? D 6. My old house, which you wanted to buy, is now in bad condition ND


2.Complete these sentences with a ND relative clause from the list (a-g). 1. The new conference centre, which will be opened tomorrow, was designed by Norman Foster 2. John Smith, . who works in the office next to mine , has decided to ask for early retirement. 3. The 7.30 train, which was delayed for 20 minutes , has just left. 4. Star Street, where I usually park , has been closed to traffic. 5. The Cavern, where the Beatles first played, is one of the most visited places in Liverpool 6. My sister , whose husband is unemployed, has just got a job as a waitress. 7. The lovely fishing village of Elie, where we used to go for holidays , is now a large noisy town. 3.Join the following sentences using a relative. Omit the relative when possible The firm I work for is sending me … 17. She´s wearing a fur coat which must have cost her a lot of money. 18. The knife I cut the bread with is very sharp 19. The secretary whose name is Mary types very well 20. I like this dress which Ann is wearing 21. The farmer whose house is by the river works very hard 22. The house I´m living in is not in very good condition 23. The bed I sleep in was too soft. 24. I lost the money I borrowed from Janice 25. Michael, who has just gone to live in Canada, is one of my oldest friends. 26. I´ll be staying with Paul whose brother is one of my closest friends. 27. Mary, who you met long ago, is going to Italy next week. . 28. The bed I sleep on has no mattress 29. Romeo and Juliet whose parents hated each other were two lovers. 30. I was sitting on a chair which suddenly collapsed. 31. This is the story of a man whose wife suddenly loses her memory. 17. I was waiting for a man who did not turn up 19. Tom, who had been driving all day , was tired and wanted to stop 20. The man who answered the phone said Tom was out.. 21. The bar I was telephoning from was so noisy that I couldn´t hear the person at the other end of the line. 22. She was dancing with a student who had a slight limp 23. The man I had come to see was sitting at the desk. 24. Ann, who had been sleeping in the back of the car, felt quite fresh and wanted to go on. TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH 1. ¿Es esa la chica a la que le diste la flor? Is that the girl you gave the flower to? 2. Esta es la pelota con la que los niños estaban jugando. THis is the ball the children were playing with 3. El vestido que llevas puesto es muy elegante. THe dress you´re wearing is very smart 4. Estoy buscando un banco que me preste el dinero. I ´m looking for a bank I can borrow the money from


5. El viejo que vive enfrente acaba de jubilarse. THe man who lives across the road has just retired 6. La revista que me prestaste no tiene información fiable. The magazine you lent me does not have reliable information 7. Esa es la señora a la que robaron el bolso. That is the lady whose bag was stolen 8. ¿Quién es Paul? Es el chico con el que comparto piso Who´s Paul? He´s the man I share the flan with 9. ¿Conoces a la mujer que está esperando el autobús.? Do you know the woman that is waiting for the bus? 10. ¿Es ese el tren que para en Reading? Is that the train that stops at Reading?

linking words  

use of connectors

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you