MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY (MD) CAUSES | SYMPTOMS | TREATMENTS
What is Muscular Dystrophy ?
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of more than 30 inherited
diseases. It causes weakening and breaking down of muscle fibres. The muscles become weak and susceptible to damage. This disease affects the voluntary or skeletal muscles, which control the movements of legs, arms, and trunk. It can also affect the heart muscles and other involuntary muscles,
such as muscles in the gut. Some forms of muscular dystrophy are found in infancy or childhood, while some may not appear until middle age. This progressive disease is more common in boys than girls.
Types of Muscular Dystrophy The most common types of MD that affect children include Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). They result from a genetic deficiency of the muscle protein, dystrophin. Other common types of muscular dystrophy are:
Congenital muscular dystrophy Myotonic muscular dystrophy Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy Distal muscular dystrophy Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy
Causes of Muscular Dystrophy Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder caused by a defective gene. Each type of muscular dystrophy is caused by a genetic mutation. A genetic deficiency of muscle protein, namely dystrophin is also responsible for the most common types of muscular dystrophy.
Symptoms of Muscular Dystrophy Signs and symptoms vary with every type but some common are:
progressive muscular wasting, Drooping eyelids, Atrophy,
Inability to walk, Frequent falls limited range of movement, Respiratory difficulty, Joint contractures, Cardiomyopathy, Arrhythmias, Muscle spasms, Gowers' sign.
Diagnosis of Muscular Dystrophy
Family history Blood test
Muscle biopsy Histopathology
Gene sequencing Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Treatments of Muscular Dystrophy
In fact, there is no cure for any type of muscular dystrophy. A treatment is given to slow the progress of the disease. It is designed to reduce or prevent the deformities in the spine and joints. Various treatment options include medications such as mexiletine, baclofen, carbamazepine and anti-inflammatory corticosteroids in order to manage muscle weakness, spasms, and stiffness, and improve muscle strength, physical therapy, assistive devices, and surgery. Physical therapy focuses on providing regular range-of-motion exercises to delay the progression of contractures and keep the joints flexible. Some assistive devices such as braces, walkers, canes, and wheelchairs help maintain the mobility and independence. A tendon release surgery is advised in order to release the contractures.
Preventions of Muscular Dystrophy
This disease is genetic, and there is no cure, therefore, there are no ways to prevent it Children can only get if a parent is a carrier. Genetic testing to see if you are a carrier.
Cure of Muscular Dystrophy There's no cure for any form of muscular dystrophy. But treatment can help prevent or reduce problems in the joints and spine to allow people with muscular dystrophy to remain mobile as long as possible. Treatment options include medications, physical therapy, and surgical and other procedures.
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