UBIQUITOUS CITY - LESSONS FROM SOUTH KOREA FOR A SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE Seminar paper in the seminar ‘Robot Oriented Design’ Chair for Building Realization and Robotics University of Technology Munich, Germany written by: Leopold Böhm, email@example.com, 3622334
Introduction “Forget Dubai: the new utopia is settled in South Korea and is called Songdo City”1 are the first words of an article by Claus Moser published on his website. “A drawing board city with six square kilometers of recently gained areal space, nearly 65 kilometers southwest of Seoul, just in front of the harbor city Incheon. A project with gigantic demands: ‘A brandnew city shall arise’, announces the official Website, ‘a global Business-Hub’, connected to the world with a ‘new Aerotropolis’, which connects in 3,5 hours to one third of the world‘s population - at the same time one of the ‘greenest cities of the world’ and ‘a smart and sustainable world’.”2 The vision of the Joint Venture (Gale International and Korea‘s POSCO E&C) was developed by Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates with a budget of nearly 40 billion dollars in a masterplan. The city will be a model for future compliant city development. Everything will be linked in a ubiquitous city.3 Infrastructures exchange various data, for example “pressure-sensitive floors in the homes of older people that can detect a fall and contact help”4 This utopia shall be an eminent step forward towards sustainable and smart city development. But is this city concept groundbreaking for European city development? What can we as urban planners and architects, learn from this sustainable metropolis? 1 2 3 4
Moser, Claus (2009) gleiche höhe ist kein abseits ǀ u-city Moser, Claus (2009) gleiche höhe ist kein abseits ǀ u-city Moser, Claus (2009) gleiche höhe ist kein abseits ǀ u-city Moser, Claus (2009) gleiche höhe ist kein abseits ǀ u-city
legend: Residential red marked district Commercial blue marked district Quality of Life green marked district © 2011 Songdo IBC, Masterplan source: www.songdo.com
Definitions Universal Design The Center for Universal Design at North Carolina State University expounds the following principles: (1) Equitable use (2) Flexibility in use (3) Simple and intuitive (4) Perceptible information (5) Tolerance for error (6) Low physical effort (7) Size and space for approach and use5 Universal Design is not very often discussed on larger scale like urban development. But development trends of the last years have mirrored sustainable urban design with parameters of Universal Design. The idea is not to create a Universal Design for a whole city. The idea is to create a smart heterogenous design based on the facts of Universal Design, which means different spaces for a maximized user group.
The IUCN programme [...], used the interlocking circles model to demonstrate that the three objectives need to be better integrated, with action to redress the balance between dimensions of sustainability[...].”7
© 2005 IUCN Programme, Overlapping Circles source: www.iucn.org/programme
From U-City to U-Life A ubiquitous city is “a system with a high degree of interlinks between scales (smart homes, smart mobility and smart cities) through advanced technologies”8.
Sustainability “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”6
National Integrated Information Network
Integrated city information center Convention center Public transportation
© 2005 Cornell Sustainable Campus, Sustainability source: www.sustainablecampus.cornell.edu This is only part of the definition. But the principal idea of sustainability is clear. Summaraizing you can say that “the core of mainstream sustainability thinking has become the idea of three dimensions, environmental, social and economic sustainability. These have been drawn in a variety of ways, as ‘pillars’, as concentric circles, or as interlocking circles[...]. 5 NC State University (1998) The Universal Design File 6 Brundtland Commission (1983)
Home network ISP
© 2011 Happy City Sejong, Multifunctional Administrative City source: www.happycity.go.kr Smart Homes (Assistive Homes) are high-tech homes assisted with pervasive computing. Assistive Homes respond to every age group. There will be no separate flat for example for a group of elderly people according to Universal Design. ‘Smart’ cities are sustainable cities with the three mentioned criteria an economic, ecologic and social combination with high technologies in urban life. ‘’Smart mobility will 7 8
Report of the IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting (2006) Deploying & Managing Pervasive Computing On City Scale, Thomas Linner
be the essential key for U-City. Every City needs intelligent mobility concepts. Mobility concepts with different claims on different scales are the linking gaps between smart homes and smart urban life.
this ubiquitous computing system will allow to share the information nor only to individual, but also among the buildings, business owners, institutions and government.”10
Abstract comment of the initiators of Songdo
© 2005 Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, U-Life source: www.songdo.com
© 2005 Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, U-Life source: www.songdo.com U-Life is the advancement of the U-City towards a more personal ideal concept. “The Ubiquitous computing environment to be offered by Songdo U-Life LLC., will offer a city where everything is interconnected with everything else in anytime, every time.”9 The Urban Management Center is the central controlling infrastructure. “Through these embedded systems with support of the UMC, through various kinds of wired or wireless networking, will seamlessly communicate with one another, finally offering specific services that the individual is seeking. Also 9
KPF Sustainable Design, Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates
„In a region dominated by a boom of large scale urban growth and a new order of magnitude of pollution and congestion issues, the need to accommodate the trend towards urbanization in a more sustainable fashion is increasingly paramount. Adapting sustainability onto existing urban landscapes can be extremely challenging, which is why the opportunity to create a new city from the ground up represents such a significant opportunity. The New Songdo City International Business District Development in the Republic of Korea – a new, 1500 acre, master-planned and mixed use private development of reclaimed land along Incheon’s waterfront – represents such an opportunity, not unlike Battery Park City in New York City or the City of Dubai in the UAE. The developers and designers of the site are seeking to identify sustainable development best practices, opportunities, and metrics, integrate urban planning, infrastructure engineering, architecture, and construction, and ultimately, deliver a city that meets the internationally recognized, third-party benchmarks of LEED for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND), LEED for New Construction (LEED-NC), and the Korean Green Building Rating System. This paper outlines the process for approaching sustainable development and explores the opportunities and challenges that exist throughout the development process, from planning and design, to construction, and eventual long-term operation.“11
Abstract Comment Scale Layers Songdo City attracts worldwide attention. One fact that institutions can learn from it is the different consideration of scale layers. U-Cities especially Songdo are planned through various scale layers. The challenging gap is the gap between these different scale layers. To be sustainable means that you have to focus more on multi-layer facts, then simply interior design for elderly people. The evaluation of 10 11
KPF Sustainable Design, Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates The Making of a New Green City (2008) CTBU 8th World Congress
data towards a aging society will challenge the initiators to connect elderly people in daily life with various mobility concepts. Another aspect to integrate different age groups is the smart positioning of universal rooms into the urban context.
Connectivity The work of Arup and Cisco Systems will offer an essential advantage. The ubiquitous city will close their nonphysical gaps between the scale layers with the help of connectivity. This high-tech infrastructure “will become its own brand, it’s own lifestyle.[...] It all starts with a resident’s smart-card house key. ‘The same key can be used to get on the subway, pay a parking meter, see a movie, borrow a free public bicycle and so one. It will be anonymous, won’t be linked to your identity, and if [you loose] you can quickly cancel the card and reset your door lock.”12 These are just a handful examples. Another appreciable aspect is the link of pressure sensitive floors, which automatically alerts the ambulance.
Mobility Kohn Petersen Fox Associates designed various mobility concepts on different scales. Instead of constructing highways for automobiles, Joint Venture adjusted the focus on express-buses with natural-gas between Incheon’s central city and Incheon’s airport. Additionally a subway to Incheon will be offered. On city-scale a public transportation network provides different ways of mobility. The central public transportation area makes a combination of bus, subway, bike path and water taxis accessible. People who stay more on their own, are able to take part in sharing concepts. Rental bikes, personal transport (segways) and electric cars are supplied13.
Technical effort Songdo wants to realize future demands. Technical problems are preassigned. “The ability to do such vast market testing is enviable, said Dr. Fogg, of Standfort. “This is a competitive advantage for the Koreans,” he said. “They will know before anyone else what flies.” “But I foresee that many services will fail,” he added. “That‘s the nature of experimentation. They should be prepared for the frailties of human nature to
Pamela Licalzi O‘Conell (2005) NY Times, Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed KPF Sustainable Design, Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates
Ecological and economic idea is superficial The concept of Songdo mirrors the ecological and economic pillars of the sustainability coined thoughts. Songdo is definitively a success in a green way of thinking, but not in sustainable thinking. The U-City collects the LEED award like no other city in the world. Smart green technologies are decisive for the concept. Reduced carbondioxide, measured with the rest of Korea, will blaze the way for the design of future cities. Biodiversity, a special water utilisation network, waste collection and energy networks are only a few concepts, which are determining.
Central Business District Songdo is a city for the central business district. The city is nearly only profit oriented and not interested in lifelong cycles for a mixed society - as the rest of Korea. The working generation gains ecological key benefits. Songdo adopts an important gatewayfunction and symbol-function for Korea. Knowledge intensive providers will boost the development for this knowledge economy.
Improvement of Status Quo vs. Terraforming An essential question is if the terraforming of the joint venture is justified by sustainable criteria. Is it really necessary to establish by sacrificing huge amounts of ground a brand new district. In the eyes of the joint venture, the answer is pretty clear: “Adapting sustainability onto existing urban landscapes can be extremely challenging, which is why the opportunity to create a new city from the ground up represents such a significant opportunity.”15 But isn’t it the challenge of architects to optimize the status quo? The position of joint venture has to be seen critically.
Privacy According to Mr. Kim (vice president for strategy at New Songdo City Development) “It’ll be anonymous, wont’t be linked to your identity.”16. Especially “in the West, ubiquitous computing is a controversial idea that raises privacy concerns and the specter of 14 Pamela Licalzi O‘Conell (2005) NY Times, Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed 15 The Making of a New Green City (2008) CTBU 8th World Congress 16 Pamela Licalzi O‘Conell (2005) NY Times, Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed
a surveillance society.”17 Certainly there are lots of sensor technologies in daily urban life. It seems to be inevitable that the government is able to gather personal data. The paramount question is simple: is aquiring data the key for abuse or is it the key for security, luxury and various aspects. “[I]n Asia the concept is viewed as an opportunity to show off technological prowess and attract foreign investment.”18
Demographic Change in Korea “South Korea with its population of 48 million as in 2010 has a working population of 30 million, which is around 61% of their current population.[...] [B]y 2050 42,5% of the population will be above 60 years old (IDB,2010).”19
© 2011 Lehrstuhl für Baurealisierung und Baurobotik, TU München The age group distribution from 2010 to 2050 shows that there will be as many working people as retired people. The need of a Central Business District, should be questioned bevause there will be a huge working group percentage, in contrast to the demographic change in South Korea.
Basic principles for establishing an ubiquitous city in Korea in contrast to europe Fact is that U-City is a Korean concept and canonly be established in Korea. The Korean society is enthusiastically interested in new electronic device technology. The Koreans see it as a great opportunity 17 18 19
Pamela Licalzi O‘Conell (2005) NY Times, Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed Pamela Licalzi O‘Conell (2005) NY Times, Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed UbiTec embbedded Architecture (2011) German-Korean Workshop, TU München
of service, that high-tech infrastructure assists daily life. „There is a historical expectation of less privacy. Korea is willing to put off the hard questions to take the early lead and set standards.“20 Western states see it as a problem of privacy. Inhabitants fear to be too transparent. Ethic values like freedom and privacy protection seems to be anchored throughout all western walks of life. Another aspect for realizing a Ubiquitous City in Korea is the geographical adjacency towards China. China increases in significance for South Korea. Of course there is still a historical barrier. And both states are governed by different governmental systems, China is a communist state and South Korea a liberal democratic republic. But especially South Korea sees China as a flourishing key market. South Korea’s primary export partner is China (23,2 percent of total exports in the year 2010). South Korea imports 16,8 percent of total imports out of China.21 There is an enormous potential in the future of China as the most populous state on earth. Europe’s trade restrictions are nearly completely lifted. Trading infrastructure has been built and extended. But there is hardly any space for investments in this dimension. European markets are saturated. Infrastructure has been buildt and extended through regional disparity. Songdo is a profit oriented model with values of sustainability. But the demographic change in western countries needs special customization of sustainability. Songdo is designed for a young, working, knowledge-intensive society. But most western countries have an aging society. Sustainability has to be redefined for each potential spot.
Potential for Europe U-City should not be seen as a utopian idea, which will never be realized. U-City is a concept. But basic concept principles don‘t fit exactly to European culture. Especially the fact of transparency of inhabitants will cause judicial problems. But the demographic change is the driver for Ubiquitous city’s principles in Europe. Demographic change will open new markets for an aging society. Especially the sector of ambient assisted living gains significance. Elderly people need care which is no
Pamela Licalzi O‘Conell (2005) NY Times, Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed South Korea Export, Import & Trade (2010) www.economywatch.com
intrusion in Europe.22 ‘Ambient Assisted Living’ products have been developed23 in the last few years. But most developments are defined for certain scales. Implementation through various scales is an essential factor for usability. Same as U-City is a city which is planned through different scales by KPF Associates. Architects and designer learn in their studies that the multidimensional view is inevitable. In fact, Apple with its iPhone is a good example for the usability through various scales. An iPhone opens up lots of opportunities in domestic handling (ordering products with the help of home service). On the other hand you’re able to take it with you wherever you want. You can use it for traveling, gaming, social contacts, etc. Basic approaches are the principles of Universal Design. Consequently there is a high acceptance of users. Ambient Assisted Living products have to be designed through various scales on the base of Universal Design. Another important condition is the mobility through various scales. Of course Songdo has done a good job for ecological and economic mobility concepts. But Songdo aims at a young generation. But how are the problems for elderly people solved? Are disabled people able to use the mobility concepts without any problems? Mobility is probably the most efficient prevention for age-related ailment. Especially foot-mobility is highly appreciated by old people. Old people want to be integrated in daily social life in a city. Older people face mobility as hard and stressful. But in the long run, mobility is the driver for counteracting the demographic change. It‘s important to keep elderly people active that they organize their own daily routine.24 Integrated sustainable urban development accounts to ubiquitous mobility.
historical city cores. Gated communities show that social disparity can lead to social suspenses. Another aspect is that gated communities are dependent on monetary funds. Monetary funding is not in line with ethic moral aspects in Europe. The challenge is to get a mixture through all social levels.25 In the year 2003, Ursula von der Leyen, the then Federal Minister for Family Affairs initiated a program for multi-generation houses. Multigeneration houses are social houses, where different age groups and social groups get in contact. Everybody is welcome. The idea is that different age groups interact and profit from each other. Financial support was guaranteed for the eight years. Nowadays, without any financial background was concluded, there is an open-end.26 The success of a multi-generation house has to be contemplated critically. Ambient Assisted Living terms, focussing on mobility in urban contexts are probably the most potential aspects for long term sustainable profit.
Examples for Ambient Assisted Living Products on various Scales: Assistive Homes Traditional Japanese House The traditional Japanese house is a very universally usable house. There is only one room inside located, which is for different uses. A group of students reinterpreted the space-coordination of this concept. There is circular gallery, which bases on the principal of a green house.
Urban development has to be universal for user groups. Gated Communities like Sun City in the U.S. face the problem of separation in the urban context. Lessons of the CIAM XI in Otterlo show that especially the urban city development of the 1960’s and 1970’s in Germany led to disurbanisation of 22 23 24
Deploying & Managing Pervasive Computing On City Scale, Demogrpahic Change as Driver for Pervasive Technology, Thomas Linner Altersgerechte Assistenzsystem (2011) www.aal-deutschland.de Bewegungsmotivation oder „Kampf dem inneren Schweinehund“ (2011) AAL-Kongress, VDI/VDE
© 2011 Böhm, Fuhrmann, Kammerer, Neukirch, TU München, Lehrstuhl für Integriertes Bauen 25 26
CIAM, Charta von Athen, Team X(2006) TU Harburg www.tu-harburg.de Lisa Erdmann (2011) Mehrgenerationenhaus, Spiegel www.spiegel.de
This space could be used as energy producer or you’re able to add the gallery to the central room. Construction levels, electricity and the plumbing unit are all located in-floor.
© 2011 Böhm, Fuhrmann, Kammerer, Neukirch, TU München, Lehrstuhl für Integriertes Bauen
Laboratory for Demonstrative Experiments © 2006 ISARC, Waseda University
TRON Intelligent House/u-Home
© 2011 Böhm, Fuhrmann, Kammerer, Neukirch, TU München, Lehrstuhl für Integriertes Bauen
“Since its inception, the sole goal of the TRON Project has been the creation of a „total computer architecture“ to serve as the foundation for building a computer-based society in the 21st century. In order to attain this goal, TRON research and development has been divided into two parts: basic technology projects and technology application projects.”28
Wabot House The Wabot House project is a interdisciplinary project of robotics engineers, architects or IT researchers. The Wabot House is a research project, which challenges the symbiosis between humankind and robots. The robots operate on daily life domestic circumstances.27
Inside „Robot-House“ © 2006 ISARC, Waseda University 27
Prof. Hiroshi Yamakawa(2010) Waseda University
System configuration diagram © 2009 Sakamura Laboratory, University of Tokio The TRON Intelligent House was the first ambient assisted living house. U-Home is the third generation of high-tech ambient assisted living. The house is controlled by the Ubiquitous communicator. With the UC you are able to control nearly every electronic 28
Sakamura Laboratory (2009) University Museum, University of Tokyo, TRONWARE, Personal Media Corporation
device, which is located in the house. The u-Home is one of the highest developed ambient assisted houses in the world.
Ground Floor, U-Home © 2009 Sakamura Laboratory, University of Tokio
station platforms in Japan and South Korea © 2008 Universal Design im demographischen Wandel
Urbanism Shared Space Shared space is the mode of urban space, before the separation of vehicles and pedestrians. Nowadays Italia still has lots of space in their original way. At the heart it is the concept of integration. Vehicles and pedestrians have to be attentive. The generated insecurity leads to respectful behaviour between the different users. This contrasts to the principle of segregation, the idea of separating different functions and different users within the urban landscape.29
staircase at the airport of Narita, Japan © 2008 Universal Design im demographischen Wandel
Local Public Infrastructure Staircases cause often problems for older people. Especially wheelchair userss easily hit the wall. Solutions are ramps, lifts and conveyor bands.
Shared space in Siena, Italy © 2006 Ben Hamilton-Baillie
Urban Space Design Especially Japan and South Korea are interested in Universal Design for public spaces. Customization to the demographic change took already place in metro design.
Ben Hamilton-Baillie Associates (2006) www.hamilton-baillie.co.uk
building with a central helix ramp in Seoul © 2008 Universal Design im demographischen Wandel
Robot Town System The Town Management System manages sensory date and robot interaction with the intelligent enviroment. It integrates sensor data and provides robots with real-time enviroment in their task.
The Town Management System inducts the following tasks30:
IPsCity - Integrated Project on Interaction and Presence in Urban Environments
„(1) Communication with sensors and robots. (2) Data storage, revision, and retrieval. (3) Provision of the data related to the id of an RFID tag embedded in the environment. (4) Provision of the id of an RFID tag related to specific data such as an object name. (5) Maintenance multiple data integrity from different environment sensors. (6) Notification to robots of predefined event occurrence in the environment. (7) Data acquisition support for both interrupts and regular requests and replies.”31
The IPCity project us an investigation of technological, economic and social feasibility of this revolutionary type of media. IPCity makes extensive use of It uses a so called Mixed Reality, a technology that adds virtual elements - textual information, images, video, sound - to the user sense perception into real environment. Today‘s Mixed Reality prototypes uses devices like mobile phones or PDAs, lightweight head-mounted displays or large-scale projections. To make Mixed Reality a truly satisfying experience, the IPCity project works on integrating advanced devices, extending IT frameworks for interactive prototyping of novel environments and for creating and managing virtual content.32
RobotTown concept © 2009 Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics
Mixed Reality Equipment and Timewarp © Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT, Richard Wetzel
Sugamo “Sugamo is called Harajuku for old ladies as it is popular for shops and restaurants targeting them.“33 The Jizodori Shotengai is a commercial street. On the street, there are shops and restaurants aiming on old people. Walkways and stairs are wide. Disabled people with wheelchairs or canes can get easily forward. Rate tables and guide boards are big hand-written just at eye-level.34 RobotTown data flow © 2009 Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics
30 Kouji Murakami, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Ryo Kurazume, Yoshihiko Kimuro (2009) Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics 31 Kouji Murakami, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Ryo Kurazume, Yoshihiko Kimuro (2009) Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics
Entrance of Jizo Dori - Harajuku for Grannies © 2007 PingMag 32 33 34
Richard Wetzel (2011) IPsCity, FIT Japan Hopper (2011) Blog kiokitok Ryoko, Rie Ishimi (2007) PingMag
Mobility Exoskeletons / HAL “„Robot Suit HAL“ expands and improves physically capability. The cyborg-type recognizes a persons attempts to move. The nerve signals from the muscles via motneuron are decoded and transfered to the musculosketal system. Biosignals can be detected on the surface of the skin. The sensor system catches these signals through a sensor attached on the skin of the wearer. The exoskeleton support the wearer‘s daily activities with physical power.35
Robot Suit HAL © 2011 dpa
Stride Management Assist Honda began research into a walking device in 1999. A cumulative study of human walking along with research and development of technologies conducted for Honda‘s advanced humanoid robot. ASIMO made these developments possible.36 “A lightweight, simple design with a belt worn around the hips and thighs was created to reduce the wearer‘s load and to fit different body shapes.”37
35 36 37
Robot Suit HAL Cyberdyne INC. (2011) Honda (2011) walkassist.honda.com Honda (2011) walkassist.honda.com
Honda Walk Assist, Stride Management Assist © 2011 Honda
References 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
Moser, Claus (2007) U-City, gleiche höhe ist kein abseits http://www.clausmoser.com/?p=976 last visit: 15.09.2011 Moser, Claus (2007) U-City, gleiche höhe ist kein abseits http://www.clausmoser.com/?p=976 last visit: 15.09.2011 Moser, Claus (2007) U-City, gleiche höhe ist kein abseits http://www.clausmoser.com/?p=976 last visit: 15.09.2011 Moser, Claus (2007) U-City, gleiche höhe ist kein abseits http://www.clausmoser.com/?p=976 last visit: 15.09.2011 Story,Molly, NC State University. The Center for Universal Design (1998) The Universal Design File, page 34-35 Volker Hauff (Hrsg.): Unsere gemeinsame Zukunft. Der Brundtland-Bericht der Weltkommission für Umwelt und Entwicklung. Greven 1987, Eggenkamp Verlag W.M. Adams, University of Cambridge, UK, IUCN - The World Conservation Union (2006) Future of Sustainability, Report of the IUCN Reowned Thinkers Meetin 29-31 January 2006, page 3 www.iucn.org Linner, Thomas, Chair for Building Realization and Robotics, University of Technology Munich, Paper „Deploying & managing pervasive computing on city scale“ Kohn Petersen Associates PC, New Sondo City Green City, page 90 Kohn Petersen Associates PC, New Sondo City Green City, page 91 Whitman Todd, Christine; Reid, Charles; von Klemperer, James (2008) CTBU 8th World Congress Paper „New Songdo City- The Making of a New Green City“ Licalzi O‘Connel, Pamela; New York Times (2005) Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed Kohn Petersen Associates PC, New Sondo City Green City, page 50-55 Licalzi O‘Connel, Pamela; New York Times (2005) Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed Whitman Todd, Christine; Reid, Charles; von Klemperer, James (2008) CTBU 8th World Congress Paper „New Songdo City- The Making of a New Green City“ Licalzi O‘Connel, Pamela; New York Times (2005) Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed Licalzi O‘Connel, Pamela; New York Times (2005) Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed Licalzi O‘Connel, Pamela; New York Times (2005) Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed Chair for Building Realization and Robotics, University of Technology Munich (2011) UbiTec embedded Architecture, German-Korean Workshop, Briefing paper, page 4 Licalzi O‘Connel, Pamela; New York Times (2005) Korea‘s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed Economywatch, South Korea Export, Import & Trade, http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/south-korea/export-import.html last visit 14.09.2011 Linner, Thomas, Chair for Building Realization and Robotics, University of Technology Munich, Paper „Deploying & managing pervasive computing on city scale“ Ambient Assisted Living Deutschland, BMBF, Altersgerechte Assistenzsystems http://www.aal-deutschland.de/deutschland/bekanntmachung-altersgerechte-assistenzsysteme last visit 14.09.2011 E.F. Moritz, S. Erdt, T. Schulz; 4. Deutscher AAL Kongress, VDE Verlag GmbH Berlin (2011) Bewegungsmotivation oder „Kampf dem inneren Schweinehund“ TU Harburg (2006) CIAM, Charta Athen www.tu-harburg.de last visit 14.09.2011 Erdmann, Lisa; Spiegel-online (2010) Mehrgenerationenhaus http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/0,1518,735373,00.html last visit 14.09.2011
References 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
Yanakawa, Hiroshi (2010) Presentation of the WABOT-HOUSE Laboratory of Waseda University Alexandria, Bioorobotics Symposium Ken Sakamura, Sakamura Laboratory, University Museum, University of Tokya (2009) TRON Intelligent House Makes Its Appearance in Taiwan Hamilton-Baillie, Ben (2006) What is Shared Space? http://www.hamilton-baillie.co.uk/ last visit 13.09.2011 Kouji Murakami, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Ryo Kurazume; Kyushu University (2009) Supporting Robotic Activities in Informationally Structured Environment with Distributed Sensors and RFID Tags Kouji Murakami, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Ryo Kurazume; Kyushu University (2009) Supporting Robotic Activities in Informationally Structured Environment with Distributed Sensors and RFID Tags Richard Wetzel, Fraunhofer Institut f端r Angewandt Informationstechnik FIT(2011) IPCity http://www.fit.fraunhofer.de/fb/cscw/projects/ipcity.html last visit 13.09.2011 Blog kiokitok (2011) Japan Hopper, Sugamo http://www.japan-hopper.com/2007/07/14_161069.php last visit 14.09.2011 Ryoko, Rie Ishimi; PingMag (2007) Sugamo: Top-Notch Design for Grannies http://pingmag.jp/2007/09/20/sugamo-for-grannies/ last visit 13.09.2011 Cyberdyne, Robot Suit Hal(2011) http://www.cyberdyne.jp/english/robotsuithal/ last visit 14.09.2011 Honda (2011)Walk Assist Device with Bodyweigh Support Assist http://corporate.honda.com/innovation/walk-assist/ last visit 12.09.2011 Honda (2011)Walk Assist Device with Bodyweigh Support Assist http://corporate.honda.com/innovation/walk-assist/ last visit 12.09.2011