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Thursday 18 March 2010 with the Institute of Education

Minding your Languages 28 pages of Leaving Cert language subjects The complete guide to the three most popular Leaving Cert languages 4 English, Irish and Part of a 6 French. Our guide part covers every series aspect of the courses at Higher and Ordinary level. Rosi Leonard, an A1 English student, now in Trinity

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Minding your languages Your guide to Leaving Cert Irish, English and French, with new online audio files for the Orals in Irish, French, Spanish and German Welcome to Part 4 of our Exam Brief series for 2010. Produced by the Irish Independent with the Institute of Education, Exam Brief is the best annual guide to the Leaving Cert. Today’s supplement covers the written exams in the three most popular languages, Irish, English and French. We also have a special guide to the Orals in Irish, French, Spanish and German. Plus we tell you how to access our new on-line audio files for the Orals. ExamBrief gives a detailed overview of each course, advice on timing and technique, a close look at questions and answers, and guidance from expert teachers on how to make the best use of study time in the remaining months. It all adds up to invalu-



able information to help you maximise your performance in the exams. The Institute of Education is Ireland’s leading private tuition college, sending more students to university than any other school over the past few years. Its success is attributed to its outstanding teachers and to the teacher notes supplied to students. These notes form the basis for the Exam Brief supplements. The 2010 Exam Brief guides will be an invaluable aid to students at all levels, whatever their targets. They will help students to do their best in the exams and achieve grades that truly reflect their ability and work rate. Supplements Editor: John Spain


Paper 1 COMPOSING Jim Lusby English Teacher at the Institute of Education

Jim Lusby first started teaching Leaving Certificate English in 1975 and currently teaches at The Institute of Education. He is also a novelist, short story writer and playwright. He is a former winner of a Hennessy Literary Award for his short stories and his novels include Making the Cut (adapted by RTE as a television series) and, most recently, Serial. He is also the author of Success: How To Succeed in Leaving Certificate English Paper I, published by Gill & Macmillan, and a regular panellist on RTE Radio’s Countdown to . . . programmes.

HIGHER LEVEL KEY CHANGES TO EXAMINATION QUESTIONS ■ There have been no alterations to the English syllabus since 2001, so studying the examination papers between then and now is an excellent preparation for the test ahead. You should notice the recent changes in character to the Prescribed Poetry questions on Paper 2 and to the Short Story tasks on Paper I, though. ■ In response to the Chief Examiner’s observation that ‘there was some evidence to suggest that a small minority of candidates relied overmuch on prepared material’ in the short story option, more specific guidelines were given to short story writers in the 2008 and 2009 papers. Essay No. 3 in 2008, for instance, was, Write a short story in which the central character is a rebellious teenager. If your central character was not a rebellious teenager, then your story was simply not relevant enough. In 2009 the short story options were Write a short story in which the central character is faced with making an important decision and Write a short story in which a photograph plays a part in the plot. I expect the trend to continue this year. What it means is that no candidate can memorise prepared material, and in particular entire stories, and be confident of using this material effectively. ■ In Prescribed Poetry for the last three years, again to counter a reliance on prepared material, candidates have been asked to discuss specific aspects of a poet’s work, while offering a personal response. For instance, in 2009, Derek Walcott explores tensions and conflicts in an inventive manner really asked you to think about the (possibly) different meanings of the terms tensions and conflicts with reference to Walcott’s (pictured left) poetry. For this type of question, you get marks only for material strictly relevant to the aspects mentioned. So be careful.

For 100 marks, write an original composition, 800 - 1,200 words in length, in the style of a short story, a personal essay or a discussion essay


Long before the examination, identify the type of composition – short story, personal essay or discussion – likely to gain you the highest grades, and repeatedly practice this. Keep in mind that the personal essay can be written as a narrative or as a discussion, thereby providing an alternative and fallback option for both the short story writer and the discussion essayist.

Short story

■ Here is a rough, working description of the short story that might be helpful: A short story is an exploration of a personality caught in a defining situation. The word personality indicates that the inner life of a character must be shown, through appearance, behaviour, and voice, both internal and external. The phrase a defining situation means a situation that exposes the essence of that personality. The best piece of advice that I can give you is to reduce the description of your central character to a single word. Then you will know exactly how that character looks, acts and speaks, and you will know precisely what situation to place them in. If your character is vain, for instance, then you won’t bless them with a family that loves him as much as he loves himself – because that won’t expose their vanity as tragic – but you’ll put him among people who pretend to love him, so that they can exploit him. How does a vain man look and behave? How does he speak, to others, and to himself? The answers are in King Lear. There’s plenty of action in Shakespeare’s play, but essentially it’s the exploration of a personality caught in a defining situation. So please don’t write simple adventure tales or simple love stories that fail to explore the human personality and expect high grades in return. Essay set in 2009: Write a short story in which the central character is faced with making an important decision.

Personal essay

■ The best preparation for the personal essay is to write short, colourful paragraphs that express your own per-

sonality, under such titles as, The thing I care most passionately about; My most annoying neighbour; My most embarrassing experience; A guilty pleasure; The oddness in my family; The memory that sits in the corner of my bedroom. I guarantee that you will use much of this material in the examination composition. Most importantly, you will strike the right tone, or register, for the personal essay – intimate, confessional, subjective: your take on the world. If approaching the personal essay as a narrative – the description of you caught in a defining situation - read the tips on the short story above. If writing the personal essay as a discussion, study the tips in the next bullet point. Essays set in 2009: Write an article for a school magazine about your experience of education over the last number of years and Write a personal essay on the topic of daydreams.


■ The key to a good discussion essay is to reduce the TOPIC you are given to the POINT you wish to make, because you cannot argue for or against a topic; you can only argue for or against a point. For instance, essay 4 in 2009 – Write a persuasive speech in praise of science and technology – offers science and technology as the topic, but you can write the speech only if you clearly explain why you are praising them. Because they have improved the quality of life? That’s a good point. Where have they improved the quality of life? In health care? In leisure? In sport? Now you have the structure of the entire essay: (i) introduce your point with a suitable anecdote; (ii) make and explain your point; (iii) demonstrate the validity of your point with reference to health care, then leisure, then sport, providing interesting examples and illustrations; (iv) round off by re-stating your point, maybe with a final, clinching example. The key to delivering a good discussion, either as a speech to a live audience or as an article to an unseen audience, is the persuasive use of rhetorical techniques, such as exaggeration for effect, colourful illustrations, vigorous language, rhetorical questions. You can test these tips on content, organisation and style, and learn a little more in the process, by looking for them in opinion pieces in good newspapers and magazines. Other essay set in 2009: Write an opinion piece for a popular magazine entitled “Indecision – my own and other people’s.” (What is your point about the topic indecision?).


English Paper 1 QUESTION A For 50 marks, explore a text and answer three questions on its content and style

KEY TIPS ■ Every question presents you with a unique focus. Identify it. Preferably before reading the text. Usually, it’s helpfully printed in bold for you; yet, many candidates still seem to miss it. For instance, question (i), Text 1, in 2009, read: Based on your reading of the above text, outline the views of Veronica Chrisp and Bernie Wright on animal welfare in zoos. You wouldn’t believe how many candidates discussed the writers’ views on whether or not zoos should be closed, which was the title of the text, but not the focus of the question. ■ Don’t just read the text – everybody knows that you can read, for God’s sake – but extract from it the most relevant material to answer the precise question you were asked. ■ Develop quotations and references into full paragraphs by reflecting on what they mean, what they suggest and how they might relate to your own experiences.

How to respond in a precise, relevant and well organised manner to the set tasks in Question A The left-hand column below is the text of the Exemplar Answer from the 2008 Chief Examiner’s Report in response to question (i) Text 2: What impression of the character of Eva Tyne is created in this extract? Support your answer with reference to the text. The right-hand column explains how the candidate went about answering the question so effectively that they were awarded full marks. Note: The question refers to Clare Kilroy’s novel ‘Tenderwire’

This extract gives a clear impression of the character of Eva Tyne. From reading it I gathered that Eva is spontaneous, a little naïve and also very adventurous

Paragraph 1: Answer the question as directly as possible, listing three supporting points. [1/2 sentences]

It is evident that Eva is a very spontaneous person as she immediately jumps at the chance to purchase the violin. “That name was all it took and I was in the passenger seat of a battered car driving at speed over the East River to Alexander’s apartment”. This shows how Eva puts little thought into her actions beforehand as she takes no time to stop and consider the consequences of her actions. Eva is completely acting on impulse as she races to Alexander’s apartment and I feel this is proof of her spontaneous character.

Paragraph 2: Take point 1, explain it, use a quotation from the text to illustrate it, discuss why that quotation is so appropriate, because it suggests, shows, gives the impression, indicates, etc. [5/8 sentences]

I also think the extract gives the impression that Eva Tyne is a very naïve character. The piece gives clear evidence that Eva knows little to nothing about both the violin or its background and yet once she was “promised” its identity she starts “agreeing there and then to pay 600,000 dollars”. By not asking any follow up questions and her obvious lack of consideration for possible pitfalls, the extract gives the impression to the reader that Eva is a very naïve individual who takes things at face value.

Paragraph 3: Take point 2, explain it, use a quotation from the text to illustrate it, discuss why that quotation is so appropriate, because it suggests, shows, gives the impression, indicates, etc. [5/8 sentences]

Eva Tyne is also shown to be an adventurous character in this extract. She seems to enjoy the high risk experience and is excited by the fact that she is not sure of what the outcome may be. Eva describes the feeling as “like sitting in a darkened cinema waiting for a horror movie to begin”. In my opinion this gives the impression that she enjoys taking risks and has a highly imaginative adventurous personality

Paragraph 4: Take point 3, explain it, use a quotation from the text to illustrate it, discuss why that quotation is so appropriate, because it suggests, shows, gives the impression, indicates, etc. [5/8 sentences]

It is clear from this extract that Eva Tyne’s character frequently acts on impulse, is slightly naïve and unquestioning and enjoys the thrill of risks.

Paragraph 5: Summarise by repeating your three points, but varying the expression of them. [1 sentence]

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This year our Languages Exam Brief has a new dimension. Using the code given below you can access On-line audio files in Irish, French, Spanish and German. First study the Oral guides to these languages in this supplement. Then go on-line and listen to the teacher.

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Oral Guides: Irish pages 14/15, French p25, Spanish p26, German p27 4


English Paper 1 QUESTION B For 50 marks, imagine that you are in the situation defined by the question and use language to effectively inform, persuade or emotionally engage an audience.

KEY TIPS • You may be asked to use language (a) for the purposes of providing information; (b) for the purposes of expressing your opinions on a given issue (2009:

Write a short speech in which you attempt to persuade a group of parents that older teenagers should be trusted to make their own decision.); or (c) for narrative/dramatic purposes, usually to capture the distinctive voice of a character (2009: Imagine you are making a cartoon film (featuring animals as characters) either to promote or oppose zoos. Write the script of a scene (in dialogue form) between two of the animal characters.) • You should familiarise yourself with the essential features of effective writing in each category. The sample answer, in response to Text 2, 2007, demonstrates the essential skills

involved in expressing an opinion, which are the same as those listed for the discussion essay above: namely, introducing your point with an anecdote, clearly making your point, and effectively supporting your point with examples. • Allow your sense of audience to control your style. Because a speech is delivered to a live audience, the style needs to be big and bold. Because the quiet reader of an informative document needs knowledge, clarity is essential in the writing. Because a diary is private, the style must be intimate and open.

SAMPLE QUESTION Imagine your local radio station is producing a series of programmes entitled “Changing Times”, in which teenagers are asked to give their views on the changes they welcome in the world around them. You have been invited to contribute. Write out the text of the presentation you would make. (50)


My father often tells the story – a little too often, to be perfectly honest – of the time his closest friend in university caused a major traffic pile-up merely by strolling down Grafton Street in Dublin. The reference to traffic on Grafton Street, which has long been pedestrianised, will date the story, of course, to a period when Ireland was a small, insular and remote island. My father’s friend didn’t have two heads or a rare tropical plant growing out of his left shoulder; he distracted car drivers and caused chaos simply because he was a black man, a political refugee from the apartheid regime in South

Ireland today is no longer an isolated and remote part of the world Africa, and therefore a rarer sighting in Ireland than a wild cheetah. Today, of course, an individual black man on Grafton Street would not be noticed among all the others, from Nigeria, from Chad, from Jamaica, from London, nor would a foreigner of any nationality attract the slightest interest. The streets of our capital city, and most other parts of our country, are teeming with Poles and Polynesians, French and Finns, Spaniards and Swedes. Of all the changes that have occurred in our society in recent times, this huge influx of peoples from other cultures is the most colourful, the most beneficial and the most welcome.

Grafton street in the early 1970s

It is not only that most foreigners are migrant workers, or that they bring with them the skills and the energies that have helped to re-vitalise our economy. Looking around now, it is almost impossible to believe that there was once a time when our building sites weren’t crowded with Polish craftsman and craftswomen, when our hospitals

weren’t staffed by experts from India and the Philippines. But the benefits to the labour market are only the most direct and the most visible. Much more subtle, more complex, and far more incalculable, are the rich effects on our own culture in its interaction with the cultures of others. New music is all around us. Walk down Grafton Street today and you might hear a mariachi band, a Lithuanian folk song and an African ensemble at different junctions. New restaurants appear in our cities and new dishes on their tables. New ideas are in the air. In the bars off Grafton Street, you are as likely to hear animated discussions about Togo’s chances of reaching the next soccer World Cup as you are to catch a couple of jackeens complaining about an Italian being appointed as the manager of Ireland. The Ireland of my father’s time, as he often described it himself, was uniformly grey. Contemporary Ireland is a blaze of colour. Even the most miserable among us would have to be cheered by such an improvement.



Paper 2 SINGLE TEXT For 60 marks, display your appreciation and understanding of a major work of literature, with reference to some specific focus on its characters, its themes or its technique, as defined by the question.



Be guided by the question, not by any standard essays that you may have prepared or learned. For instance, the quotation, “The tendency to take pleasure in torture, in deceit and in the abuse of power is vividly dramatised in the play King Lear” asks you to explore the uncomfortable reality that humans can take pleasure in hurting others, in betraying others and in the abuse of power, as well as the claim that all of this is vividly dramatised in the play. That’s four different aspects. No learned response could offer a relevant discussion.


Use your opening paragraph to explore the implications of the given quotation; your concluding paragraph to assess its merits, whether you wholeheartedly agree with it, wholeheartedly disagree with it, or have mixed feelings about it; and your central paragraphs to discuss each separate aspect of the quotation.


Remember that the challenge is to look again at a major work of literature in the fresh light of a debatable quotation. For instance, the quotation given in 2006 - “Reading or seeing King Lear is a horrifying as well as an uplifting experience.” – should raise many questions in your mind. What does horrifying actually mean? Scary? Morally repugnant? In what ways can a drama be uplifting? And are you going to take up that suggested difference between reading and seeing?

A DISCUSSION, NOT A MODEL ANSWER In your opinion, what is the appeal of the play, King Lear, for a twenty-first century audience? In the exchanges between Kent, Gloucester and Edmund, ‘King Lear’ opens on a note of uncertainty and anxiety, and introduces themes of legitimacy and inheritance and continuity that have much wider relevance than to mere families. As Gloucester says, it is ‘the division of the kingdom’ that is in question. From that opening ‘division’ spoken by Gloucester, and reiterated by Lear – ‘Know that we have divided/In three our kingdom’ - come all the other divisions of the play, social, familial and personal. I don’t think we can ever again fully understand what all this meant to Shakespeare’s audience, because we have lost the Elizabethan belief that a king or queen was essential to a stable society, along with the fear that society could slide into chaos if the monarch was challenged or rebelled against. Imagine the horror Shakespeare’s audience must have experienced while watching Lear take off his crown and toss it among his daughters. They knew the consequences of this. Chaos. For us, watching the play today, it is the arrogant, selfish gesture of a foolish old man. For us, it is little more than a family squabble, although one with terrible consequences. I think this is what makes King Lear so difficult for a modern audience, and particularly for students. It is a political play, a social play, a philosophical play; a play that concerns itself with ‘the division of the kingdom’ and with questions



Nigel Hawthorne in the role of King Lear about man’s inherent selfishness and about the possibility that the more materially wealthy we become, the more insensitive to others we get. Maybe we don’t want to reflect on that. Maybe we want our stories to be smaller and more manageable. Maybe we don’t have any clear notion of ‘society’ any more. For whatever reason, we now prefer to experience King Lear mainly as the tragic journey of ‘a very foolish, fond old man’ from a ‘Dragon’ as he calls himself in the opening scene to a ‘bird i’th’cage’ as he describes himself to Cordelia in the final Act, after they are both captured by Edmund. But let’s be honest. On this level, there is very little to appeal to the modern audience, and hardly anything at all to appeal to the modern student. Lear himself is an unattractive character, arrogant, violent, rash, foolish. For much of the play he remains convinced that he is ‘a man more sinned against than sinning,’ and even when he sees the truth, our attitude to him is divided between compassion and irritation. His descent into madness is bleak and horrifying, as is Gloucester’s mutilation and blinding. And they both suffer only to learn that they were wrong; they get little else out of it. One of the more attractive and more interesting characters, Cordelia disappears from the play after the first scene and

doesn’t return until very late, and then only to die. It is impossible to identify with the inept Edgar in the early part of the play, and therefore impossible to empathise with his suffering as Poor Tom. We are attracted towards Edmund, who makes a colourful case for bastards, but then repelled by his cynicism, opportunism, greed, hatred and cruelty. There is no love story to appeal, although the word ‘love’ is abused thirty-one times in the opening scene. There is no conflict within the central character, or within any of the characters for that matter, to keep us engaged. There is no light. What humour there is, comes from the Fool, and it is a bitter, satirical humour, which makes us as uncomfortable as it makes Lear. It’s not funny, in other words. This is a bleak, pessimistic play, an extended reflection on suffering. What ‘appeal,’ in the ordinary sense of that word, can this have? None, I suggest. And it is better to be honest about it, if any student is going to understand the relevance of the play to a modern audience. We live in a world without kings. By and large, we also live in a world without gods. Time and again, as his sufferings increase, Lear will call on the gods to intervene on his behalf. Time and again, his pleas will be in vain. Perhaps the gods do not exist at all. Perhaps they are not listening. Perhaps they hear, but are completely indifferent. Perhaps they are on the other side. ‘Thou, nature, art my Goddess,’ Edmund opens his soliloquy in I, ii, and – after confiding his bitterness and his plans to us – he ends with the prayer, ‘Now, gods, stand up for bastards.’ If everyone has their own gods – bastards and legitimate, Edmund and Lear, Regan and Gloucester, Christians and Muslims, Hindus, Roman Catholics, Protestants – whose side are the gods on? The fact is – in this play, at least – that the gods help those who help themselves. And that is more or less the philosophy of the consumerist society we now live in: the gods help those who help themselves. But those who help themselves – or only help themselves – tend to be selfish, indifferent towards others. That is man’s nature, the play suggests. And how could we reasonably argue that man’s nature has changed from Shakespeare’s day to our own? Now, as then, we cannot therefore rely on our bodies to keep us civilised; our physical appetites drive us in the opposite direction. We cannot rely on our hearts, which pretend to be soft, but are stone at the core. We cannot even rely on our minds, the greatest of all our gifts; the most intelligent man in the play is Edmund, the most intelligent woman either Goneril or Regan. What can we rely on to keep us civilised, if we have no help from the gods and our own instincts lead us in the opposite direction? What keeps us human, in the best sense of that word? These are the great questions of the play, as vital for us today as they were for the Elizabethan audience, as they are for any audience anywhere. The answer is that social custom – the structures of society, of order, and of law, all that Lear himself tore down in his egotism when he divided the kingdom – is our only defence. By dismantling the nation’s legal system, by disinheriting Cordelia and banishing Kent, Lear created a primitive world where only the fittest survive. A jungle. A world of predatory animals. The world of nature, the concept that so preoccupied Shakespeare that the word is used forty-one times in the play. Lear’s irresponsibility allows Edmund – ‘Thou, Nature, art my goddess’ – to rise to the top. We have our Edmunds today. We have our Cornwalls, our Regans, our Gonerils. We have our Lears, our Kents. We have our own society. King Lear urges us to pay attention to what keeps that society intact. King Lear warns us of the horrible consequences of ‘the division of the kingdom.’

English RosI Leonard A1 English


Y relationship with these exam briefs is strained. As a former 6th Year, I sympathise with those who read advice from successful past students around the country and feel an indescribable urge to throw a car into a building as they read “Yeah so I studied, basically 24 hours a day in the final 3 months, at one point my eyeballs nearly crumpled under the weight of my own senseless Name: Rosi Leonard aspirations and dead-and-buried Schools: Dominican College, social life but 900 points later Griffith Avenue, Institute of I’d say I’m pretty pleased.” Education Perhaps I’m being unfair. Perhaps it’s just easier to hate Points: Art (H)-A1, than to spend an evening English(H)-A1, History(H)-A1, memorising yet another type Spanish(H)-A2, Irish(H)-B2, of subjunctive that doesn’t Music(H)-B2, Maths(O)-B2. exist anymore in English and Overall points- 550 should only be used when College Trinity College Saturn and Mars align. But in Dublin, English Literature and English, you could easily study History of Art and your texts to the point where they Architecture get tired of you, and you wouldn’t be guaranteed your A. It’s all about being able to fit what you know into a well-structured and coherent essay, not memorising facts until you feel so overworked that mid-morning wine consumption looks like a good career choice. I don’t like the idea of relying on learnt-off essays in English (especially for the Single Text question) because it limits you. I strode into Irish Paper two with my learnt off essays, opened up the exam, failed to see any of my titles appear, and slowly felt all the happiness drain from the world. Make few commitments to the predictions you hear, no matter how good they look. The only thing you should rely on is a good knowledge of the texts. The only things you should memorise are quotes, and the only reason to read and remember previous successful essays is to understand the structure of that essay. Keep your sentences short, make sure you keep relating back to your title, and have some confidence in yourself. Relying on predictions is not enough. I enjoy the occasional horoscope as much as the next man but “Planetary alignment” in the same sentence as “Argumentative text” will only end badly (Galileo versus the Inquisition for example). If however your confidence is battered by the mocks and only divine intervention/bribery will get you an honour then ok, maybe memorising essays has its place. But when it comes to Paper 1, Question A, this is not an option. Read newspapers. Read articles in them. It will make you familiar with the functional writing that you will encounter in this question. If you are aware of the techniques a writer uses to structure an argument, or a piece of informative writing, then you won’t have any major problems in constructing one yourself. All argumentative writing has the same skeleton, as does informative writing. When it comes to the composition question, you should have established by now which form of it (short story, personal essay, argument) you are best at. It is one component of Paper 1 which you can thoroughly prepare for by practising whichever type of essay suits you best so that you are comfortable with the structure, and understand what will be expected for that essay: Make it easy for yourself. There is a myth that some people are simply born with a good written expression, and others are not. But good written expression is not about big words. It is the ability to put the words you know to good use. Don’t get yourself unnecessarily wound up about the exam, as my History teacher used to chant as she looked down on a sea of anxious faces “It’ll be alright on the night.”


English Paper 2 THE COMPARATIVE STUDY For 70 marks, consider the similarities and differences, in both content and style, between two or three literary texts such as novels, plays and films, all viewed from the perspective of genre, cultural worlds or authors’ viewpoints ■ The term Literary Genre asks us to explore the ways in which different texts tell their stories and in particular how different techniques are available within different genres. You might compare the three texts, for instance, in relation to how each uses comedy to tell the story, or in relation to how each narrative is shaped, that is, where it opens, how it develops and where it ends. On a more technical level, under type of text, you might compare recurring images in a film (because a movie tells its story visually), recurring scenes or tableaux in a play (because a drama tells its story through external conflicts), and recurring thoughts in a novel (because a novel can tell its story from inside the minds of its characters).

& politics, wealth, work & religion, social customs, and the roles of men, women & children.

■ The term Cultural Context simply means the time and place the work is set in, the society that is depicted or created in the text. A fictional society, just like any other society, is discussed with reference to power

■ Avoid discussing the texts separately, particularly in lengthy paragraphs. You should be comparing them point for point. Every observation that you make must be related to all three texts before you move on

■ General Vision and Viewpoint asks you to comment on whether a text has a bright, optimistic view of its fictional world – the wicked are punished and the good end happily, which is why it’s called fiction, as Oscar Wilde remarked – or a dark, fatalistic vision. The most essential question is how the text ends. On an optimistic or pessimistic note? Darkly or brightly? How is this ending related to the beginning? Have we advanced? Have we regressed? Has the author suggested that we cannot change at all?


The The Truman Show is a popular choice for the comparative study to make another observation.

to illustrate the point you are discussing.

■ Avoid telling the stories of the various texts. The examiner already knows them. Instead, select key moments from each text

■ Once again, be guided by the question, and not by any standard essay that you may have prepared or learned.

English Paper 2 PRESCRIBED POETRY For 50 marks, share your personal responses to a selection of a poet’s work, with reference to specific aspects presented by the question.

■ While you need to learn about a poet’s work and life from the writings of others, don’t underestimate your own honest responses. You cannot gain an A grade without them.

an inventive manner.” Do you agree with this assessment of his poetry? Write a response. – you were asked for a personal response to three suggested features of Walcott’s poetry: “tensions” “conflicts” “inventive”. It meant that you had to distinguish, explicitly or implicitly, between “tensions” and “conflicts”. Think about it. Because that’s what a quotation invites you to do. And since a learned essay is the very antithesis of thinking for yourself and thinking about the implications of the question, it follows that reproducing a memorised essay, without regard to the precise terms of the quotation, will be disastrous for you. Don’t do it.

■ Be guided by the question, not by any standard assessment that you may have prepared or learned. In 2009, for instance – “Derek Walcott explores tensions and conflicts in

■ Discuss both the themes and techniques of your chosen poet, the characteristic images and expressions as well as the recurring experiences and emotions.


Patrick Kavanagh




You may be touched by Longley’s treatment of the father-son relationship and find much there that you can understand and identify with. On the other hand, you may find the father-son thing overdone and far too limiting, too narrow and private a focus. You may despair that it dominates five out of the ten poems on our course and seeps, by inference, into others. You may admire Longley’s subtle and open treatment of relationships in general, in particular his honesty, his lack of sentimentality, his refusal to lie about or sugar over the real difficulties of intimate contact between one human and another. You may relate to Longley’s treatment of violence, not only as something obscene and destructive, but also as something that is lurking beneath the civilised surface of human life, from earliest times, as in the Greek myths, to the most modern, as in recent atrocities in Northern Ireland. You may appreciate Longley’s technical mastery, his creation of flowing, beautifully crafted, beautifully shaped, poems, whose composed rhythms slow your pulse and invite you to be reflective. On the other hand, you may find Longley’s style too polished, too refined, so much so that its classical composure actually blunts the exploration of the themes. You may conclude that he has put too much investment into style, at the expense of heart, or excitement.

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It’s obvious that every writer must draw their material from personal experience, but probably more than other authors, W. B. Yeats’ poetry reflects the circumstances of his life. The poems on the course, from the earliest piece, ‘The Lake Isle of Innisfree,’ to the final sections from ‘Under Ben Bulben,’ written five months before the author’s death, illustrate this. The poetry presents the journey of an individual through his times, through the social and political and military events that he lived through and responded to. ‘The Lake Isle of Innisfree’ strikes the key themes that he will explore for the rest of his life and introduces elements of a style that he will later perfect. There is the characteristic weariness with the greyness and unfeeling harshness of modern, urban life, the strong desire to escape this environment, and the creation or imagining of an ideal refuge. The style of the lyric is sugary, but it offers an early example of Yeats’ use of the complex symbol of the heart, by which he represented everything that was not physical in humans, not subject to decay and corruption, everything that was spiritual, noble and elevated. The metaphors of journey and bird recur in Yeats’ poetry and the argumentative techniques of public debate – rhetorical questions, sarcasm, repetition – are often used. WB Yeats’ themes are simultaneously both public and private. This is unusual, at least by comparison with some other poets, such as Patrick Kavanagh, whose work is exclusively personal. Yeats addresses and appeals to a public audience, while at the same time exploring his own feelings.


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Boland’s poetry explores how domestic or personal order, often represented by suburbia, is threatened or disrupted by natural forces, human and otherwise. Or to put this another way, it explores the violence and natural powers that are lurking just underneath the surface of the ordinary, the civilised, the beautiful, the shapely. The lace fan keeps an ‘inference of its violation,’ because force and death went into its making; the ‘shadow doll’ is imprisoned, trapped, bound; death, the greatest disrupter of all, threatens the family in ‘Love’; and that other great disrupter, time, threatens it in ‘Pomegranate.’ Many of the poems explore life as a woman in the late 20th and early 21st centuries; or in other words, Boland’s own life. Before this, there was her mother’s life. Beyond this, will be her daughter’s life. So, the relationships between the generations and between different ages becomes a major theme. Usually, women provide the links. The connection is often symbolised by a personal article Many of the poems present history, myth and legend as forces that shape the minds and hearts and souls of individuals. It follows that the poems themselves often use mythology and history as metaphors for interpreting and managing the world An interesting stylistic feature is the use of material or clothing as a metaphor to express the complexity of relationships.


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Notes on Lughnasa

‘Dancing at Lughnasa’ is a popular choice for the comparative. Ben Barnes, who has directed the play, answers some questions: What is the subtext of Dancing at Lughnasa? The world into which the Mundy sisters were born and reared and the one which is presided over by the eldest of the five siblings, Kate, is the rigid Catholic world of de Valera’s Ireland. A strict religious and social code and hierarchy governs the lives of the people and frowns on any expression of individualism or any manifestation of sensual or sexual feeling outside the strict boundaries of married life. This is a world which is also the subject of the fiction of John McGahern and William Trevor. In a society so repressed and secretive cracks are bound to appear and Fr. Jack’s flirting with the ‘pagan gods’ of the African continent, Rose’s abandon at the Lughnasa celebrations and the magnetic attraction between Chrissie and Gerry are all manifestations of powerful urges which refuse to be held in check by a narrowly focussed and patriarchal society. At a very basic level, therefore, Dancing at Lughnasa describes the tensions between the Christian and the Pagan impulses in us all and the transformation of the sisters from ‘comely maidens’ to whirling dervishes in Act 1, is a graphic and brilliantly theatrical illustration of this central tension. What role does music and dancing play in the drama? Whether it is the music of Chopin which imbues the play Aristocrats or the ‘The Way you look Tonight’ which is used in Faith Healer, music plays a very special part in the work of Brian Friel. The nostalgic and elegiac note struck by the narrator is immeasurably enhanced by the dance music of the 1930’s and it is not overstating it to say that the very rhythm of the language of Michael’s speeches is indebted to the cadence of that music. Like all great writers, Friel recognises the limitations of language to convey emotion and relies heavily on the musical notes and the movement of dance to tell his story and bring it to its heartbreaking conclusion. The poverty of even the most sublime of language when set against song and movement is acknowledged in the final lines of the play — “Dancing as if the very heart of life and all its hopes might be found in those assuaging notes and

Ordinary Level PAPER I KEY TIPS

QUESTION A: The most recent Chief Examiner’s report on candidates’ performance on Ordinary Level Paper I precisely and repeatedly explained the difference between a lowgrade answer and a high-grade answer in Comprehension. It noted, ‘Most answers detailed the passage of events but only a small number provided reasons in support of whether the story was 'well told' or not.’ In other words, low-grade answers confine themselves to describing what is in a text, while high-grade answers make some attempt at exploring how a writer uses language to provide information, to make a point, or to tell a story. The same applies to the visual text, by the way, where the Chief Examiner remarked, ‘The majority of candidates had great difficulty in reading the visual images.’ You must consider how a photographer uses colour, lighting, close-ups and setting to create an impact. QUESTION B: The essential thing here is register, because the Chief Examiner noted a number of times that, ‘few succeeded in writing in the appropriate register.’ It means that most candidates did not use the vocabulary and tone and approach that were needed for the task. The best advice that I can give you is to assume that the situation you are given in real. If you’re writing a speech, imagine that the audience is there in front of you. If you have to write a report, imagine that your job depends on it. Meryl Streep in the film version of ‘Dancing at Lughnasa’ those hushed rhythms and in those silent and hypnotic movements. Dancing as if language no longer existed because words were no longer necessary...”

Does Dancing at Lughnasa, set in 1930s' Ireland, have anything to say to us in the 21st century? Although the tone of Dancing at Lughnasa is fond and nostalgic the Is Dancing at Lughnasa a fate of the sisters when their lives memory play? fall apart is far from romantic — The action of Dancing at Lughnasa is Rose and Agnes die in poverty and framed by the narrator, Michael who destitution in London, Chris ends up is also, as his seven year old self, a working in a shirt factory for the rest participant in the action. of her life and ‘hates every minute of This device allows the narrator to set it’ , Kate gets a thankless job tutoring the scene but the writer also and Maggie stays on and pretends heightens the emotion by releasing that nothing has happened. information to the audience which For all its certainties and homespun has not yet unfolded in the action of charms the upbringing of the Mundy the play. girls has not prepared them for the For instance, we hear of the final fate outside world (it is no accident that of Rose and Agnes in London quite most of them cannot even ride a early in the narrative. This poignantly bicycle) and without the narrow adds to our sense of fatalism in this certainties which governed their lives bucolic but doomed way of life. their ability to cope deserts them. The use of the memory device also A repressive Catholic ethos governed allows Friel to elaborate on one of his and ultimately ruined the lives of favourite themes — the fallibility of these women and both art and memory and the way in which we history act as a constant reminder to edit the past to tell ourselves the us of the dangers of placing any kind story we want to hear. The great skill of narrow fanaticism in a position of of the dramatist here is that in spite power. of an elegiac note being struck by the narrator, aided and abetted by the Ben Barnes is Director of the Theatre music and the dance, there is a Royal, Waterford and a former widening gulf between what seems Artistic Director of the Abbey to be and what actually was. Theatre.


COMPOSING: See the key tips in the Higher Level section. If writing a story, avoid ‘plot summaries’ and give the reader a tale that they’ll want to read to find out what happens next. If writing a personal essay, you should ‘celebrate your own hopes, fears and possibilities.’ If writing a speech or an article, ‘take a stance and address your audience.’ All the quotations are again from the Chief Examiner’s report.



SINGLE TEXT: Make sure that you are very familiar with all the main characters and that you have a detailed knowledge of the events in your chosen text. These two areas will cover almost all questions that are set. COMPARATIVE STUDY: See the key tips in the Higher Level section. The section on Cultural Context there relates to your own mode of Social Setting. Your Theme should be one of the central concerns of each text. A good example is Love, which almost all texts deal with in some way or another. Another is Power, because all societies and all relationships are defined by questions of power. Finally, you should be able to identify which character is the main Hero/Heroine in each of your texts and which character is the main Villain. As well as this, you should be able to explain why a character is a hero/heroine or villain and be ready to show in what ways the characters are the same as each other and what ways they’re different from each other across the various texts. POETRY: In dealing with both the Unseen and Prescribed Poetry, refer to the advice given in the section on Question A above, ‘low-grade answers confine themselves to describing what is in a text, while high-grade answers make some attempt at exploring how a writer uses language.’ You are not asked to explain a poem; you are asked to explore what the words suggest to you.

Irish Higher Level Diarmaid ó Tuama Irish teacher at The Institute of Education Diarmaid ó Tuama has taught Gaeilge at the Institute of Education since 1974. Having worked part-time in the earlier years, he joined the full-time staff in 1998. Prior to joining the full-time staff, he taught in Clonkeen College, Blackrock. He is the author of 29 school books, as well as of Trátaí Ura – a collection of short stories. He spends his summers in Gaoth Dobhair, where he works as Príomhoide in Coláiste Cholmcille, a popular Coláiste Samhraidh. He was editor of Foinse sa Rang, a special supplement for Leaving Cert students in the weekly newspaper Foinse from 1997 to 2007. He is currently editor of several Gael Linn publications.

Páipéar 1 – 170 marc Ceist 1 – Ceapadóireacht – 100 marc

An Rogha: Is í an rogha atá sa cheist seo ná ceann amháin as naoi gcinn (A: trí aiste, B: dhá scéal, C: dhá alt irise/nuachtáin agus D: óráid nó díospóireacht).

Treoracha duit! ● Idir 500 agus 600 focal – tuairim is dhá leathanach go leith – a bheidh le scríobh agat. ● Coimeád do chuid abairtí gearr agus simplí. Ar an gcaoi sin beidh tú in ann botúin ghramadaí a sheachaint. ● Marcanna – 20% do na smaointe agus 80% do chaighdeán na Gaeilge. ● Ba cheart idir 90 agus 100 nóiméad a chaitheamh i mbun na haiste.

● Ábhair le hullmhú – cultúr; an t-aos óg; cúrsaí oideachais; cúrsaí polaitiúla; cogadh agus síocháin; mothúcháin; cúrsaí spóirt; cúrsaí na tíre seo; teanga na Gaeilge; na meáin chumarsáide; cúrsaí teaghlaigh; cúrsaí domhanda; cúrsaí sláinte (e.g. ‘drugaí’ nó ‘an cosc ar chaitheamh tobac’); cúrsaí teicneolaíochta; an timpeallacht; an cúlú eacnamaíochta; scannail phoiblí. ● Bíodh struchtúr soiléir agat san aiste: Oscailt; Corp; Críoch. Oscailt – alt corraitheach suimiúil chun aird an léitheora a dhíriú ar an ábhar. Ba mhaith an rud é do chuid tuairimí i leith an ábhair a thabhairt go hachomair anseo. Lár na hAiste – ceithre nó ceithre nó cúig phointe éagsúla - agus alt nua do gach aon phointe díobh. Críoch – achoimre ghairid ar do chuid pointí agus conclúid.

Aiste Shamplach Scannail san Eaglais Ní ródheas an-íomhá atá ag an Eaglais Chaitliceach in Éirinn le tamall de bhlianta anuas. Cloisimid scéalta faoi scannal i ndiaidh scannail, lá i ndiaidh lae, agus ní haon ionadh go bhfuil meas an phobail ar an Eaglais ag dul i ndísc. Dáiríre, is é an rud is mó a chuireann as do shaoránaigh na tíre seo ná na scéalta a tháinig amach maidir le mí-úsáid pháistí thar thréimhse fhada – agus leis na hiarrachtaí a rinneadh na scannail sin a choinneáil faoi rún. Bhí ar roinnt easpag éirí as a bpoist le déanaí toisc nár chomhlíon siad a gcuid dualgas maidir le cosaint a thabhairt do pháistí a bhí faoina gcúram. An é nár léigh siad riamh na focail sa Bhíobla: ‘Ligigí do na leanaí agus ná coiscigí iad ar theacht chugam, óir is lena leithéidí seo ríocht na bhflaitheas?’ Ar feadh na mblianta fada bhí an Eaglais Chaitliceach ina ceannródaí maidir le cúrsaí moráltachta sa tír seo. Bhí meas ag an bpobal ar shagairt, ar bhráithre, ar mhná rialta agus ar mhuintir an chliarlathais – agus an meas sin tuillte ag a bhformhór. Ach nuair a thuig an chosmhuintir go raibh fimíneacht mhór ag baint le cuid den chléir, cuid de na heaspaig ach go háirithe, níorbh fhada gur tháinig athrú mór ar an scéal sin. Is í an chuimhne atá ag tromlach na ndaoine sa tír seo ar an Eaglais ná gur oibrigh sí i gcónaí ar leas na ndaoine, go háirithe ar son na mbochtán nuair a bhí siad faoi ghéarleanúint le linn aimsir na bPéindlithe agus an Ghorta. Níorbh aon ionadh go raibh meas mór ag muintir na tíre ar an Eaglais. Ach tá géarghá le hathruithe san Eaglais in Éirinn inniu. Tógfaidh sé roinnt blianta sula mbeidh an cion céanna ag daoine uirthi. Beidh ar an gcléir cuid den chumhacht a bhí acu a roinnt ar thuataí agus beidh ar shagairt athruithe móra a dhéanamh sula mbeidh daoine óga sásta leanúint ina gcuid coiscéimeanna chun gairm Dé a fhreagairt. Ní mór níos mó cumhachta a thabhairt do shaoránaigh na tíre maidir le cúram na scoileanna agus na n-ospidéal. An iomarca cumhachta – ba é sin ba chúis le cuid mhór de na scannail, i mo thuairimse. Tá an chosúlacht ar an scéal go dtiocfaidh athruithe móra ar an Eaglais sna blianta atá romhainn amach, mar sin. B’fhéidir go mbeidh níos lú daoine ag glacadh páirte inti, ach faoi mar a deir an seanfhocal – bíonn blas ar an mbeagán. Tá athnuachan iomlán de dhíth ar an Eaglais agus ní bheidh sí furasta. Ní mór don chléir iarracht i bhfad níos fearr a dhéanamh – agus, b’fhéidir, bochtaineacht agus geanmnaíocht a chleachtadh as an nua. Ar ndóigh, tá sé in am acu filleadh ar nós na sean-Eaglaise agus ligean do shagairt an saol pósta a roghnú dóibh féin. Ar ndóigh, tá i bhfad níos mó ná an Eaglais Chaitliceach i gceist agus sinn ag plé na gcúrsaí seo – agus níl dream ar bith saor ó locht. B’fhéidir go bhfuil sé in am ag gach eaglais sa tír scrúdú coinsiasa a dhéanamh.

Ceist 2 – Léamhthuiscint – 70 marc Dhá chuid atá le freagairt agat anseo – A agus B. Ba cheart tuairim is nócha nóiméad a chaitheamh i mbun na ceiste is é sin 45 nóiméad d'A agus 45 nóimead do B.

Clash of the ash between Tipperary and Kilkenny at the All-Ireland hurling final last year

Treoracha duit! 1. Tabhair sracfhéachaint ghairid ar an sliocht le haithne a chur ar an ábhar. 2. Léigh na ceisteanna. 3. Léigh an sliocht arís. Ná bíodh imní ort má bhíonn píosaí beaga ann nach dtuigeann tú. Ní hionann sin is a rá nach mbeidh tú in ann na ceisteanna a fhreagairt! 4. Léigh an chéad cheist arís anois – agus aimsigh an freagra. Ní bheidh sé sin ródheacair, mar beidh an freagra sin sa chéad alt – agus mar an gcéanna le gach ceist eile a leanann an cheist sin! 5. Cuir líne faoin bhfreagra atá aimsithe agat. 6. Anois scríobh amach an freagra sin i d'fhocail féin. (Má dhéanann tú freagraí a chóipeáil díreach ón sliocht, is cinnte go gcaillfidh tú a lán marcanna.) 7. Lean ort ag freagairt na gceisteanna eile ar an gcaoi chéanna. IRISH INDEPENDENT/INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION 11

Irish Higher Level

Páipéar 2 – 180 marc Ceist 1 – Prós – 40 marc An Rogha: Tá rogha ghlan idir an prós ainmnithe (1A) agus an prós roghnach (1B). Agus beidh rogha agat taobh istigh de na ceisteanna féin. Treoracha duit! ● 45 nóiméad don cheist iomlán; ● Ní leor do chuid tuairimí a thabhairt. Ní mór duit fianaise a thabhairt mar thacaíocht le do chuid freagraí; ● Ullmhaigh na pointí seo: téama; forbairt an téama; carachtair; mothúcháin, stíl scríbhneoireachta; tréithe an ghearrscéil; tréithe an bhéaloidis, tréithe an úrscéil, tréithe an scannáin, tréithe an dráma; ● Scríobh idir leathanach go leith agus dhá leathanach (4/5 mhórphointe) sa chéad chuid den cheist agus idir leathanach agus leathanach go leith (3 mhórphointe) sa dara cuid; ● Is iad seo na hábhair a scrúdaíodh le ceithre bliana anuas. Ardteist 2006 Lá Buí Bealtaine: galar an ghrá. Clare sa Spéir: teannas teaghlaigh. Fiche Bliain ag Fás: codarsnacht idir Muiris agus Tomás. An Cearrbhach Mac Cába: coimhlint idir maith agus olc nó nóta ar dhá cheann de: greann; áibhéil; draíocht; saint. Ardteist 2007 An Bhean Óg: saol uaigneach. Coileach Ghleann Phádraig: páirt an tréidlia. Lig Sinn i gCathú: léiriú greannmhar ar fhadhbanna an mhic léinn. An Cearrbhach Mac Cába: tréithe an bhéaloidis. Ardteist 2008 Lá Buí Bealtaine: athrú ar phearsa Pheadair nó dhá theicníocht. Clare sa Spéir: athrú ar phearsa Eoin nó dhá theicníocht. Fiche Bliain ag Fás: spórt agus spraoi na hóige Lig Sinn i gCathú: léiriú greannmhar ar bheirt de na pearsana nó cúlra shaol na hollscoile. Ardteist 2009 An Bhean Óg: aigne chiaptha. Coileach Ghleann Phádraig: caidreamh an tréidlia le muintir Ghleann Phádraig. Lig Sinn i gCathú: saol na tíre sna tríochaidí – polaitíocht agus creideamh. An Cearrbhach Mac Cába: dhá ghné den scéal nó carthanacht an Chearrbhaigh.

Ceist agus Freagra Samplach Clare sa Spéir Ceist Léiriú cruinn uait ar an gcaoi a n-éiríonn le Audrey O’Reilly, stiúrthóir agus scríbhneoir Clare sa Spéir, scannán fiúntach a chur os comhair an lucht féachana. Freagra Éiríonn go geal le Audrey O’Reilly scannán cliste a chur os ár gcomhair. Tugtar pictiúr soiléir greannmhar dúinn de bhean tí atá ag fulaingt – Clare (Bríd Ní Neachtain) – agus d’fhear seobhaineach (chauvinist) – Eoin (Seán McGinley). Is scannán é seo faoi lánúin agus ceathrar páistí atá ina gcónaí i mBaile Átha Cliath. Seift chliste a úsáideann an scríbhneoir ná an scéal a insint trí bhéal an pháiste. Ar an gcaoi sin, tugtar tuiscint iomlán don lucht féachana ar a bhfuil ar siúl – agus ar an téama, saoirse na mban.


Ceoil agus craic in Dublin’s Temple Bar

Tá an bricfeasta ar siúl – na páistí ag argóint le chéile agus Eoin ina shuí ag ceann an bhoird ag léamh an nuachtáin. Tá Clare tagtha chuig géarchéim (crisis) ina saol. Tá iompar Eoin agus na bpáistí ag cur isteach go mór uirthi. Tá saoirse de dhíth uirthi. Tagann fearg uirthi ar deireadh thiar agus deir sí leis na páistí imeacht. Nuair a imíonn na páistí déanann Clare iarracht comhrá a dhéanamh lena fear – faoin nuacht atá sa nuachtán. Ardaíonn seisean a cheann agus insíonn sé di faoi fhear éigin, a chaith seasca is a seacht lá i gcónra faoin talamh. Ceapann Eoin gur gníomh buile é sin, ach tá Clare beagán tógtha leis an scéal. Imíonn Eoin ansin gan slán a rá mar is ceart lena bhean. Éiríonn leis an stiúrthóir frustrachas Clare a chur in iúl ansin. Tógann sí carn mór gréithe den bhord, ach titeann siad as a lámha. Ansin féachann sí amach an fhuinneog. Tá an chuma uirthi go bhfuil sí ag dul glan as a meabhair. Fágtar bearna chliste sa scéal ansin go dtí go bhfilleann an iníon is óige ón scoil. Ní fheiceann sí Mamaí áit ar bith – agus tá an chistin ina cíor thuathail. Tá teannas san atmaisféar! Ansin tagaimid ar an gcleas is drámatúla sa scannán. Nuair a théann an iníon amach go dtí an gairdín feiceann sí cosa Mhamaí ar liobarna (dangling) ó chrann. Ceapann sí go bhfuil a máthair tar éis í féin a chrochadh. Creideann an lucht féachana an rud céanna! Tagann athrú greannmhar ar an scéal ansin. Feictear Eoin agus na páistí ag bun an chrainn – agus teach beag déanta thuas ann ag Clare! Deir sí go bhfanfaidh sí ansin chun curiarracht dá cuid féin a dhéanamh! Cuirtear dearcadh seobhaineach Eoin os ár gcomhair ansin. Is dóigh leis go dtiocfaidh Clare anuas chomh luath is a bheidh Coronation Street ar siúl. Ach tá dul amú air! Tagann carachtar nua isteach sa scéal go gairid ina dhiaidh sin – an bhean bhéal dorais (Margaret Twomey). Baintear úsáid chliste as an gcarachtar seo chun Clare a

choinneáil ar an eolas maidir le cúrsaí an tsaoil – Coronation Street ach go háirithe. De réir mar a théann an scéal ar aghaidh feictear dúinn go bhfuil na páistí ag éirí an-bhródúil as a máthair – seift mhaith eile – agus ní mó na sásta atá siad leis an mbia a leagann Eoin ar an mbord dóibh gach lá. Casann Eoin fuaim na teilifíse in airde chomh luath is a thosaíonn Coronation Street, ach is beag maitheas a dhéanann sé sin dó. Casann Clare fuaim an raidió in airde agus tosaíonn sí ag cniotáil! Faoi dheireadh téann Eoin chuig an teach tábhairne chun faoiseamh a fháil, ach is beag faoiseamh a fhaigheann sé. Tá fógra ar bhalla an teach tábhairne – seift chliste eile! – ag léiriú go bhfuil comórtas ar siúl ag na fir maidir le curiarracht Clare! Agus tá cúlchaint ar siúl acu! Ansin baineann an stiúrthóir feidhm as an stoirm chun frustrachas Eoin a chur in iúl. ‘Is olc an ghaoth…’ ar seisean leis féin. Ceapann sé go ngéillfidh a bhean, ach casann Clare cóta thart uirthi féin! Tagann athrú beag ar Eoin ansin. Glacann sé trua do Clare agus cuireann sé clúdach canbháis os a cionn. Léiríonn sé ansin go bhfuil meas aige uirthi agus geallann sé go dtiocfaidh athruithe chun na maitheasa air féin. Tugtar nóta grinn isteach sa scannán ansin. Deir Clare go bhfuil sé i gceist aici fanacht thuas sa chrann go dtí go mbeidh an churiarracht bainte amach aici. Deir Eoin go bhfuil sí craiceáilte, ach meabhraíonn sise dó gurbh é sin an fáth ar phós sé í sa chéad áit! Baintear geit álainn as an lucht féachana tamall gairid ina dhiaidh sin nuair a chuireann Eoin agus na páisti teilifís in airde sa chrann – díreach in am do Coronation Street! Caitheann Eoin cuid mhór ama in airde ar an gcrann in éineacht lena bhean ina dhiaidh sin. Déanann Clare botún mór maidir leis an gcurracht – ach nach cuma! Ar deireadh thiar tá críoch shona leis an scannán agus éiríonn le Audrey O’Reilly scannán den scoth a chur os ár gcomhair.

Irish Higher Level Ceist 2 – Próstéacs Breise – 40 marc

Des Bishop brought the laughter to the language again

Ceist amháin as dhá cheann atá le déanamh agat anseo — de réir an tsaothair atá á úsáid agat ar scoil. Comhairle! ● Caith tuairim is 45 nóiméad i mbun na ceiste seo. ● Bí cinnte go dtugann tú fianaise mar thacaíocht le do fhreagra. ● Ullmhaigh ceisteanna ar na hábhair seo: téama; carachtair; mothúcháin; stíl; tréithe an ghearrscéil; tréithe an bhéaloidis, tréithe an úrscéil. ● Tuairim is dhá leathanach go leith nó níos mó (seacht/ocht mórphointe) atá ag teastáil – a fhad is a thugann tú freagra fiúntach.

Ceist 3 – Filíocht – 70 marc An Rogha: Beidh rogha ghlan agat idir na dánta ainmnithe

(3A) agus na dánta roghnacha (3B) anseo. Chomh maith leis sin beidh ort ceist a fhreagairt ar na dánta dualgais breise (3C). Beidh rogha agat taobh istigh de na ceisteanna féin. Treoracha duit! ● Tuairim is 80 nóiméad don cheist iomlán. ● Tabhair neart fianaise (i.e. línte) ón dán chun tacú le do chuid freagraí. ● Ullmhaigh: teideal; téama; cúlra; cineál dáin; meafair; samhlacha; codarsnacht; íomhánna; brí na línte; meadaracht; friotal; mothúcháin. ● Is iad seo na hábhair a scrúdaíodh le ceithre bliana anuas.

Ardteist 2006 Bímse Buan ar Buairt gach Ló: cás an fhile agus cás na tíre; an dúlra. Gealt?: áibhéil; greann; dhá mhothúchán. Níl Aon Ní: príomhthéama; mothúcháin; íomhánna; codarsnacht; atmaisféar. An Chéad Dráma: príomhthéama: roinnt línte le míniú; an cineál duine é an file. An tOileán: áilleacht mhealltach an oileáin (téama): roinnt línte le míniú; meafar. Ardteist 2007 Faoiseamh a gheobhadsa: codarsnacht; ceann amháin de - atmaisféar; athrá; friotal; íomhánna. Jack: mothúcháin; saol na tuaithe. Níl Aon Ní: codarsnacht idir an chathair agus an tuath; dhá cheann de - rithim na cainte; aidiachtaí; dathanna; fuaimeanna. Maigdiléana: íomhánna na Críostaíochta; línte 13-16 le míniú; atmaisféar. Úirchill an Chreagáin: mothúcháin (brón agus bród); línte 13-16 le míniú; atmaisféar. Ardteist 2008 Bímse Buan ar Buairt gach Ló: príomhthéama + íomhá amháin. Gealt? codarsnacht idir dearcadh an pháiste agus lucht an bhus + an chaoi a ndeachaigh an dán i bhfeidhm ort féin. Faoiseamh a gheobhadsa: príomhthéama nó dhá cheann de: mothúcháin; codarsnacht; atmaisféar. Dán do Mhelissa: grá na máthar i bhfianaise áilleacht agus dainséar an tsaoil + línte le míniú + dhá chodarsnacht. Oíche Nollaig na mBan: príomhthéama + línte le míniú + meon an fhile. Ardteist 2009 Bímse Buan ar Buairt gach Ló: saol an fhile agus saol na tíre + meadaracht. Faoiseamh a gheobhadsa: an file ag caoineadh i ndiaidh a óige. Gealt? teideal, codarsnacht, athrá, drámatacht (rogha) + forbairt an téama. An Mháthair: dearcadh na máthar + línte le míniú + do thuairim faoin dán. Da mb’fhéidir arís dár gcumann: an mhíorúilt + línte le míniú + codarsnacht nó íomhá.

Ceist agus Freagra Samplach (Ceist 3C) Maigdiléana

Ceist Léiriú cruinn uait ar an úsáid a bhaineann an file as meafar sa dán. Freagra Baineann an file úsáid leathan as meafar sa dán seo. Deir sé i dtosach báire go mbíonn an bhean sráide le feiceáil: I dtrátha an ama a dtachtann sealán aibhléise aoibh shoilseach na spéire…' Is éard ata i gceist aige na go bhfeiceann sé í ag an am sin den oíche a dhorchaíonn na soilse leictreacha solas na gealaí agus na réaltaí sa spéir. Meafar diamhair é seo, a chuireann go mór le hatmaisféar draíochtach an dáin. Cúpla líne ina dhiaidh sin deir sé go bhfeiceann sé an bhean óg: ar a beat ag crúiseáil go huaigneach sa mharbhsholas chnámhach… Tá an file ag cur in iúl dúinn go mbíonn uaigneas ar an mbean agus í ag siúl na sráide 'sa mharbhsholas cnámhach'. Is í éifeacht an mheafair seo ná go dtuigeann an léitheoir go mbíonn teannas agus naimhdeas in atmaisféar na sráide ag an am sin den oíche. Díreach ina dhiaidh sin deir an file go mbíonn an bhean: ag spléachadh go fáilí ar scáilí na gcros teilifíse ag cuartú a Calvaire go heaglach… Tuigeann an file an eagla a bhaineann le saol an bhean sráide. Bíonn íobairtí móra ag baint lena saol - díreach mar a bhí íobairt ag baint le turas Chríost go Calvaire (meafar) agus an cros (meafar) á iompar aige. Ar an mbealach seo déanann an file nasc idir íobairt na mná seo agus céasadh Íosa Chríost. Ansin luann Cathal tumba folamh an underground… Comparáid idir céasadh Chríost agus íobairt an bhean sráide atá i gceist arís sa mheafar seo. Áit uaigneach scanrúil is ea an underground ag an am sin den mhaidin. Cuireann an meafar seo i gcuimhne dúinn gur chaith Íosa trí lá agus trí oíche sa tumba nuair a céasadh é.

Ceist 4 – Stair – 30 marc An Rogha: Dhá cheist as sé cinn le déanamh Treoracha duit! ● Tuairim is 20 nóiméad don cheist iomlán. ● Cúig/sé cinn de phointí i ngach ceann de do chuid freagraí - fiú amháin mura mbíonn ach trí cinn á lorg sa cheist. ● Is iad seo a leanas na ceisteanna a tugadh le ceithre bliana anuas: Ardteist 2006 (a) Brian Merriman; Piaras Feirtéar; Séamas Dall Mac Cuarta; Antaine Ó Reachtaire; Biddy Jenkinson; Eithne Strong; Áine Ní Ghlinn; Cathal Ó Searcaigh. (b) Táin Bó Chuailgne; Na Laoithe Fiannaíochta; Na Gluaiseanna; Foras Feasa ar Éirinn. (c) An Aisling Pholaitiúil. (d) Dubhghlas de hÍde agus Athbheochan na Gaeilge. (e) Canúintí na Gaeilge. (f) An Ghaeilge sna Meáin Chumarsáide. Ardteist 2007 (a) Lámhscríbhinní; Annála. (b) An Ghaeilge mar Theanga Cheilteach. (c) Máire Mhac an tSaoi; Deirdre Brennan; Art Mac Cumhaigh; Seathrún Céitinn; Máirtín Ó Cadhain; Breandán Ó hEithir; Biddy Jenkinson; Eithne Strong. (d) Amour Courtois. (e) Meath na Gaeilge. (f) Pádraig Mac Piarais agus Athbheochan na Gaeilge. Ardteist 2008 (a) Liam Ó Flaithearta, Máiréad Ní Ghráda, Piaras Feirtéar, Máirtín Ó Direáin, Caitlín Maude, Séamas Ó Grianna, Eithne Strong, Áine Ní Ghlinn. (b) Annála na gCeithre Máistrí; Foras Feasa ar Éirinn; Aislingí Polaitiúla; Dinnseanchas. (c) Filíocht na mBard. (d) Teangacha iasachta. (e) Rúraíocht. (f) Foras na Gaeilge, Údarás na Gaeltachta, Oireachtas na Gaeilge, Conradh na Gaeilge. Ardteist 2009 Tugadh na ceisteanna céanna (2008) sa bhliain 2009! Ádh mór ort sa scrúdú! IRISH INDEPENDENT/INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION 13

Oral Irish

The Oral Examination

(Gnáthleibhéal agus Ardleibhéal) le Mícheál ó Ruairc

Section 2 – The Oral Irish Exam (150 marc)

Top tips

N.B. The Oral Irish Exam lasts for 12-15 mins. (approx) There are two parts to An Scrúdú Cainte: (a) Léamh an tsleachta/reading the extract: (b) An Comhrá/the conversation:

30 marc 120 marc

The following Basic Interactive Exercise is highly recommended when preparing for the Oral Irish Exam: [Please fill in the Blank Spaces in each case.] (i) Mise – M’áit dúchais – Mo Theaghlach Cad is ainm duit? _________ is ainm dom. Cén aois tú? Táim seacht/ocht mbliana déag d'aois. Rugadh mé (I was born) sa bhliain míle naoi gcéad ochtó/nócha. Táim_________________________________. Cá bhfuil cónaí ort? Tá cónaí orm (táim i mo chónaí) i _______________________. Cad as duit? As ________________ dom. Cén sórt áite/ceantair í sin? Is áit/ceantar álainn é. Is bruachbhaile (suburb)/baile mór (town)/ sráidbhaile (village) é. Taitníonn sé go mór liom. Tá a lán áiseanna ann. Is áit___________________________________. Tá ionad siopadóireachta (shopping centre) ann, tá pictiúrlann (cinema) ann, tá bialann (restaurant) ann, tá ollmhargadh (supermarket) ann, tá linn snámha (swimming pool) ann, tá clubanna spóirt ann, tá siopaí, leabharlann, scoileanna agus dioscó ann. Tá caisleán stairiúil (historic castle) ann a tógadh (which was built) sa bhliain 1269. Tagann a lán daoine go dtí mo cheantar dúchais. An bhfuil deartháireacha agus deirfiúracha agat? Tá ___________ deartháir agam agus tá



Grainne Seoige presenting on the All Ireland Talent Show recently

____________ deirfiúr agam. Is mise an duine is óige (youngest)/is sine (eldest) sa chlann/Tá mé sa lár (in the middle). Is páiste aonair (only child) mé. Cé mhéad ar fad atá i do chlann? Tá _____________ ar fad i mo chlann. (ii) Mo Scoil Cá bhfuil tú ag dul ar scoil? Táim ag freastal ar _____________ i ______________. Is maith liom mo scoil. Tá a lán cairde agam ann. Is maith liom na múinteoirí. Tá siad cairdiúil agus cabhraíonn siad leis na daltaí. Cén sórt scoile í? Is scoil mhór í. Is scoil mheasctha (mixed) í. Tá ocht gcéad dalta ag dul ann. Tá a lán áiseanna ann: halla mór staidéir, bialann, seomra ríomhairí, seomra ceoil agus cistin mhór. Conas a thagann tú ar scoil? Tagaim ar scoil ar an traein/ar an mbus/ar an Dart/ar an Luas/ ar mo rothar/faighim síob (lift) sa charr ó

In the Oral Irish Examination you are tested on (a) your ability to converse; (b) the quality of your spoken Irish; (c) your knowledge of the basic elements of the language – word store, vocabulary, verbs, tenses, phrases, etc. You must really make a concerted effort at speaking the language regularly beforehand. m'athair/ó mo mháthair. Táim __________ míle ón scoil. Tógann sé uair/leathuair/cúig nóiméad déag/deich nóiméad orm teacht anseo. Fágaim an teach gach maidin ar a ___________ a chlog agus sroichim an Institiuid ar a ___________a chlog. Téim abhaile sa tráthnóna ar ______________. Sroichim mo theach ar a ________________ chlog. An maith leat an scoil/an dtaitníonn an scoil leat? Is/ní maith liom an scoil/taitníonn/ní thaitníonn an scoil liom. Ní maith liom an staidéar agus an obair bhaile. Cad iad na hábhair atá á ndéanamh agat? Déanaim sé ábhar/seacht n-ábhar/ocht n-ábhar. Cad iad na hábhair sin? Is iad na hábhair sin ná Gaeilge, Béarla, Mata, Fraincis, Stair, Tíreolaíocht, Fisic, Ceimic, Gearmáinis, Spáinnis, Staidéar Gnó, Eacnamaíocht, Bitheolaíocht, Eacnamaíocht Bhaile (Home Ec.), Líníocht Theicniúil (Tech. Drawing), Ealaín (art), Staidéar Claiseacach , Ceol, Eolaíocht Talmhaíochta (Ag. Science), Cuntasaíocht (accountancy)


Students at Donegal Gaeltacht

Cad é an t-ábhar is fearr leat? Is fearr liom __________________. Is ábhar spéisiúil é agus táim go maith chuige. Níl sé leadránach agus tá an múinteoir go han-mhaith ar fad. Tá sé/sí spreagúil (inspiring). Tá sé/sí greannmhar (funny) agus tugann sé/sí a lán cabhair (help) dúinn. Cad ba mhaith leat a dhéanamh nuair a fhágfaidh tú an scoil / nuair a bheidh an Ardteist déanta agat?/Cad a dhéanfaidh tú nuair a bheidh tú críochnaithe (finished) leis an scoil? Ba mhaith liom dul chuig an ollscoil (university). /Ba mhaith liom post a fháil. / Nílim cinnte fós / Braitheann sé (it depends) ar na torthaí (results) a bhfaighidh mé san Ardteist. Ba mhaith liom cúrsa _______________ a dhéanamh i gColáiste __________________. Rachaidh mé chuig an ollscoil. Gheobhaidh mé (I will get) post. Déanfaidh mé cúrsa _______________. Ba mhaith liom bheith i mo _____________________.

Ba mhaith liom dul ag taisteal. Ba mhaith liom bliain a chaitheamh san Astráil nó i dtír éigin eile (iii) Caitheamh Aimsire agus Spórt Cad é an caitheamh aimsire atá agat? Tá a lán caitheamh aimsire agam ach níl mórán ama (much time) agam anois do chaitheamh aimsire mar bím ag staidéar ó dhubh go dubh. Is é an caitheamh aimsire atá agam ná a bheith ag léitheoireacht / féachaint ar an teilifís / dul chuig an bpictiúrlann / ag éisteacht le ceol / ag rince / ag dul amach ag siúl / ag rothaíocht / ag dul go dtí an giomnáisiam / ag imirt cluichí ar mo ríomhaire / ag seinm uirlis cheoil Léim ______________________________ féachaim ____________________________ éistim ________________________________ imrím ________________________________ seinm _________________________________ téim ___________________________________

Is maith liom _________________. Is caitheamh aimsire álainn é. Bainim taitneamh an domhain as. Tugann sé faoiseamh (relief) dom ó bheith ag staidéar. (v) An bhfuil suim agat sa spórt? Tá suim mhór agam (níl suim dá laghad agam) sa spórt. Taitníonn/ní thaitníonn an spórt liom. Is aoibhinn liom/is fuath liom cúrsaí spóirt. Imrím ______________________. Táim ar fhoireann _____________. Bíonn traenáil agam dhá uair sa tseachtain. Bíonn cluiche agam gach _________________. Bhí mé ag imirt Dé ________________ seo caite. Bhí an bua againn/chailleamar an cluiche. Bhí brón mór orm. An cluiche ceannais (final) a bhí ann. Is é an t-imreoir (player) is fearr liom ná ______________________. Tá sé/sí go hiontach ar fad. Peil Ghaelach / sacar / iománaíocht /camógaíocht/ scuais / haca / snúcar / leadóg / cispheil / rugbaí / snámh


Irish Higher Level John Bowden A1 Irish


rish was one of my favourite subjects in secondary school. I think this is because it is quite a predictable paper. It is an extremely large course, one that can’t be crammed for, but don’t worry — there is still time to get organised and get a great result. The aim of the next few weeks is to come up with a strategy to tackle the paper, one that you are comfortable with and that you will be able to implement the day of the exam. I know it is quite a cliché to say that if you know the material you’ll do great, but it’s true. I’m going to start with what I saw as the major stumbling block, Paper 2. You would be surprised with how many people do not know the layout of Paper 2. Even now that the mocks are over and done with, people still don’t know what question they are supposed to answer on the day. Are you one of these people? If so, get your exam papers out and read Name: John Bowden through the From: Dublin paper, School: Coláiste Eoin, writing Institute of Education down any Course: UCD Engineering questions Grades: A1s in Irish, you have English (O), Physics. A2 in for your French, B2 in Accounting. teacher so B3 in Agricultural Science, you are sure C1 in Maths to clear up Points: 515 these issues as soon as possible. One of the easiest sections of the entire exam is in Paper 2, ‘Stair na Gaeilge’. Bar last year, this was a very dependable 30 marks as you could almost be sure what was coming up and I would wager it will return to something similar this year. That said, don’t cut too much out as you don’t want to get caught like so many people did last year. If you know the material, you can have 30 marks within 10 minutes of starting the exam. Paper 1 is a different exam altogether. Unlike Paper 2, where the key is preparation, the key to Paper 1 is practice. There is no substitute at this stage of the year for sitting down against the clock and doing two reading comprehensions. Everyone has access to the marking schemes online ( and you should correct them yourself. When grading them, be as hard on yourself as possible; don’t give yourself marks for having “almost” the right answer. If you do not have the vocabulary to change the wording in your answers, don’t waste time you’ll still get most of the marks. It is not a good idea to have set essays learned off by heart, ready to regurgitate. This will only get you into trouble; you will have no plan b. If you learn a few essay formats and styles you can change vocabulary to fit different titles, so you’ll never be stuck. As a final tip, I would start a grammar and vocabulary copy if you have not already done so. This should be your bible in the last few weeks. Put all the basic mistakes that you make regularly in one half of the copy, eg, cúpla + uimhir uatha or words that you consistently spell incorrectly. In the other half, have a couple of seanfhocail agus nathanna cainte that might be useful in your essays. Mar fhocal scoir, ádh mór sna scrúduithe!


Irish Ordinary Level Mícheál Ó Ruairc Irish Teacher at the Institute of Education Mícheál graduated with a B.A., H.D.E. from UCC and later obtained a Master’s degree (First-Class Hons) in Nua-Ghaeilge from Maynooth University. Edco has published more than 25 of his school textbooks. His most recent publication ‘Revise Wise Irish’, a Revision Book for Leaving Cert Higher Level students, is a bestseller. He is also the author of three collections of poetry and nine novels in the Irish language. He has vast experience in teaching Irish and has a long association with The Institute of Education.

Micheal O Ruairc

Please note: (i) A half-page of foolscap is sufficient (ii) Most of the marks are awarded for the quality of the Irish (iii) The three primary tenses are essential – Caite, Láithreach agus Fáistineach (iv) Use An Chopail (the Copula) 'is': is breá liom; is cuimhin liom; ní mór dom; is fear deas é etc (v) Learn lots of phrases and seanfhocail for this question, eg. ar ámharaí an tsaoil (as luck would have it); ó dhubh go dubh (from dark to dark); Níl tuairim dá laghad agam (I haven't a clue)/ Mol an óige agus tiocfaidh sí (praise youth and it will prosper); Níl aon tinteán mar do thinteán féin (there's no place like home); Ní thagann ciall roimh aois (sense doesn't come before age) etc

B: Scéal/Story (60 Marc) You must do either (i) or (ii) in this question.

Gaeilge – Gnáthleibhéal – 2010 OVERVIEW – FORMAT OF THE EXAM (i) An Scrúdú Cainte/Oral

150 marc

(ii) An Scrúdú CluastuisceanaAural

120 marc

(iii) Páipéar 1/Paper 1

220 marc

(iv) Páipéar 2/Paper 2

110 marc


600 MARC

LISTENING COMPREHENSION – (120 MARC) The following is the layout of An Triail Chluastuisceana: Cuid A: Fógraí raidió (3) each one is repeated twice Cuid B: Comhráite (3) each one is repeated three times Cuid C: Píosaí Nuachta (3) each one is repeated twice

Jedward: See topics to watch for on Page 18

The following procedures must be observed when doing An Triail Chluastuisceana: Use the pauses constructively by reading all the questions in the section ahead of you and by trying to figure out what they mean You must keep up with the CD. If you fall behind you are in serious trouble. Do not try to go back to any question you missed out on. This will only frustrate you. You need to be very well prepared. If you have been doing listening comprehension on a regular basis you will be familiar with the different canúintí (dialects), the different ábhair (themes) and the different toipicí (topics). Many of the topics you will find familiar as they will relate to the 2009/2010 school year.

Think of the following points of information before attempting the scéal: (i) Write an scéal in the proper Tense – this is invariably An Aimsir Chaite – and have a number of suitable verbs prepared, eg. fuair mé; chonaic mé; chuala mé; rinne mé; thugamar; shroicheamar; dhún sí; d'éist mé; d'oscail sé; bhaineamar; cheannaigh siad; thit mé; bhuail mé le; ghlaoigh siad; léim mé; tháinig sé; chuaigh mé; ní raibh sé etc (ii) Be able to use An Chopail 'is' in the course of an scéal eg. b'álainn an oíche í; ba dhuine deas é Seán; ba mhinic a tharla sé; ní dóigh liom é; is cuimhin liom cad a tharla ina dhiaidh sin; ba mhaith liom dul abhaile; b'aoibhinn linn an samhradh etc (iii) Learn some nathanna áisiúla (useful phrases) which you can use in an scéal eg. ar nós na gaoithe; ar ámharaí an tsaoil; gan a thuilleadh moille; ar mhuin na muice; buíochas le Dia; i bprapadh na súl etc (iv) Also learn a few seanfhocail which could come in handy eg. 'nuair a bhíonn an cat amuigh bíonn na lucha ag rince'; 'filleann an feall ar an bhfeallaire; 'beidh lá eile ag an bPaorach'; 'is fearr rith maith ná drochsheasamh' etc (v) Try and keep your sentences short and grammatically correct eg. Bhí mé ag dul abhaile i m'aonar; Ní raibh duine ná deoraí ar na sráideanna; Go tobann chuala mé scread; Bhuail scanradh mé; Thosaigh mé ag crith; Cé a bhí ann? etc

C – LITIR (60 Marc) You must do either (i) or (ii) in this question.

Páipéar 1 – 220 marc Ceist 1 Ceapadóireacht / Composition – 120 marc Freagair do rogha dhá cheann de A, B, C, D anseo thíos. (N.B. You cannot do two questions from any one section.) A: Giota Leanúnach/continuous passage

(60 marc)

Choose only one from this section. Make sure that you fully understand the title you choose. Giotaí Leanúnacha Samplacha:

Usually, you must choose between (i) Litir Phearsanta (personal letter which you write to a friend/acquaintance/ penfriend/parent – somebody that you know personally) or (ii) Litir Fhoirmiúil – a formal letter written to somebody whom you don't know personally – newspaper editor;manager; employer etc (i) You must layout the letter properly: (a) An Seoladh: the address should be in Irish eg.

(i) An tsuim a chuireann daoine óga sa cheol. Sneachta (ii) An clár teilifíse (nó an scannán) is fearr liom. (iii) The following are some sample topics: An áit a bhíonn ag an spórt I saol na n-óg Daoine óga agus na fadhbanna a bhíonn acu (young people and their problems) - an t-ól, drugaí, dífhostaíocht (unemployment), foréigean (violence) etc Saol na scoile (school life) Mar a chaithim an deireadh seachtaine (how I spend the weekend) An post nó an tslí bheatha (job or career) is fearr liom Laethanta saoire agus taisteal (holidays and travel) Mo cheantar féin (my own area)

(a) 'Teach na hAille', Bóthar na Trá, Gaillimh. (b) 22 Meán Fómhair

(c) A Aindrias, a chara, Beatha agus Sláinte!

(d) Slán tamall, Do chara dílis, Ursula. IRISH INDEPENDENT/INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION 17

Irish Ordinary Level (b) An Dáta: the date should be written in Irish under an seoladh eg. 6 Nollaig; 15 Márta; 8 Feabhra etc (c) (i) An Beannú: Litir Phearsanta A Liam, a chara, / A Úna, a stór,/ A thuismitheoirí,/ A Mháire, a chroí etc (ii) An Beannú: Litir Fhoirmiúil A Chara,/ A Eagarthóir, a chara,/ A dhuine uasail,/ A Bhainisteoir, a chara etc (d) (i) Críoch na Litreach: Litir Phearsanta Slán go fóill. /Slán tamall. Do chara dílis /Do bhuanchara, Gearóid. Deirdre. (ii) Críoch na Litreach: Litir Fhoirmiúil Is mise, Le Meas, Caitlín Ní Ghríofa. (ii) It is important that you learn a good number of nathanna áisiúla (useful phrases) and foclóir (vocabulary) for to use in An Litir. The following list should be very useful: ● Beatha agus Sláinte! – Good health to you ● Tá súil agam go bhfuil tú go maith? – I hope you are well? ● An bhfuil aon scéal nua agat? – Have you any news? ● Tá mé féin is mo chlann go maith – Myself and my family are well ● Tá mé an-bhuíoch díot – I’m very grateful to you ● Thaitin an chóisir go mór liom – I really enjoyed the party ● Is áit aoibhinn liom an trá seo – This beach is lovely ● Tá na daoine cairdiúil agus fáilteach – The people are friendly and welcoming ● Níl faic eile le rá agam – I’ve nothing else to say ● Caithfidh mé brostú – I must rush ● Abair le do dheirfiúr go raibh mé ag cur a tuairisce – Tell your sister I was asking for her ● Scríobh chugam le casadh an phoist – Write to me by return of post ● Go n-éirí an t-ádh leat/ádh mór ort – Good luck to you ● Slán go fóill – Bye for now An Litir Fhoirmiúil ● Níor thaitin an t-alt sin liom – I didn't like that article ● Ba mhaith liom gearán a dhéanamh – I'd like to make a protest ● Táim thar a bheith míshásta – I’m very unhappy ● Tá tú ag dul thar fóir – You are going too far ● Ba mhaith liom cur isteach ar an bpost sin – I'd like to apply for that job ● Seol foirm iarratais chugam, le do thoil – Send me an application form, please ● Ní aontaím leat ar chor ar bith – I don’t agree with you at all ● Go dtí go gcloisfidh mé uait, beir bua agus beannacht! – Until I hear from you,good tidings!

D – COMHRÁ (60 Marc) You must choose between (i) or (ii) in this question. Please bear in mind the following points if you are attempting this question: Caint dhíreach (direct speech) is to be used in the Comhrá Comhrá should be presented as a playtext Mise: Cá bhfuil tú ag dul anois, a Eithne? Eithne: Táim ag dul as mo mheabhair, cá eile! Mise: Bhfuil cead agamsa dul i do theannta?! It is necessary to learn a lot of nathanna áisiúla (useful phrases) in preparation for this question: ● Dia duit/Dia is Muire duit – Hello/Hello (in reply) ● Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú? – How are you getting on? ● Ní féidir liom glacadh le sin – I can't accept that ● A leithéid de sheafóid! – Such rubbish!


● Ní chreidim focal de! – I don't believe a word of it! ● Níl tú dáiríre!/A leithéid de mhí-ádh! – You can't be serious! / Such bad luck ● Go n-éirí an bóthar leat!/Go dté tú slán! – Good luck to you! / Have a safe journey! ● Slán leat/Slán agat – Bye bye to you

Ceist 2 Léamhthuiscint / reading comprehension (100 Marc) You have to answer questions on TWO comprehension

passages. Each comprehension passage is accompanied by five questions. So you are answering 10 Questions in total. (i) Make sure you read the passage carefully first before attempting to answer the questions. (ii) Each passage will be divided into five (sometimes four) paragraphs and each question will come from a specific and named paragraph. You should not have too much difficulty in locating the required answer in that specific paragraph. (iii) Always try and answer in a full sentence framed from the question, eg. Ceist: Cén fáth go raibh Deiric déanach don don scoil inné? Mar níor dhúisigh sé in am. (iv) Short concise answers will suffice. Do not write down the whole paragraph as an answer!! (v) Topics to watch out for this year: Foireann rugbaí na hÉireann; An cúlú eacnamaíochta (the recession); na tuilte (the floods); sneachta; stailceanna (strikes); Jedward etc

Páipéar 2 – 110 marc ROINN A Ceist 1


(55 Mharc)

You must answer Ceist 1 (a) AND (b) here. Ceist 1 (a) (i) (25 Mharc) This question usually takes the format of a quotation from one of the Prose Extracts and you are asked to tell what happens from that point onwards in the extract. So a detailed and thorough knowledge of all of the imeachtaí agus eachtraí (happenings and events) in each of the Prose Extracts is required. You must be able to write a summary of the story and to be able to do this you must know each text well. Ceist 1 (a) (ii) (10 Marc) This second part of the question usually takes the format of being asked to discuss one of the characters from the specified Prose Extract. You are asked to write about this character, say what kind of person you think he/she is, say what kinds of traits/characteristics this person possesses AND whether you liked/disliked him/her AND why. N.B. You have an internal choice in Ceist 1 (i), (ii) between two Prose Extracts. Ceist 1 (b)

(20 Marc)

In Ceist 1 (b) you are required to choose one of the remaining Prose Extracts (that haven't already come up in Ceist 1 (a) and answer a question where you are asked to choose from a list of téamaí (themes) and write a cuntas gairid (brief account) about that saothar amháin (single prose extract) in relation to the theme in question. There is internal choice in Ceist 1 (b). So alternatively you may be asked to choose saothar amháin (single prose extract) and write a cuntas gairid (brief account) of why you liked (or disliked) the extract OR you may be asked to write about a pearsa (carachtar) (person (character)) from that extract/story and why you liked (or disliked) that person/character and why.

Ceisteanna Samplacha Ceist 1 Freagair (a) agus (b) anseo. Ceist 1 (a) “Bhí an bhean óg chomh caol le gáinne, ach ní raibh aon righneas inti.” (An Bhean Óg) Tabhair cuntas gairid ar an mbean óg ón eolas atá sa ghearrscéal seo fúithi. (25 marc)

Cén sórt duine é an fear sa ghearrscéal seo? Déan cur síos gairid air. Inis cén fáth ar thaitin (nó nár thaitin) sé leat. (Is leor dhá fháth.) (10 marc) NÓ “Thugamar turas ar Ghleann Phádraig seachtain nó mar sin i ndiaidh Sally Oisín a thabhairt chugam. (Coileach Ghleann Phádraig) Tabhair cuntas gairid ar ar tharla ina dhiaidh sin sa scéal go dtí gur fhág siad Gleann Phádraig. (25 marc) Cén sórt duine é an Coilichín (fear céile Sally), dar leat? Déan cur síos gairid air agus inis cén fáth ar thaitin (nó nár thaitin) sé leat. (Is leor dhá fháth.) (10 marc) NÓ “Sa chaint dúinn mar sin, cá mbeimis ach ar aghaidh an tí óil amach i gCeann Trá.” (Fiche Blian ag Fás) Tabhair cuntas gairid ar ar tharla ina dhiaidh sin sliocht go dtí gur fhág an t-údar (Muiris) agus a chara, Tomás, an teach tábhairne. (25 marc) Cé acu is fearr leat, Muiris nó Eoin? Cuir fáthanna le do fhreagra. (Is leor dhá fháth.) (10 marc) Ceist 1 (b) Maidir leis na saothar eile a ndearna túí staidéar orthu le linn do chúrsa – An Cearrbhach Mac Cába, Lá Buí Bealtaine nó Clare sa Spéir, Lig Sinn i gCathú – roghnaigh saothar amháin díobh a bhfuil ceann amháin de na téamaí seo a leanas i gceist ann agus tabhair cuntas gairid ar a bhfuil sa saothar sin faoin téama atá roghnaithe agat. saol na scoile (nó na hollscoile) cearrbhachas

greann gliceas

saoirse grá (20 marc)

NÓ Maidir leis na saothair eile a ndearna tú staidéir orthu le linn do chúrsa – An Cearrbhach Mac Cába, Lá Buí Bealtaine nó Clare sa Spéir, Lig Sinn i gCathú – roghnaigh saothar amháin díobh. Tabhair cuntas gairid ar dhá rud ann, rud amháin a bhí suimiúil (go maith) agus rud amháin nach raibh suimiúil (nach raibh go maith). (20 marc)

Irish Ordinary Level Roinn A Filíocht Ainmnithe (55 mharc) Ceist 2 You must answer Ceist 2 (a) AND (b) here. Ceist 2 (a)

(35 mharc)

There are four questions (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) to be answered in this question. (There is internal choice). The following are the main types of questions that appear on a regular basis: (a) Inis, i d'fhocail féin, cad is téama don dán seo. Tell, in your own words, what the theme of the poem is. (b) Cad é an mothúchán is treise sa dán? What is the strongest emotion/feeling in the poem? (c) Déan cur síos, i d'fhocail féin, ar dhá mheafar nó ar dhá íomhá (pictiúir) atá sa dán seo. Ar thaitin an dá mheafar sin leat? Cuir fáth amháin le do fhreagra. Describe, in your own words, two metaphors or images (pictures) that are in the poem. Did you like the two metaphors? Give one reason with your answer. (d) An dóigh leat go bhfuil Gealt? oiriúnach mar theideal ar an dán seo? (Do you think Gealt? is a suitable title for this poem? (e) “D'fhéach an páiste ar an ngealt! Rinne an ghealt meangadh mór mantach gáire!” Inis, i d'fhocail féin, a bhfuil i gceist ag an bhfile leis na línte sin. Tell, in your own words, what the poet means by these lines. (f) Déan cur síos ar an gcodarsnacht atá sa dán. Discuss the use of contrast in the poem. (h) Ar thaitin an dán Gealt? leat? Did you like the poem Gealt? Cén fáth? (Dhá fháth.) Ceist 2 (b)

(20 Marc)

In Ceist 2 (b) you are required to answer one question on a given

Hector O Heochagain Is mise Hector! Is maith liom na capaill! poem (There is internal choice). The following are the main types of questions that are asked here: (i) Mothúchán (emotion/feeling). You are given a list of six mothúchán. You are asked to choose one and discuss it in the context of the poem in question. greann cumha (nó briseadh croí)

eagla grá

uaigneas brón

(ii) Príomhsmaointe an dáin (main idea/theme of the poem). You are asked to identify what it is and why you liked (or disliked it). (iii) Íomhá/íomhánna (image(s)/picture(s)). You are asked to choose one image from the poem that you liked (or disliked) and say why you liked (or disliked it). Ádh mór oraibh go léir sa Scrúdú!


French Corinne Gavenda French Teacher in The Institute of Education

PARIS - the city of cafés and romance: French President Nicolas Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni have a quiet moment over coffee

Corinne Gavenda has been teaching French in the Institute of Education since 1984 and is a regular contributor to the Exambrief supplement. She graduated from Trinity College and was editor of the magazine Authentik in the mid-80’s. ■ SPONTANEITY and CLARITY are the two keywords of your French exam. ■ First, make sure you are familiar with the exam paper:

SECTION 1 : COMPRÉHENSION ÉCRITE Honours 30% Ordinary 40% Time allocation:

Honours: 30 to 35 mn per text Ordinary: 15 mn per text of Q1 and Q2 35 mn per text of Q3 and Q4

■ All comprehension texts on the paper must be done. ■ When approaching the text, read headline and subheadline (if provided) question 6 which will give you a general idea of the topic. ■ 5 types of questions: cut and paste, reformulation, vocabulary, grammar and multiple choice. Always answer in the language used in the question. ■ Scan section 1, read the questions that deal with it, highlight the keywords, be clear on what you are being asked and get into your text. Highlight the sentence you are going to work with and finally write your answer on the line provided. When line (a) and line (b) are given for the answer, they must both be used. If you were to write the full answer on one of these lines only, you would only get half the points. ■ Move to section 2 and follow the same pattern. This means you must first be familiar with the words used in the questions: Trouvez, relevez, citez mean quote. Use your text without changing a single word if the question continues with the following terms: Un mot, une expression, une phrase are the words that will be used. Un mot = one word only, anything else would be considered as overquoting. Une expression = more than one word, but not automatically the full sentence. Une phrase = a full sentence from one end of a full stop to the other. Marks are often lost because students do not read the questions properly. Look out for the following question words: Quand (when), Où (where), Comment (how), Qui (who),



Pourquoi (why), Combien de temps (how long), Que, Qu’est-ce-que, Qu’est-ce-qui (what), Lequel (which one).

coup de gens s’intéressent à eux ?

This is when you must ask yourself if you need to manipulate the text or not.

The Grammar question. This may be either a question based on pronouns or on the recognition of a grammatical term.

So, what is manipulation? First, you do not need to change the words of the text; all you may have to do is readapt the grammar in such a way that it matches the question. The most obvious example is when the text is in the “JE” form, first person narrative: In the second comprehension text 2008, Q 2 (ii): “ ….. j’ai un coup de fil à passer et je t’attendrai dans le jardin…..” Question: Trouvez la raison que Nicolas a donnée pour ne pas accompagner Lucrèce. Answer: Il a un coup de fil à passer

Answer : Leur blog reçoit trois cent visites par jour.

You will read: Pour le pronom en italique, trouvez le mot auquel il se réfère. You must find the word in the text which is replaced by the pronoun. The answer will always be one word. Pronouns such as la (her) for instance will obviously replace something feminine, singular, leur (them) will replace something plural, masculine or feminine. « Nous avons signé un contrat de neuf ans avec le gouvernement. Si les huit années restantes passent à la vitesse de la première, nous le prolongerons sans doute. » ‘le’ replaces contrat only

In 2009, the same type of question applied to possessive adjectives :

You may be asked to recognise adjectives, adverbs (LC 2008, LC 2009), prepositions but very often this question is based on verbs and their tenses (LC 2008).

In the first comprehension text 2009, Q 4: “ Notre blog reçoit trois cent visites par jour.” Question: Comment Soizic et David savent-ils que beau-

Here is a brief summary of what you are looking for. The answers required are simply the words highlighted. Do not quote anything else but the verb.

French ■ Participe passé: This is not a tense, this is the form of the verb we use to form a passé composé for instance. ie: pris (taken), nourri (fed) (1998, 2000, 2006) ■ Participe présent: again this is not a tense but a form of the verb. Easily recognisable because it always ends with the letters –ant. Just make sure it is a verb. ie: se regardant (looking at herself) (2002) ■ Passé simple: Based on the stem of the past participle. Look for verbs finishing with as,a, irent, èrent . ie: (je) pris (I took) ■ Présent du subjonctif : Based on the present tense of the nous or the ils form. Revise the irregular verbs, always check that there is a form requiring the subjunctive. ie: (je voulais que tout) redevienne. (that everything might become again) (1997, 2008) ■ Imparfait du subjonctif came up in 2003, an unusual tense to ask but students would be expected to have spotted the expression bien que which requires the subjunctive.

Two words tenses ■ Passé composé: avoir in the present + past participle: ie, (j’)ai écrit (I wrote) If the auxiliary is être, double check that you are dealing with an être verb (see below). Aller – rester – rentrer – retourner – arriver – entrer – partir – sortir – monter – descendre – tomber – venir – revenir – devenir – naître - mourir ■ Plus-que-parfait: avoir in the imperfect + past participle. ie: (la peur que j’) avais contenue (had contained) (1998) Same thing for être verbs. All these tenses can be asked with un verbe pronominal (a reflexive verb). You must then quote as well the pronoun placed right in front of the verb. Finally, QUESTION 6 must be answered in English/Irish.

One word tenses

■ Présent de l’indicatif: This is the present tense you are used to. The word l’indicatif is there to differentiate it from the subjunctive. Make sure you are in a present context. ie: (je) vais ( go, am going) ■ Impératif: mostly identical to the present tense of the first person singular (je), you will recognise it because there is no subject, it is an order. ie: Viens! (Come!) Mange! (Eat!) ■ Futur simple: this is the full infinitive with the following endings ai, as, a, ons, ez, ont. ie: (il) quittera ( will leave). Do not be put off by the word ‘simple’, this is the future tense you are used to. (see papers 1998, 2004, 2007) ■ Conditionnel: this is the full infinitive with the following endings ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient. ie: (sa famille) pourrait (could) (2006) Don’t mix it up with the imperfect. ■ Imparfait: Stem of the present tense in the nous form with the following endings ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient. ie: cherchait ( was looking for) (2000)

Find two distinct points and elaborate on each by using examples out of the text. This is not about giving your personal opinion. This is about your understanding of the text. Avoid quoting in French without making it clear that you understand the quote. This question has been made clearer by its lay out on the paper with point (a) and point (b). It is worth 10 marks. By then, you will be familiar with the text. Read this last question very carefully and get back into a more thorough reading of the text in order to find the relevant examples out of it. In the first comprehension text 2009, the question was: Do you think that Soizic and David have adapted well to living on the island of Quéménès? Refer to the text in support of your answer. (Two points, about 50 words in total.) You can agree or disagree providing the answer is backed up by the text. (a) They have adapted well because they have established a routine by going regularly to the nearby port to buy food and socialise. (b) They are also trying to be self-sufficient by growing their own potatoes and raising their own sheep. They are also making a living by having guest rooms. Keep your answer as concise and clear as possible. Avoid waffling but do not waste time either on counting the words, 50 words is merely a guideline and you will not be penalised for going over it! The same process can be adapted to the ordinary level comprehension texts. The structure of the questions is similar; the question words are the same. The only difference is the lay out of this section and of course its level of diffi-

culty. Students must do 4 texts. Texts 1 and 2 are based on information retrieval and must be answered in English. The answers required are short and do not require full sentences. Texts 3 and 4 will often be of journalistic and literary style and must be answered in French apart from the last question (8 marks), which does not require any French quote. ■ THE SECOND PART OF THE PAPER IS MOSTLY ABOUT GIVING YOUR OPINION AND THERE IS NO REAL TIME PRESSURE.

SECTION 2 : PRODUCTION ÉCRITE Honours 25% Ordinary 15% Time allocation:

Honours: You must write 3 exercises Q1 is compulsory: 30 mn Choose another 2 exercises from Q2, 3 or 4: 20 mn each Ordinary: 15 mn per text of Q1 and Q2 35 mn per text of Q3 and Q4

When revising, have first a list of template sentences you are going to use to structure your answer.

The opinion piece

Read question carefully, underline keywords, prepare a plan (intro, devt, conc.) and then start writing. Do not paraphrase the reading comprehension text in any way. This is now about your own ideas. Have a good opening phrase, such as : ‘De nos jours, je pense qu’il ne fait aucun doute que …..’ Learn expressions which will allow you to bring in two to three points, such as ‘Certains disent que…’, ‘D’autres prétendent aussi que….’, ‘Moi, je suis plutôt d’avis que….’ Finally the start of a conclusion such as : ‘Par conséquent, nous pouvons en conclure que…’ Developing your vocabulary to put across your point of view is important: Expressing agreement:

je suis d’accord avec… Je suis pour. Je suis de cet avis. Expressing disagreement: Je ne suis pas d’accord avec… Je suis contre. Je suis opposé(e) à…. Expressing anger: Cela me met en colère! C’est une honte! Je suis furieux (se) à l’idée que… Expressing disappointment: Quelle déception! Quel dommage! Expressing worry: Je trouve cela très inquiétant. Here is question 1 (a) of 2009: Dans la Section 1, Q1, Soizic dit que « nous avons … même une connexion internet. » En Irlande aujourd’hui beaucoup de personnes pensent qu’il est impossible de vivre sans Internet. Qu’en pensez-vous ? IRISH INDEPENDENT/INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION 21

French (Identify your topic):

Here is question 1 (b) of 2009:

Est-il vraiment possible d’échapper à Internet dans le monde actuel ? Peut-être pas impossible mais certainement difficile. Nous vivons en effet dans un monde informatisé qui ne cesse de bouger et cette technologie fait maintenant partie de la vie de tous les jours .

Selon la Section 1, Q2, Mélodie et sa mère ont été obligées de déménager et de s’installer dans un nouveau quartier. Et vous, est-ce-que votre famille a déjà déménagé ? Avez-vous dû quitter votre quartier, vos amis et vos camarades de classe ? Quels en étaient vos sentiments ? Racontez ce qui s’est passé. (Target the topic of the question : feelings)

(Discuss) Prenez tout d’abord la vie d’un ado : pour ses devoirs à l’école, il n’a plus vraiment besoin de se plonger dans les livres, un clic de souris et il est sur Internet et là, le choix d’informations disponibles est effarant ! Les amis, il les a vus ce jour-là mais il a envie de discuter encore un peu avec eux, d’organiser une petite fête, des sorties pour le weekend, c’est sur des sites tels que Facebook que l’ado passera des heures parfois quand il rentre à la maison. Pour les adultes, ce n’est guère différent. On peut tout faire sur Internet : des réservations pour les vacances, ses courses de la semaine, sans oublier ses transactions bancaires. On peut maintenant facilement rester en contact avec la famille et les amis à l’étranger par courriel, tout en envoyant des photos et de la musique. Les avantages sont donc innombrables et je comprends qu’il soit difficile d’imaginer la vie sans internet. (Conclude) Bien sûr, la question qu’il faut se poser, c’est : sommes-nous dépendants d’Internet au point de ne pas en voir les inconvénients ? J’espère que non. Il faut sortir, faire du sport, parler aux autres sans l’intermédiaire d’un écran. Il faut savoir apprécier les choses simples et être capable d’éteindre nos portables, que ce soit des ordinateurs ou des téléphones.

The narrative

Read question very carefully, identify the issue and then start your story. Do not lose the reader with unnecessary details, have an order of actions: 1. Set the scene 2. Say what happened 3. Draw a conclusion from it To start with: ■ Ce texte m’a rappelé: (This text reminded me of…) une expérience que j’ai vécue (an experience I have lived through) une personne que j’ai connue (a person I have known) un sentiment que (a feeling I have j’ai déjà éprouvé already had) The story ■ Je me souviens (I remember) du jour où / de la fois où / de l’année où Je n’oublierai jamais ce jour-là …. (I will never forget that day) J’avais + age /J’étais petit…..(setting the scene in the imperfect) ■ Soudain / Tout à coup / …. J’ai entendu, j’ai vu, j’ai senti, j’ai reconnu…. (all actions interrupting the background scene and all reactions go in the passé composé, state of being remain in the imperfect) To conclude ■ Je dois dire que depuis… ( I have to say that, since…) Depuis ce jour-là ( since that day) Note: Le jour-même (that same day), la veille (the day before), une semaine avant (a week before), le lendemain (the next day), le lendemain matin (the next morning).



Oui, j’ai déjà déménagé et c’est une expérience que je n’oublierai jamais. Il y a deux ans, alors que j’étais dans l’année de transition et que je m’amusais comme un fou, mes parents m’ont déclaré, sans même me demander mon avis, que nous allions tous partir habiter à la campagne dans une plus grande maison et que mon frère et moi allions donc changer d’école. J’étais anéanti ! Je n’en revenais pas ! Mon quartier et mes copains, j’allais laisser tout ça ! Le lendemain, je n’ai pas adressé la parole à mes parents, j’étais dégoûté ! Et puis, le jour fatidique est arrivé, c’était un matin de janvier, il faisait froid, je crois même qu’il pleuvait ce jour-là. Le camion de déménagement venait de partir, nous sommes tous montés en voiture, certains de mes copains étaient venus me dire au revoir et j’ai eu beaucoup de mal à retenir mes larmes quand la voiture a démarré. Deux ans plus tard, je me suis bien intégré à ma nouvelle école, j’ai pas mal de copains aussi mais mes amis d’avant me manquent, je me sens toujours un peu déraciné. Alors, tous les mois, on se retrouve et on essaie de rattraper le temps perdu! J’étais anéanti: I was shattered Je n’en revenais pas : I could not believe it J’étais dégoûté: I was disgusted J’ai eu beaucoup de mal à retenir mes larmes: I found it hard to hold back the tears Je me sens un peu déraciné: I feel a bit uprooted

The diary

The style is INFORMAL and you are expressing an emotion. Read the instructions carefully; in 2008, the mention of ‘plusieurs projets’ had to be developed, in 2009, the account of an argument was the focus of the diary. There is no format required. This is one of the possibilities of question 2 and it is optional. This was the topic of the diary 2009: Aujourd’hui vous vous êtes disputé(e) avec votre meilleur(e) ami(e). Après être rentré(e) à la maison, qu’estce-que vous notez à ce sujet dans votre journal intime ? Mardi, 15 juin, 11heures. Cher journal, J’en ai tellement marre ! Je suis atterré, je n’en reviens pas ! Attends que je te raconte un peu ce qui s’est passé aujourd’hui ! On venait de finir l’examen d’histoire et comme tu sais, après chaque épreuve, j’essaie de ne pas analyser les questions. Donc, j’étais en train de parler avec des copains quand Conor, mon meilleur ami, s’est mis à me dire ce qu’il avait mis comme réponses. Conor se débrouille super bien en histoire, mais pour moi c’est ma bête noire ! Il le sait ! Je ne voulais pas en parler, donc il a commencé à se moquer de moi ! Ce n’était peut-être pas méchant mais j’ai vu rouge et je me suis mis dans une telle colère que j’ai dit des choses que je ne pensais pas. Ça a failli se finir en bagarre ! Une chose est sûre en tout cas c’est qu’il ne m’invitera pas à ses 18 ans ce weekend, ça me fait beaucoup de peine et demain j’essaierai de lui parler mais je crois que je suis allé

trop loin. Allez, il vaut mieux que j’aille me coucher ! A demain. John ■ On venait de finir: We had just finished ■ J’étais en train de parler: I was in the process of talking ■ Conor s’est mis à me dire: Conor started telling me ■ Il se débrouille super bien: He does really well ■ Ça a failli se finir en bagarre: It nearly ended in a fight ■ Ça me fait beaucoup de peine: It really saddens me

The message / fax / e-mail

This is another one of the possibilities of question 2 and it is optional. The style can be INFORMAL or FORMAL. No format is required. Analyze the instructions to be translated: 1. Tense 2. Vocabulary It does not have to be a word for word translation. Convey the message as clearly as possible. Do not add any irrelevant details. 2009, Q2(b) You wish to attend the Festival Interceltique in Lorient, Brittany in August 2009. Write an email to the organisers in which you make the following points: - Introduce yourself and say you heard about the festival from your French teacher; - your teacher attended the festival in 2008 and said it was very enjoyable; - you are interested in traditional music and dance and you play the violin; - you speak good French and would like to help at this year’s festival; - you hope they will reply soon.

Monsieur, Madame, Je m’appelle Kevin Dunne et j’ai entendu parler de votre festival par mon prof de français qui y est allé l’année dernière et qui nous l’a recommandé avec beaucoup d’enthousiasme. Le festival lui a vraiment plu et il s’y est beaucoup amusé. Pour ma part, je m’intéresse énormément à la musique et à la danse traditionnelles et je joue, de plus, du violon depuis l’âge de quatre ans. Mon niveau de français est assez bon et j’aimerais donc savoir s’il serait possible de participer au festival de cette année en aidant avec l’organisation des activités. En vous remerciant d’avance d’une prompte réponse, je vous envoie mes sentiments les plus sincères. Kevin Dunne

The letter

Last of the possible options of question 2 and again an optional exercise. This can be formal or informal. A specific format must be applied. La lettre informelle Top right hand side: Place, date Dublin, le 4 juin No addresses. Open with : Cher / Chère… Use familiar style and colloquial phrases Close with: Amitiés Sign with your first name only. La lettre formelle op right hand side : Place, date, year Dublin, le 4 juin 2009 Underneath : address of the person you are writing to

French Opposite: your name and address and country Formal style only : use vous, votre, vos Start with : Monsieur, Madame (do not insert their surname) End with : Je vous prie d’agréer, Monsieur/Madame, l’expression de mes sentiments les meilleurs. Sign with the surname given to you.

Q3 + Q4 Réaction au document

- Read document carefully and underline keypoints. Make sure to react to this passage in particular rather than to the general theme. Do not go off the point. Identify and state your reaction: ie : J’ai été choqué(e) de lire dans ce document que + topic identified Je n’ai pas pu m’empêcher de sourire en voyant ... Cette photo / Ce document est très intéressant(e) car elle/il montre que ... - Discuss (See section on essay writing ) - Do not copy the text, use your own vocabulary. Do not remain too abstract either, remember this is a personal reaction. - Conclude by giving suggestion to a solution.

Reading over your work Refrain yourself from writing too much, you are better off keeping some time to read over your work. Try to read each passage three times, each time checking something different: 1. Check tenses and endings of verbs. 2. Check agreements of nouns and adjectives. 3. Check general coherence.

SECTION 3 : LA COMPRÉHENSION ORALE Honours 20% Ordinary 25% Sections 1 to 4 are generally heard three times. In Section 5 each news extract is heard twice only. You must answer in English 1. Read instructions carefully, highlight words such as ‘when’, ‘who’, ‘how many’ 2. Listen to the first listening 3. Write only at the second listening, because the pauses give you an indication of where the answers are located. Be as precise as possible with your answers and include small words such as: very, straight away, directly… 4. Check at the third listening The best way to practice for this part of the exam is to practice on past exam tapes, listen to each extract with the text in front of you, take note of the new vocabulary and also go back over numbers. For the last section, try catching the news in French. The more exposure you get to the language, the better your understanding.

ORDINARY LEVEL The productive writing at ordinary level is based mostly on translation of instructions. Section A is the only section which bears no resemblance with the honours paper. There is a choice between a fill in the gaps exercise based on an informal letter or a form filling exercise. Section B gives a choice between the message and the postcard and here students can use the advice of the informal letter. Section C gives a choice between the diary and the letter writing and here again, the advice given to honours students apply to this section, keeping in mind that the instructions will obviously be much easier. Fill-in the gaps exercise: There are 10 spaces worth 3 marks each. The words omitted are given in a jumbled order. Pay particular attention to capital letters when required and to spelling in general. Always try to make sense of the text before starting filling up the blanks. Form-filling exercise: The form includes 9 questions. Questions 1 to 5 do not require complete sentences and are worth 2 marks each. Questions 6 to 9 require full sentences. As it is based on personal details, a lot of the material learnt for the interview and the letter writing should come in handy. Be very careful not to mix up nom (surname) and prénom (first name). The surname will generally come first. Confusion is often made between

date de naissance and anniversaire. On a form, it is the date of birth that will be asked, therefore insert the year. Choose then 2 exercises; most students seem to do on average 3. If so, always attempt the fill in the gaps exercise. Students tend to do well on it. Message LC 2009 Leave the following message for Luc, with whom you are staying in Poitiers: - Your friend Antoine came to the house this morning. - He cannot go to the cinema because he has to help his father. - He will phone you tomorrow at 11.15am. Cher Luc, Je te laisse ce petit mot pour te dire que pendant ton absence, ton ami Luc est passé à la maison ce matin. Il ne peut pas aller au cinéma avec toi parce qu’il doit aider son père. Il te fait ses excuses. Il te passera un coup de fil demain à 11heures et quart pour organiser quelque chose d’autre. A plus tard. Postcard LC 2009 Write a postcard to your friend Pascal in which you say that: - You are working in a restaurant in the South of France. - The customers are nice and the money is good. - You hope to visit Cannes before

returning to Ireland. Cher Pascal, J’espère que tu vas bien et que tu passes de bonnes vacances. Je t’envoie cette carte d’un petit village sur la Côte d’Azur où je travaille comme serveur dans un restaurant. C’est assez bien payé et les clients sont sympas et très généreux avec leurs pourboires. J’espère pouvoir aller visiter Cannes avant de rentrer en Irlande. Donne-moi de tes nouvelles. Amitiés Diary LC 2009 You have just finished the Leaving Certificate. Note the following in your diary: - You have finished your exams and you are very happy. - You did not like English as it was difficult. - You are going to organise a party with your friends. Cher journal, Me voilà de retour à la maison après avoir fini les derniers examens du bac et je suis ravi ! Quel soulagement ! J’ai trouvé l’épreuve d’anglais vraiment difficile et je ne pense pas avoir une bonne note. Mais ce qui compte maintenant c’est de s’amuser et avec les copains, on va organiser une fête pour célébrer le début des vacances ! A demain.

Don’t miss our next Exam Brief, covering all things Financial for this year’s Leaving Cert, Wednesday, 24 March IRISH INDEPENDENT/INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION 23

French Rosie Holohan A1 French The key to succeeding in your Leaving Cert French exam is to practise. Use your time wisely and make sure that your study is productive - there's no point in looking at the same page for an hour - instead, use that hour to try two comprehensions or to practise an exam tape. For the comprehension section of the exam paper, I would recommend that you highlight the key word in the question that tells you whether or not manipulation is needed. Highlight also the sentences you are going to use for your answer. I would advise all students to buy a copy of exam papers or else use them online and go through as many comprehensions as you can. Underline any words you do not know and find out their translation. Make sure that you always correct the comprehensions by printing out solutions from the exam paper's website - this is crucial as it show you where you made your mistakes. Next up are the written pieces. When studying this section, I would advise you not to learn entire essays off by heart. Instead, know five or six sentences on each topic. Write them out on flash cards so that you can test yourself on them and then you can also scan over them the night before the exam. Know some general opinion sentences that you can put into any essay. In the opening paragraph, you should state your opinion and two or three reasons for it. Write two or three body paragraphs, each explaining a reason which you already mentioned in your opening paragraph. Try not to veer off topic. Make sure to read over your essays to check that your verb agrees with its subject and that the adjective


teacher or someone you know who has excellent french. Aim to do two or three extra essays per week and hand them to your corrector. When you get them back it is vital that you rewrite them, with all your mistakes corrected. Ensure that you are able to shape your essay around the exam question and for this, a certain degree of spontaneity is required. To achieve high marks in your oral exam, you need to be very talkative. I found it extremely helpful to learn off a lot of material, although the trick is to be able to adapt it slightly depending on what question you are asked. Pronunciation is also crucial and always make an attempt at a french accent. For the aural, the key to success is persistence. Practise all the previous Name: Rosie Holohan, years' aural exams. It's very helpful Co. Kilkenny. to watch a french film. I watched Schools: Institute of Le Scaphandre Et Le Papillon and Education ended up talking about it in my Points: French A1, Biology oral exam - this is a great way to A1, Chemistry A1, Ag impress the examiner! Science A1, English A2, At this stage of the year, if you Irish B1, Maths (O) A1, 575 haven't really knuckled down yet points with French it can seem very daunting. Try your best not to go into College UCD doing panic mode, there is still a lot of time Veterinary Medicine left if you really want to turn your grade agrees with the noun. A closing paragraph is around. Nothing's impossible - everyone not always necessary but I always used them as I has bad days but just remember that it will all pay felt they gave my essay greater clarity. off in the end. It's an overused phrase, but it really is The best piece of advice I can give you for improving true - practise makes perfect! essays is to find yourself a corrector. This can be your

Oral French Paris - The capital of fashion - Jean Paul Gaultier with Lily Cole at the end of his Fall/Winter 2010 collection

SECTION 4: L’ORAL Honours 25% Ordinary 20% Here are the 4 categories you will be graded on:

PRONUNCIATION (20) Reasonably accurate pronunciation is very important to the running of the conversation. Here are some of the most common pronunciation mistakes: - Consonants at the end of words such as : ils, nous, et are NOT pronounced. - The third person plural ending of the present tense is NEVER heard: ils regardent, ils pensent… - The e with no accent at the end of a word is NOT pronounced, it only stresses the last letter: je regarde. This is a serious mistake because the wrong sound leads to confusion in communication, your examiner assuming you are using a past tense. - h is never pronounced : compréhensif - ch is pronounced like sh : chimie , architecture - qu is pronounced like k : qualifié, tranquille, qui, quand - ss is pronounced like s: pression - ill is pronounced like a y sound: famille, embouteillage [yage] but not for ville or village where you hear the l sound - Watch difference between ain/aine,ier/ière , gens / jeunes


VOCABULARY (20) Building your vocabulary is a long term task , however it will help if you can identify the main topics you will be talking about and if for each of these topics you have practice the key words in sentences that relate to you. ■ You, your family, your home and your town. ■ Your school, your friends and your daily routine. ■ Your hobbies and how you spend your weekends. ■ Your plans for the future, what studies, what job, what opportunities. ■ Your holidays, your travels and findings. ■ What you did last summer, last weekend, yesterday ■ l’été dernier, le weekend dernier, hier ■ What you will do next year, next summer, next weekend, tomorrow ■ l’année prochaine, l’été prochain, le weekend prochain, demain The following abstract topics can then derive from your conversation: ■ Education: problems and pressures ■ Job opportunities, recession, emigration and immigration ■ Social problems such as drugs, alcohol and crime ■ Social issues such as family matters, homelessness and living standards ■ Environmental problems ■ Consequences of the snow last January, natural catastrophes. Also be careful, if you bring up a subject such as ‘J e vais au cinéma au moins une fois par semaine’ obviously you must expect the question ‘Quel est le dernier

film que vous avez vu?’ Failing to discuss this for lack of vocabulary would undoubtedly be noted.


Grammar is a worry to many students during the conversation. If over anxious, it may slow you down. You are meant to be able to differentiate between the following tenses and use them appropriately: 1. présent 2. passé composé 3. imparfait 4. futur 5. conditionnel


Communication relates quite closely to the three previous skills. Keep the conversation going, convey as much information as you can. Remember, a conversation means that you look at the person you are talking to, you answer his/her questions and in doing so you do not drift off in some passage you have learnt off but you develop your response to the full. Simply KEEP TALKING! Ex: ‘Vous sortez souvent le weekend?’ ‘Pas souvent mais de temps en temps. C’est important de se détendre et de retrouver les copains mais mes parents veulent que j’étudie cette année parce que j’ai besoin de beaucoup de points pour entrer en fac ! Je sais que ça en vaut la peine et l’année prochaine j’aurai plus de temps pour m’amuser !’ Tout ce qu’il me reste à vous dire, c’est BONNE CHANCE pour le bac 2010!

Oral Spanish Águeda Keegan Spanish Teacher at the Institute of Education

Águeda has taught Leaving Cert Spanish in the Institute of Education since 1986. She graduated from the University of Salamanca, with an honours degree in Educational Science. In 1981 Agueda was retained by the Spanish Department in Trinity College Dublin to prepare Leaving Cert Spanish teachers for the introduction of the Oral element of the Spanish exam. Agueda was responsible for the Leaving Certificate Exam practice articles published by Authentik (1999 – 2001). Agueda brings passion and an intellectual rigour to the teaching of Spanish at Leaving Certificate.

Fernando Torres, a hero to many Leaving Cert students studying Spanish

The Spanish Oral exam accounts for 25% of the total Leaving Certificate marks. The Oral exam consists of two parts, personal questions and role plays. Typically the exam lasts between twelve and fifteen minutes depending on the student.

Part One - Personal Questions (70 Marks) The examiner uses personal questions to assess knowledge of present, past, future and/or conditional tenses, in that order. Familiarise yourself with the way each tense sounds. Make sure you respond in the correct tense! Similarly, it is important to make sure you understand the question. If you don’t understand ask the examiner in Spanish “Can you repeat again?” (¿Puede repetir por favor?). The examiner will usually rephrase the question in a simpler way. Be warned, however, that repeated prompting from the examiner could result in a lower mark. For each tense, it is recommended that students use as many verbs as possible in their response, a minimum of seven. For example, if the examiner asks “What did you do last weekend?” don’t merely respond with a single activity. To demonstrate a good grasp of the language and an extensive vocabulary, cover the entire day from getting up in the morning to going to bed at night. A good response to “What will you do next summer?” should include your plans from the end of exams to the start of college. A response of “I will go on holidays to Greece” is not sufficient. Don’t make the examiner work to assess your ability. It will give the impression that you have not sufficiently prepared and will result in a lower score. Examiners will be looking out for how students link their vocabulary with different verbs. Use both regular and irregular verbs for each tense. Useful irregular verbs are; * These are regular endings. Present





Di una vuelta por…



Juego a

Jugué un partido




Hice los deberes



Voy a

Fui a …








Estuve en…

* Buscaré un trabajo


Me acuesto

Anduve por…

*Ahorraré dinero para.

*Lo celebraría

Helpful Tip: If you make a grammatical mistake or a mispronunciation, don’t just continue talking. If you have realised an error, correct it! Say “Sorry” (Lo siento) and what you meant to say straight afterwards. You will less likely be penalised for these mistakes. Common topics covered by the examiner; ■ Cumpleaños. Familia. Casa. Barrio. Pasatiempos. Colegio ■ Rutina diaria. ¿Qué haces, qué hiciste, qué harás el fin de semana? ■ ¿Qué programa de televisión te gusta más?. Vacaciones. Viajes o excursiones. ■ ¿Qué vas a estudiar o hacer después del L.C. (de la selectividad)? ■ ¿Qué hiciste el verano pasado? ¿Qué harás el próximo verano? ■ ¿Qué harías si te tocara la loto ?. ¿Si fueras el director/a de tu colegio, qué cambiarías?


Part Two - The Role Plays 30 Marks) The role play comes after the personal questions. The examiner will ask a student one role play from the five prepared. Normally, students have a few minutes to revise the selected role play. Take this opportunity to ask the examiner to explain any words or phrases in the role play that you may have forgotten. You will not be penalised for this. The examiner will then ask if you are ready to begin (¿estás listo/a?). At the end of the role play there is an additional unprepared question related to that particular role play. Make sure your response is appropriate to the situation. Also, it is important never to answer with only a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ response. This is your final chance to show the examiner how much you know. Helpful Tip: Avoid monotony. Have fun with it and play the role. Act! Let the examiner know you are feeling what you are saying. Use intonation in your speech and make eye contact as much as possible. Don’t spend the whole time looking at a sheet! This makes it more enjoyable for you and the examiner leaving a positive impression. An A1 student ■ Has a broad vocabulary relating to different topics ■ Has a good grasp of grammar ■ Demonstrates knowledge of both regular and irregular verbs ■ Has good pronunciation ■ Uses intonation in their speech ■ Demonstrates an element of spontaneity in their responses Preparation Tips ■ Prepare responses to common personal questions ■ Read your responses and role plays out loud once a day ■ Record them and upload the recordings to your MP3/ iPod. Listen to them during the day instead of your music! ■ To practice your conversation skills, and to prepare for unexpected questions, practice speaking Spanish with a friend from class. Have a day or lunch when you can only speak Spanish to each other! By following these preparation tips you will notice that your fluency, pronunciation and comprehension will improve. All this work will give you more confidence in the exam. You will appear more relaxed and at ease with the language. Remember ■ Don’t answer with a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ response. Answer with a full sentence. ■ Use every opportunity to practice speaking Spanish. Don’t wait until the last minute. ■ Don’t be nervous! The examiner is not looking for holes in your knowledge. Steer the conversation to things you are comfortable speaking about.

Oral German Orla Ní Shúilleabháin German Teacher at the Institute of Education Having graduated with a 1st Class Honours H. Dip. from UCD in 1984, Orla has taught in a number of schools in the greater Dublin area. She has been teaching at the Institute of Education since 1985. She contributes to ‘Exam Brief’ and a number of exam lines, and has contributed to RTE Radio’s Post-Exam analysis over the years. Orla has worked as editorial consultant on a number of German text books including ‘Klasse 1’ and ‘Klasse 2’.

■ The German Oral Examination will take place during the weeks of the 12th / 19th of April 2010. ■ It consists of an interview of approx. 20 minutes during which candidates have to deal with three different sections. ■ The examination is common to Higher and Ordinary level candidates marked out of 100 marks in total. 25% at Higher level 20% at Ordinary level Marks for Ordinary Level students are adjusted later to represent 20% of their total mark. ■ The German Oral is very student friendly. It enables the student who works hard and prepares the right material well, to score very high marks.

Tips for Success in the Oral The Secret is in your Preparation ■ Most examiners say that students, who prepare well, perform very well in each section of the oral. ■ Candidates who treat each question as an “invitation to converse” with the examiner perform best in the general questions. ■ Don’t be over- cautious when answering, if you hold back too much in your delivery you are reducing your chances of obtaining the best grade possible. ■ Avoid reproducing learnt off material as students end up concentrating too hard on recalling the information that they lose a lot of marks on pronunciation and communication. ■ Repetition and practice of different questions will help you retain the German and will add fluency to your answers. ■ Mispronunciation of words can often lead to a breakdown in communication which results in many marks being lost. ■ Take every opportunity given to you to talk, expand and show the examiner all the structures, the vocabulary and the phrases you know. ■ Remember: You are rewarded marks for everything you say that is relevant to the question. It is your job to show your willingness to expand on the examiner’s questions and to show your enthusiasm to do well

Know how you are marked There are three sections in the German Oral Exam ■ Section 1 – General Conversation - 40 Marks (10%) ■ Section 2 – Project / Picture Sequences - 30 Marks (7.5%) ■ Section 3 – Roleplay - 30 Marks (7.5%) Total: 100 Marks – 25%

Section 1 General Conversation: 4-5 mins ■ There are 7 main topic areas to prepare for this section: ■ Each topic should be prepared in great detail, as it is easy to anticipate the type of questions asked. ■ The Past Tense – (Perfekt) is guaranteed to be tested during the general conversation i.e. Waren Sie schon in Deutschland? or Was haben Sie letzten Sommer gemacht? ■ Many candidates have difficulty responding appropriately to questions asked in the Perfect tense. This will result in you scoring a much lower grade so prepare your past tense well. 1) -

Details zur Person Wie heißen Sie? Haben Sie Geschwister? Erzählen Sie mir etwas über Ihre Familie.

2) -

Wohnort / area Wie kommen Sie normalerweise zur Schule? Wollen Sie mir ein bisschen über die Umgebung hier erzählen.

3) -

Schule /school Welche Fächer machen Sie an der Schule? Wie unterschiedet sich diese Schule hier von einer Schule in Deutschland? What are the differences between the schools?

4) -

Sprachenlernen/language learning Wie lange lernen Sie schon Deutsch? Was finden Sie leicht / schwierig am Deutschen?

5) -

Berufspläne/career plans Was wollen Sie nach dem Schulabschluss machen? Was würden Sie gern studieren?


Section 2

There is a choice of either a Project or Picture Sequence Section 2(a) Project Candidates who take the project option will be required to hand evidence of their project to the oral examiner prior to the examination. - The project topic may have been prepared in German or English but it would be preferable to prepare and present it in German as you must speak about it in German. - The marking scheme is as follows; 1) Uninterrupted Verbal Presentation 10 marks Should be in your own words and in about 15 /20 simple sentences. Approx. 2 minutes in length. 2) Explanation and Clarification 10 marks You will be asked where you got your information, why you chose this theme, and what you have learnt. ■ Wo haben Sie Informationrn über das Projekt bekommen? ■ Warum haben Sie dieses Thema gewählt? ■ Was haben Sie dabei gelernt? Be able to list your information sources ■ Ich habe Informationen vom Internet/ von der Bibliothek bekommen. 3)Opinion or a related wider issue 10 marks Brainstorm related topics depending on your project. A common question- Mir fällt bei Ihrem Prokjekt das Thema …… ein. Was meinen Sie dazu?

6) -

Freizeitbeschäftigung Was machen Sie in Ihrer Freizeit?/ leisure activities Lesen Sie gern? / Sehen Sie gern Fern?/Treiben Sie gern Sport?


Aufenthalt im deutschsprachigen Raum/a stay in a german speaking area Waren Sie schon in Deutschland/Österreich/ der Schweiz? Was ist/ war im älltaglichen Leben dort anders?


Criteria used to assess oral competence: ■ Range of Vocabulary ■ Range of Expression ■ Awareness and use of grammar ■ Independence from examiner support ■ Appropriateness ■ Fluency ■ Pronunciation

Literary/ Film Option o There is an option in the course of the general conversation to discuss a German literary text or film o The Examiner will ask each candidate “Wollen Sie über einen deutschen literarischen Text erzählen, den Sie gelesen haben?” or “Möchten Sie mir über einen deutschen Film sprechen den Sie gesehen haben? o You should be able to speak for 11/2 minutes about your chosen option. Well prepared students do very well here

Success in the Project ■ Marks are awarded for accuracy of vocabulary and structures used in presentation of project. ■ Your presentation should be about 2 minutes in length. ■ No marks are awarded for physical appearance of project or for the content of the written piece. ■ Project should be well researched and handed up to the examiner at the end of your briefing session. ■ It is important that the project is relevant to the German syllabus. ■ Be confident in your verbal presentation. ■ Practice makes perfect. This is a part of the exam that can be well rehearsed, so take advantage of this. ■ Try to anticipate follow-up and opinion on ‘related issues’ question, so you are not caught off guard. Section 2(b) Picture Sequence 1. Narration of Picture Sequence – 10 marks Relate in simple, accurate German. 12- 15 sentences Concentrate on what is happening in the pictures. You must also describe how people are feeling Use the present tense and remember your correct endings. Use Link Words to give the narration continuity. E.g. Etwas später liegt er auf dem Boden. 2. Future Projection and Explanation - 10marks Explain some aspect of the story in simple German Elaborate as much as possible . Wie geht die Geschichte weiter? Was wird jetzt passieren? –What will

happen next? Practise putting sentences into the future tense . 3. Opinion on related issue - 10 marks Expand your answers out. Show you can formulate a long sentence using conjunctions if possible. Say as much as you can relevant to what you have been asked.

Section 3

Roleplay – 30 marks ■ There are 5 roleplays and all five must be learnt ■ The roleplay is marked as follows; Effective communication in completion of tasks – 20 marks (5x4) Vocabulary and Accuracy - 10 marks *All details must be mentioned in each task 1-5. *Don’t rush the roleplay and check you have covered all points. *Communicate back to the examiner’s question. Success in the Roleplay ■ Keep your eye at all times on thecard and complete every task in an effective manner. ■ Never learn a roleplay by heart as the examiner may move from one point to another /not always in sequence ■ Listen closely to what the examiner asks. Don’t be thrown by an unfamiliar phrase- the answer is on the roleplay sheet. Be sharp! ■ Practice being asked the questions in a variety of ways to familiarise yourself with them. ■ Respond in simple German to the examiner’s questions.


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