Page 1

Chapter

8 Cameras

Chapter8:

In this chapter, you will learn about cameras. Cameras are used in 3D software to allow users to quickly and easily create views of their designs. Properly used, cameras can add drama and focus the observer’s attention on points of interest.

Objective After completing this chapter, you will be able to: â–

Create and manipulate cameras to highlight aspects of your design

277


Lesson: Cameras Overview Cameras give you the ability to capture your design from vantage points that are of particular interest to the observer. The composition of your camera shots can add drama to your design and make it more favorable or desirable.

As you plan your camera shots, try to focus on what holds your attention, and what makes an image strong. Depending on what you would like to show a well composed camera shot will make a world of difference in an image. In addition to still images animating cameras provide the artist with the ability to add more information in a design presentation.

Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: ■ ■

■ ■

278

Create and manipulate Target and Free cameras Frame a camera shot and work with camera parameters, such as lens size, aspect ratio, or extreme camera angles to create dynamic shots Work with different types of perspective, such as one, two, and three-point perspectives Understand how camera animation should be used in design

Chapter 8: Cameras


Camera Types You can use two different camera types to frame your shots: the Target camera and the Free camera.

Target Camera The Target camera has an associated object called a target, which acts as a focal point to the camera. By placing the target in a given spot or on a particular object, you ensure that the camera always looks at that object.

Free Camera A Free camera does not have an associated target and can roam and look in any direction you want. In that respect, you orient the camera manually.

The camera type you use in a given situation depends largely on the action taking place and the camera shot you are trying to capture. You’ll learn how to create, position, and animate both camera types as you learn the theory associated with camera shots.

Camera Techniques When you start placing cameras in your scene, there are a set of guidelines or techniques that govern the quality of your camera shots, whether the camera is static or in motion.

Framing a Shot A basic set of conventions assigns names and guidelines to common types of shots, framing, and picture composition. The most basic shot types are the long shot, the medium shot, and the close-up.

Lesson: Cameras

â–

279


In some situations, you might use a more extreme camera shot to convey a particular feel for the story. For example, using an extreme close-up shot emphasizes emotions, such as fear or anger in a subject’s eyes. LS (Long Shot) The point of interest takes up the full height of the frame.

MS (Medium Shot) Shows part of the point of interest in enough detail to give an overall impression.

CU (Close-up) A feature or a part of the Object (hand, head, etc.) takes up the whole frame.

280

â–

Chapter 8: Cameras


A camera composition where the shot of the area of interest is framed by objects.

Camera Lenses In addition to positioning the camera in XYZ coordinates, you can also get closer or further away from a subject by modifying the camera lens. The camera lens is your entry point into the world you create in your 3D scene. It’s a tool you can use to define the relationship between a point of interest or objects to their environment. Different lenses have different personalities. The camera lens (or focal length) is expressed in millimeters (mm). A wide-angle lens (30mm or less) distorts the perspective by exaggerating the distance between foreground and background. The camera is closer to the action, which translates into greater “depth” in the shot. A long or telephoto lens (200mm or higher) compresses the depth of the image. Subjects or elements that are either close or far from the camera appear to lie at approximately the same distance. It allows very little or no perspective distortion. In a long-lens shot, the camera is at a considerable distance from the action. Wide-angle 28mm lens, the point of interest and buildings spread out in the distance.

Lesson: Cameras

281


Telephoto 500mm lens, the point of interest and the surrounding environment appear closer together.

The field of view (FOV) is the “cone” of vision that the camera captures of the world around it. The field of view is inversely proportional to the camera’s lens size. The FOV on a long lens is narrower than on a wide lens.

Aspect Ratio The camera aspect ratio defines the relationship between the width and the height of the frame. This is typically dictated by the shot you are taking. Traditionally still photography uses a 3:4 aspect ratio, but this is changing with more and more use of digital SLR replacement cameras. If you are rendering an animation, that you wish to output to a standard video format you will use on of the following: ■ ■

For standard TV or video, the camera aspect ratio will be set to 1.33:1 to accommodate the TV set. If you’re rendering for HDTV, film, or sometimes for game cinematics, you may need to render in widescreen format (1.85:1) or anamorphic (2.35:1).

You gain more information in the shot by using a wider frame and can convey a greater sense of space with a widescreen format.

Video and 3:4

282

Chapter 8: Cameras


3:4 format oriented vertically

Widescreen 1.85:1

Anamorphic 2.35:1

Lesson: Cameras

â–

283


Angles In addition to the camera-framing techniques discussed earlier, you can adjust camera angles to create more-dynamic camera shots. So far, you’ve mostly been using an eye-level camera angle. This provides a familiar feel, because it’s how you normally observe the world around you. You can also frame subjects based on how you want them to feel to the observer. For example, a statue can appear more imposing from a low level shot and appear smaller when seen from above.

Eye-level angle

Low angle

High angle

284

Chapter 8: Cameras


Perspectives Perspective is a necessary tool for 3D artists. Perspective is adjusting the relative size of objects on a flat page (or screen) to give the impression of 3D distance. An object that is far away is larger than how it will appear in a 2D perspective projection. Perspective is an essential tool for representing a 3D computer generated design in 2D fixed images and/or 2D animation formats.

Perspective Type Cameras can be set to acquire various types of perspective shots, including one, two, and three-point perspectives. The names of these categories refer to the number of vanishing points in the perspective shot.

One-point perspective

Two-point perspective

Three-point perspective

Lesson: Cameras

â–

285


Any of these categories can be used to focus on a point of interest or create drama. For example, a onepoint perspective can be used to simulate a long road that vanishes into the distance, or to focus the eye on a point of interest at the vanishing point.

A three-point perspective is mostly obvious when looking at a building from above. The building walls tend to recede into a vanishing point below the ground. A similar effect can be achieved when looking up at a tall building from street level, where the third vanishing point would be much higher than the building itself.

Perspective Correction In design and visualization, architects and designers often rely on two-point perspectives to show off their work. A two-point perspective has two vanishing points and all vertical lines run parallel to one another. Theoretically, two-point perspectives can only be achieved when both the camera and its target are located on the same horizontal plane. However, the software gives you the option to correct the perspective distortion, even when this rule is not followed.

Before correction

286

â–

Chapter 8: Cameras

After correction


Camera Animation in Design The Moving Camera Moving (animating) a camera in a 3D scene is a lot easier than it is in the real world. Creating good moving pictures in the real world requires more expensive and heavier equipment than that required for taking still images. In 3D, these limitations simply do not exist. You can make the camera travel any way you want; even in ways that would be impossible in real life. In general, in the design world, it is less important for scenes to be animated, than that in the entertainment industry where almost everything is animated. Despite the new found freedom, designers should be careful to use animation where appropriate.

Lesson: Cameras

â–

287


Exercise: Creating and Manipulating Cameras Creating an Eye level Camera with a 2 Point Perspective

5.

Make the Orthographic viewport active, then type the letter C at the keyboard. The Orthographic view will change to a Camera view.

6.

Select the Truck camera icon.

7.

Click and drag the camera view vertically down until the camera appears to be approximately at eye level.

In this exercise, you will create a camera with a 2 point perspective at approximately eye level. You will then change the proportions of the rendered output and thereby change the proportions of the camera shot. 1.

Open the File cameras.max.

2.

In the Create tab of the Command panel, select the cameras button.

3.

Select the target button.

4.

In the Top viewport click and drag the camera from the lower right inside the courtyard to the center of the courtyard where the statue stands.

The camera view is a 2 point perspective with the default FOV of 45 degrees, approximate Lens focal length of 43mm.

288

â–

Chapter 8: Cameras


8.

Click on the Modify tab, and select a Stock lens of 28mm.

11.

In the Common tab, in the Output Size Area, select 35mm 1.85:1 (cine).

12.

In the Width area type in 640.

The camera view of the courtyard displays more of the courtyard. 9.

Right-click the viewport label to display the Viewport menu. Select Show Safe Frame.

The Height will adjust to maintain the 1.85:1 proportion. Three rectangles will appear on the active Camera viewport displaying the safe frames. The rectangle is the limit of the rendered image. Depending on the proportions of the viewport, you may see cropping of the 3D scene along the sides or the top/bottom. 10.

13.

Dismiss the Render Setup dialog, note that the safe frame displays a different rendered area in the viewport representing the new proportions of the Output Size.

On the Main toolbar, click on the Render Setup button.

Lesson: Cameras

â–

289


Creating a 3 Point Perspective

8.

In this exercise, you will modify the 2 point perspective and create a 3 point perspective. 1.

Make sure your camera is still selected and In the Edit Menu, select Clone.

2.

In the Clone options dialog select Copy and click OK to exit.

3.

Right click in the left viewport to make it active.

4.

Type C to change that viewport into the Camera02 view.

5.

Activate the safe frame in the Camera02 viewport.

6.

Right-click in the Front viewport to make it active then right-click again to display the quad menu. Choose Select Camera Target from the menu.

Click on the Y-Axis of Move gizmo and move the Camera02 target vertically up. Move the Target to approximately the height of the arches.

Correcting a 3 Point Perspective In this exercise, you correct the 3 point perspective to give it a 2 point perspective appearance.

7.

290

On the Main toolbar, click on the Select and Move icon.

â–

Chapter 8: Cameras

1.

Select the Camera02 object.

2.

Right-click and choose Apply Camera Correction Modifier from the quad menu.


The Camera02 view is corrected to remove the vertical perspective diminishing.

3.

Go to the Modify tab of the Command panel if you are not there already. Note the Camera Correction modifier.

One of the distracting aspects of using a 2 point perspective at eye level is the amount of foreground you will get when you simply place the camera and target at eye level (Camera01). Tilting the camera upwards removes the foreground but then introduces the 3 point perspective. Using the Camera Correction modifier removes the 3rd vanishing point.

Lesson: Cameras

â–

291


Summary Having completed this lesson, you can: ■ ■

■ ■

Create and manipulate Target and Free cameras Frame a camera shot and work with camera parameters, such as lens size, aspect ratio, or extreme camera angles to create dynamic shots Work with different types of perspective, such as one, two, and three-point perspectives Understand how camera animation should be used in design

Chapter Summary Having completed this chapter, you can: ■

292

Create and manipulate cameras to highlight aspects of your design

Chapter 8: Cameras

008Cameras  

Objective In this chapter, you will learn about cameras. Cameras are used in 3D software to allow users to quickly and easily create views o...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you