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Melrose Mercy “Innovative Housing Strategies�

research study by Florida Center for Community Design + Research


SYNOPSIS OF INFORMATION PROJECT INTRODUCTION............................................................................. 5 COLLABORATION AND INSIGHT................................................................... 6

RESEARCH TEAM Taryn E. Sabia, Ed.M., M.Arch, MUCD Research Associate Professor Josue Robles Caraballo M.Ach. Msci BUDD Research Faculty in Architecture and Urban Design GRADUATE RESEARCH ASSISTANTS Yesenia Vega M.Arch Candidate Lawrence Raposo M.Arch Candidate Matthew Levitan M.Arch Candidate

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ANALYSIS....................................................................................................... 8 COMMUNITY STAKEHOLDERS 10 LAND AVAILABILITY 12 BUILDING TYPOLOGIES 14 IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT 16 STUDY ELEVATIONS 18 STRATEGY OF IMPLEMENTATION................................................................. 26 MASTER PLAN 32 ANNEX: PRECEDENTS................................................................................... 48 CO-OP HOUSING SOCIAL HOUSING INCREMENTAL HOUSING MIXED USE MARKET RATE HOUSING CIVIC AND COMMUNITY CENTERS


Melrose Mercy “Innovative Housing Strategies�

research study by Florida Center for Community Design + Research

INTRODUCTION

In the early 1920s the Melrose Mercy neighborhood in St. Petersburg Florida, hosted many music legends such as Ray Charles, Nat King Cole, and Louis Armstrong among many others. The 22 Street South was a lively social and economic symbol for the neighborhood’s residents. Almost a century after, the grain of the community has changed and only traces of the cultural richness remains. For decades the neighborhood has served the needs of its community, and like many other great neighborhoods, it has experience the downside of a sluggish economy, decay of businesses opportunities and affordable new housing. Today, the community is experiencing a cultural renascence, as new cultural entities built upon the identity that once existed. Street festivals, new restaurants, and heritage tours provides residents a momentary view of the energy that once existed. As means to scale-up this momentum, this research effort will focus on providing strategies for a sustainable betterment of the Melrose Mercy neighborhood. In collaboration with residents, graduate research fellows have devised innovative urban and architectural ideas. The effort will explore urban and community concepts to integrate and improve the liveliness of the community.

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COLLABORATION AND INSIGHT This research effort has been shaped in collaboration with local stake holders. Graduate researchers have consulted with local residents, social aid agencies and business owners. Along with individual interviews, the effort conducted workshops to discuss existing attributes and vulnerabilities with the neighborhood. Researchers were able to identify a number of frequently stated concerns. Criminality, lack of employment, rapid deteriorating buildings, and want of public spaces were recurrent concerns. Also, residents were unease of future developments, as new housing and business projects targeting general market’s needs could gentrify the area. Innovative housing precedents were discussed during workshops; attendees particularly favor incremental housing projects and cooperative buildings with small retail spaces at the street level. Both building types would offer other benefits apart from housing potential residents, while maintaining an attainable entry price. Participatory engagements will continue to take place through the duration of the research effort.

6 Images and notes from workshop with Deuces Live Board Members and community visitors


COMMUNITY ANALISYS

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COMMUNITY STAKEHOLDERS Building Around Social Capital

16TH STREET SOUTH

For example, the John Hopkins middle school provides includes after school programs, art classes, as well as a bully prevention program. That is one of the reasons why we chose to anchor to 9th Avenue. SPC on 13th which opened in response to the city of St. Petersburg’s need for help with the educational portion of the Midtown Redevelopment Act. In addition to educational opportunities, a variety of community activities are held at the center. Greater Mount Zion AME Church is another entity with large community contributions. They offer services towards academic support, mental health counseling, parental engagements, and veterans services among some. Cross and Anvil is their mentoring and youth outreach program where they focus on building essential skills in young men.

9th AVENUE SOUTH

22ND STREET SOUTH

There are several social support entities in the Melrose Mercy Community. Currently these entities provide many services , such as commerce , education , and religious assembly. This diagram illustrates the degree of engagement these groups provide to residents. The size differences of the icons determine the degree of services, hours, and groups serviced.

13TH AVENUE SOUTH

15TH AVENUE SOUTH

In general, the effort utilized this diagram to illustrates the entities and the rate of assistance they provide to the residents as means to locate our areas of engage and support existing and future projects.

LEGEND: MELROSE MERCY ST.PETERSBURG, FL.

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SHOPPING

MEDICAL

SCHOOL

MUSEUM

CHURCH

GROCERY

INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM GOOGLE

RESTURANT BUS STOP/ROUTE


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Land Availability

Potential Areas for Development

Churches could find that a plaza near it would serve as a venue for some of their activities or events. Homes could be positioned on several lots to where a certain rhythm can be established to create nodes along the roads, forming micro-neighborhoods that could help strengthen the community by making it closer-knit together.

16TH STREET SOUTH

Over time, the community has been developed to accommodate many programs apart from housing. New building have initiated a transition from a single family home to institutional multi-story buildings. This benefits the decision-making for prospective homes, parks, or plazas could develop over time, or how they can influence their surroundings.

9TH AVENUE SOUTH 22ND STREET SOUTH

In the process of mapping all potentially available locations throughout Melrose Mercy, suggested possible areas of engagement. This mapping illustrate open space, foreclosures, and lots that are currently open for sale.

13TH AVENUE SOUTH

15TH AVENUE SOUTH

LEGEND: MELROSE MERCY, ST.PETERSBURG, FL FOR SALE FORECLOSURE OPEN SPACE

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INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM GOOGLE


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BUILDING TYPOLOGIES Study of Building Type and Scale

9TH AVENUE SOUTH 16TH STREET SOUTH

22ND STREET SOUTH

In an effort to understand the spatial needs of the residents and community at large an analysis of the building types were made. Apart from illustrating what type of building currently exist, this diagram illustrates possible scales building to be implemented in different areas. This diagram also speaks of the scale of implementation. Many streets like 9th and 15th Avenue South have preserve their grain residential. There have been a several large scale projects in the area, such as SPC Midtown Campus that have changed fabric of 22th Street South and 13th Avenue South.

13TH AVENUE SOUTH

15TH AVENUE SOUTH

LEGEND: MELROSE MERCY, ST.PETERSBURG, FL

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SINGLE FAMILY HOME

BUSINESS

MULTIFAMILY HOME

COMMUNITY SUPPORT

INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM GOOGLE


N I-275

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IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT Building on A Rich History

The team looked at the information found in the previous research diagrams and came to the conclusion that the primary thoroughfares in the neighborhood were 22nd Street South and 16th Street South. The secondary thoroughfares of importance were concluded to be 9th Avenue South, 13th Avenue South, and 15th Avenue South. All indicated in the most prominent gray shaded areas. The design will be focused on connecting the two primary thoroughfares using the secondary avenues mentioned. Terciary connections within those streets are highlighted in blue. At the center of the dashed ellipses the team also proposes nodes that begin to build the character of the neighborhood. Although the Melrose Mercy has a rich history involving very imoprtant colored leaders it is not celebrated enough. Each node will provide individual activities of engangement. Possible characteristics of the nodes would be cultural awareness, community engagement, and branding development. Those three charcteristics were deemed to be of most importance to the community at large and its further integration with the city of St. Petersburg, Florida. 16

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22ND ST REET SOUT H & 9T H AVENUE SOUT H

16TH STREET SOUTH

15TH AVENUE SOUTH

LEGEND: MELROSE MERCY, ST.PETERSBURG, FL

COMMUNITY ENGANGEMENT BRANDING DEVELOPMENT 5 MINUTE WALKING DISTANCE

SUPPORTING IDENTITY BUILDER HIGH ACTIVITY MEDIUM ACTIVITY LOW TO NONE ACTIVITY INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM GOOGLE

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PRIMARY GREENWAY PROPOSED HIGH ACTIVITY PROPOSED MEDIUM ACTIVITY PROPOSED LOW ACTIVITY

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16T H ST REET SOUT H & 13T H AVENUE SOUT H

13TH AVENUE SOUTH

MAJOR IDENTITY BUILDER

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16T H ST REET SOUT H & 9T H AVENUE SOUT H

9TH AVENUE SOUTH

CULTURAL AWARENESS

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22ND STREET SOUTH

After the initial analysis of Melrose Mercy through the community assets diagram, the property availability diagram and the crime index diagram the team developed the identity development diagram. The identity development diagram presented intends to explain the analytical process of developing an overall design proposal for Melrose Mercy.

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STREET ELEVATION STUDY 22nd Street South

The importance of 22nd Street South is one known to all the community members. All resources can be found on this street and is currently considered the main street of Melrose Mercy’s neighborhood. The street is home to many old and new business, Sylvias, Chief’s Creole Cafe, and Lorene’s Fish + Crab House. Also, the street is know for several destination for religious assembly. There are also many events that take place, the community engagement leaders, Dueces Live, host their annual festival on the northern fields of the street. 22nd street also has the best connections to Central Avenue North known by all of St. Petersburgs residents and visitors. The Boys and Girls Club and SPC are also prominent community engagement partners located on this street.

LEGEND: PROJECT PROPOSAL INTERSECTION M AINTANACE REQUIRED UNBUILT LOTS WA L K I NG D I ST A NCE

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Street Elevation Studies graphically illustrates building that need renovation, underdeveloped lots and the potential areas of opportunity for development.


STREET ELEVATION STUDY 9th Avenue South

The largest concentration of religious centers are located along 9th Avenue South. A total of 5 active churches and a youth center take up residence on 9th Avenue. The intersection connecting with 16th street is also home to John Hopkins Middle School. Public transportation makes its way from 22nd Street South down 9th Avenue Southand exits at 16th Street South. These are all very important assets to note about the thoroughfare presented.

LEGEND: PROJECT PROPOSAL INTERSECTION M AINTANACE REQUIRED UNBUILT LOTS WA L K I NG D I ST A NCE

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Street Elevation Studies graphically illustrates building that need renovation, underdeveloped lots and the potential areas of opportunity for development.


STREET ELEVATION STUDY 13th Avenue South

SPC Midtown Campus plays the biggest role in the developing plan for 13th Avenue South. Melrose Elementary school also calls 13th Avenue South a home making 13th Avenue reach towards an educational institution friendly neighborhood. the proposal for 13th Avenue will implement areas of play and rest for children of young age and their families as well as areas more fit for the teen or adult on break between classes at SPC Midtown.

LEGEND: PROJECT PROPOSAL INTERSECTION M AINTANACE REQUIRED UNBUILT LOTS WA L K I NG D I ST A NCE

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Street Elevation Studies graphically illustrates building that need renovation, underdeveloped lots and the potential areas of opportunity for development.


STREET ELEVATION STUDY 15th Avenue South

NAACP community center welcomes residents into 15th Avenue South through the 16th Street South entrance and the United House of Prayer stands at the 22nd Avenue South Entrance. once inside the street the only business located here is Dave’s market with an assortment of meats and other groceries. the importance of looking at a design proposal on 15th Avenue South is recognizing that there is a lot of open parcels of opportunity on this street, the most of the other proposed streets. Another asset to this street is that the public transportation also makes its way down 15th Street South.

LEGEND: PROJECT PROPOSAL INTERSECTION M AINTANACE REQUIRED UNBUILT LOTS WA L K I NG D I ST A NCE

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Street Elevation Studies graphically illustrates building that need renovation, underdeveloped lots and the potential areas of opportunity for development.


STRATEGY OF IMPLEMENTATION

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INTERSTATE I-275

9TH AVE.

Today, the Melrose Mercy neighborhood has many active stake holders, positively impacting the community. These proposals will build upon the existing attributes of the area and address current challenges. 22th Street South is known for his historic richness, but currently remains as the main destination to address daily needs. Currently, the street is home to many restaurants, stores, churches, and education facilities. Also the street hosts several public events that contribute the liveliness of the public realm. This effort has focused on enhancing and connecting the residential core with 22th Street South and 16th Street South. In addition, the proposal of new mid-density residential types to the area could help to create-support local businesses and employment opportunities, as means to contribute to proposed housing and pedestrian thoroughfares.

16TH STREET S.

STRATEGY OF IMPLEMENTATION

13TH AVE.

B. Reduce vehicular speed by converting 9th, 13th, and 15th Avenue to one way street. Expanding the sidewalks to accommodate for new amenities. C. Create new public spaces in proximity existing residential and private buildings. D. Incorporate innovative housing typologies: incremental multi house buildings and cooperatives buildings.

22ND STREET S.

Research Proposal Goals A. Improve pedestrian connectivity and liveliness of avenues within a pedestrian corridor to private and public transportation arteries along 22 Street South and 16 Street South to interior residential

15TH AVE.

E. Incorporate business incubators with cooperative buildings. F. Preserve existing structures by using clusters of undeveloped parcels. G. Utilize existing building scales to shape potential building types and uses.

DIAGRAM OF STRATEGY 28

SOCIAL CAPITAL ANCHORS ANCHOR CONNECTORS OPPORTUNITY SITES


16TH STREET S.

INTERSTATE I-275

PROPOSED NEW TRAFFIC ROUTES

9TH AVE.

Proposed change to 9th. 13th, and 15th Avenue We are proposing to convert 9th Avenue South, 13th Avenue South, and 15th Avenue South into one way Avenues. The traffic flow driving on 9th Avenue South and 15th Avenue South will be directed towards the East. The traffic flow on 13th Avenue South is heading towards the West flowing into 22nd Street South. The idea of changing these streets into one way traffic streets allows the design to convert the space into an expanded pedestrian corridor within the existing context without the interruption of the existing housing. By converting the streets into one way streets the other side of the street becomes an extension of the front yard and adds new amenities for the residents and visitors. The greenspace would serve as a space for pocket parks and extensions of open park spaces. Also, it will increase awareness of the smaller streets due to the proximity of the pedestrian corridors.

13TH AVE.

22ND STREET S.

15TH AVE.

TRAFFIC FLOW DIAGRAM 30

NEW TRAFFIC PATTERN OLD TRAFFIC PATTERN


9TH AVE.

MASTER PLAN Innovative Housing and Urban Regeneration strategy Melrose Mercy’s social and retail energy currently heavily flows down 22nd and 16th Street, while its core remains highly underutilized. This strategy is based in creating avenues for the Melrose Mercy’s community to pull energy in from highly utilized routes into the neighborhood, as well as extend it back out. With proposed designed streets-capes, residents will have new amenities and locations to visit along their streets and begin to move around the community more comfortably without the use of cars. This, in prospect, will start adding safety to the area by adding more eyes on the street. By creating incremental family homes on unbuilt lots on both 9th and 15th avenue, a frame starts to form around the community, with a dense center on 13th Avenue with multi-family homes as well as co-operatives and multi-use buildings that would begin to add social energy to the core, and begin to connect it back out towards 22nd and 16th. This strategy looks to increase the residential units at an attainable rate.

SINGLE FAMILY ZONE

13TH AVE.

MULTI-FAMILY ZONE

15TH AVE.

SINGLE FAMILY ZONE

MASTER PLAN PROPOSAL 32


Existing Typical Section A-A

In Section 1 along 9th Avenue South illustrates the scale of the residential grain and the lack of public space, due to the separation of building from the public sidewalk. The current building typology is of single family homes most with chain link fences or wooden fences, giving a sense of insecurity coming from the residents towards their own street.

SIDEWALK

FENCED IN FRONT LAWN

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

SIDEWALK

FENCED IN FRONT LAWN

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

TWO WAY STREET

FRONT LAWN

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

Along 13th Avenue South the street is composed of up of single family housing and the only two different building types are the SPC Center and the Melrose Mercy Elementary which are a large scale building compared to the single family homes across the street. This change in scale offers the possibility to propose building of similar scale. There are currently sidewalks on both side of the street that are not engaged with the large scale projects.

Existing Typical Section C-C Section 3 shows how the same building and street typology continues on 15th Avenue as did on 13th Avenue. The southern bus line has existing stops on this street as well. An important asset of this street is the large number of open spaces available to expand parks from the greenway into the open lots. TWO WAY STREET

SIDEWALK

FENCED IN FRONT LAWN

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

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CHURCH

FENCED OFF ZONE

PARKING LOT FOR CHURCH

SIDEWALK

TWO WAY STREET

SIDEWALK

BUS STOP

FRONT LAWN

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

Existing Typical Section B-B


Section A-A

OPEN PUBLIC SPACE

PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY SIDEWALK

In section A-A, along 13th Avenue, the plan is to propose co-operative housing and commercial storefronts. By creating multiuse spaces there is constant activity throughout the day creating a security among the residents because they know that there will always be someone occupying the space. The street will become a one way street and give back a greenway for the residents to enjoy outdoor activities with their families and neighbors. CO-OP / MULTI-USE

GREEN PUBLIC PLAZA

SIDEWALK

PARKING

ONE-WAY TRAFFUC

SIDEWALK

GREEN FRONT YARD

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

SIDEWALK

PARKING

ONE-WAY TRAFFUC

SIDEWALK

GREEN FRONT YARD

SECTION B-B

PRIVATE ROOF TERRACES ON NEW HOUSING UNITS

PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY SIDEWALK SINGLE FAMILY HOME

GREEN FRONT YARD

SIDEWALK

PARKING

ONE-WAY TRAFFUC

SIDEWALK

GREEN FRONT YARD

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PRIVATE ROOF TERRACES ON NEW HOUSING UNITS

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

Section C-C is a generalization of how to create an inviting and secure environment along 9th Avenue. Along (th Avenue are many of the communities large activity contributers. The plan for 9th Avenue is also to make it a one way street and give one side of the street to the pedestrian. Creating a green sidewalk would include street parking, children parklets, and adult workout stations. The residential solution for this avenue would be single family homes.

PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY SIDEWALK

PRIVATE ATRIUM COMMON AREA

MULTI-FAMILY HOME

Section C-C

SECTION A-A

PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY SIDEWALK

Section B-B Also along 13th ave. section B-B multi-family homes are introduced alongside of existing single family homes. The multi-family homes would feature shared common areas in the home. In the one shown here the common area is an open air atrium space in the center of the home. The space is private to the street and acts similar to a backyard type space. The street condition is described in the section A-A text.

COVERED GALLERY FOR BUSINESS INCUBATOR

PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY SIDEWALK

SECTION C-C


1 5 T H

S T R E E T

As 15th Avenue begins to distance itself from the retail and the city core, residences tend to become quieter, and single family homes more prevalent. The redesign of 15th avenue starts to embrace the outer core of the city with the addition of numerous single family homes, and provides several pocket parks for the street. At every intersection, the greenspace will extend out and start to create nodes, having the newly expanded sidewalks leading people to them. The street itself is close to both several churches and schools, including SPC and Melrose Elementary School, making this area highly preferable.

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9 T H

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

JOHN HOPKINS MIDDLE SCHOOL.

20TH STREET CHURCH OF CHRIST

EXPANDED SIDEWALKS

C

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

16TH STREET S.

INTERSTATE- 275

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

9TH AVE S.

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

SINGLE FAMILY HOME

22ED STREET S.

SOUTHCITY GROCERY

C

9TH AVE PROPOSAL PROPOSED INTERVENTION PROPOSED PUBLIC SPACE DEVELOPED LOTS

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S T R E E T

Due to 9th Street’s close proximity to many Churches and the John Hopkins Middle School, it was seen as a highly potential area for single family homes. These homes could vary from individual social housing, to Incremental housing, or even to a sprawled out Co-Operative spanning the length of the street. Its close proximity to both the churches and schools, make it a highly promising area for families that want to ensure safety for their loved ones, all while having the actual amenities of the school and churches. The proposed Streetscape would run the length of the 9th Street and provide greenery that would shelter, as well as enhance the placemaking of the street, making it feel as though it were more of a destination rather than just another road. By adding importance to the road, residents would feel as though the street belonged to the both themselves as well as the community, and thus making the street more social. The street now acts as a public space, allowing areas for small events or community gatherings. Once residents begin to socialize through the use of the street, it then naturally starts to become a safer place by having more eyes outside on the community itself.


INCREMENTAL HOUSING DIAGRAM 9TH and 15th Avenue South

The incremental typology of architecture allows for an affordable initial design that can be repeated and augmented. This housing typology gain has been an efficient alternative to public housing projects. What makes incremental housing unique is that it allows space given to each unit, where over time residents have the ability to expand and customize the unit to better fit their needs. This could be especially useful in Melrose Mercy, where many families can now afford to purchase a unit, and later expand and make that home fit their needs. Once this happens, those residents now feel attached to their home as it is tailored to what they require, which in effect would lead to residents staying in their unit for a much longer time period than they previously would have. Thus, leading to a much closer knit community, having these units connected to each other with a small communal space in front of each collection of units.

EXISTING PROPOSED

Please see Annex section with precedents studies of this typology.

PROPOSED

EXISTING 42

PROPOSED

EXISTING


1 3 T H

S T R E E T

13th Street’s close proximity to both the SPC Midtown Campus and the Mellrose Elementary School also makes it a highly potential area for housing. Due to the scale of the two, however, it seems more apt to propose a larger scale development, such as a single structure Co-Operative, Multi-use buildings, or even Multi-family housing. By placing these near the heart of Melrose Mercy, we now add an importance and density to the center of the community, where most activity can now sprawl out and bleed into the rest of the area. The proposed streetscape, similar to that of 9th Street, would also become more of a public space, where the community can feel welcomed into socializing throughout the street. Because of the larger size of developments, larger public spaces would have to be developed accordingly, allowing enough space for residents to feel comfortable enjoying their community, and socializing.

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COOPERATIVE MIX-USE AND MULTIPLE FAMILY HOMES 13th Avenue South

The key to a successful co-operative in Melrose Mercy requires that the residents and the community act as one. Together the collection of residents form a micro-community within the building. This housing typology provides with an affordable unit, that has community spaces and services that will complement residential unit. By creating allotting space for certain business incubators, the co-operative now directly responds to the community to offer services, while at the same time helps form and fortify small businesses in the local area bringing in potential employment for others in Melrose. Residents can now live above their job, and by designing near the SPC Campus, a higher flow of foot traffic would further both the social, as well as financial capital of the co-operative, by already having an established social host right next door. Please see Annex section with precedents studies of this typology.

EXISTING PROPOSED

EXISTING

PROPOSED

EXISTING 46


PRECEDENTS

ANNEX

PRECEDENT STUDIES Architectural Works and Concepts for Melrose Mercy

Compiled with the future of Melrose Mercy in mind, these precedent studies serve to act as a catalyst for conversation about ideas and projects that could begin to shape the future of the community. The works set forth within these pages are to be utilized for their concepts of how the Architects recognized problems and set forth solutions pertaining to low income areas, sustainability, and community building. The precedents set forth begin with our opinions and describe their significance to how they are relateable to Melrose Mercy and can contribute to the design process, highlighting each individual aspect. Each precedent provided is described through the architect’s or firm’s view, depicting their ideology and how they set forth to solving the difficulties that pertained to their project. Each precedent is represented by the Architectural Firm’s name, and location, which in many cases the latter can help in determining why some problems are evident, such as complications in climate, or it’s proximity to adjacent busy cities or streets, and how the Architect’s are able to approach the issue. Precedents included represent examples of Co-operative Projects, Incremental Housing, Social Housing, Mixed Use, Market Rate Apartments, and Community Civic Centers all of which look to tackle problems in affordability, sustainability, quality of life, and how they can potentially increase the value of the residencies rather than having a depreciation.

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CO-OPERATIVE HOUSING COMMUNITY

ARCHITECTURE

FOR

THE

PEOPLE

While thinking of the word “housing”, one may think of “a building in which people live”. However, housing can be seen as both a product as well as a process. “When housing is seen as a product, then it is also treated like a commidity where all the emphasis is on its physical attributes. On the other hand, when housing is approached as a process, it is an activity, which corresponds to both psychological and physical needs of its inhabitants.”1 When housing is collectively planned, designed, maintained, and owned by the residents themselves, this is known as Co-operative Housing. A co-operative owns the land, the buildings, and any common areas. Because the housing complex is owned entirerly by the residents, they decide what they need, and design accordingly. This is especially important due to the vast number of government controlled housing communities that have failed over the years beause of their “one size fits all” mentality, adhering solutions based on what they deemed proper, rather than instilling community input on what they would want. Co-operative designs are simply architecture that is created as a result of the true participation of the community, ensuring that all their needs are met, as well as creating a sense of ownership, as the residents now have a home that can be tailored to themselves with individuality. Co-operatives tend to contribute to stronger communities because of their social and civic organization. Neighbors must come together to make decisions, and set rules, while also creating mutual bonds by starting clubs or organizing community activities

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“Practice of Community Architecture: A Case Study of Zone of Opportunity Housing Co-operative, Montreal” Faiza Moatasim, 2005, Accessed 8/7/2016 <https://www.mcgill.ca/mchg/student/community>


NOIE - COOPERATIVE HOUSE YUUA Architects & Associates Tokyo, Japan

Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: By focusing on both collectivity and individuality, the architects saw that there was an importance in allowing prospective residents to have participation in the design process. After creating a base overall skeleton and form, the architects then worked alongside the future residents and sculpted the interiors and spaces to fit their needs, rather than designing sterile duplicate spaces that would then, depending on the resident, be used or not whether they needed it. They knew that spaces were unique to each individual resident’s lifestyle, and having them design those spaces would contribute to a stronger communal attachment. By doing this, there would be a much higher chance of a unit being used for a longer period of time, due to the fact that the resident would then have a higher sense of belonging because of the personal attachment of having a unique unit, tailored specifically to themselves. From the Architect: “NOIE -cooperative house- is a Tokyo Cooperative house with eleven dwelling units which color the townscape individually. Designing the relationship of collectivity and individuality. A cooperative house with eleven dwelling units located in the suburb of western Tokyo. Firstly, skeleton plan was provided to the potential residents. Infill design was developed based on this skeleton frame. Under such scheme, the challenge was to develop the space dynamically through interactivity of the skeleton and infill design instead of simply adjusting the infill design into the skeleton frame. The goal of this project was to realize the space unique to resident’s lifestyle through design freedom maximizing the flexibility of skeleton frame and following design code has been proposed; “Single house-like” dwelling unit layout:provide independency for each household Floor level on demand:provide flexibility for internal space composition and privacy from neighboring units. 12 square meters utility space:residents liberty to determine the usage Rooftop terrace formed as step form: different roof planting plans could be selected for each terrace. A unique fan shaped site suddenly appears among the houses as you walk through 20 meters long approach, which is the symbolic gateway that leads visitors to the town “NOIE”. “NOIE” is composed of town-house style buildings that surround the alley where residents can drive their cars. The layout is complex and houses are connected to each other which resemble the “machiya” style. Steel sash is used for the opening of the building that faces the alley, providing the flexibility on composition of the floor level. Through this design, the unique composition of each houses directly appear in the façade and shapes the townscape. Inadvertent aggregation of the uniqueness and characteristic of residents and their lifestyle realized by flexible designing is what creates the rich and colorful townscape of NOIE.”1

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“NOIE - Cooperative House / YUUA Architects & Associates “ 22 Jul 2015. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jul 2016. <http://www. archdaily.com/770592/noie-cooperative-house-yuua-architects-and-associates/>

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CO-OP HOUSING Carpaneto Architects, Fatkoehl Architects, BARarchitekten Berlin, Germany

Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: By mainly focusing on how to use the locations unique potential to “create a socially just, economically stable, and environmentally responsible urban building block” the group of architects looked to how a design can bring a community closer together. A large effort was put forward to advocate sustainability, using evironmentally compatible building materials as well as having the center produce their own regenerative energy. The general residential population is diverse being multigenerational, multicultural, and offering a multitude of spaces for people of varying salaries, with a large focus on people with little capital. Spaces offered include a ground level open to the public, workshops, kitchens, studios, and offices. The allotment of “option rooms” further allow a communal engagement by alloing non-residents to rent the universal space for any event. From the Architect: “The Coop Housing is a jointly developed and administered project building upon experience gained from many previous self-made projects. Its mission: to harness its location’s unique potential to create a socially just, economically stable, and environmentally responsible urban building block. • Open to the neighborhood and city • Differentiation between private, communal, public spaces • Options for contemporary forms of living • Resource-saving, low-cost building • Modular building design and construction • Uniform fittings, sparingly used in the apartments • Self-help construction • Use-neutral building organization for living and working • Self-production of renewable energy • Economy of space: few elevators; shared and communal spaces • Joint ownership for long-term affordable rents. Three buildings form a confident and distinct unity in their design and position in the urban space. Open to the river and the neighbors, they do not set themselves off like blocks. The individual and communal terraces have become a distinguishing feature; they offer a much-used compensation for the “loss” of open spaces to the public. The building design consists of predominantly simple support and construction systems that enable a rich variety of options for the organization of various uses. The residential population is quite diverse. It is multigenerational and multicultural, made possible by people both with and without money. Apartments are barrier-free; there is communal use of laundry rooms, fitness rooms, guest rooms, rooftop terraces, and the music and youth room. The ground floor is largely open to the public, reflecting its attitude to the urban environment. It includes a carpentry workshop, catering kitchen, studios, daycare center, and a co-working space. Available to non-residents are Option Rooms – unassigned, unfinished spaces for community, social, or cultural projects. Option Rooms maintain the project’s open character at the juncture of living and urban development.”1

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“Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten” 17 Jan 2015. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jul 2016. <http://www.archdaily.com/587590/coop-housing-project-at-the-river-spreefeld-carpaneto-architekten-fatkoehl-architekten-bararchitekten/>

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SOCIAL HOUSING AFFORDABLE HOUSING FOR LOW INCOME FAMILIES

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SOCIAL HOUSING + SHOPS COMTE et VOLLENWEIDER Architects Mouans-Sartoux, France

Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: By analyzing the site’s urban context and current surroundings, the architects were able to see that there was a need for a better integration of community and density in respect to the city centre. By adding social collective housing on plots where normally single family homes would sit, the architects were able to add densification where it could better be utilized. With the use of affordable materials and methods, the architects could maximize efficiency while creating meaningful communal spaces, where residents could ultimately interact. Additionally they have alloted space for shops on the lower level that would further enhance the sites relationship to the urban fabric, bringing outside citizens to the area, which would in return strengthen the communities engagement. From the Architect: “In partnership with the social landlord “logis Familial”, subsidiary of “logements Français” group, we responded to a consultation launched by the city of Mouans-Sartoux for the construction of a small building of social housing. In order to identify the conducive elements to a development of the area and allow to build this housing as a figurehead in a neighborhood evolution, it was essential to analyze the urban context to have a justified approach : The creation of a planted promenade along the railway line Cannes Grasse reinforces pedestrian walkways and brings the project closer to the historical centre of the city. The densification of plots through the replacement of individual houses by collective housing allows to consider this area as an urban entity linked to the historical centre of the city.”1

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“Social Housing + Shops in Mouans Sartoux / COMTE et VOLLENWEIDER Architectes” 24 Dec 2015. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jul 2016. <http://www.archdaily.com/779037/social-housing-plus-shops-in-mouans-sartoux-comte-et-vollenweider-architectes/>

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INCREMENTAL HOUSING AFFORDABLE

HOUSING

ALLOWING

FOR

EXPANSION

While most developers and agencies set out to provide housing for socially low income families, they design with manufacturing for high quantity and affordability in mind. However, many fail to recognize that no two families are alike in their needs. Most recently, a new typology has emerged where not only can architects design with high quanity in mind, but also allowing room for expansion and customization. Before, when “cookie cutter” social housing was created, residents were often left with either too much room for a couple of people, or not enough space for a larger family. Additionally, because the homes were so similar, residents never felt that their home was truly unique, and they lacked a sense of ownership. Incremental housing, however, provides residents with the a manageably sized home with the opprotunity for expansion, if the residents ever deemed it necessary. This in return, allows residents to customize their homes, and tailor them to their own needs, which also begins to create a sense a belonging, by making each individual home unique. Once the resident starts to realize that this is now “their own” home, they begin to build a sense of community, because they now feel as if their home truly belongs to them, and this tends to make residents want to stay. If everyone in the community felt the same way, then most would be more apt to be open in the community.

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VILLA VERDE HOUSING ELEMENTAL Architects Constitución, Maule Region, Chile

Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: When asked to construct cheaper homes for forestry workers, ELEMENTAL set out to define a new typology for the field. By creating incremental housing for citizens who couldnt afford the normal cost of a home, they decided to build only half of the home, while still alotting space for expansion, but focusing mostly on higher standards of the fundamentals. By doing this, they are allowing the resident to own an affordable home, while allowing the possibility for future expansion, deemed by the residents needs. From the Architect: “Arauco is a forestry company that called us in 2009 to develop a plan to support their workers in the process to have access to their definitive house. We were asked to develop a set of typologies within the current housing policy for Fondo Solidario de Vivienda I (FSV I, units up to 600 UF or US$25,000 without debt) and for FSV II (units up to 1,000 UF or US$40,000 with a bank loan). These designs would be a contribution of the company to their workers, a kind of subvention, so that housing committees could use them when applying for the regular system of public funds. The importance of this project is that on the one hand, for the first time, it allowed us to think about a design for the upper niche of the housing policy. If we developed an innovative and competitive typology, we would broaden our possible contribution to social housing. We could have taken one of our own more economic typologies and used the extra money to finish them, filling the void that families were expected to complete. But we thought of once again applying the principle of incremental construction and prioritization of the more complex components, this time with higher standards both for the initial and the final scenario. These innovations were possible because of the direct funding of Arauco, but also because the volume of the potential demand was big enough to absorb the costs of such research. The plan estimated a total of 9,000 units in thirty different towns. Finally, one of the most relevant points was that most of the projects were intended for towns and villages of between 10,000 and 20,000 people. In places of such scale, housing projects, for good or for bad, do have a major impact. And it is in exactly these types of towns where the worst urban standard is found, so any contribution in this niche is more than welcome.”1

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“Villa Verde Housing / ELEMENTAL” 13 Nov 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 13 Jul 2016. <http://www.archdaily.com/447381/ villa-verde-housing-elemental/>

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QUINTA MONROY ELEMENTAL Architects Iquique, Tarapacá, Chile Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: With the challenge of trying to keep over 100 families on a 5,000 sqm site, ELEMENTAL was faced with the task of creating an affordable, compact, and expandable home. By exploring several typologies, they realized that in order to save space, the homes would be linked, while keeping certain spaces open for later expansion if the family saw it necessary. They looked at how to give the resident a higher standard of living by keeping aspects like light, ventilation, and privacy with high priority. ELEMENTAL challenged the notions of social housing and looked to ways in which the home’s value could increase, as opposed to decreasing over time. From the Architect: “The Chilean Government asked us to resolve the following equation: To settle the 100 families of the Quinta Monroy, in the same 5,000 sqm site that they have illegally occupied for the last 30 years which is located in the very center of Iquique, a city in the Chilean desert. We had to work within the framework of the current ing a US$ 7,500 subsidy with which we had to pay for structure and the architecture. Considering the current ean building industry, US$ 7,500 allows for just around 30

Housing Policy, usthe land, the infravalues in the Chilsqm of built space.

If to answer the question, one starts assuming 1 house = 1 family = 1 lot, we were able to host just 30 families in the site. The problem with isolated houses, is that they are very inefficient in terms of land use. That is why social housing tends to look for land that costs as little as possible. That land, is normally far away from the opportunities of work, education, transportation and health that cities offer. This way of operating has tended to localize social housing in an impoverished urban sprawl, creating belts of resentment, social conflict and inequity. If to try to make a more efficient use of the land, we worked with row houses, even if we reduced the width of the lot until making it coincident with the width of the house, and furthermore, with the width of a room, we were able to host just 66 families. The problem with this type is that whenever a family wants to add a new room, it blocks access to light and ventilation of previous rooms. Moreover it compromises privacy because circulation has to be done through other rooms. What we get then, instead of efficiency, is overcrowding and promiscuity. We think that social housing should be seen as an investment and not as an expense. So we had to make that the initial subsidy can add value over time. All of us, when buying a house expect it to increase its value. But social housing, in an unacceptable proportion, is more similar to buy a car than to buy a house; every day, its value decreases. In first place, we had to achieve enough density, (but without overcrowding), in order to be able to pay for the site, which because of its location was very expensive. To keep the site, meant to maintain the network of opportunities that the city offered and therefore to strengthen the family economy; on the other hand, good location is the key to increase a property value.”1

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“Quinta Monroy / ELEMENTAL” 31 Dec 2008. ArchDaily. Accessed 13 Jul 2016. <http://www.archdaily.com/10775/quinta-monroy-elemental/>

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MIXED USE

HOUSING

66

AND

OFFICES


LE ROUGET MIXED-USE Atelier du Rouget Simon Teyssou & Assoc. Le Rouget, France

Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: When using Residential/Office mixed use, the social energy that would be generated from the building would last all throughout the day. Normally in residential units, there is a large social energy towards the evening and nigh, when residents come home. However, by adding offices, the architects are adding social energy that would fill those voids, and therefore making it used at all times of the day. When placing the building in the center of the town, you are making its potential much higher than if it were placed on the outside of the city. Since the building is “L-shaped” it conforms around a communal courtyard that encourages interaction between residents. The building also advocates sustainability in that it hosts an underground tank to collect rain-water for mulitple uses. From the Architect: “Placing a building in the centre of a small town asserts our desire to heighten urban density and to take part in livening it up and improving its appeal, instead of choosing a plot on the outskirts. The project itself is an alternative to spreading urbanization. The building fits into a hollow between two existing buildings. It is composed of a mixed program of offices (for architecture) and private flats (one 6-room and two 3-room flats). The L-shaped construction surrounds an open courtyard on the back street and vertical circulation gives access to its half-levels. A public pedestrian path was made along the west side of the property, connecting the residential north street to the many services and shops on the avenue du 15 septembre. The main volume comprises an architecture firm at garden-level and ground-level, and a 6-room family flat on the first and second floors. This volume opens widely to the south. Aligned with the street, the north volume includes a technical room in the basement with collective- wood-pellet boiler-room, storerooms for the flats and three open garages on ground-level. Two 3-room flats for rent are located on the first and second floors. An underground tank collects rain-water for bathrooms and gardens.”1

68 ”Le Rouget / Atelier du Rouget Simon Teyssou & associés “ 26 Apr 2016. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jul 2016. <http://www. archdaily.com/786163/le-rouget-atelier-du-rouget-simon-teyssou-and-associes/>

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MARKET RATE HOUSING

HOUSING

70

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HIGHER

INCOME

FAMILIES


COLLECTIVE ECO-HOUSING L A CANOPEE Patrick Arotcharen Architects Bayonne, France

Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: Due to its conciousness on sustainable design, this Eco-Housing has looked at ways in which their design can be both financially feasible, while greatly reducing their architectural impact on the surrounding site, all while creating a higher quality of housing as well as standard of living. Conceptually, the housing has a playful nature against the background of the site, while creating a safe, calm enviornment with many communal spaces that offer chances for residents to interact and build a better community experience. From the Architect: “On this narrow and slightly irregular site (5000m2), the 50 housing units are grouped into two principal residential entities. 38 collective units are linked by raised walkways to 12 individual houses dotted around the existing organic network of trees. Hoisted up, as if on stilts, the project mimics the playful nature of the vegetation and trees. The built environment distinguishes itself from the service ‘zones’ and landscaping at street level offering up a habitat, which brushes up directly against the surrounding foliage. The timber walkways erected at first floor level, flirting with the tall trees offer up a sensory and dreamlike pathway amongst the vegetation. The landings are semi private spaces only servicing two housing units maximum and are large and open to the natural backdrop so that all housing units are given the same treatment, thus reducing the overall visual density. The elevated individual dwellings are connected to the communal vertical circulation spaces of the collective apartment units by the timber walkways in order so that all residents share the same daily experiences, collective or individual. All the apartments and houses are dual aspect with a living space entirely glazed (6m long) orientated mainly south, extendable by a private timber external balcony space (12m2) and visually protected by the careful use of timber sun shade screens and balustrades with built in flower boxes overflowing with vegetation. The open plan flexibility in each housing unit responds to the local lifestyle of this temperate region where one spends and lives as much outside as inside. As living spaces feed out onto the lower levels, bedrooms are grouped higher up, separated acoustically from the living areas and apart from the single level 2 bedroom apartments, the ‘wet rooms’ (bathrooms, ensuites, toilets etc.), are located on the north façades and are all naturally lit and ventilated. The external skin is characterised by the design of organic structures built to encourage the growth of vegetation (overhangs, sunshades and rainwater pipes whilst assuring environmental and energy efficiency throughout the project. The facades preserve the privacy of the resident and at the same time protect the natural environment from human interference.”1

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“Collective Eco-Housing La Canopée / Patrick Arotcharen Architecte” 01 Apr 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jul 2016. <http://www.archdaily.com/352232/collective-eco-housing-la-canop-e-patrick-arotcharen-architecte/>

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VILLA ASPICUELTA Tacoa Architects São Paulo, Brazil

Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: By challenging the notion of vertical buildings along with building orientation, the Villa Aspicuelta was able to achieve an unconvential design that flawlessly blends into its surroundings. By working against the grain of the street, they were able to achieve a much higher unit number while minimizing street frontage which could be later used elsewhere. By lifting the units, there now is a covered semi-private space that encourages communal interaction and safety by allowing spaces for residents to be outside comfortably and have eyes on the street. By providing garden areas throughout the design including rooftop gardens, the architects are creating a higher standard of quality of life for the residents, while allowing opportunity to learn to be self-sustaining. By situating the villas with an eastern orientaion, cross ventillation can now be utilized in the months that may not require air conditioning, From the Architect: “The eight houses that compose Vila Aphins challenge the logic of vertical buildings: the di erent units are disposed side by side horizontally, and functionvertically. The street continues through the villa, partially covered by the building, and gives access to the staircase of each individual unit. The parking lot, gardens and common areas are also placed on this street. On the first floor of every house, one single area provides space for the kitchen, dining and living. The second floor was conceptualized as a private area, a bedroom with a balcony and garden and a bathroom. Finally, on the rooftop, an open air plaza is set, with individual spaces. The eastern orientation of the villa enables the houses to enjoy sunny mornings, shady afternoons and crossed ventilation. The western façade hosts the access stairs of the houses, and unifies all the units, providing the Vila it’s wavy project identity.”1

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”Vila Aspicuelta / Tacoa Arquitetos” 08 May 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jul 2016. <http://www.archdaily.com/503745/ vila-aspicuelta-tacoa-arquitetos/>

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KILLINEY ROAD ipli Architects Singapore, Malaysia

Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: By focusing on how to maximize efficiency with a minimal central core that would normally lead to a dark claustrophobic lobby, ipli architects found that an “L”-shaped building would meet these needs while creating a central courtyard that can be filled with light and showcase a “private tropical haven” to be utilized by all residents. While situating the apartments to inwardly organize around the central atrium, this allows all residents to be able to interact. This atrium also allows for much more light to filter through the building. Because of how close the building is in promiximity to a noisy busy road, screens were utilized to both filter the exposure of its residents as well as create a unique effect. From the Architect: “The project set out to address a common occurrence in multi-storeyed residences: the dark lobby. Lobbies in commercial typologies, more often than not, are dark and claustrophobic to maximize saleable area in the building. In this, with its triangular plot and L-shaped plan, maximum saleable area is achieved by strategic placement of the lift core at the edge. A central courtyard within providing an airy, bright space, a private tropical haven that can be shared by all. Rethinking a typical core was the starting point of designing for 118 Killiney Road as we recognized that condominium developments frequently have a central lift and staircase cores as a generator to organize the apartment layout to achieve maximum frequency. This often invariably leads to a dark and claustraphobic lift lobby. Our approach thereafter was an experiment to deviate from the mathmatics of such typical typologies to see if we could still satisfy maximum efficiency with a minimum core. With a successful waiver of 2m from the boundary line and by situating the vertical core at the tip of the triangular plot, an interesting L-shaped layout surfaced. Such unconventional layout still fulfills the authorities regulation for maximum fire escape running distance. With the new layout strategy, an internal courtyard is created whereby the apartments are inwardly organized around it. This atypical strategy not only enabled light into the center of the site, it also enabled a larger surface area for views of the internal courtyard to be enjoyed by every unit, creating a nicer and unique haven environment for the city dwellers. In response to the existing site conditions of a busy and noisy road with eateries lining both sides of the ground floor, screens were also designed at the balcony as facade to provide privacy internally. A moire effect is thus created by the overlapping of screens as one walks down the lane, contributing to another layer of interest on the urban scale along Killiney Road.”1

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”Killiney Road / ipli architects” 07 Jan 2016. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jul 2016. <http://www.archdaily.com/780003/killiney-road-ipli-architects/>

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CIVIC AND COMMUNITY CENTERS PLACES

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THE

COMMUNITY

TO

COME

TOGETHER


TORONTO UNDERPASS PARK Phillips Farevaag Smallenberg Architects Toronto, Canada

Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: Because of Melrose Mercy’s dark and gloomy underpass on 22nd Street, the design of a “gateway” can come to serve as an entrance to the city. By adding a program to the space, the unused underpass now becomes a destination, whether it being used as a recreational space, or serve as an exhibit space for public art. From the City: “From Uninviting To Welcoming Designed to transform derelict and underused space, the park takes full advantage of the concrete beams and columns of the overpasses to create a unique and inviting commmunity asset and provide year round weather protection. This bright new urban park gives residents of the West Don Lands and adjacent communities safe and beautiful ways to connect between the north and south sections of the neighbourhood. Playground and Recreational Space A sizeable playground is located in the middle section of the park, between St. Lawrence St. and River Street. With a teeter-totter, hopscotch, 4-square, swings and playful climbing structures, the playground offers something for all ages. The area also includes a series of park benches and flexible community space that can be used for markets, festivals and seasonal public events. The eastern-most section of the park, east of River Street, includes two basketball half-courts, and an extensive skatepark featuring a series of obstacles, rails and ledges. There is also a flexible open space that can be used for community events. Innovative Public Art Public art plays a critical role in Underpass Park. Mirage, by Paul Raff Studios, uses reflectivity to draw people into and through the space. Mirage engages the public through the playful use of reflection by bouncing light around the space in an interesting and sculptural way. When planning the overarching public art strategy for the West Don Lands, Underpass Park was identified as a high priority public art opportunity. In late 2009, Waterfront Toronto launched its first ever artist competition and selected Paul Raff.”1

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Underpass Park / Waterfront Toronto. Accessed 10 Jul 2016. http://www.waterfrontoronto.ca/explore_projects2/west_ don_lands/underpass_park

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MCCORMICK TRIBUNE CAMPUS CENTER Rem Koolhaas Chicago, Illinois

Why its significant to Melrose Mercy: When adding a program to the underbelly of the Green Line Rail, the Mccormick Center now has utilized an unused space. The concept of wrapping around the rail can be implented underneath Interstate-275 on 22nd Street. The campus center offers many ammenities that cater to the university and take advantage of the awkward space that would normally be overlooked. From the City: “In the middle of the greatest concentration of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s International Style buildings in Chicago you will find the McCormick Tribune Campus Center, designed by Rem Koolhaas of the Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA). Built on the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) campus, the Campus Center stands in sharp contrast with the designs of Mies, while honoring his legacy at the same time. The design includes a concrete and stainless steel tube that encloses a 530-foot stretch of the Chicago Transit Authority’s elevated Green Line commuter rail (“L”) tracks, passing directly over the one-story campus center building. The tube dampens the sound of trains overhead as students enjoy various ammenities. The McCormick Tribune Campus Center manages to incorporate all of the basic functions of a student union: food, fun, gathering place, radio station, copy center, bookstore, student offices, computers, coffee kiosks and an auditorium, while paying homage to the Miesian Commons Building at the northeast corner. It is visually intriguing, acoustically amazing (you barely hear the trains passing overhead) and great fun to explore on a tour. The Campus Center sits next door to the historic Commons Building, which was built in 1953 and designed by Gene Summers, an architect in Mies’ office. Koolhaas’ original design imagined the incorporation of the building into the Campus Center. He intended to turn two of the Commons’ exterior walls into interior walls within the Campus Center. Preservationists were outraged at this proposal and asked that at least 12 feet separate the two buildings. The final design is a compromise between the two proposals. The clear glass eastern facade of the Campus Center physically connects, while visually separating, the two buildings.”1

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McCormick Tribune Campus Center / Buildings of Chicago / Chicago Architecture Foundation. Accessed 10 Jul 2016. http://www.architecture.org/architecture%C2%ADchicago/buildings%C2%ADof%C2%ADchicago/building/mccormick%C2%ADtribune%C2%ADcampus%C2%ADcenter/

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Profile for Lawrence Raposo

FCCD+R Melrose Mercy - Innovative Housing Strategies  

FCCD+R Melrose Mercy - Innovative Housing Strategies  

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