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Lecture Week 3 Footings and Foundations -Use to support the load of a building and stabilize the soil before a construction occurs to prevent the building from collapse. -There are two major types of foundations: -Shallow foundations: When the building is small and low rise and the soil where the building is built is stable and able to support the weight of the building -Deep foundations: When the building is large and high rise and the soil where the building is built is unstable and unable to support the weight of the building. Mass Materials -Differences between concrete blocks and bricks -Properties of concrete blocks: i) Low fragility ii) Hard iii) High density vi) High thermal resistance v) Low flexibility vi) Less durable vii) Recyclable -Properties of bricks: i) High fragility ii) Hard iii) Medium density vi) High thermal resistance v) Low flexibility vi) Durable vii) Recyclable -Mass materials such as concrete and bricks are used commonly in constructions. Both concrete blocks and bricks are able to withstand high loads, which makes them load bearing walls that provide support to the whole building.


Site Activity The tutor conducts a campus tour by walking around The University of Melbourne to explore the structural systems used to construct the buildings. -Mass construction is one of the main types of construction. -Load bearing walls that can hold up significant amount of loads, which provides support to a building.

-A fix joint is attached to a wall of the building and a pin joint is attached to the beam outside the building, which prevents the beam from moving.

-Reinforced concrete walls are also commonly used. -A combination of steel rods and concrete which the steel rods provide support to the concrete wall by holding the concrete in shape.

-In the car park areas, it was constructed with mass constructions, which uses concrete that act as a load bearing wall. -However, the roof shell is constructed in such shape that enables trees to be planted above the car parking. This


allows tree roots to grow freely without any restrictions. -By installing pipes underneath the columns enables excessive water to transfer out. This helps in solving the problem of imperviousness surface underneath the soil.

-The membrane structure is also used for one of the building in the university. -Due to its open air structure, it provides a good air ventilation to the surroundings. Cables are used to pull and hold up the structure due to its light weight. membrane structure cable

Beam Load bearing wall -A beam which the load is transfer to the load bearing wall. -It is a trust fame with rigid frame that undergoes both compression and tension.


Timber beams -A cantilever structure, which is supported by transporting the load to the load bearing walls. -The timber beams and spans are used to transfer the loads of the cantilever to the load bearing walls. -It is a solid mass structure with concrete walls and galvanized steel rods stick outwards. -Galvanized steel rods are used to maintain the shiny appearance of it and also last longer than non-galvanized steels rods. Galvanized steel roods


E-Learning Week 3 Structural Elements Tie% !Act%as%a%tension% element%that% supports%the%building%

Strut%% !Act%as%a%compression% element%that%supports% the%building.%%

Structural Elements Beam% !An%element%that%undergoes% both%tension%and%compression.% !The%end%parts%undergo% tension,%as%it%is%stretch% outwards.% !The%middle%part%with% undergoes%compression,%as%it%is% being%apply%weight.%% %

Wall% !Supports%the%building%by% undergoing%compression% as%loads%are%bear%by%it.%

Slab% !Transfer%load%in% two%directions%with% equal%amount.%

Shear Diaphragm -Prevents overturning of the wall by acting as a brace which undergoes both compression and tension %


Footings and Foundations -Loads required being transfer to a footing system that does not exceed the bearing capacity of the soil. -Load that weighs larger than the footings bearing capacity will cause soil to sink. -Loads can be divided into 2 categories: Dead loads (static load) and life loads (moving loads) -Pressure can be reduced by increasing the surface area in contact with the soil. Hence increasing the load that can be withstand by the footings.

Foundation%is%“found%at% the%bottom%of%buildings% where%the%building% meets%the%ground.�% (Newton%n.d.)%%

!Substructure%

!Foundation%

-Foundation is used to safely transfer all loads acting on the building structure to the ground. Foundation systems can be divided into two types: i) Shallow foundations -According to Ching (3.05:2008), a shallow foundation is applied when the ground surface and the stable soil of suitable bearing capacity are close together.


-Shallow foundations can be divided into 3 types: Isolated Footings Strip Footings -supports free standing -foundations walls that columns and piers bear loads with spread continuous footings

Continuous Footings -supports a row of columns by concrete reinforced footings

ii) Deep Foundations -employed when the soil underlying a foundation is unstable or inequity bearing capacity. -can divided into two types: End Bearing Pile -Supports the building by extending the foundations to the bed rock. -Provides extra grid that holds the buildings to the ground. Friction Pile -Supports the building by inserting the pile to the soil that depends on the resistance of the surrounding earth. -Acts a solid pile which makes the soil stable that can withstand high loads.


Mass materials -Consist of four types: i)Stone ii)Earth iii)Clay vi)Concrete a) Stone -Strong in compression weak in tension. -Hard and resistance to scratches. -Thermal mass, which can insulates heat well. -Extremely durable that can last for thousand of years b) Earth -Earth is used to make mud bricks, which undergoes a process that allows the mud to dry and form a block -Medium density -Weak resistance to scratches c) Clay -Clay is use for the manufacture of bricks through compression with high temperature to makes it hard and form a block -standard size (230 long 76 height 110 wide) -there are three different types of bricks

d) Concrete -Concrete is made through chemical processes by mixing cement sand gravel and water and then molding and curing it. -Concrete is usually use with mortar as a bonding agent. -Usually use as loadbearing walls which supports the building. -Concrete blocks are normally 390mm long 90mm wide 190mm high and 11 kg. -Holes are created for insulations reinforcement and to reduce weight. !


Glossary! Moment- Force produced when an object turns at a distance. Retaining wall- Wall structure built to maintain a difference in ground level (Legal Services Commission n.d.) Pad footing- Single spread footings, which acts as a support for freestanding columns and piers (Ching 3.02:2008). Strip footing- Footings of foundation walls that are spread continuously (Ching 3.02:2008). Slab on ground- A concrete platform which is placed on the base of a construction. Substructure- Structural work, which is below the ground level that is used to support all structures above it (QCON n.d.).


References List Ching,%D.K.%(2008).%Building(Construction(Illustrated%(4th%ed).%New% Jersey,%USA:%John%Wiley%&%Sons%Inc.% % QCON:(Substructure.%(2014).%Retrieved%from% http://www.qcon.ie/node/354% Newton,%C.%(ENVS10003).%(2014,%March%16th).%W03_m1( INTRODUCTION(TO(MASS(CONSTRUCTION.%Retrieved%from% https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Au2upE9JN8&feature=youtu. be% % Newton,%C.%(ENVS10003).%(2014,%March%16th).%W03_m2( INTRODUCTION(TO(MASONRY.(Retrieved%from% https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DC8Hv8AKQ8A&feature=youtu .be% % Newton,%C.%(ENVS10003).%(2014,%March%16th).%W03_m3(BRICKS.% Retrieved%from% https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lYlQhkMYmE&feature=youtu. be% % Newton,%C.%(ENVS10003).%(2014,%March%16th).%W03_m4(STONE.% Retrieved%from%% https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Vn5_dk4RtQ&feature=youtu.b e% % Newton,%C.%(ENVS10003).%(2014,%March%16th).%W03_m5(CONCRETE( BLOCKS.%Retrieved%from% https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geJv5wZQtRQ&feature=youtu.b e% % Newton,%C.%(ENVS10003).%(2014,%March%17th).%W03_c1(FOOTINGS(&( FOUNDATIONS.%Retrieved%from% https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAcuwrecIz8&feature=youtu.b e% % Newton,%C.%(ENVS10003).%(2014,%March%17th).%W03_s1(STRUCTURAL( ELEMENTS.%Retrieved%from% https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wQIa1O6fp98&feature=youtu.b e%


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Studio!Week!4!


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Answers! 1.!a)!,Scale! !!!!!!!!!,Client! !!!!!!!!!,Project! !!!!!!!!!,Drawing!title! !!!!!!!!!,Key!plan! !!!!!!!!!,Consultants!!! !!!!!!!!!,Project!Architect! !!!! !!!!!b)!,It!is!essential!for!having!the!information!above!so!that!the! client!is!able!to!understand!the!details!and!purpose!of!the!buildings! and!also!knowing!whom!to!contact!when!there!is!any!unclear! questions.! ! 2.!a)!,Legend! !!!!!!!!!,Materials!used!to!construct!! !!!!!!!!!,Room!number! !!!!!!!!!,Doors!and!windows! !!!!!!!!!,Fire!and!acoustic!ratings! !!!!!!!!!,Type!and!height!of!walls! !!!!!!!!!,Spot!level! ! !!!!b)!,The!area!of!the!Function!Room!=!172.7!m2!! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!,The!unit!=!m2!! !

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Door!

! ! ! ! Grid! Line! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


!!!!c)!,Yes!there!is!a!grid,!which!uses!dashes!lines!to!represent.!This!! prevents!confusion!between!the!lines!used!for!structural!systems!and! dashes!lines!for!the!grid.! ! !!!!d)!,The!legend!helps!in!identifying!the!symbols!in!the!floor!plans! which!helps!the!reader!to!understand!the!plan.! !! !!!!!e)!,This!is!because!that!some!objects!cannot!or!hard!to!be! identified!by!using!just!symbols!and!numbers,!hence!by!adding! annotations!it!helps!the!reading!to!understand!the!purpose!of!the! object.!Object!with!annotations!are!normally!not!found!in!common! buildings!and!has!a!specific!use!for!its!presence.!! ! !!!!!f)!,The!symbols!means!the!reference!of!the!region.!And!it!has!a! bigger!scale!version!of!region!on!the!other!page,!which!clearly!stated! that!what!objects!or!materials!it!includes.! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!g)!,The!doors!and!windows!both!have!a!specific!symbols! respectively.!They!also!have!numbers!on!it!for!example;!doors!have! numbers!like!D01,!D02!and!D03!whereas!windows!have!numbers! like!W01,!W02!and!W03.!The!numbering!of!the!doors!and!windows!


indicates!the!order!of!the!doors!and!windows!and!also!the!total! amount!of!doors!and!windows!the!building!has.!! ! !!!!!h)!,Floors!are!noted!by!using!numbers!for!example;!FFL!4.500,! Finish!Floor!Level!(m)!Above!Datum.! !!!! !!!!!i)!,It!indicates!the!sudden!added!object!and!is!required!to!be! informed!to!the!workers!about!the!changing!details!as!soon!as! possible.!! ! 3.!a)!It!shows!the!façade!of!the!whole!building.!By!comparing,!the! plan!is!a!view!from!the!bird’s!eye!view,!whereas!elevation!is!a!view! from!a!far!horizontal!direction.! !! ,Symbol!which!is!used!as!elevation!view! ! ! !!!!!b)!The!number!3!to!7!shows!the!dimensions.!It!has!the!same! dimensions!compared!with!plan!and!elevation.!For!example,!between! 3!and!4,!the!distance!is!5235mm!on!both!dimension!elevation!and! plan.!Hence,!we!can!ensure!that!both!elevation!and!plan!are!the!same.! ! !!!!!c)!The!Existing!Pavilion,!Function!Room!and!G!level.! ! !!!!!d)!There!is!a!grid!that!represents!the!building!by!the!number!of!3! to!7.! ! !!!!!e)!By!using!an!arrow!that!points!towards!it!to!express!the!object.! Clouded!type!and!word!type!are!used.! ! !!!!!f)!By!using!number!D01,!D02!and!D03!to!represent!doors!and! W01,!W02!and!W03!to!represents!windows!which!is!the!same!as!the! plan.! ! !!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Door! ! ! ! ! ! !


!!!!!g)!The!figure!below!shows!the!elevation!of!the!plan!from!point!3!to! 7.!

,elevation!view! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ,plan!view! ! 4)!a)!The!height!of!each!levels!of!the!buildings!is!shown!and!major! objects!are!being!mentioned!instead!of!minor!detailed!objects!which! can!be!found!in!the!plan!and!elevation.!! ! !!!!!b)!By!cutting!through!the!building!using!grid!lines,!this!enables!the! height!of!the!building!relative!to!the!sea!level!to!be!shown.!! !


!!!!!c)!By!using!symbolic!presentations!of!materials!to!show!the! material!used.!! ! !!!!!d)!For!example,!the!“squares�!in!the!toilets!represents!tiles!used!to! construct!the!floor.!! !!!!!! !!!!!!!Tiles! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 5)!a)!The!structure!was!drawn!with!a!bigger!scale,!for!example,!the! plan!uses!1:100!and!details!uses!1:20.!Besides,!the!reader!is!able!to! choose!the!parts!of!building!that!they!want!to!read!in!the!plan,!hence! making!it!easier!to!understand.!

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!!!!!b)Codes!are!use!to!represent!the!materials,!for!example,!FL,03!is! used!for!window!glazing.!!

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


E-Learning!Week!4! Span!and!Spacing! ,The!space!required!for!the!supporting!element!relies!on!the! capabilities!of!a!span!to!support!the!loads.! ! Span! ,The!distance!between!two!ends!of!the!structural!supports.! ,Does!not!need!to!be!same!as!other!member!of!span.! ,Measured!through!between!supports!vertically!and!between! supports!horizontally.! ! Spacing!! ,The!distance!between!a!series!of!similar!elements!which!is!repeated.! ,Requires!other!supporting!elements!to!work!with,!for!example! columns!and!beams,!which!can!be!measured!through!horizontal,!and! vertical.! ,Measured!through!a!point!called!“centre,line”!to!the!other!“centre, line”.!


Beams!and!Cantilevers!! Beam! ,Normally!is!a!horizontal!structural!element.! ,Directs!loads!along!its!length!to!vertical!supports.! ,Can!be!supported!at:!i)!the!beam’s!two!ends! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!ii)!numerous!points!located!along!the!beam! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!iii)!points!which!are!away!from!the!beam’s!ends! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!iv)!one!of!the!beam’s!ends.!! ! Cantilever! ,Is!a!structural!element!created!which!is!supported!at!one!of!its!end! only.! ,Directs!and!transfers!loads!along!the!cantilever!to!support!elements.!! ,Can!be!in!horizontal,!vertical!and!angled.! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


Floor!Systems! ! ! ! ! ! Concrete!Systems! ,Two!major!types:!one!way!or!two!ways! ,“One!way!slab!is!uniformly!thick,!reinforced! in!one!direction,!and!cast!integrally!with! parallel!supporting!beams”!(Ching! 4.05:2008).! ,The!estimated!thickness!for!the!slab!is! calculated!by!the!length!of!span/30!(Ching! 4.05:2008).! ,This!is!suitable!for!low!to!medium!density! loads!(Ching!4.05:2008).! ,This!is!supported!on!the!two!ends!of!each! spans!on!a!loadbearing!wall!(Ching! 4.05:2008).! ,Two!way!slab!is!evenly!thick!with! reinforcement!in!two!directions!and!cast! integrally!with!supporting!beams!and! columns!on!all!four!sides!of!square!(Ching! 4.06:2008).! ,The!estimated!thickness!for!the!slab!is! calculated!by!the!slab!perimeter/180.! ,This!is!suitable!for!medium!to!heavy!density! loads!(Ching!4.06:2008).! ! ! !!!!

! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two!Way!Slab! One!Way!Slab! !

!!!!!!!!!(Ching!4.03:2008)! ! ! ! !

! Steel!Systems! ,“The!beams!support!the!steel! decking/precast!concrete!planks”! (Ching!4.03:2008).!! ,An!integral!part!of!a!steel!skeleton! frame!system!made!up!the!beam! framing!(Ching!4.03:2008).! ,The!beams!or!loadbearing!walls! supports!the!open!web!joists!(Ching! 4.03:2008).! ,Relatively!short!spans!for!the!steel! decking!or!wood!planks!(Ching! 4.03:2008).! ,Overhang!potential!is!limited!within! the!joists!(Ching!4.03:2008).! !

!!!Open!web!joist,!which!allow! water!pipes!to!pass!through.! (Ching!4.03:2008)! !!!!!!!!!

Floor! Systems!


!!!!Relatively!small,!closely!! Timber!Systems! ,The!timber!beam!is! supported!by!structural! planking/decking!(Ching! 4.03:2008).! ,The!beam!is!then!supported! by!loadbearing!walls,!girders! or!posts!(Ching!4.03:2008).! ,Environmental!friendly!as! compare!to!other!slabs!as!it! can!be!decompose!easily.! ,Has!high!flexibility!which! enables!it!to!be!able!to!be! compressed.!

!spaced!joists!which!can!! be!supported!by!beams!! or!load!bearing!walls!! (Ching!4.03:2008).! .!

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! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!(Ching!4.03:2008)!

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Glossary!! Joist,!A!support!structure!which!is!normally!a!steel!bar!or!timber!bar! in!a!series!that!is!parallel!to!each!other.! ! Girder,!A!main!beam!which!takes!mostly!the!load!applied.! ! Steel!Decking,!A!steel!component!which!is!required!for!the! construction!of!steel!floor!systems.! ! Concrete!Plank,!An!essential!component!which!is!used!in!floor! systems!and!supported!by!beams.! ! Spacing,!The!distance!between!a!series!of!similar!elements!which!is! repeated.! ! Span,!The!distance!between!two!ends!of!the!structural!supports.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


References!List! Ching,!D.K.!(2008).!Building(Construction(Illustrated!(4th!ed).!New! Jersey,!USA:!John!Wiley!&!Sons!Inc.! ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!March!25th).!W04_c1(FLOOR( SYSTEMS.(Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otKffehOWaw&feature=youtu.b e! ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!March!25th).!W04_m1(CONCRETE.! Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c1M19C25MLU&feature=youtu .be! ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!March!25th).!W04_m2(IN(SITU( CONCRETE.!Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3zW_TBGjfE&feature=youtu.b e! ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!March!25th).!W04_m3(PRE(CAST( CONCRETE.!Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scYY, MMezI0&feature=youtu.be! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


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Studio'Week'5! We!are!required!to!construct!the!cantilever!model!of!the!Oval! Pavilion!in!The!University!of!Melbourne.!The!material!we!used!to! construct!the!cantilever!is!bamboo!skewer,!which!are!then!taped!and! glued!together!to!form!the!model.!! !

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!The!cantilever!of!the!Oval!Pavilion! ! Measurements!were!done!by!using!a!scale!rule!to!measure!the!size!of! the!cantilever!according!to!the!book!before!making!the!model!to! prevent!mistakes!from!occurring.!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Measurements!of!the!cantilever!


! Bamboo!skewer!are!then!cut!according!to!the!measurements!and! taped!and!glued!together!as!shown!in!the!figure!below.!The!“X”! crossing!acts!as!a!brace!which!undergoes!both!tension!and! compression!to!hold!the!model!in!position.!! !!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!“X”!cross!bracing!

! After!finish!constructing!the!base!and!main!structure!of!the! cantilever,!measurements!of!other!minor!parts!of!the!cantilever!is! measure!using!a!scale!rule.!The!purpose!of!making!the!main!structure! of!the!cantilever!first!is!so!that!the!main!structure!is!able!to!hold!up! the!minor!parts!of!the!whole!cantilever.! ! ! ! ! ! Measurements!of!the! minor!parts!of!the! cantilever!! ! ! ! !


Again!by!using!the!same!method!to!make!the!main!part!of!the! cantilever,!the!minor!parts!are!then!constructed.!The!minor!parts!of! the!cantilever!are!the!beams,!which!transfer!loads!of!the!roof!of!the! cantilever!to!the!base.!!

' ' ' Minor!parts!of!the! cantilever!(beams!and! spans)!

' ' ' ! ! ! The!minor!parts!are!then!connected!to!the!main!part!of!the!cantilever! to!form!a!model!same!as!the!cantilever!of!the!Oval!Pavilion!as!shown! in!the!figure!below.! ! ! ! ! The!completed!model!of! the!cantilever!of!Oval! Pavilion.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


Shows!the!direction!of!load!path.! JThe!load!of!the!roof!is!transfer!to!the!base!of!the!cantilever!via! beams!and!columns.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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E-Learning'Week'5' Wall!Systems! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Structural!Frame!Walls! JCan!be!concrete!frames,! timber!frames!and!steel! frames.! JConcrete!frames!have!rigid! frames!with!fire!resistant! properties.!! JTimber!frames!required! diagonal!bracing!to!provide! support!and!hold!the!wall! in!shape.! JSteel!frame!have!rigid!l! frames!which!is!able!to! support!heavier!loads!than! timber!frames.! ! !!

! Structural!frame! ! ! Diagonal!bracing! ! Bearing!frame! ! Stud!wall!

Stud!Wall! JWall!made!of!lath!and! plaster/plasterboard!which!is! not!a!loadbearing!wall! JNormally!constructed!with! timber!frame!and!in!some! cases!metal!frames.! JTransfer!loads!vertically! downwards.! JActs!as!a!diagonal!bracing! that!undergoes!both! compression!and!tension!to! provide!support!for!the!wall.!

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Wall'Systems'

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Bearing!Frames! JMasonry!bearing!walls! and!concrete!walls.! JHave!fire!resistant! properties!and!are! loadbearing!walls,! which!is!able!to!support! a!building!by!high! compressive!strength.!


! ! Columns!! JStructural!object!that!transfer!compressive!loads!vertically.! JCan!be!divided!into!two!types:! i)!Short!Columns! !!!!JIs!shorter!in!length!and!bigger!in!cross!section!area.! !!!!JIs!applied!to!transfer!loads!that!do!not!exceed!the!compressive! strength!of!the!material!of!the!column.! !!!!JWith!a!ratio!of!less!than!12:1!the!effective!column!length!to! smallest!cross!section!area.! !!!!JThe!column!fails!through!crushing!when!the!load!applied!is!bigger! than!the!compressive!strength!of!the!material!of!the!column.! ! ! Short!! ! Short!! columns ! columns! ! ! crashing! ! ! ! ! ! ii)!Long!Columns! !!!!!JIs!longer!in!length!and!smaller!is!cross!section!area.! !!!!!JWith!a!ratio!of!more!than!12:1!the!effective!column!length!to! smallest!cross!section!area.! !!!!!J!The!column!fails!through!buckling!when!the!load!applied!is! bigger!than!the!compressive!strength!of!the!material!of!the!column.! ! ! ! Long!columns ! Long!columns! ! ! ! buckling! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


Timber!! JMaterial!that!form!naturally,!which!is!wood!that!is!cut!down!in!a! forest.!! JHas!high!stiffness!which!! JUsually!undergoes!a!process!called!seasoning!in!which!is!a!process! of!removal!of!moisture!within!the!timber!to!provide!a!good! dimension!stability.!! ! Properties!of!timber! JHigh!flexibility,!which!enables!it!to!be!bend!without!breaking!it.! JMediumJlow!fragility,!which!does!not!breaks!and!shatters!easily.! JMediumJlow!hardness,!which!enable!it!to!withstand!loads!being! apply!onto!it.! JHigh!permeability,!which!can!absorb!water!molecule!easily! therefore,!a!layer!of!vapor!barriers!is!required!to!apply!to!it!before! using!it.! JRecyclable,!which!enable!it!to!be!a!sustainable!product.! ! Engineered!Timber! 1)!Laminated!Veneer!Lumber!! JThin!timber!sheet,!which!undergoes!lamination.! JUsually!longitudinal!in!direction!with!long!sections!and!strong.! JUsed!for!structural!beams,!posts,!portal!frames.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! source:!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YrYOGSwtVc&feature=youtu.be!

! ! ! ! ! ! !


2)!Cross!Laminated!Timber!! JThin!laminated!timbers!that!undergo!bluing!and!pressing!processes! to!form!a!laminate!grain!laid!with!alternate!directions.!! JAble!to!support!in!two!directions.! JUsed!for!structural!panels.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! source:!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YrYOGSwtVc&feature=youtu.be!

! 3)!Glue!Laminated!Timber! JPieces!of!dressed!sawn!timbers!that!undergo!gluing,!which!form!a! deep!member!and!mostly!undergo!lamination!with!grainJaligned! produce!a!longitudinal!direction.!! JUsed!for!structural!beams,!posts!and!portal!frames!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! source:!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YrYOGSwtVc&feature=youtu.be! !

4)!Plywood! JA!sheet!of!timber,!which!undergoes!gluing!and!pressing,! JAble!to!support!in!two!directions! JUsed!for!structural!bracing,!formworks!and!flooring.! ! !

source:! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YrYO! GSwtVc&feature=youtu.be!

! !


5)!Medium!Density!Fiberboard! JThe!combination!of!hardwood!and!softwood!waste,!which!is!broke! down!into!wood!fibers!with!wax!and!resin!binder!through!high! temperature!and!pressure.!! JDenser!than!plywood! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! source:!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YrYOGSwtVc&feature=youtu.be!

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Glossary' StudJ!An!upright!timber!in!the!wall!of!a!building!to!which!laths!and! plasterboard!are!nailed! ! NoggingJ!Is!used!for!the!filling!in!between!wall!framing!in!buildings,! such!as!a!gap!between!timber!frames!or!steel!frames.! ! LintelJ!Can!be!a!loadJbearing!building!component,!a!decorative! architectural!element,!or!a!combined!ornamented!structural!item.!It! is!often!found!over!portals,!doors,!windows,!and!fireplaces.! ! Axial!LoadJ!a!force!that!is!exerted!along!the!lines!of!an!axis!of!a! straight!structural!member.!It!is!an!essential!mechanical!force!that!is! used!to!determine!as!ideal!column!in!structural!design.! ! BucklingJ!an!action!that!gives!a!force!to!an!object!and!making!it!to! change!shape.! ! Seasoned!TimberJ!is!a!timber!which!is!dry!out!from!moisture,!this! type!of!timber!usually!stable/stiff!than!wet!timber.!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


References'List' Ching,!D.K.!(2008).!Building(Construction(Illustrated!(4th!ed).!New! Jersey,!USA:!John!Wiley!&!Sons!Inc.! ! Lewi,!H.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!April!1st).!Gehry's(Own(Home.( Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iqn2bYoO8j4&feature=youtu.b e! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!April!1st).!W05_c1(WALLS,(GRIDS( AND(COLUMNS.!Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vq41q6gUIjI&feature=youtu.be( ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!April!1st).!W05_m1(From(Wood(to( Timber.!Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJL0vCwM0zg&feature=youtu. be! ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!April!1st).!W05_m2(Timber( Properties(and(Considerations.!Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul0r9OGkA9c&feature=youtu.b e! ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!April!1st).!W05_m3(Engineered( Timber(Products.(Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YrYOGSwtVc&feature=youtu.b e! ! ! !


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E"Learning*Week*6! Truss! &A!web&like!shape!form!from!a!series!of!steel/timber!elements!used! in!the!frame!of!a!roof.!! &There!are!different!types!of!truss!for!example:! 1)!Flat!truss! &“[P]arallel!top!and!bottom!chords”!(Ching!6.09:2008).! ! ! ! ! 2)!Raised&chord!truss! &The!bottom!chord!has!a!higher!level!compare!to!the!support! elements!(Ching!6.09:2008).! ! ! ! ! ! 3)!Bowstring!truss! &“[H]ave!a!curved!top!chord!meeting!a!straight!bottom!chord!at!each! end”!(Ching!6.09:2008).! ! ! ! ! ! 4)!Warren!truss! &A!series!of!equilateral!triangles!are!form!with!incline!web!members! (Ching!6.09:2008).! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


Roof!Systems! &There!are!normally!two!types!of!room!systems:! i)!Flat!roof!! &With!a!slope!approximately!one!to!three!degrees.! &The!slopping!of!the!roof!directs!rainwater!into!a!drainage!system.! &The!structure!elements!of!a!flat!roof!include!reinforced!concrete! slabs,!timber/steel!truss,!timber/steel!beams,!decking,!timber/steel! joists!and!sheathing.! ! ! ! ! ! &Example!of!flat!roof:!! !!&Concrete!roof!can!be!used!to!defend!against!strong!winds!and! earthquake.!! !!&It!requires!low!cost!and!easy!to!be!constructed.! !!&Requires!more!support!than!a!normal!roof!due!to!its!weight!and! normal!requires!loadbearing!walls!to!support!the!its!big!slab,!beams! are!used!to!support!the!roof.! ! ii)!Sloping!roofs! &Can!be!divided!into!two,!low!slope!roofs!and!medium&high!slope! roofs.! &Low!slope!roofs!have!a!slope!of!approximately!fifteen!degrees! whereas!medium&high!slope!roofs!have!a!slope!of!approximately! thirty!to!forty!five!degrees.!! &The!slopping!of!the!roof!helps!in!supporting!eave!flashings!and!wind! loads.!! &Due!to!its!slope,!low!slope!roofs!requires!continuous!membrane! roofing!whereas!medium&high!slope!roofs!is!covered!mainly!by!tiles.! ! ! ! ! ! ! &Structural!steel!roof!framing!is!required!to!construct!when!building! a!slope!roof.! &Steel!has!the!properties!of!strong,!durable,!long!lasting!and!high! flexibility.!


&Steel!frame!can!withstand!huge!loads!and!will!not!warp,!twist!or! shrink.! &Due!to!its!relatively!light!weight,!steel!frame!is!able!to!reduce!the! loads!transfer!to!the!structural!system!of!the!buildings!and!also! required!less!cost!to!transport!and!installed.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


Metal!

&Can!be!divided!into!ferrous!metal,!non&ferrous!metal!and!alloy! &Ferrous!metal!has!the!iron!element!in!it.! &Examples!of!ferrous!metals:! 1)!Mild!Steel! &!Contain!0.1%!to!0.3%!of!carbon!and!99.7%!to!99.9%!of!iron.! &!Use!in!the!manufacture!of!engineering!tools!and!none!specialized!metal! products.! ! 2)!Carbon!steel! &!Contain!0.6%!to!1.4%!of!carbon!and!98.6%!to!99.4%!of!iron.! &!Use!in!the!manufacture!of!sharp!cutlery.! ! 3)!Stainless!steel! &!Contain!iron,!nickel!and!chromium.! &!Use!in!the!manufacture!of!cutlery!and!surgical!instruments.! ! 4)!Cast!iron!! &!Contain!2%!to!6%!of!carbon!and!94%!to!98%!of!iron! &Use!in!the!manufacture!things!like!engine!blocks!and!manhole!covers.! ! 5)!Wrought!iron! &!Contain!nearly!100%!of!iron.! &!Use!in!the!manufacture!of!gates!and!fences.! ! &Non&ferrous!metal!does!not!have!the!iron!element!in!it.! &Examples!of!non&ferrous!metals:! 1)!Copper! &!Naturally!occurred!metal.! &!Use!in!the!manufacture!of!wires.! ! 2)!Brass! &!Contain!65%!of!copper!and!35%!of!zinc.! &!Use!in!the!manufacture!of!ornamental!purposes.! ! 3)!Silver! &!Contain!copper! &Use!in!manufacture!of!jewelry!and!ornaments! ! 4)!Lead! &!Naturally!occurred!metal.! &!Use!in!the!manufacture!of!batteries.!!

! ! ! ! !


Glossary! Rafter–!A!beam!which!is!located!in!the!internal!part!of!a!framework! of!a!roof.! ! Eave–!Is!a!bottom!edge!of!a!roof! ! Purlin–!The!longitudinal,!horizontal,!structural!element!of!a!roof.! ! Alloy–!A!compound!with!a!mixture!of!two!or!more!metal!elements.!! ! Cntilever–!The!end!part!of!a!beam,!which!is!anchored.! ! Soffit–!An!architectural!structure’s!underside.! ! Portal!Frame–!A!constructing!method!with!using!steel/steel& reinforced!precast!concrete!as!its!primary!elements.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


References*List* Ching,!D.K.!(2008).!Building(Construction(Illustrated!(4th!ed).!New! Jersey,!USA:!John!Wiley!&!Sons!Inc.! ! Lewis,!M.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!April!9th).!Spanning(Spaces.!( Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zx4tM& uSaO8&feature=youtu.be! ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!April!9th).!W06_c1(Roof(Systems.! Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q5ms8vmhs50&feature=youtu. be! ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!April!9th).!W06_m1(Introduction(to( Metals.(Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RttS_wgXGbI&feature=youtu.be! ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!April!9th).!W06_m2(Ferrous(Metals.( Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQy3IyJy&is&feature=youtu.be! ! Newton,!C.!(ENVS10003).!(2014,!April!9th).!W06_m3(Non(Ferrous( Metals.(Retrieved!from! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDtxb7Pgcrw&feature=youtu.b e! ! !


Log book part 2