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market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth and student travel market ê Youth 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travel market ê Youth and student

Working for global youth travel

Industry Review no. 1 | Data, Statistics and Trends

Executive Summary


RESEARCH PROGRAMME WYSE Travel Confederation and its Sector Associations are committed to understanding the ever-changing characteristics, motivations and needs of young travellers and the industry that supports them. The Confederation and Associations gather, analyse and share important research data and market intelligence with their members, academics, corporate and government decision-makers, and the general travelling public. Our investment in research and market intelligence informs the policies, services and products which make international travel and educational experiences exciting, safe, accessible and affordable for young people. Beginning this year, we developed a partnership with industry research specialist StudentMarketing to build on the good work already done and help fill out the picture of our vibrant but still under-documented industry. The Research Programme has three parts: 1) Industry Review Series A research based industry review from secondary sources, compiling recently available data on industry matters that affect members’ businesses (youth travel market dynamics, mobility, pricing, customer preferences and marketing). 2) Primary Survey Primary research to source up-to-date data from youth specialist businesses across all sectors, globally. 3) Research on Demand WYSE Travel Confederation members have the opportunity to commission research particular to their sector and business needs. We hope our members will find these new additions to our Research Programme useful and thought provoking. The three stage programme outlined above, offered in collaboration with StudentMarketing, is only available to WYSE Travel Confederation members. Please visit www.wysetc.org for more information about WYSE Travel Confederation’s Research Programme.

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abbreviations ABBREVIATIONS ALTO - Association of Language Travel Organisations BRIC - Brazil, Russia, India, China B2B - Business to Business B2C - Business to Customer c. - circa CIS - Commonwealth of Independent States ELT - English Language Training IELTS - International English Language Testing System IIE - Institute of International Education GT - Global Tourism HE - Higher Education HEI - Higher Education Institutions LT - Language Travel LTM - Language Travel Magazine (currently Study Travel Magazine) RPK - Revenue Passenger Kilometres UNWTO - United Nations World Tourism Organisation VT - Volunteer Travel WH - Working Holiday WYSETC - World Youth Student & Educational Travel Confederation YTA - Youth Travel Accommodation

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introduction INTRODUCTION The youth and student travel industry has experienced a 37% increase in the last 10 years with up to 187 million travellers creating a market value of US$165 billion in 2010. While increasing in size and importance, and becoming mature and competitive, consistent documentation and resultant available data have struggled to keep pace with the development of the industry. WYSE Travel Confederation is committed to collecting more data for its members and the youth and student travel industry, as well as identifying areas where there is a need for improved documentation, methodology and quality data. Collation of existing data through secondary sources has resulted in this document: “Youth and Student Travel Market - Data, Statistics and Trends, Industry Review no. 1�. The study starts with a look at the latest available Global Tourism figures and the broad youth and student travel market, setting the context, before looking at six selected industry sectors (Language, Higher Education, Exchange/Work Experience, Volunteer, Backpack, Accommodation). Each chapter contains an introductory definition and market overview, data and comments, a summary and trends, with the focus on the presentation of data. The content of the chapters is determined by data availability in each sector, thus the content of chapters may vary. The initiative considered and reviewed over 500 sources, some challenges were experienced with the lack, and inconsistency of documentation across the industry, underlining the fact that there is a continuing need to provide reporting that builds a more cohesive picture.

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introduction METHODOLOGY This study was conducted as a secondary market research study. The aim was to identify, review and gather the accessible sources. Secondary research uses information assembled by international and national statistical organisations, government agencies, industry associations, trade unions, chambers of commerce, media, universities, research centres, presentations, ranking companies, including statistics, surveys, research papers, customer reviews, focus groups, transcripts, observation records, etc. By its nature, any previous research that exists reflects a particular bias or vantage point that the researcher has chosen to investigate. This study has attempted to bring together and compare individual snapshots and different angles to as high a level as possible to give the industry baseline data, a point of departure upon which to build further data and primary research that will help the student and youth market move forward. The process involved extensive data mining that identified 535 sources to be taken into consideration. An additional initiative was undertaken to evaluate the validity and reliability of the information by critically evaluating how the information was gathered, analysed and presented. This was followed by a process of comparing sources in order to evaluate possible comparative data, with a final initiative to collate them and report. For the list of used sources, please see “Resources” on page 59. Challenges identified: • many sources of global data only available to 2009 (in some cases to 2010); • lack of widely accepted definitions thus standards by which international and national statistics could be measured; • significant differences in terminology, methodology, data explanation, varying by regions, countries and sectors; • limited year-on-year data available, little historical data, creating difficulties in showing previous performance, identifying trends and forecasting; • no global cross-industry study after Youth Travel Matters 2008 (compendium prepared by WYSE Travel Confederation in cooperation with UNWTO). A ‘Note’ has been added to expand on the origin of data if necessary. Some figures use extrapolation and calculation methods, based on the use of as many other possible sources or references (described directly in Figures or Note).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to express our gratitude to all previous work and initiatives of organisations, institutions, companies and individuals who have given their effort and commitment to bringing data and documentation to the youth and student travel industry. We also want to thank several industry professionals who inspired, critically evaluated, discussed, and consulted in the process of creating the study, for their contribution to the development and improvement of the research and the industry review.

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executive summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report, “Youth and Student Travel Market - Data, Statistics and Trends, Industry Review no. 1”, reflects a compilation of research material, already published, from a variety of sources. It is hoped this will be a valuable tool for WYSE Travel Confederation members and that it helps to create a clearer, more complete picture of today’s vibrant industry. To put things into perspective, researchers looked at data on: Global Tourism • • • • • • • • • •

The framework in which youth and student travel exists; between 1995-2010 inbound international arrivals rose from 528 million to 935 million; receipts rose from US$678 billion in 2005 to US$919 billion in 2010; in 2010 France held the #1 position in arrivals, by 2015 it will be China; North America was hardest hit by the global recession while Asia Pacific saw growth; the majority of international departures come from 5 source markets – USA, Canada, the Euro-zone, Australia and Japan; BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) and emerging countries seen as the biggest single opportunity for development with 55% of the travel industry reporting positive experience with these countries; price levels, profits and margins, prior to the economic downturn, are not expected to return until 2016; factors that give cause for optimism include a growing middle class primarily in the Asia Pacific region and the increase in numbers of low cost carriers; social media is becoming of increasing importance to the industry with 2.1 billion people online around the world. Online bookings are growing twice as fast as the market.

Youth and Student Travel • • • • • • • •

Between 2000-2010 international arrivals rose from 136 million to 187 million representing 20% of global travel receipts reached US$165 billion; the market was effected, but more resilient to the economic downturn with some sectors out-performing through the recession; youth population will not significantly increase in upcoming years but youth travelling will increase as they access more disposable income and travel becomes more affordable; the traditional age of the market, 18-24, has now shifted to 15-30+; the average youth traveller in featured sectors spends US$1,000 to US$6,000 per trip and stays longer (over 50 days) than the average tourist (US$1,450); the 26,000 agents working in the youth and student travel market are still very important to the industry and this is unlikely to change; workshops, associations and educational fairs still a big part of the industry.

The report presents an industry review that brings market intelligence to 6 selected sectors: Language Travel • • • • • • •

Over 2 million arrivals includes 1.5 million to English speaking destinations; a 90% increase in demand for English language learning in the last decade; mergers&acquisitions, destination investment, regulations and standardisation expected; top ELT destinations UK, USA, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, Malta; top source markets still Western Europe (Germany) and Asia (South Korea) but losing market share with the emergence of the Middle East, Latin America and Eastern Europe; agent as a booking channel up 11.7% while online bookings not rising significantly; length of stay is up.

Higher Education • • • • • • • • • •

Best performing sector, not downsized during the economic downturn; highest sector for revenue – US$64 billion; top destination the USA at 20%, but losing market share to the UK, France, China and Australia and emerging destinations; English now recognised as the most important language - more courses offered in English in non-English speaking countries; a recognition that higher education now a necessity for career; Europe supporting intra-regional mobility; agents not widely used but can represent a new relevant channel for the sector; China now investing millions into building domestic infrastructure; market expected to diversify, source markets will see a shift as more source markets improve their systems; increasing investments by governments, institutions and destinations in marketing to attract students. 6

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executive summary Exchange/Work Experience • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Not as resilient to the downturn and it will take time to return to pre-2008 levels; top destinations showed unprecedented growth in the second part of the decade – 41.6% in USA, 69.2% in Australia, 92.7% in New Zealand; and then a more dramatic drop in numbers than other sectors in the economic downturn; • US Summer Work/Travel down 33.9% to 101,306 in 2009; Au Pair down 17%, Intern and Trainee down 19.9%, Camp Counselor down 14.6%; • Other categories: O • Australian A Working Holiday down 5.6% in 2009; return to pre-2008 levels will take time as more regulations imposed; a shift in programmes – UK phased out its Working Holiday programme in 2008, work tiers noticed 256% increase from 2009 to 2010; Canada extending Working Holiday scheme agreements – into 27 countries and opening up to Central and Eastern Europe; main source markets for Australian Working Holiday programmes – UK, Korea, Germany, France, Ireland, Japan, with Taiwan in top spot; top source markets for US J-1 Exchange Visitor Program – Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Thailand, Brazil (representing 42.3%) and China (up 50.3%); Working Holiday encourages travel and cultural exchange usually on a reciprocal government to government basis; sector looking at post-arrival revenue and expenditures of participants – participants stay longer than the industry average; Working Holiday programmes account for more arrivals than US Summer Work/Travel; Exchange and Working Holiday programmes encourage cultural experience and influence future travel patterns of the adult traveller.

Volunteer • • • • • • • • •

A growing phenomenon, minimum arrivals 1.67 million; market value between US$620 million and US$1.1 billion in 2010; historically – short term, cause-based, desire to help; since 1990 a growth in self-enhancement motivation and commercial organisers on the rise; 65% come from USA and UK, 66% women, 53% single, 57% pursue or hold a degree; preferred destinations Latin America (Peru, Brazil), Africa and Asia; preferred programmes are humanitarian work and community development; 60% of international volunteers did so in their home country previously; have a significant economic impact on the destination.

Backpacker/Flashpacker • • • • • • • • •

Australia number one destination but New Zealand, USA and Europe seeing growth; Australia gained competitive edge through institutionalisation and commercialisation of sector; Latin America and Eastern Europe best value destinations for budget travellers; backpacking within Europe, specifically Eastern Europe, on the increase; average expenditure by backpackers in Australia up 51.7% to AU$8,193 in 2009; number of flashpackers increasing; growing sector due to low cost carriers, increased desire to travel responsibly and experience culture; independent travellers over 18 looking to experience a destination outside the conventional mass tourism channels; trends - stay longer, spend more, age on the increase, more likely to do activities, seek knowledge of the destination prior to arrival.

Accommodation • • • • • • • • •

Weathered the economic downturn better than the hotel sector; Youth Travel Accommodation (hostels, budget hotels) is 4% of the total global supply and its usage currently represents 16% of the hotel bed capacity worldwide; average price up 71% between 2005 and 2009; South America and South East Asia fastest growing regions; occupancy rate 56% in 2009, represented 272 million bednights with US$12.2 billion market value; reservation systems and online booking engines very important, 75% of bookings made online or directly via email or phone (after online research); online reviews can make or break; non-bed income (food and beverage, laundry, etc.) up 50% from 2005 to 2009; cause for optimism as budget accommodation the accommodation of choice for Chinese outbound travellers, junior and school group travel not significantly tapped into and a clear increase in appetite for travel amongst a growing middle class with more disposable income. 7 9


conclusions CONCLUSIONS • Youth travel is increasingly more important within Global Tourism, accounts for 20% of the global market and is expected to continue growing. • Market is heading towards major demographic shifts, after 20% increase in last two decades, minimum growth in youth population is expected in the upcoming two decades. •

Rapidly rising middle class (from current 2 billion to 3 billion in 2020 and 5 billion in 2030) and increased access to more disposable income means purchasing power and number of youth travellers will be on the increase.

More affordable price of transportation, less political and cultural barriers to travel and ease of travel, thanks to an increase in the use of English by travellers and destinations are further drivers increasing demand in youth and student travel.

Appetite for more international experience with the current increase in globalisation is seen across all reviewed sectors, confirming the previous trend of increasing frequency of travel and number of trips taken by youth travellers.

As youth travellers in several sectors stay longer (on average over 50 days) and spend more (on average US$1,000 to US$6,000 per trip) than the average tourist (US$1,450), they represent a rare business opportunity for destinations, organisers and suppliers.

• Higher Education sector looks set as a high revenue generator for the foreseeable future, due to higher education being seen increasingly as a necessity to the creation of a career path. With stable growth over the last decade (the sector recorded the highest increase of all sectors at 70%) and even during the economic recession, there is the yet the under-utilised potential of a traditionally strong channel in the youth market – agents. • Language Travel is the sector most benefiting from cross-sector leads, using the potential of connecting language training and higher education through long term and pathway programmes, especially in Australia and North America. This saw a 4.9% market increase in student weeks even in times of economic recession. •

Over 700,000 work travellers and working holiday makers stay in destinations even longer than the average youth traveller (3 to 18 months) with considerable income to spend in the destination (significantly more than in other sectors). As a result they represent a valuable opportunity for destinations.

• Backpacking and budget travel is on an unprecedented increase after becoming more trendy, with demand levels enabling the YTA sector to out-perform the global hotel industry in prices and occupancy rates. Total market value almost doubled in the last 5 years. • Government or destination agency investment caused significant competitive advantage in several sectors, placing particular destinations ahead of competitors for several years. Australia set the best example in Backpacking. China was the best in Higher Education taking an increase of 7% of the global market share of inbound mobile students in less than 8 years (238,000 in 2008). They expect to double that by 2020. • Diversification in destinations and source markets, extending the ring of players, developing countries seeing growth at the expense of developed countries, is the overall observed trend across all sectors. • BRIC and emerging countries are the markets that look interesting for development and expansion and will define the industry, recovering and rising faster than developed countries and gaining increasingly more global market share. •

Even though the youth population is more online than their parents, the Internet is much more used for reference (reviews, rankings, recommendations) and travel planning (research on destination) than online shopping (booking) in youth travel. The growth in online bookings by the youth traveller is far less than that seen in Global Tourism. Online bookings in Global Tourism increased twice as fast as market growth. This confirms the importance of tour operators and agencies to the youth market. It is a question of trust in the organisation and preplanning needed for this market (young shoppers of uncommodified programmes).

Based on previous industry performance and global developments in travel and tourism, a conservative estimate predicts that the youth and student travel market will reach 300 million arrivals by 2020 and represent US$320 billion in market value.

• Youth Travel will influence Global Tourism development, in size and patterns. The amount of youth travel trips and destinations chosen in this early stage of travel purchasing will determine future patterns and decisions, as the youth travellers today form the basis of Global Tourism tomorrow. •

Besides economic impact, the increase of youth travel has strong social and cultural impacts on current globalisation. As cross-cultural and often meaningful travel, that youth travel tends to be (more than other industries in Global Tourism), so learned cultural tolerance, understanding and world knowledge, will contribute significantly to a better world. 8 58


resources RESOURCES Archer, W. (2010). The i-graduate ICEF Agent Barometer. Berlin: ICEF Berlin Workshop Bhandari, R., Belyavina, R., Gutierrez, R. (2011). Student Mobility and the Internationalization of Higher Education: National Policies and Strategies from Six World Regions. New York: Institute of International Education. ISBN 978-0-87206-341-9 Chow, P. (2011). What International Students Think About U.S. Higher Education: Attitudes and Perceptions of Prospective Students in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America. Institute of International Education, 2011 Chow, P., Bhandari, R. (2010). Open Doors 2010 Report on International Educational Exchange. New York: Institute of International Education. ISBN 978-0-87206336-5 Conrady, R., Buck, M. (2009). Trends and Issues in Global Tourism. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-10074-1 Conrady, R., Buck, M. (2011). Trends and Issues in Global Tourism. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-17766-8 European Travel Commission (2007). European Tourism Insights 2006. Brussels: European Travel Commission. ISBN 978-92-990034-8-0 European Travel Commission (2008). European Tourism Insights 2007. Brussels: European Travel Commission. ISBN 978-92-990034-9-7 European Travel Commission (2011). European Tourism in 2011 – Trends & Prospects (Q1/2011). Brussels: European Travel Commission. ISBN 978-92990058-8-0 Graddol, D. (2006). English Next. Why global English may mean the end of ‘English as a Foreign Language’. British Council Hannam, K., Ateljevic, I. (2008). Backpacker Tourism Concepts and Profiles. Clevedon: Channel View Publications. ISBN 978-1-84541-078-0 Hothouse Media (2001-2011). Language Travel Magazine (now Study Travel Magazine). London: Hothouse Media IPK International (2010). ITB World Travel Trends Report 2010/2011. Berlin: Messe Berlin GmbH Institute of International Education (2010). International Education in Europe, Gainesville: Naylor Jones, D. (2009). Youth Travel Matters: Understanding the Global Phenomenon of Youth Travel (presentation at ATEC Symposium 2009) Kharas, H. (2010). The emerging middle class in developing countries. OECD Development Centre, Paris MacReady, C., Tucker, C. (2011). Who Goes Where and Why. New York: Institute of International Education. ISBN 978-0-87206-342-6 Marcussen, C. H. (2009). Trends in European Internet Distribution - of Travel and Tourism Services, Centre for Regional and Tourism Research McEvoy, A. (2010). There is Nothing Like Australia. Sydney: Tourism Australia McGovern, K. (2010). English – Global Language Mintel (2005). Gap Year Travel International. London: Mintel OECD (2010). Education at a Glance 2010. Paris: OECD Publications. ISBN 978-92-64-07566-5 Pearce, B. (2010) Industry outlook. IATA Raymond, E. (2007). Making a Difference? Good practice in volunteer tourism. MA Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin Richards, G. (2009). ALTO’s Global Directions in Language Travel, WYSE Travel Confederation Richards, G. (2008). Members Volunteer Programs 2008, Amsterdam: WYSE Travel Confederation Richards, G. (2007). New Horizon II - The Young Independent Traveller 2007, Amsterdam: WYSE Travel Confederation Richards, G. (2008). Volunteer Tourism: A Global Analysis. Atlas, Arnhem 2008. ISBN 978-90-75775-34-1 Richards, G. (2010). The STAY WYSE Youth Travel Accommodation Industry Survey. Amsterdam: WYSE Travel Confederation Richards, G. (2007). The STAY WYSE Profile of the Global Youth Accommodation Industry. Amsterdam: WYSE Travel Confederation Richards, G., Welk, P. (2009). The STAY WYSE Youth Travel Accommodation Industry: A Benchmark Study. Amsterdam: WYSE Travel Confederation Richards, G., Welk, P. (2009). The STAY WYSE Youth Travel Accommodation Industry: Crucial business metrics and trends. Amsterdam: WYSE Travel Confederation Smeral, E. (2010). The effects of the Financial and Economic Crisis on Tourism Activities, Austrian Institute of Economic Research Tourism Australia (2010). Youth Travel Market Trends Factsheet. Sydney: Tourism Australia Tourism Research Australia (2005). International Visitors in Australia December 2004 – Quarterly results of the International Visitors Survey. Canberra: Tourism Research Australia. ISSN 1443 3311 Tourism Research Australia (2007). International Visitors in Australia December 2006 – Quarterly results of the International Visitors Survey. Canberra: Tourism Research Australia. ISSN 1443 3311 Tourism Research Australia (2011). International Visitors in Australia December 2010 – Quarterly Results of the International Visitor Survey. Canberra: Tourism Research Australia, ISSN 1447 8595 UNESCO Institute of Statistics (2010). Global Education Digest 2010: Comparing Education Statistics Across the World. Transcontinental Métrolitho. ISBN 97892-9189-088-0 UNESCO Institute of Statistics (2009). Global Education Digest 2009: Comparing Education Statistics Across the World. Imprimerie L’Empreinte. ISBN 978-929189-070-5 UNESCO Institute of Statistics (2007). Global Education Digest 2007: Comparing Education Statistics Across the World. Tri-Graphic Printing Limited. ISBN 9789189-044-6 UNWTO (2010). Inbound Tourism Accommodation 2005-2009 UNWTO (2008). Youth Travel Matters: Understanding the Global Phenomenon of Youth Travel, Madrid: UNWTO. ISBN: 978-92-844-1239-6 UNWTO Publications Department (2008). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer vol. 6 No. 2, June 2008 UNWTO Publications Department (2011). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, Interim Update, April 2011 UNWTO Publications Department (2011). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, vol. 9 No. 1, February 2011 UN Population Division (2010). World Population Prospects 2010 Revision Visit Britain (2010). Overseas Visitors to Britain: Understanding Trends, Attitudes and Characteristics. London: Visit Britain Wearing, S. (2001). Volunteer Tourism: Experiences that Make a Difference. Wallingford, CABI 9 59


resources WTM (2010). World Travel Market 2010 Industry Report. London: WTM WYSE Travel Confederation (2007). Independent Traveller Survey. Amsterdam: WYSE Travel Confederation WYSE Travel Confederation (2010). Youth Travel Industry Monitor 2009 Summary Report. Amsterdam: WYSE Travel Confederation

ONLINE RESOURCES www.1888pressrelease.com www.4hoteliers.com www.aei.gov.au www.airneth.nl www.alexa.com www.atlas.iienetwork.org www.backpacker.com www.bancaditalia.it www.boeing.com www.budgettravel.com www.bug.co.uk www.campusfrance.org www.cbie.ca www.ccss.jhu.edu www.csc.edu.cn www.easyjet.com www.ec.europa.eu www.en.rian.ru www.eturbonews.com www.eurailgroup.com www.eurailgroup.org www.euromonitor.com www.educationfairfinder.com www.go2eu.com www.goabroad.com www.homeoffice.gov.uk www.hostelbookers.com www.hostels.com www.hostelworld.com www.hotels.com www.iata.org www.iawg.gov www.immi.gov.au www.immigration.govt.nz www.international.gc.ca www.internetworldstats.com www.jobs.ie www.lassocommunications.com www.linkedin.com www.lonelyplanet.com www.lufthansa.com www.med.govt.nz www.postoffice.co.uk www.priceoftravel.com www.prnewswire.com www.ret.gov.au www.sina.com www.sitetrail.com www.south-west-airlines.net www.standardchartered.com www.state.gov www.swabiz.com www.techrice.com www.thedti.gov.za www.timeshighereducation.co.uk www.topuniversities.com www.tourismnt.com.au www.tourismresearch.govt.nz www.transitionabroad.com www.travelanthropist.com www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk www.unv.org www.voluntours.com www.vso.org.uk www.ypartnership.com

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Industry Review no. 1: PricingEXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

YOUTH AND STUDENT TRAVEL MARKET Industry Review no. 1: Pricing EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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