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P R I N C I P A L S

O F

T Y P O G R A P H Y

Designed by Lauren Bowles

Class project for Professor Herstowski's Typography 02 University of Kansas, Spring 2011.


T A B L E

O F

C O N T E N T S 9 15 31 39 45 55 65 73 77 83 87 91 105 115 125


Rules X – Height Hyphenation Alignments Justification Font Combinations Quotes, Apostrophes, Dashes Special Characters Bullets Numbers and Figures Small Caps Paragraph Breaks Headers, Subheads,Crossheads Captions and Notes Font Specifications

5


R U L E S


1

Use only one space between sentences.

2

Use real quotation marks.

3

Use real apostrophes.

4

Make sure the apostrophes are where they belong.

5

Hang the punctuation off the aligned edge.

6

Use en or em dashes, use consistently.

7

Kern all headlines where necessary.

8

Never use the spacebar to align text, always set tabs and use the tab key.

9

Leave no widows or orphans.

10

Avoid more than 3 hyphenations in a row.

9


This is a compendium of the rules established in this book, all of which could be considered as basic “laws” of typography. You might want to check through them each time you complete a publication.

11

Avoid too many hyphenations in any paragraph.

12

Avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names and proper nouns.

13

Leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following.

14

Avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word.

15

Avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word.

16

Avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by..

17

Never hyphenate a words in a headline and avoid hyphenation in a callout.

18

Never justify the text on a short line.

19

Keep the word spacing consistent.

20

Tighten up the leading in lines with all caps or with few ascenders and descenders.

21

Use a one-em first-line indent on all indented paragraphs.

22

Adjust the spacing between paragraphs.

23

Either indent the first line of paragraphs or add extra space between them – not both.

24

Use a decimal or right-aligned tab for the numbers in numbered paragraphs.

25

Never have one line in a paragraph in the column or following.

26

Never combine two serif fonts on one page.

27

Rarely combine two sans serif fonts on one page.

28

Rarely combine more than three typefaces on one page.

29

Use the special characters whenever necessary, including super- and subscript.

30

Spend the time to create nice fraction or chose a font that has fractions.

31

If a correctly spelled word needs an accent mark, use it.


H E I G H T


A typeface’s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographer strive to maximize. Readability extended amount of text – such as an article, book, or annual report – is easy to read. Legibility refers to whether an refers to whether a short burst of text – such as a headline catalog listing, or stop sign – is instantly recognizable. There are several factors that determine whether a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be given to the typeface and its x-height. It is important to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture/color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of “color”. In typography, color can also describe the balance between black and white on the page of text. A typeface’s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles. As a designer, if you are only asked to make the text readable on the page the following questions should be asked... Who is to read it? Someone that wants to read it? Someone that has to read it? How will it be read? Quickly. In passing. Focused. Near. Far.

15


Baskerville John Baskerville

Belizio David Berlow

x-height: average character width: wide color: light

x-height: tall character width: wide color: medium

X x hg

Transitional

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

X xhg Slab Serif

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


Univers Adrian Frutiger

Rotis Sans (55) Otl Aicher

x-height: tall character width: narrow color: dark

x-height: tall character width: narrow color: medium

X xh g Xxhg

Sans Serif: Grotesque

Sans Serif: Humanist

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


Scala Sans Martin Majoor

ITC Officina Sans Eric Spiekermann

x-height: average character width: average color: medium

x-height: short character width: narrow color: dark

Xx h g

Xxhg

Sans Serif: Humanist

Sans Serif: Modern

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


Priori Sans Jonathan Barnbrook

Meta Erik Spikermann

x-height: small character width: average color: light

x-height: large character width: average color: light

Xx hg

Xxhg

Sans Serif: Transitional

Sans Serif: Humanist

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


Frutiger Adrian Frutiger

Interstate Tobais Frere-Jones

x-height: tall character width: wide color: dark

x-height: large character width: narrow color: medium-dark

X xhg

X xhg

Sans Serif: Grotesque

Sans Serif: Grotesque

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


Trade Gothic (Medium) Jackson Burke

Helvetica Max Miedinger

x-height: tall character width: narrow color: medium

x-height: large character width: wide color: light

X x hg

Xxhg

Sans Serif: Humanist

Sans Serif: Grotesque

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


Sabon Jan Tschicold

Mrs Eaves Zuzana Licko

x-height: tall character width: average color: light

x-height: small character width: average color: light

X xh g

X xhg

Old Style

Transitional

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


Melior Hermann Zapf

x-height: large character width: average color: medium

X xh g

Memphis Rudolph Weiss

x-height: average character width: medium-wide color: dark

Xxhg

Transitional

Slab Serif

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


ITC Officina Serif Erif Spiekermann

Bembo Stanley Morison

x-height: tall character width: narrow color: medium dark

x-height: small character width: wide color: light

Xxh g

Xx hg

Slab Serif

Modern

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


Didot Firmin Didot

Adobe Caslon Carol Twombly

x-height: average character width: average color: light

x-height: tall character width: average color: dark

X xhg

Xxhg

Modern

Transitional

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on disĥ carding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and gloriĥ fied contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterĥ ized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti“s manifesto glorified the new techĥ nology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


“Typographical design should perform optically what the speaker creates through voice and gesture of his thoughts.” —El Lizzitsky


H Y P H E N A T I O N


Pay attention to: never hyphenate words in a headline avoid hyphenating names and proper nounds avoid hyphenation in a callout avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by.. pay attention to how the text is read, avoid widows avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word

31


Headlines Don Quixote de la ManCha Professor and Therapist to Lecture Man walks barefoot across Bay Bridge Man walks barefoot across Bay Bridge

Don’t hyphenate headlines. That’s a law. Watch where the first line of a two-line headline ends – does it create a silly or misleading phrase? Fix it. Don’t leave widows in headlines

Fix it either way, or rewrite!

Man walks barefoot across Bay Bridge

In unjustified text, the text block is set with normal letter and word spacing. Because of the even word spacing the text will have an even texture – no large spaces between words. The lines will naturally vary in length. a ragged text block can integrate with the layout and add visual interest to the page. The difficulty is making the ragged edge have a pleasing silhouette. When the first line in the text is longer than the second, it becomes separate from the layout and creates a box-like shape. This destroys one of the advantages of unjustified text. The ragged edge needs to have a life, but a narrow column can be less active. Another advantage to ragged text is less hyphenation is needed. Therefore, names, dates or words which are normally read together can stay together.


Never leave widows and orphans bereft on the page. Avoid both of these situations. If you have editing privileges, rewrite the copy, or at least add or delete a word or two. Sometimes you can remove spacing from the letters, words, or lines, depending on which program you’re working in. Sometimes widening a margin just a hair will do it. But it must be done. Widows and orphans on a page are wrong.

Widow When a paragraph ends and leaves fewer than seven characters (not words, characters) on the last line, that line is called a widow. Worse than leaving one word at the end of a line is leaving part of a word, the other part being paraphrased on the line above.

Orphan When the last line of a paragraph, be it ever so long, won’t fit at the bottom of a column and must end itself at the top of the next column, that is an orphan. Always correct this.

Rivers In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are visually unattractive gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text. They can occur with any spacing, though they are most noticeable with wide word spaces caused by either full text justification or monospaced fonts.


Casing Adder Bat

Heresy borsch-boil starry a boarder borsch boil gam plate lung, lung a gore inner ladle wan-hearse torn coiled Mutt fill. Mutt-fill worsen mush offer torn, butted hatter putty gut borsch-boil tame, an off oiler pliers honor tame, door moist cerebrated worse Casing. Casing worsted sickened basement, any hatter betting orphanage off .526 (fife toe sex). Casing worse gut lurking an furry poplar – spatially wetter gull coiled Any-bally. Any-bally worse Casing’s sweat-hand, any harpy cobble wandered tow gat merit, bought Casing worse tow pore toe becalm Any-bally’s horsebarn. (Boil pliers honor Mutt-fill tame dint gat mush offer celery; infect day gut nosing atoll.) Butt less gat earn wette starry.

1 2 3 4

5

6

7 8

9


Casing Adder Bat Hersy borsch-boil starry a boarder borsch boil gam plate lung, lung a gore inner ladle wan-hearse torn coiled Mutt-fill. Mutt-fill worsen mush offer torn, butted natter putty gut borsch-boil tame, an off oiler pliers honor tame, door moist cerebrated worse Casing. Casing worsted sickened basement, any hatter betting orphanage off .562 (fife toe sex). Casing worse gut lurking an furry poplar – spatially wetter gull coiled Any-bally. Any-bally worse Casing’s sweat-hard, any harpy cobble wandered toe gat merit, bought Casing worse toe pore toe becalm Any-bally’s horsebarn. (Boil pliers honor Mutt-fill tame dint gat mush offer celery; infect, day gut nosing atoll.) Bought less gut earn wetter starry.

1

Justify the headline so it stays on one line.

line, where it fits very nicely.

3

2

Use a line break (Shift Return) to bump “a” down to the next

Kern the line a tiny bit to bring the rest of the word up.

in front of the word to bump it down.

5

4

Type a dischy

Never hyphenate a person’s name. I had to go up a few lines,

bump “off” down, which bumped the other line endings down. This also took care of the inappropriate widow in

6. 7

There is plenty of room to squeeze “bought” on this line, perhaps by kerning the line a tiny bit.

8

“Horsebarn” is a good long word that could be hyphenated; type a dischy. Better yet, when “bought” moved up, it gave enough room to move “horsebarn” up. If not, try opening the text block or text box a wee bit.

9

Edit: to get rid of that terrible widow, exchange a short word for a long word.


“Typographical design should perform optically what the speaker creates through voice and gesture of his thoughts.” — El Lizzitsky


A L I G N M E N T S


“Right and wrong do not exist in graphic design. There is only effective and non-effective communication.” — Peter Bilak, Illegibility

If someone insists that fully justified text is better than left-aligned text, tell them they are wrong. If someone else tells you that left-aligned text is better than justified text, tell them they are wrong. If they are both wrong, then what’s right? Alignment is only a small piece of the puzzle. What works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. As with all layouts, it depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design.

39


Justified Text Traditionally many books, newsletters, and newspapers use full-justification as a means of packing as much information onto the page as possible to cut down on the number of pages needed. While the alignment was chosen out of necessity, it has become so familiar to us that those same types of publications set in left-aligned text would look odd, even unpleasant. You may find that fully-justified text is a necessity either due to space constraints or expectations of the audience. If possible though, try to break up dense blocks of texts with ample subheadings, margins, or graphics. Often considered more formal, less friendly than left-aligned text. Usually allows for more characters per line, packing more into the same amount of space (than the same text set left-aligned). May require extra attention to word and character spacing and hyphenation to avoid unsightly riversof white space running through the text. May be more familiar to readers in some types of publications, such as books and newspapers. Some people are naturally drawn to the “neatness” of text that lines up perfectly on the left and right.

There is nothing inherently wrong with centered text. As with ragged right or fully-justified text alignment, what works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. There are simply fewer situations where centered text is appropriate. When in doubt, don’t center it.


Centered As with all layouts, alignment depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design. No matter what alignment you use, remember to pay close attention to hyphenation and word/character spacing as well to insure that your text is as readable as possible. There will undoubtedly be well-meaning friends, business associates, clients, and others who will question your choices. Be prepared to explain why you chose the alignment you did and be prepared to change it (and make necessary adjustments to keep it looking good) if the person with final approval still insists on something different.

Left-Aligned, Ragged Right Often considered more informal, friendlier than justified text. The ragged right edge adds an element of white space. May require extra attention to hyphenation to keep right margin from being too ragged. Generally type set left-aligned is easier to work with


J U S T I F I C A T I O N


Justified text was the style for many years-we grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.

Justify text only if the line is long enough to prevent awkward and inconsistent word spacing.

The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page. Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like.

45


Exploration One

These settings work very nicely, eliminating all rivers and spacing evenly

Erum harcipid molupta tiistem simi, natem. Ut audam laccuptatis rent expeditia idem volupta sitium facesti temolese id mintion plicab idel mi, cum que inume raepro inienes simporem. Et lamet, ute debis dolorem esto mo experfere enim quid ut qui oditint quis sequuntium qui commolores estionsequo voluptatem as sitati ulparup tatemol orehende qui rerepudamus perio ommod molest ame eos aut unt autate doluptat ma aut volupit, quate volupti berupta tibus, quis alibus autatur aut optas solupta turibus eate cupici de est, enienis illorios sectem explant otassequia con non poreium facepel is et volupta tempelia ducia con et quo eaque exerTi sam qui totate is quunt plicidi idita dolorem con nienimus doluptas excerum et volupta quiasi officid ut maximol essitibus etum corunt, il eles aut facipis et remquae pliat aut apit et magnatation reiust as sum simodit aturerumque volori dolecestrum hici acea es est rest, occab invel ipicid molupit, int doluptam res nis et aut landiti intiorum quis doluptatur? Velit fugiam que deri ipidendignim ate pre ligniet asit pore vernam qui doles nusdae. Ficim ressequos magnias pelectatist, volorum atem et estem. Itate veritatur re ist assim is reicipici ationsecum excerferum iust eliquas veliquunt. Ide sant qui dolendae. Nam et, ari con eturion emporeic tet eaquunti aut laborpo ritendignis dipsusa ndamus, quo que voluptae min provitia voluptur, cuptaqui antotatem voluptam, tem sa simaxim inulpa voloren destrum quam ex eum fugiam a necum explaut facerro voluptatur soluptae 80% 85% 90%

Exploration Two

This setting does not completely eliminate the rivers in the text but is still relatively legible

Erum harcipid molupta tiistem simi, natem. Ut audam laccuptatis rent expeditia idem volupta sitium facesti temolese id mintion plicab idel mi, cum que inume raepro inienes simporem. Et lamet, ute debis dolorem esto mo experfere enim quid ut qui oditint quis sequuntium qui commolores estionsequo voluptatem as sitati ulparup tatemol orehende qui rerepudamus perio ommod molest ame eos aut unt autate doluptat ma aut volupit, quate volupti berupta tibus, quis alibus autatur aut optas solupta turibus eate cupici de est, enienis illorios sectem explant otassequia con non poreium facepel is et volupta tempelia ducia con et quo eaque exerTi sam qui totate is quunt plicidi idita dolorem con nienimus doluptas excerum et volupta quiasi officid ut maximol essitibus etum corunt, il eles aut facipis et remquae pliat aut apit et magnatation reiust as sum simodit aturerumque volori dolecestrum hici acea es est rest, occab invel ipicid molupit, int doluptam res nis et aut landiti intiorum quis doluptatur? Velit fugiam que deri ipidendignim ate pre ligniet asit pore vernam qui doles nusdae. Ficim ressequos magnias pelectatist, volorum atem et estem. Itate veritatur re ist assim is reicipici ationsecum excerferum iust eliquas veliquunt. Ide sant qui dolendae. Nam et, ari con eturion emporeic tet eaquunti aut laborpo ritendignis dipsusa ndamus, quo que voluptae min provitia voluptur, cuptaqui antotatem voluptam, tem sa simaxim inulpa voloren destrum quam ex eum fugiam a necum explaut facerro voluptatur soluptae 90% 100% 120%


Exploration Three

Erum harcipid molupta tiistem simi, natem. Ut audam laccuptatis rent expeditia idem volupta sitium facesti temolese id mintion plicab idel mi, cum que inume raepro inienes simporem. Et lamet, ute debis dolorem esto mo experfere enim quid ut qui oditint quis sequuntium qui commolores estionsequo voluptatem as sitati ulparup tatemol orehende qui rerepudamus perio ommod molest ame eos aut unt autate doluptat ma aut volupit, quate volupti berupta tibus, quis alibus autatur aut optas solupta turibus eate cupici de est, enienis illorios sectem explant otassequia con non poreium facepel is et volupta tempelia ducia con et quo eaque exerTi sam qui totate is quunt plicidi idita dolorem con nienimus doluptas excerum et volupta quiasi officid ut maximol essitibus etum corunt, il eles aut facipis et remquae pliat aut apit et magnatation reiust as sum simodit aturerumque volori dolecestrum hici acea es est rest, occab invel ipicid molupit, int doluptam This setting allows rivers and awkwardly close spacing between words

res nis et aut landiti intiorum quis doluptatur? Velit fugiam que deri ipidendignim ate pre ligniet asit pore vernam qui doles nusdae. Ficim ressequos magnias pelectatist, volorum atem et estem. Itate veritatur re ist assim is reicipici ationsecum excerferum iust eliquas veliquunt. Ide sant qui dolendae. Nam et, ari con eturion emporeic tet eaquunti aut laborpo ritendignis dipsusa ndamus, quo que voluptae min provitia voluptur, cuptaqui antotatem voluptam, tem sa simaxim inulpa voloren destrum quam ex eum fugiam a necum explaut facerro voluptatur soluptae 80% 100% 133%

Exploration Four

These settings do not allow enough space between the letters and words, it all runs together

Erum harcipid molupta tiistem simi, natem. Ut audam laccuptatis rent expeditia idem volupta sitium facesti temolese id mintion plicab idel mi, cum que inume raepro inienes simporem. Et lamet, ute debis dolorem esto mo experfere enim quid ut qui oditint quis sequuntium qui commolores estionsequo voluptatem as sitati ulparup tatemol orehende qui rerepudamus perio ommod molest ame eos aut unt autate doluptat ma aut volupit, quate volupti berupta tibus, quis alibus autatur aut optas solupta turibus eate cupici de est, enienis illorios sectem explant otassequia con non poreium facepel is et volupta tempelia ducia con et quo eaque exerTi sam qui totate is quunt plicidi idita dolorem con nienimus doluptas excerum et volupta quiasi officid ut maximol essitibus etum corunt, il eles aut facipis et remquae pliat aut apit et magnatation reiust as sum simodit aturerumque volori dolecestrum hici acea es est rest, occab invel ipicid molupit, int doluptam res nis et aut landiti intiorum quis doluptatur? Velit fugiam que deri ipidendignim ate pre ligniet asit pore vernam qui doles nusdae. Ficim ressequos magnias pelectatist, volorum atem et estem. Itate veritatur re ist assim is reicipici ationsecum excerferum iust eliquas veliquunt. Ide sant qui dolendae. Nam et, ari con eturion emporeic tet eaquunti aut laborpo ritendignis dipsusa ndamus, quo que voluptae min provitia voluptur, cuptaqui antotatem voluptam, tem sa simaxim inulpa voloren destrum quam ex eum fugiam a necum explaut facerro voluptatur soluptae 60% 60% 90&


Exploration Five

The spacing between words is much too small, and all bleeds togeher

Erum harcipid molupta tiistem simi, natem. Ut audam laccuptatis rent expeditia idem volupta sitium facesti temolese id mintion plicab idel mi, cum que inume raepro inienes simporem. Et lamet, ute debis dolorem esto mo experfere enim quid ut qui oditint quis sequuntium qui commolores estionsequo voluptatem as sitati ulparup tatemol orehende qui rerepudamus perio ommod molest ame eos aut unt autate doluptat ma aut volupit, quate volupti berupta tibus, quis alibus autatur aut optas solupta turibus eate cupici de est, enienis illorios sectem explant otassequia con non poreium facepel is et volupta tempelia ducia con et quo eaque exerTi sam qui totate is quunt plicidi idita dolorem con nienimus doluptas excerum et volupta quiasi officid ut maximol essitibus etum corunt, il eles aut facipis et remquae pliat aut apit et magnatation reiust as sum simodit aturerumque volori dolecestrum hici acea es est rest, occab invel ipicid molupit, int doluptam res nis et aut landiti intiorum quis doluptatur? Velit fugiam que deri ipidendignim ate pre ligniet asit pore vernam qui doles nusdae. Ficim ressequos magnias pelectatist, volorum atem et estem. Itate veritatur re ist assim is reicipici ationsecum excerferum iust eliquas veliquunt. Ide sant qui dolendae. Nam et, ari con eturion emporeic tet eaquunti aut laborpo ritendignis dipsusa ndamus, quo que voluptae min provitia voluptur, cuptaqui antotatem voluptam, tem sa simaxim inulpa voloren destrum quam ex eum fugiam a necum explaut facerro voluptatur soluptae 60% 60% 90%

Exploration Six

The gaps between the words are too significant and form many rivers

Erum harcipid molupta tiistem simi, natem. Ut audam laccuptatis rent expeditia idem volupta sitium facesti temolese id mintion plicab idel mi, cum que inume raepro inienes simporem. Et lamet, ute debis dolorem esto mo experfere enim quid ut qui oditint quis sequuntium qui commolores estionsequo voluptatem as sitati ulparup tatemol orehende qui rerepudamus perio ommod molest ame eos aut unt autate doluptat ma aut volupit, quate volupti berupta tibus, quis alibus autatur aut optas solupta turibus eate cupici de est, enienis illorios sectem explant otassequia con non poreium facepel is et volupta tempelia ducia con et quo eaque exerTi sam qui totate is quunt plicidi idita dolorem con nienimus doluptas excerum et volupta quiasi officid ut maximol essitibus etum corunt, il eles aut facipis et remquae pliat aut apit et magnatation reiust as sum simodit aturerumque volori dolecestrum hici acea es est rest, occab invel ipicid molupit, int doluptam res nis et aut landiti intiorum quis doluptatur? Velit fugiam que deri ipidendignim ate pre ligniet asit pore vernam qui doles nusdae. Ficim ressequos magnias pelectatist, volorum atem et estem. Itate veritatur re ist assim is reicipici ationsecum excerferum iust eliquas veliquunt. Ide sant qui dolendae. Nam et, ari con eturion emporeic tet eaquunti aut laborpo ritendignis dipsusa ndamus, quo que voluptae min provitia voluptur, cuptaqui antotatem voluptam, tem sa simaxim inulpa voloren destrum quam ex eum fugiam a necum explaut facerro voluptatur soluptae 30% 170% 180%


Exploration Seven

This setting does not allow for legible spacing between words and creates awkward typographic color

Erum harcipid molupta tiistem simi, natem. Ut audam laccuptatis rent expeditia idem volupta sitium facesti temolese id mintion plicab idel mi, cum que inume raepro inienes simporem. Et lamet, ute debis dolorem esto mo experfere enim quid ut qui oditint quis sequuntium qui commolores estionsequo voluptatem as sitati ulparup tatemol orehende qui rerepudamus perio ommod molest ame eos aut unt autate doluptat ma aut volupit, quate volupti berupta tibus, quis alibus autatur aut optas solupta turibus eate cupici de est, enienis illorios sectem explant otassequia con non poreium facepel is et volupta tempelia ducia con et quo eaque exerTi sam qui totate is quunt plicidi idita dolorem con nienimus doluptas excerum et volupta quiasi officid ut maximol essitibus etum corunt, il eles aut facipis et remquae pliat aut apit et magnatation reiust as sum simodit aturerumque volori dolecestrum hici acea es est rest, occab invel ipicid molupit, int doluptam res nis et aut landiti intiorum quis doluptatur? Velit fugiam que deri ipidendignim ate pre ligniet asit pore vernam qui doles nusdae. Ficim ressequos magnias pelectatist, volorum atem et estem. Itate veritatur re ist assim is reicipici ationsecum excerferum iust eliquas veliquunt. Ide sant qui dolendae. Nam et, ari con eturion emporeic tet eaquunti aut laborpo ritendignis dipsusa ndamus, quo que voluptae min provitia voluptur, cuptaqui antotatem voluptam, tem sa simaxim inulpa voloren destrum quam ex eum fugiam a necum explaut facerro voluptatur soluptae 30% 50% 70%

Exploration Eight

The spacing is too tight causing all words to mesh together from a distance.

Erum harcipid molupta tiistem simi, natem. Ut audam laccuptatis rent expeditia idem volupta sitium facesti temolese id mintion plicab idel mi, cum que inume raepro inienes simporem. Et lamet, ute debis dolorem esto mo experfere enim quid ut qui oditint quis sequuntium qui commolores estionsequo voluptatem as sitati ulparup tatemol orehende qui rerepudamus perio ommod molest ame eos aut unt autate doluptat ma aut volupit, quate volupti berupta tibus, quis alibus autatur aut optas solupta turibus eate cupici de est, enienis illorios sectem explant otassequia con non poreium facepel is et volupta tempelia ducia con et quo eaque exerTi sam qui totate is quunt plicidi idita dolorem con nienimus doluptas excerum et volupta quiasi officid ut maximol essitibus etum corunt, il eles aut facipis et remquae pliat aut apit et magnatation reiust as sum simodit aturerumque volori dolecestrum hici acea es est rest, occab invel ipicid molupit, int doluptam res nis et aut landiti intiorum quis doluptatur? Velit fugiam que deri ipidendignim ate pre ligniet asit pore vernam qui doles nusdae. Ficim ressequos magnias pelectatist, volorum atem et estem. Itate veritatur re ist assim is reicipici ationsecum excerferum iust eliquas veliquunt. Ide sant qui dolendae. Nam et, ari con eturion emporeic tet eaquunti aut laborpo ritendignis dipsusa ndamus, quo que voluptae min provitia voluptur, cuptaqui antotatem voluptam, tem sa simaxim inulpa voloren destrum quam ex eum fugiam a necum explaut facerro voluptatur soluptae 80% 85% 90%


Exploration Nine

The spacing within words is too small and the gaps between them are too large making a spotchy look from a distance

Erum harcipid molupta tiistem simi, natem. Ut audam laccuptatis rent expeditia idem volupta sitium facesti temolese id mintion plicab idel mi, cum que inume raepro inienes simporem. Et lamet, ute debis dolorem esto mo experfere enim quid ut qui oditint quis sequuntium qui commolores estionsequo voluptatem as sitati ulparup tatemol orehende qui rerepudamus perio ommod molest ame eos aut unt autate doluptat ma aut volupit, quate volupti berupta tibus, quis alibus autatur aut optas solupta turibus eate cupici de est, enienis illorios sectem explant otassequia con non poreium facepel is et volupta tempelia ducia con et quo eaque exerTi sam qui totate is quunt plicidi idita dolorem con nienimus doluptas excerum et volupta quiasi officid ut maximol essitibus etum corunt, il eles aut facipis et remquae pliat aut apit et magnatation reiust as sum simodit aturerumque volori dolecestrum hici acea es est rest, occab invel ipicid molupit, int doluptam res nis et aut landiti intiorum quis doluptatur? Velit fugiam que deri ipidendignim ate pre ligniet asit pore vernam qui doles nusdae. Ficim ressequos magnias pelectatist, volorum atem et estem. Itate veritatur re ist assim is reicipici ationsecum excerferum iust eliquas veliquunt. Ide sant qui dolendae. Nam et, ari con eturion emporeic tet eaquunti aut laborpo ritendignis dipsusa ndamus, quo que voluptae min provitia voluptur, cuptaqui antotatem voluptam, tem sa simaxim inulpa voloren destrum quam ex eum fugiam a necum explaut facerro voluptatur soluptae 30% 170% 180%

Exploration Ten

The spacing in this composition is too small however that between the words and within the words is well proportion

Erum harcipid molupta tiistem simi, natem. Ut audam laccuptatis rent expeditia idem volupta sitium facesti temolese id mintion plicab idel mi, cum que inume raepro inienes simporem. Et lamet, ute debis dolorem esto mo experfere enim quid ut qui oditint quis sequuntium qui commolores estionsequo voluptatem as sitati ulparup tatemol orehende qui rerepudamus perio ommod molest ame eos aut unt autate doluptat ma aut volupit, quate volupti berupta tibus, quis alibus autatur aut optas solupta turibus eate cupici de est, enienis illorios sectem explant otassequia con non poreium facepel is et volupta tempelia ducia con et quo eaque exerTi sam qui totate is quunt plicidi idita dolorem con nienimus doluptas excerum et volupta quiasi officid ut maximol essitibus etum corunt, il eles aut facipis et remquae pliat aut apit et magnatation reiust as sum simodit aturerumque volori dolecestrum hici acea es est rest, occab invel ipicid molupit, int doluptam res nis et aut landiti intiorum quis doluptatur? Velit fugiam que deri ipidendignim ate pre ligniet asit pore vernam qui doles nusdae. Ficim ressequos magnias pelectatist, volorum atem et estem. Itate veritatur re ist assim is reicipici ationsecum excerferum iust eliquas veliquunt. Ide sant qui dolendae. Nam et, ari con eturion emporeic tet eaquunti aut laborpo ritendignis dipsusa ndamus, quo que voluptae min provitia voluptur, cuptaqui antotatem voluptam, tem sa simaxim inulpa voloren destrum quam ex eum fugiam a necum explaut facerro voluptatur soluptae 30% 50% 70%


“Most people think typography is about fonts. Most designers think typography is about fonts. Typography is more than that, it’s expressing language through type. Placement, composition, typechoice.” —Mark Boulton


C O M B I N I N G T Y P F A C E S


“There is not binding recipe for type combinations. It is a matter of typographic sensitivity and experience. Expert typographers, as well as careless amateurs permit themselves combinations that would horrify colleagues with more traditional sympathies.� When combining serif and sans serif text fonts, one shroud try and match the characteristics of form and type color: proportion, x-heights. Although there is not recipe there is a place to start: keep an eye on the characteristic shapes of the letterform. A well designed page contains no more than two different typefaces or four different type variations such as type size and bold or italic style. {Using 2 different serif fonts or 2 different sans serifs fonts in the same composition is never a good idea}

55


aa!BB ee!GG gg MrsEaves: Transitional Futura: Geometric

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the paris newspaper le Figaro published a manifesto by the italian poet and editor Fil- ippo tommaso Marinetti. the name Futurism, coined by Marinettie, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevat art of the past and celebrating change, originatliy, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themese, the machine and motion. the works were charac- hterized by the depiction of several successfive actions of the automobile and the beauty of it’s speed, power, and movement. He exalted violance and conflict The x height of Futura is too large for that of Mrs Eaves. The two are not complimentary of each other.

.1!/2 +)!03 1' Perpetua: Transitional Calibri: Humanist

!"#$%&'(&)'*+#,!"#$%&%'()"*%"+(*($,-./"

&ƵƚƵƌŝƐŵǁĂƐĮƌƐƚĂŶŶŽƵŶĐĞĚŽŶ&ĞďƌƵĂƌLJϮϬ͕ϭϵϬϵ͕ǁŚĞŶƚŚĞƉĂƌŝƐŶĞǁƐ0 ƉĂƉĞƌůĞ&ŝŐĂƌŽƉƵďůŝƐŚĞĚĂŵĂŶŝĨĞƐƚŽďLJƚŚĞŝƚĂůŝĂŶƉŽĞƚĂŶĚĞĚŝƚŽƌ&ŝůͲŝƉƉŽ ƚŽŵŵĂƐŽDĂƌŝŶĞƫ͘ƚŚĞŶĂŵĞ&ƵƚƵƌŝƐŵ͕ĐŽŝŶĞĚďLJDĂƌŝŶĞƫĞ͕ƌĞŇĞĐƚĞĚŚŝƐ ĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐŽŶĚŝƐĐĂƌĚŝŶŐǁŚĂƚŚĞĐŽŶĐĞŝǀĞĚƚŽďĞƚŚĞƐƚĂƟĐĂŶĚŝƌƌĞůĞǀĂƚĂƌƚ ŽĨƚŚĞƉĂƐƚĂŶĚĐĞůĞďƌĂƟŶŐĐŚĂŶŐĞ͕ŽƌŝŐŝŶĂƚůŝLJ͕ĂŶĚŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝŶĐƵůƚƵƌĞĂŶĚ ƐŽĐŝĞƚLJ͘&ƵƚƵƌŝƐŵƌĞũĞĐƚĞĚƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶƐĂŶĚŐůŽƌŝĮĞĚĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJůŝĨĞ͕ŵĂŝŶůLJ ďLJĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjŝŶŐƚǁŽĚŽŵŝŶĂŶƚƚŚĞŵĞƐĞ͕ƚŚĞŵĂĐŚŝŶĞĂŶĚŵŽƟŽŶ͘ƚŚĞǁŽƌŬƐ ǁĞƌĞĐŚĂƌĂĐͲŚƚĞƌŝnjĞĚďLJƚŚĞĚĞƉŝĐƟŽŶŽĨƐĞǀĞƌĂůƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĮǀĞĂĐƟŽŶƐŽĨƚŚĞ ĂƵƚŽŵŽďŝůĞĂŶĚƚŚĞďĞĂƵƚLJŽĨŝƚ͛ƐƐƉĞĞĚ͕ƉŽǁĞƌ͕ĂŶĚŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ͘,ĞĞdžĂůƚĞĚ ǀŝŽůĂŶĐĞĂŶĚĐŽŶŇŝĐƚ The contrast between these two fonts works nicely here. The strong variance in stroke weight of Perpetua stands out against the round, monoweight characters of Calibri.


aa!BB!"e!GG!gg Bembo: Old Style Frutiger: Humanist

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the paris newspaper le Figaro published a manifesto by the italian poet and editor Fil- ippo tommaso Marinetti. the name Futurism, coined by Marinettie, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevat art of the past and celebrating change, originatliy, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themese, the machine and motion. the works were charac- hterized by the depiction of several successfive actions of the automobile and the beauty of it’s speed, power, and movement. He exalted violance and conflict These two typefaces could potentially work well together however the size contrast between the subhead and the body text is not strong enough because the x heights between the two fonts are too similar.

aa!BB "e!GG gg Palatino: Old Style Helvetica: Grotesque

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper le Figaro published a manifesto by the italian poet and editor Fil- ippo tommaso Marinetti. the name Futurism, coined by MariQHWWLHUHà HFWHGKLVHPSKDVLVRQGLVFDUGLQJZKDWKHFRQFHLYHGWREHWKH VWDWLFDQGLUUHOHYDWDUWRIWKHSDVWDQGFHOHEUDWLQJFKDQJHRULJLQDWOL\ DQGLQQRYDWLRQLQFXOWXUHDQGVRFLHW\)XWXULVPUHMHFWHGWUDGLWLRQVDQG glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themese, the machine and motion. the works were charac- hterized E\WKHGHSLFWLRQRIVHYHUDOVXFFHVVÀYHDFWLRQVRIWKHDXWRPRELOHDQGWKH EHDXW\RILW¡VVSHHGSRZHUDQGPRYHPHQ+HH[DOWHGYLRODQFHDQGFRQà LFW These two typefaces are drastically different in their stroke, form, x height, and overall typographic color. Because of this contrast they could be very complimentary, however stronger size variance is neccessary.


a.!B/ e+!G0 g1 Walbaum: Modern Century Gothic: Geometric

!"#$%&'(&)'*+#,A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the paris newspaper le Figaro published a manifesto by the italian poet and editor Fil- ippo tommaso Marinetti. the name Futurism, coined by Marinettie, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevat art of the past and celebrating change, originatliy, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themese, the machine and motion. the works were charac- hterized by the depiction of several successfive actions of the automobile and the beauty of it’s speed, power, and movement. He exalted violance and conflict These two fonts are not as asthetically pleasing together in this composition. Walbaum has a taller x height and appears much heavier than the thin stroked Century Gothic and is therefore too chunky for the sans serif header.

aa!BB ee!GG gg Baskerville: New Transitional Futura: Geometric

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism:

.]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PMXIZQ[VM_[XIXMZ le Figaro published a manifesto by the italian poet and editor Fil- ippo tommaso 5IZQVM\\Q\PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QMZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WV discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevat art of the past and celebrating change, originatliy, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism ZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themese, the machine and motion. the works were charac- hterized Ja\PMLMXQK\QWVWN [M^MZIT[]KKM[[Å^MIK\QWV[WN \PMI]\WUWJQTMIVL\PMJMI]\a WN Q\¼[[XMMLXW_MZIVLUW^MUMV\0MM`IT\ML^QWTIVKMIVLKWVÆQK\ Both these typefaces have a relatively small x height and have somewhat similar shape in their characters. Because of this they blend well.


a1!B2 e)!G3 g' Filosofia: Modern Franklin Gothic: Grotesque

Words in Liberty !"#$%&%'()"*%"+(*($,-./"

)XWXULVPZDVÀUVWDQQRXQFHGRQ)HEUXDU\ZKHQWKHSDULVQHZV0 SDSHUOH)LJDURSXEOLVKHGDPDQLIHVWRE\WKHLWDOLDQSRHWDQGHGLWRU)LOLSSR WRPPDVR0DULQHWWLWKHQDPH)XWXULVPFRLQHGE\0DULQHWWLHUHà HFWHGKLV HPSKDVLVRQGLVFDUGLQJZKDWKHFRQFHLYHGWREHWKHVWDWLFDQGLUUHOHYDW DUWRIWKHSDVWDQGFHOHEUDWLQJFKDQJHRULJLQDWOL\DQGLQQRYDWLRQLQFXOWXUH DQGVRFLHW\)XWXULVPUHMHFWHGWUDGLWLRQVDQGJORULÀHGFRQWHPSRUDU\OLIH PDLQO\E\HPSKDVL]LQJWZRGRPLQDQWWKHPHVHWKHPDFKLQHDQGPRWLRQ WKHZRUNVZHUHFKDUDFKWHUL]HGE\WKHGHSLFWLRQRIVHYHUDOVXFFHVVÀYHDF0 WLRQVRIWKHDXWRPRELOHDQGWKHEHDXW\RILW¡VVSHHGSRZHUDQGPRYHPHQW +HH[DOWHGYLRODQFHDQGFRQà LFW The body text is too large and heavy for the weight of of the header. However both have a more narrow character width and a similar x height proportionally.

aa!BB ee!GG gg Caslon: New Transitional Helvetica: Grotesque

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the paris newspaper le Figaro published a manifesto by the italian poet and editor Fil- ippo tommaso Marinetti. the name Futurism, coined by Marinettie, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevat art of the past and celebrating change, originatliy, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themese, the machine and motion. the works were charac- hterized by the depiction of several successfive actions of the automobile and the beauty of it’s speed, power, and movement. He exalted violance and conflict These two typefaces work beautifully together in this composition. The characters of both Helvetica and Caslon are more narrow but still vary enough in stroke width and x height to be complimentary of each other.


1."I/ )+!J0 '1 Rockwell: Slab Serif Century Gothic: Geometric

!"#$%&'(&)'*+#,!"#$%&%'()"*%"+(*($,-./"

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his would be a stronger composition if the two typefaces were reversed because Rockwell is a more dominant font than Century Gothic and appears too heavy for the header as body text.

aa!BB ee!GG gg Memphis: Slab Serif Myriad Pro: Humanist

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the paris newspaper le Figaro published a manifesto by the italian poet and editor Fil- ippo tommaso Marinetti. the name Futurism, coined by Marinettie, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevat art of the past and celebrating change, originatliy, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themese, the machine and motion. the works were charac- hterized by the depiction of several successfive actions of the automobile and the beauty of itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s speed, power, and movement. He exalted violance and conflict These two fonts fit nicely together. The Myriad has a much lighter typographic color than Memphis and thus works well as the body text. However because its x height is much taller, the point size should be decrease to make this composition stronger.


“As the saying goes, type is a beautiful group of letters, not a group of beautiful letters.” —Matthew Carter


Q U O T E S , A P O S T R O P H E S , D A S H E S


Use real quotation marks – never those grotesque generic marks that actually symbolize ditto/inch or foot marks: use “and” – not “and”. Most software applications will convert the typewriter quotes to the real quotes for you automatically as you type. Check the preferences for your application – you’ll find a check box to tell your application to automatically set something like “typographer’s quotes,” “smart quotes,” or “curly quotes.” Then as you type using the standard ditto key (“), the software will set the correct quotation marks for you.

65


Quotation Marks It is necessary to know how to set them yourself because sometimes the software doesn’t do it or does it wrong.

“ Type: Option [ ” Type: Option Shift [ ‘ Type: Option ] ’ Type: Option Shift ] Examples Bridge Clearance: 16' 7" The young man stood 6' 2" The length of the wall is 153'9"

Opening Double Quote Closing Double Quote Opening Single Quote Closing Single Quote


Apostrophe Apostrophe: ’ option shift ] As as aside, people often are confused about where the apostrophe belongs. There are a couple of rules that work very well.

For Possessives: Turn the phrase around. The apostrophe will be placed after whatever word you end up with. For example, in the phrase the boys’ camp, to know where to place the apostrophe say to yourself, “The camp belongs to the boys.” The phrase the boy’s camp says “The camp belongs to the boy.” “The big exception to this is “its.” “Its” used as a possessive never has an apostrophe! The word it only has an apostrophe as a contraction — “it’s” always means “it is” or “it has.” Always. It may be easier to remember if you recall that yours, hers, and his don’t use apostrophes and neither should its.

For Contractions: The apostrophe replaces the missing letter. For example: your’re always means you are; the apostrophe is replacing the a from are. That’s an easy way to distinguish it from your as in your house and to make sure you don’t say: Your going to the store. As previously noted, it’s means “it is”; the apostrophe is indicating where the i is left out. Don’t means “do not”; the apostrophe is indicating where the o is left out. For omission of letters: In a phrase such as Rock ’n’ Roll, there should be an apostrophe before and after the n, because the a and the d are both left out. And don’t turn the first apostrophe around — just because it appears in front of the letter does not mean you need to use the opposite single quote. An apostrophe is still the appropriate mark (not ‘n’). In a phrase such as House o’ Fashion, the apostrophe takes the place of the f. There is not earthly reason for an apostrophe to be set before the o. In a phrase such as Gone Fishin’ the same pattern is followed — the g is missing. In a date when part of the year is left out, an apostrophe needs to indicate the missing year. In the 80s would mean the temperature; In the ’80s would mean the decade. (Notice there is no apostrophe before the s! Why would there be? It is not possessive, nor is it a contraction — it is simply plural. Never use two hyphens instead of a dash. Use hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes appropriately. Everyone knows what a hyphens is —that tiny little dash that belongs in some words, like mother-in-law, or in phone numbers. It’s also used to break a word at the end of a line, of course. You might have been taught to use a double hyphen to indicate a dash, like so : -- . This is a typewriter convention because typewriters didn’t have the real dash used in professional typesetting. On a Mac, no one needs to use the double hyphen—we have a professional em dash, the long one, such as you see in this sentence. We also have an en dash, which is a little shorter than the em dash.


Hyphen A hyphen is one third of the em rule and is used to link words. It serves as a compound modifier where two words become one, such as x-height. A hyphen is also used to break works at syllables in text blocks.

Dashes Never use two hyphens instead of a dash. Use hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes appropriately. Everyone knows what a hyphens is —that tiny little dash that belongs in some words, like mother-in-law, or in phone numbers. It’s also used to break a word at the end of a line, of course.

- Hyphen – Option — Option Shift -

Hyphen En Dash Em Dash

En dash To type an en dash en dash – Option Hyphen An en dash is half of the em rule (the width of a capital N) and is used between words that indicate a duration, such as time or months or years. Use it where you might otherwise use the word “to.” In a page layout application, the en dash can be used with a thin space on either side of it. If you want you can kern it so it is not a full space.

Em dash To type an em dash em dash — Shift Option Hyphen October – December 6:30 – 8:45 A.M. 4 – 6 years of age

The em dash is twice as long as the en dash—it’s about the size of a capital letter M in whatever size and typeface you’re using at the moment. This dash is often used in place of a colon or parentheses, or it might indicate an abrupt change in thought, or it’s used in a spot where a period is too strong and a comma is too weak.Our equivalent on the typewriter was the double hyphen, but now we have a real em dash. Using two hyphens(or worse, one) where there should be an em dash makes your look very unprofessional.


“You cannot understand typography and typefaces without knowledge and you can’t keep that knowledge for only yourself. Type design is a cultural act, not just a few lines of data in the corner of a hard disk.” —Jean-François Porchez


S P E C I A L C H A R A C T E R S


The following is a list of the most frequently-used special characters and accent marks. “ ” ‘ ’ – — … U fi fl © ™ ® ° ¢ £ ⁄ ¡ ¿ ç Ç

Option [ Option Shift [ Option ] Option Shift ] Option Option Shift Option ; Option 8 Option Shift 5 Option Shift 6 Option g Option 2 Option r Option Shift 8 Option $ Option Shift 2 Option 3 Option Shift 1 Option 1 Option Shift ? Option c Option Shift c

Opening Double Quote closing Double Quote Opening Single Quote Closing Single Quote En Dash Em Dash Ellipsis Bullet Ligature of ‘f’ and ‘i’ Ligature of ‘f’ and ‘l’ Copyright Trademark Registered Degree Symbol Cent Euro Pound Fraction Bar Upside-down Exclamation Mark Upside-down Question Mark Cedilla Capitol cedilla

Remember, to set an accent mark over a letter, press the Option key and the letter, then press the letter you want under it. ´ ` ¨ ˜ ˆ

Option e +letter = é Option ~ +letter = è Option u +letter = ü Option n +letter = ñ Option i +letter = î

73


B U L L E T S


This very useful typographic element can add emphasis, clarity and visual interest to all kinds of copy. Simply put, a bullet is a large dot used to draw attention to each item in a list or series. The items can be single words, phrases, sentences or paragraphs. Even if you use the bullet that is part of your font, donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t automatically assume itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the right size: it might need to be altered in scale or position to make it look balanced next to the text.

77


Bullets should be centered on either the cap height or x-height, depending on the nature of your copy. If all of your items begin with a cap, center the bullet on the cap, or a bit lower so it balances with the negative spaces created by the lowercase. If your items all begin with lowercase characters, center the bullets on the x-height. Insert some space after the bullet to avoid crowding.

YME You have lots of dingbats to choose from, but they are usually too big. You can decrease the point size of the bullet, but it may sit too low so raise it higher off the baseline

The preferred way to align bullets is with the left margin. You can also have the bullets overhang the margin, and keep all your text aligned with the left margin. Whichever style you choose, your listing will look best if items that run more than one line are indented so that the copy aligns with itself, and not with the bullet on the first line. To be more creative, substitute symbols or dingbats for the actual bullets. Try squares, triangles or check marks (just not all at once, as shown in the illustration!). Keep these simple and in proportion with the rest of your text.


Choose a list of eight words and experiment with them in a bulleted list

Another occasion to take advantage of the baseline shift feature is when using dingbats or ornaments. Suppose you have a list of items and you really want to use a fancy dingbat from the Zapf Dingbats font, instead of using the boring ol’ round bullet (or —heaven forbid—a hyphen). But the Zapf Dingbat character is too big. If you reduce its size, the dingbat is too low because the character is still sitting on the baseline. So select the character and shift it up above the baseline.

P gigantic

Mgigantic

Y gigantic

gigantic

P serendipity

Mserendipity

Y serendipity

serendipity

P lights

Mlights

Y lights

lights

P whimsical

Mwhimsical

Y whimsical

whimsical

P Friday

MFriday

Y Friday

Friday

P coffee

Mcoffee

Y coffee

coffee

P teal

Mteal

Y teal

teal

P bandana

Mbandana

Y bandana

bandana


N U M E R A L S

F I G U R E S


Oldstyle figures are a style of numeral which approximate lowercase letterforms by having an x-height and varying ascenders and descenders. They are considerably different from the more common “lining” (or “aligning”) figures which are all-cap height and typically monospaced in text faces so that they line up vertically on charts. Oldstyle figures have more of a traditional, classic look. They are only available for certain typefaces, sometimes as the regular numerals in a font, but more often within a supplementary or expert font. The figures are proportionately spaced, eliminating the white spaces that result from monospaced lining figures, especially around the numeral one. Oldstyle figures are very useful and quite beautiful when set within text. Unlike lining figures, they blend in without disturbing the color of the body copy. They also work well in headlines since they’re not as intrusive as lining figures. In fact, many people prefer them overall for most uses except charts and tables. It’s well worth the extra effort to track down and obtain typefaces with oldstyle numerals; the fonts that contain them might well become some of your favorites.

Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505. Typefaces such as Mrs Eaves use oldstyle figures which blend in nicely with the color of the body copy

Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505. 69


S M A L L

C A P S


Small caps are uppercase (capital) letters that are about the size of normal lowercase letters in any given typeface. Small caps are less intrusive when all uppercase appears within normal text or can be used for special emphasis. Computer programs can generate small caps for a any typeface, but those are not the same as true small caps. True small caps have line weights that are proportionally correct for the typeface, which me and that they can be used within a body of copy without looking noticeably wrong.

Where to use small caps Use small caps for acronyms. Set acronyms such as NASA or NASDAQ in small caps when they appear in body text or headlines. Use small caps for common abbreviations. Set common abbreviations such as AM or PM in small caps so they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t overpower the accompanying text. Use small caps for A.M. and P.M.; space once after the number, and use periods. (if the font does not have small caps reduce the font size slightly) Use true small caps fonts. Avoid simply resizing capital letters or using the small caps feature in some programs. Instead use typefaces that have been specifically created as small caps.

Harriet, and FBI agent, turned on CNN to get the dirt on the CIA before going to bed at 9:30 P.M. The use of small caps as opposed to uppercase letters blend in smoother and are more visually appealing.

Harriet, and fbi agent, turned on cnn to get the dirt on the cia before going to bed at 9:30 p.m.

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P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S


Paragraph breaks set a rhythm for the reader. The breaks have a relationship with the column of text as well as the page margins. A break may be introduced as an indentation, as a space or both. The over all page feel will be influenced by your choice.

Definitions: In typography there are 4 rules regarding paragraph breaks: first line at the beginning of an article should be flush left (do not indent first paragraph) block paragraphs are flush left and are separated by extra leading not a full return the amount indent is = to the leading (sometimes needs a bit more) never hit two returns between paragraphs

91


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Exploration One Sabon Size 8 Leading 12


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Exploration Two Sabon 8 12


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined

by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where

we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism

bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå 2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Exploration Three Sabon Size 8, 12, 15 Leading 12


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Exploration Four Sabon Size 8 Leading 12


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Exploration Five Sabon Size 8 Leading 16


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, in difference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Exploration Six Sabon Size 8 Leading 16


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here

amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract

where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if

widespread attention.

not the movements, then their sense of art as an life

itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Exploration Seven Sabon Size 8 Leading 16


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Exploration Eight Sabon Size 8 Leading 12


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Exploration Nine Sabon Size 8 Leading 12


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avantgarde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Exploration Ten Sabon Size 8 Leading 12


H E A D E R S S U B H E A D S C R O S S H E A D S


Header:

That material which is separated From the main body of text

Subhead:

A heading given to a subsection of a piece of writing

The main header or â&#x20AC;&#x153;headlineâ&#x20AC;? is essential and should be bold and leap out as the main title of the page or chapter start. If it does not, the hierarchy can be disrupted and the reader may be confused as to where the document actually starts. It's a good rule to ensure the reader knows where a section begins and make it quite plain. The main header should also look like it belongs to the first sentence. This can be achieved by ensuring that its paragraph spacing (the space after a hard return) is smaller than the paragraph spacing of the first sentence. Paragraph spacing is not commonly used â&#x20AC;&#x201C; even amongst designers, but it is an extremely useful tool. Many people add spacing by hitting return but this does not give much control and cannot be styled from style sheets.

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Words in Liberty Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet

A Prologue to Futurism

and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense

Radical Mix of Art and Life

of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix of Art and Life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix of Art and Life

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå 2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst t3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix of Art and Life

Words in Liberty

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


Words in

Liberty

A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix of Art and Life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the

Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here

public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy,

where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if

and to attract widespread attention.

not the movements, then their sense of art as an life

Radical Mix of Art and Life

itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radi-

cal mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


C A P T I O N S N O T E S


Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes and endnotes are necessary components of scholarly and technical writing. Theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re also frequently used by writers of fiction, from Herman Melville (Moby-Dick) to contemporary novelists. Whether their intent is academic or artistic, footnotes present special typographic challenges. Specifically, a footnote is a text element at the bottom of a page of a book or manuscript that provides additional information about a point made in the main text. The footnote might provide deeper background, offer an alternate interpretation or provide a citation for the source of a quote, idea or statistic. Endnotes serve the same purpose but are grouped together at the end of a chapter, article or book, rather than at the bottom of each page. These general guidelines will help you design footnotes and endnotes that are readable, legible and economical in space. (Note that academic presses and journals can be sticklers for format: before proceeding, check with your client or publisher to see if they have a specific stylesheet that must be followed.)

Numbers or Symbols: Footnotes are most often indicated by placing a superscript numeral immediately after the text to be referenced. The same superscript numeral then precedes the footnoted text at the bottom of the page. Numbering footnotes is essential when there are many of them, but if footnotes are few they can be marked with a dagger, asterisk, or other symbol instead. Endnotes should always use numerals to facilitate easy referencing.

Size: Footnotes and endnotes are set smaller than body text. The difference in size is usually about two points, but this can vary depending on the size, style and legibility of the main text. Even though theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re smaller, footnotes and endnotes should still remain at a readable size.

115


A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix of Art and Life

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where

we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå 2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst t3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.” 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself


Words in

Liberty

A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix of Art and Life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix of Art and Life

Words in Liberty

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a po- 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

lemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifes- 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) tos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

3. selbst = himself


1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

Words in Liberty

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet

A Prologue to Futurism

and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense

Radical Mix of Art and Life

of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


Words in Liberty 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix of Art and Life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the

Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy,

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here

and to attract widespread attention.

where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if

Radical Mix of Art and Life

not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radi-

cal mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art’ movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term – still resonant today – was parole in libertå2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


F O N T S P E C I F I C A T I O N S


Variations in Stress As early typefaces were based on the written letterforms the scribes, it was important that the type designer tries to capture as much as the written form as possible. the letter o is a good example to study the distribution of weight which creates a vertical stress through the thinnest part of the letterform. it was this characteristic that the early typefaces tried to imitate. this is quite clear in Garamond. as type evolved and the designer was no longer influenced by handwriting, the stress became more vertical as in Baskerville and later totally vertical with Bodoni. in univers you will find no noticeable stress.

Variations in Thicks and Thins Faces also vary in degree of contrast between thick and thin strokes of the letters. in Garamond you can see a prominent characteristic of little contrast between thick and thin strokes of a letter. in transitional faces there is a tendency toward refinement and greater contrast between thick and thins. Bodoni has maximum contrast in these strokes (extreme contrast of thick and thins, hairline serifs). With serifa there is a return to very little contrast (almost mono-weight. in univers the is an absence of any noticeable thick and thin strokes; there is a uniformity of strokes (mono-weight).

Variations in Stress Serifs also vary from one face to the next in their weight and in the way they are bracketed; that is the way in which the serif meets the vertical stroke of the letter. once again, you can see the evolution of type from Garamond to Baskerville, to Bodoni this was followed by the return of the heavy serif in serifa and the elimination of the serif in univers.

115


Archer Classification:

MaxogGdQRst BOOK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * Hairline

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

semi-bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

Bold italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *


Akzidenz Grotesk Classification: Sans Serif Grotesque

MaxogGdQRst Roman

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* Bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* Black

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*


Baskerville Classification: Transistional

MxaogGdQRt Regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* Small Caps

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* Italic

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

Bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*


Belizio Classification: Slab Serif

MxagGdQrR Regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&* Italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* Bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* Black italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*


Bell Gothic Classification: Sans Serif

MxagGdQrRI Light

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic.These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* Bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* Black

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*


Bembo Classification: Old Style

MxnogGdQrRst rRegular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic.These three main groups cor- respond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* Italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

Bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic.These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* Extra Bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*


Bookman Classification: Transitional

MxaogGdQrR regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&* bold italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&*


Bodoni Classification: Traditional

MxaogGdQrRst regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*123456789 italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* ornaments

!"#$%#&'#()#*+#,-#./#01#23# 45#67#89#:;#<=#>?#@A#BC#DE# FG#HI#JK#LM#NO#PQ#RS#TU#V# W#X##Y#Z#[#\#]#^#_#`#a#b#c#d#e# f#g#h


Caslon Classification: Serif Transitional

MxanogGdQRt regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * alternate

! " # k $ %ſ ' ( A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

swash

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ornament

! " #$ % & ' ( )* + , - . / 0 12 34 56 78 9: ;< = >? @A B C D E FG HI JK L M N O P Q R S T


Century Schoolbook Classification: Serif Transitional

!"#$%&'()*+ regular

,-.#/01-/2/+34-5$)-16#//05207%-+2835#13/9#/-'3:0/3'-07-+;3-7073+337+;-137+<)2=9;37-8)07+3)/-/$<%;+-+$-0'37+052-#;3)0+#%3-5$)-+;30)-$97-1)#5+-#7#6$%$</-+$+;#+-$5-#)+-;0/+$)2>-?<4#70/+-63++3)@ 5$)4/-#)3-16$/362-1$7731+3'-+$-1#660%@ )#8;2-#7'-+;3-4$:3437+-$5-+;3-;#7'>A)#7/0+0$7#6-#7'-4$'3)7-+2835#13/-#)34$)3-#./+)#1+-#7'-63//-$)%#701>-A;3/3+;)33-4#07-%)$<8/-1$))3/8$7'-)$<%;62-+$+;3-*37#0//#713=-B#)$C<3=-#7'-D760%;+@ 37437+-83)0$'/-07-#)+-#7'-60+3)#+<)3>E3/0%73)/-07-+;3-+937+03+;-#7'-+937+2@ ÀUVWFHQWXULHVKDYHFRQWLQXHGWRFUHDWH 739-+2835#13/-.#/3'-$7-;0/+$)01-1;#)#1@ +3)0/+01/>

,#-B.-F1-E'-D3-G5-&%-?;-H0-IJ-KLM6-!4-N7-O$-P8-(C-*)-Q/-A+-R<S:-T9-U"-V2-WX-Y-Z-[-\-]-^-_-`-a-bc-d-e-f-g-h-i-j-k-Y-Z-[-\-]-^-_-`-a italic

!$">#"B'"A4"@*"C,"D1";6"E&"FG"HI" J/"K+"L0"M-"N2"O?"=."P%"<)"Q7" R5"S3"TU"V("WX"Y"Z"["\"]"^"_"`"a"b"c" d"e"f"g"h"i"j"k bold

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ÀUVWFHQWXULHVKDYH '-0)&07*4")-"'.*$)*"0*3")(2*,$'*%"#$%*4" -0"6&%)-.&'"'6$.$')*.&%)&'%:

!"#$%#&'#()#*+#,-#./#01#23#45# 67#89#:;#<=#>?#@A#BC#DE#FG#HI# JK#LM#NO#PQ#RS#TU#V#W#X#Y#Z#[#\# ]#^#_#`#a#b#c#d#e#f#g#h bold italic

!$">#"B'"A4"@*"C,"D1";6"E&"FG"HI" J/"K+"L0"M-"N2"O?"=."P%"<)"Q7" R5"S3"TU"V("WX"Y"Z"[""\"]"^"_"`"a"b" c"d"e"f"g"h"i"j"k


Cheltenham Classification: Transitional

MaxogGdQrRs regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* bold italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*


Cholla Classification: Modern

MaxnogGdQrRst unicase

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* regular

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


Clarendon Classification: Slab-Serif

MxagGdQrRt light

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* regular

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*


Clicker Classification: Sans Serif

MaxnogGdQRs regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


Didot Classification: Modern Serif

MxaogGdQrRt regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the X[IRXMIXLERHX[IRX]Ă VWXGIRXYVMIWLEZI continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*123456789 italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentiIXLERHX[IRX]Ă VWXGIRXYVMIWLEZIGSRXMRYIH to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&*


DIN Classification: Grotesque

MaxnogGdQrRt light

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *123456789 regular

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

medium

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & * BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & *


DIN Classification: Grotesque

MaxnogGdQrRt light

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *123456789 regular

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

medium

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & * BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & *


Disturbance Classification: Serif

MxnatQbWFGdR regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*123456789 italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*


Fette Fraktur Classification: Sans Serif

MxnaopQrRtfg regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){} ?!@&* Idunt aliquam adignim velit utat. Etuer accum dunt ad magniam, vendiat lam verostrud essi tetum illa facipisl utet endre feu faccum dit praessi. Ing ea feuguer aessenim atisi.Delessi. Sectet, sit, ver si. Alit ipit esequis exer adigna adignit aliquat lam dunt utpat aut nisisi. Tate conse nim adionsecte feuis etum dolobore molore verit veniss


Filosofia Classification: Slab Serif

MxnaopQrRtfGg regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* fractions

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

unicase

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*


Franklin Gothic Classification: San Serif Grotesque

MaxodQRtfGg book

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * demi

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* heavy

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* condensed

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*


Frutiger Classification: Humanist San Serif

MaxodQRtfGg condensed

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* regular

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* ultra black

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


Futura Classification: Geometric Sans Serif

MxaopQRstGg book

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 67890(){}?!@&* extra bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


Gill Sans Classification: Humanist Sans Serif

MaxnbyogGQRt regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth ERHX[IRX]½VWXGIRXYVMIWLEZIGSRXMRYIH to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!&*

bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and X[IRX]½VWXGIRXYVMIWLEZIGSRXMRYIHXS create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*


Gotham Classification: Modern

!"#$%&'()* Book

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

+",A-,E0,D',C1,F3,&%,?;,G/,HI,JK, L5,!2,M6,N$,O7,(B,)4,P.,@*,Q<, R:,S9,TU,V#,WX,Y,Z,[,,\,],^,_,`,a, b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k Bold

!$">#"B'"A5"@*"C,"D1";7"E&"FG"HI" J/"K+"L0"M-"N2"O?"=."P%"<)"Q8" R6"S4"TU"V("WX"Y"Z"[""\"]"^"_"`" a"b"c"d"e"f"g"h"i"j"k italic

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

!"#$%#&'#()#*+#,-#./#01#23#45#67# 89#:;#<=#>?#@A#BC#DE#FG#HI#JK# LM#NO#PQ#RS#TU#V#W#X##Y#Z#[#\#]#^# _#`#a#b#c#d#e#f#g#h Light

!"#$%#&'#()#*+#,-#./#01#23#45#67# 89#:;#<=#>?#@A#BC#DE#FG#HI#JK# LM#NO#PQ#RS#TU#V#W#X##Y#Z#[#\#]#^# _#`#a#b#c#d#e#f#g#h


Helvetica Classification: Grotesque Sans Serif

MaoygGdQrRt regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the [^LU[PL[OHUK[^LU[`Ă&#x201E;YZ[JLU[\YPLZOH]L continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* black extended

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the [^LU[PL[OHUK[^LU[`Ă&#x201E;YZ[JLU[\YPLZOH]L continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * ultra light

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*


Interstate Classification: Grotesque

MaoygGdQrRt regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* black

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* bold condensed

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


Kunstler Script Classification: Script

xyogGdQrRst regular

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* Pat. San ea consectet ad duis dolorem eu facil dit am, summy nisim ipit, quat, velit pratismodo diat. Et lorperi liquat lor sequam zzrilit, velese facin ut verosti nciduis modit, qui erosto odit ut verit nos nos amet iure doluptatisl digna facin hendre ming ea feum incilla ad dunt dunt ipit vulput lorper sumsand ionsenit num ip erit la feu feumsan henis exerci esto etumsan hent am, velit, quisit nummy nosto dolutat irit veniam zzrilit, qui tincilit wis eum zzriustis ex eraestrud delit lamcon vero exercidunt aliscidui bla facip et veniam eum illan veros dignit alit vullandiat nis nisl dunt aliquam consent alit etuero odionsecte dunt nulla faci et in vulla feugait lore eum zzril ullamco nsequi bla autpatet nummodipisi. Ed etummodit vullamcon utat ulluptat delendit nonsenim inciliqui tio odoloreet ver sum velis aliquis del irit aut nosto consequam zzrit aut ipsum diamcon sequam num et wisi tio dolorem elesto dolobor iuscilisci et, quis endre te dolobor sum volenibh exerit utpat. Uptat, vel dolese molorem eraessis nit niamcorperos autat, venit in etum erilissit irit eui bla feum iurem nonsequi e


Melior Classification: Transitional Serif

MayogGdQrRt regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*


Memphis Classification: Slab Serif

MxagGdQrRt light

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* medium

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* extra bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


Meta Classification: Humanist Sans Serif

MaxogGdQrRst regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * caps

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

black

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


Mrs Eaves Classification: Transitional

MaxogGdQrRst regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * 1 2 3 456789 italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * fractions

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*


News Gothic Classification: Sans Serif

MaxogGdQrRst regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * 123456789 italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*


OCR A Classification: Modern

MaopQRfGg regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Ii Jj Qq Rr Yy Zz 9 0 (

Cc Dd Kk Ll Ss Tt 1 2 3 ) { }

Ee Ff Gg Hh Mm Nn Oo Pp Uu Vv Ww Xx 4 5 6 7 8 ? ! @ & *


Optima Classification: Geometric Sans Serif

MxaopQRstGg book

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth HUK[^LU[`Ă&#x201E;YZ[JLU[\YPLZOH]LJVU[PU\LK to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*


Palatino Classification: Old Style

MxaopQRstGg light

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* old style

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* medium

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* black

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*


Perpetua Classification: Transitional

!"#$%&'()*+, regular

-./#(01.(2()34.5$6.17#((05208+.)2%35#13(.9#(.:3;0(3:. 08.)<3.8083)338)<.138)=62>.9<38.%608)36(.($=+<). )$.0:38)052.#.<360)#+3.5$6.)<306.$98.16#5).#8#7$+$=(. )$.)<#).$5.#6).<0()$62?.@=4#80().73))365$64(.#63. 17$(372.1$8831)3:.)$.1#770+6#%<2.#8:.)<3.4$;3438). $5.)<3.<#8:?.A6#8(0)0$8#7.#8:.4$:368.)2%35#13(.#63. 4$63.#/()6#1).#8:.73((.$6+#801?.A<3(3.)<633.4#08. +6$=%(.1$663(%$8:.6$=+<72.)$.)<3.'38#0((#813>.B#C 6$,=3>.#8:.D870+<)38438).%360$:(.08.#6).#8:.70)36#C )=63?.E3(0+836(.08.)<3.)938)03)<.#8:.)938)2C506(). 138)=603(.<#;3.1$8)08=3:.)$.163#)3.839.)2%35#13(. /#(3:.$8.<0()$601.1<#6#1)360()01(?

-#.B/.F1.E:.D3.G5.*+.@<.H0.IJ.KL.M7.!4.N8. O$.P%.&,.'6.Q(.A).R=.S;.T9.U".V2.WX.Y.Z.[.. \.].^._.`.a.b.c.d.e.f.g.h.i.j.k italic

!$">#"A'"B4"@*"C,"D1":6"E&"FG"HI"J/"K+"L0"M-" N2"O?"=."P%"<)"Q7"R5"S3"TU"V("WX"Y"Z"[""\"]"^"_" `"a"b"c"d"e"f"g"h"i"j"k

bold

!"#$%&'"%(%)*+",-."'/$%%&,(&01")(2*,$'*%"3$%"4*5&%*4"&0" )6*"0&0*)**0)6"'*0)7.(8"36*0"2.&0)*.%"%-716)")-"&4*0)&,(" $"6*.&)$1*",-.")6*&."-30"'.$,)"$0$/-1-7%")-")6$)"-,"$.)" 6&%)-.(9":7+$0&%)"/*))*.,-.+%"$.*"'/-%*/("'-00*')*4")-"'$/; /&1.$26("$04")6*"+-5*+*0)"-,")6*"6$049"<.$0%&)&-0$/"$04" +-4*.0")(2*,$'*%"$.*"+-.*"$#%).$')"$04"/*%%"-.1$0&'9"<6*%*" )6.**"+$&0"1.-72%"'-..*%2-04".-716/(")-")6*"=*0$&%%$0'*8" >$.-?7*8"$04"@0/&16)*0+*0)"2*.&-4%"&0"$.)"$04"/&)*.$)7.*9" 'HVLJQHUVLQWKHWZHQWLHWKDQGWZHQW\ÀUVWFHQWXULHV 6$5*"'-0)&07*4")-"'.*$)*"0*3")(2*,$'*%"#$%*4"-0"6&%)-.&'" '6$.$')*.&%)&'%9

!"#$%#&'#()#*+#,-#./#01#23#45#67#89# :;#<=#>?#@A#BC#DE#FG#HI#JK#LM#NO# PQ#RS#TU#V#W#X##Y#Z#[#\#]#^#_#`#a#b#c#d#e#f#g# h


Platelet Classification: Geometric Sans Serif

MaxbyogGQrRt thin

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Mm Nn Yy Zz ? ! @

Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } & *

regular

Aa Bb Mm Nn Yy Zz ? ! &

Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } *

heavy

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Mm Nn Yy Zz ? ! @

Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } & *


Priori Sans Classification: Transitional

MxanopdrRtSfGg regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* alternate

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*


Priori Serif Classification: Transitional

MxanodQrRtSfg regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&* alternate

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&*

bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*


Rotis Classification: Humanist Sans Serif

MxanopQrRtGg (55) sans

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*

serif

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*


Sabon Classification: Old Style

MxayogGQfR regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* small caps

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!&* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* bold italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*


Scala Sans Classification: Humanist Sans Serif

MxabyogGdQrR regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * caps

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! & * italic

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


Serifa Classification: Slab Serif

MxaoygGdQR regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* black

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*


Snell Roundhand Classification: Script

axogbGdQrRst regular

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* Dolessecte ver sim er aut wismod mincilit loboreet praessed tat. Iquis eu feuis dolore faci ercil eriurer sisi tet, quamconse do odolor amcommodit vulla feugait luptatisl dolorer augait praessi. Lut vel iriuscil et luptat. Nullandre magna feugiam, quis aute conullu ptatincip ea alit wis et volore dip et, cortin henisi. Quis autet, veros accum ipit vel ute mod ting eumsandreet am, qui te faciniat nummod eu feugiat ex essim vent vendre tat venibh et pratuer ipsum volortio eniat praessed mincilit dolobortie tat. Lam dolut amcommy nos eraessed tin ulput ut vulputat, quat, volobor incip et essi.orper sum quamconsed magniam, quisit accum voloborem alit iuscipit la consequam dit nulput acing eu feum quat. Ut luptat at.


Swift Classification: Transitional Serif

MxaoygGdQrR Bold condensed

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * regular

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* italic

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*

bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &*


Syntax Classification: Humanist Sans Serif

MxaoygGdQrR regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* black

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* black

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*


Trade Gothic Classification: Sans Serif

MxanyogGdQrR condensed

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&* medium

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* bold

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

bold no.2

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*


Walbaum Classification: Modern Serif

MxyagGdQrR regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* small caps

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*


Volta Classification: Transitional Slab Serif

MyogGdQrR regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* medium

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* medium italic

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 67890(){}?!@&* bold

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*


A Designer's Guide to Typography