Issuu on Google+

Lyceum of the Philippines College of Arts and Sciences Department of Tourism

Earth Resources A Presentation of Engr. Tomas Ganiron Jr 1 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Mineral Resources • Building Stone, Sand, Gravel, Limestone • Non-metallic Minerals Sulfur, Gypsum, Coal, Barite, Salt, Clay, Feldspar, Gem Minerals, Abrasives, Borax, Lime, Magnesia, Potash, Phosphates, Silica, Fluorite, Asbestos, Mica • Metallic Minerals • Ferrous: Iron and Steel, Cobalt, Nickel Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

• Metallic Minerals • Non-ferrous: Copper, Zinc, Tin, Lead, Aluminum, Titanium, Manganese, Magnesium, Mercury, Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Silver, Gold, Platinum • Energy Resources • Fossil Fuels: Coal, Oil, Natural Gas • Uranium 2 • Geothermal Energy 4/20/1998


Types of Ore Deposits Magmatic • Pt, Cr, Fe, Ni, Ti, Diamond Pegmatite • Li, Be, U, Rare Earths, Feldspar, Mica, Gems Hydrothermal • 600 C: W, Sn • 400 C: Au, U, Ag, Co, Mo • 200 C: Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb • Cool: Hg, As Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

Sedimentary Rocks • Fe, Cu, U, Mn, Mg Weathering • Secondary Enrichment: • Cu, Ni • Soils • Al, Ni Placer • Pt, Au, Sn, Ti, W, Th, Rare Earths U (Fossil), Gems 3 4/20/1998


• Natural Abundance • Geologic Processes to Concentrate Element

• Most involve water • Intrinsic Value of Material • Cost of Extraction from Earth

Concentration • Gold versus Gravel Factors and Economics Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4 4/20/1998


Prospecting and Exploration Satellite and Aerial Photography Remote Sensing Geological Mapping Magnetic Mapping Gravity Mapping Radioactivity Mapping

Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

Geochemical Sampling Electrical Sounding Ground-Penetrating Radar Seismic Methods • Reflection - Detailed but Expensive • Refraction - Cheap but Not Detailed Core Sampling and Well 5 Logging 4/20/1998


Economic Factors in Mining • • • • •

Richness of Ore Quantity of Ore Cost of Initial Development Equipment, Excavation, Purchase of Rights Operating Costs: Wages, Taxes, Maintenance, Utilities, Regulation • Price of the Product • Will Price Go up or down? 6 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Life Cycle of a Mine • Exploration • Development • Active Mining

• Excavation • Crushing, Milling, Flotation, Chemical Separation • Smelting and Refining • Disposal of Waste (Tailings) • Shut-down Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

7 4/20/1998


Issues in Mineral Exploitation Who Owns (Or Should Own) Minerals? • Landowner, • Discoverer, • Government Unclaimed Areas: • Sea Floor, • Antarctica Who Controls Access for Exploration? • Remote Sensing vs Privacy 8 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Problems of Mining Safety • Mine Wastes • Pollution • Dust • Noise Sulfur (H2SO4) • Acid Rain • Acid Runoff • Dissolved Metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, As...) Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

Environmental Problems • Exploration • Construction and Operation Economic Impact • "Boom and Bust" Cycles

9

4/20/1998


Geothermal Energy: A Free Lunch? Environmental Problems of Geothermal Energy • It is Finite • Heat Sources Can Be Exhausted (Geysers, California) • Sulfur Emissions • Disposal of Mineralized Brines Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

Technical Problems of Geothermal Energy • Corrosion • Mineral Deposition in Pipes • Non-Productive gases (Carbon dioxide, methane, etc.) • Low Temperatures • Low Thermodynamic Efficiency

10

4/20/1998


Thermodynamic Efficiency

• Eff. = (Ti - Tf)/Ti

• T = Degrees Kelvin = Degrees C + 273 • Ti = initial temperature • Tf = final temperature 11 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Thermodynamic Efficiency Automobile Engine • Ti = 1200 C = 1473 K • Tf = 500 C = 773 K • Eff = (1473 - 773)/1473 = 48%

Typical Steam Power Plant • Ti = 700 C = 973 K • Tf = 200 C = 473 K • Eff = (973 - 473)/973 = 51% Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

12 4/20/1998


Thermodynamic Efficiency Geothermal Power Plant • Ti = 150 C = 423 K • Tf = 80 C = 353 • Eff = (423 - 353)/423 = 17% Actual achieved efficiencies • Automobile on Highway: about 5% • Geothermal Plant: 5% or So, Sometimes less than 1% 13 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Where the Oil Is

14 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


The Geography of Oil

15 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Hubbert Curves

• In 1956, Oil geologist M. King Hubbert noted that rates of oil production follow a bell-shaped curve. • Cumulative production follows a slanting S- curve 16 • Production lags discovery by about ten years. Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Hubbert’s 1956 Prediction Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

17 4/20/1998


Where We Stand Today

18 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


What if We Find More Oil? • Even a huge increase in total oil has very little effect on the peak and decline of production. • Why? We waste most of it on inefficient uses. 19 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


One Solution: Limit Production

20 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Is There a Lot More Undiscovered Oil? • 80 per cent of oil being produced today is from fields discovered before 1973. • In the 1990's oil discoveries averaged about seven billion barrels of oil a year, only one third of usage. • The discovery rate of multi-billion barrel fields has been declining since the 1940's, that of giant (500million barrel) fields since the 1960's. • In 1938, fields with more than 10 million barrels made up 19% of all new discoveries, but by 1948 the 21 proportion had dropped to only 3%. Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Oil Discovery Rates Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

22 4/20/1998


Some Relevant Quotes

The internal-combustion engine used for automobiles is a fragile device compared with other prime movers -- even compared with the internal combustion engines used for diesel- electric locomotives that have been known to go over a million miles without mechanical overhauling.

23 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Some Relevant Quotes

... the energy-system efficiency of the motor car with petroleum motor fuel is, thus, 5 percent ... no one is proud of this accomplishment -- least of all the automotive-design engineers ... The trouble is, every time the design engineer manages to save a few BTU it is more than spent answering the clamor for softer tires, for radio, for better heaters, more lights, cigarette lighters and possibly even air conditioning. 24 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Some Relevant Quotes Histories written a few centuries hence may describe the United States as a nation of such extraordinary technologic virility that we succeeded in finding ways of dissipating our natural wealth far more rapidly than any other nation. At any rate, we are having a wonderful time doing it. From the discussions in the earlier chapters of this book it is clear that the problem of energy for the United States is not one of the dim future. It is upon us now. 25 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Some Relevant Quotes

Our imports of petroleum are small but each year they become larger. By 1960 they are likely to be quite substantial. By 1970 they will almost certainly be huge -- if foreign oil is still available then in sufficient quantity... This tiny period of earth's life, when we are consuming its stored riches, is nearly over ... Fortunately for us there is still time for fundamental research [on alternative energy sources]. But not too much time. 26 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Some Relevant Quotes: Source

Eugene Ayres and Charles A Scarlott, 1952; Energy Sources - The Wealth of the World, McGraw-Hill, 344p. 27 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Petroleum is a Syllogism • There is a finite amount of it in the world • We are using it and not replacing it • Therefore we will eventually run out of it • Any of this not clear?

28

Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


The End of Cheap Oil • Known petroleum can last at least a couple of centuries more, but… • It only flows through the rocks so fast. • No amount of drilling will make it flow faster, and careless drilling can shorten the lifetime of an oil field. • Sometime in the 21st century, global demand will outpace production capacity and… • Oil will go to the highest bidder. 29 Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Some Final Thoughts What have you personally done to deserve access to petroleum at any price? If you think energy is such a scam, get up off your butt and do something about it. • If you think there is undiscovered oil out there, study geology and engineering and find it! • If you think synthetic oil is the answer, major in chemistry and make it happen. • If you think the answer is alternative energy sources, major in physics and engineering and develop them. • Don’t major in Plain Vanilla Studies and then complain 30 when other people don’t provide you with energy for free. Author: Dr. Tomas Ganiron Jr

4/20/1998


Nature of Earth Resources