Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Internal Assessment – Investigating the Relationship between Concentration of Glucose and Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride

Research Question: How will changing the percentage of glucose concentration affect the rate of diffusion of sodium chloride across a visking tubing – down a concentration gradient – measured using a conductivity probe?

Introduction: Diffusion is a passive process in which molecules spread, from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration, until equilibrium is reached. For instance, sodium chloride molecules inside a visking tubing will diffuse out from the area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. There are several factors that can affect this rate of diffusion. Such factors include the concentration gradient, the surface area of visking tubing, and temperature. 1 In this experiment, glucose solution will be poured into the visking tubing in addition to the sodium chloride solution to observe the effect of glucose concentration on the rate of diffusion of sodium chloride. The rate of diffusion will be measured using Logger Pro and a conductivity probe: the conductivity of the water as sodium chloride diffuses out will be measured by the probe for 60 seconds. After the collection of data, the rate of diffusion can be calculated by finding the slope of conductivity vs. time graph, since rate of diffusion is change in conductivity over time. If the change in conductivity is significant the rate of diffusion is high and if the change is small the rate is low. Rate of Diffusion =

1

Bailey, Regina. "Diffusion and Passive Transport." About. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec 2010. <http://biology.about.com/od/cellularprocesses/ss/diffusion.htm>.

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Hypothesis: Visking tubing is a semi-permeable membrane that allows for molecules to diffuse in or out, depending on the concentration gradient. As mentioned in the introduction, the only factors that can affect the rate of diffusion across a visking tubing are the concentration gradient, surface area, and temperature. Although glucose molecules are larger than sodium chloride molecules, they will not clog the visking tubing; there will still be thousands of pores through which the sodium chloride will be able to diffuse out. Therefore, as long as there is a greater concentration of sodium chloride inside the visking tubing than outside, the molecules will continue to diffuse out unperturbedly until equilibrium is reached, no matter how high the concentration of glucose is inside the visking tubing.

Average Rate of Diffusion, Î&#x201D;ÎźScm-1s-1

Effect of Glucose Concentration on Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Concentration of Glucose, % Figure 1: Prediction of the Effect of Glucose Concentration on Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride The figure above demonstrates no change in the rate of diffusion of sodium chloride as the glucose concentration increases. As such, the hypothesis is that the concentration of glucose solution inside the visking tubing will have no effect on the rate of diffusion of sodium chloride.

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Variables: Variable Independent

Dependent

Description

Units / range

Method of Measuring / Manipulating

%

The independent variable will be manipulated by a process of serial dilution, from 10% concentration to 5%, 5% to 2.5%, 2.5% to 1.25%, and 1.25% to 0.625%.

ΔμScm-1s-1

This will be measured with a conductivity probe. The conductivity probe measures the amount of electricity, and because sodium chloride contains charged ions, the conductivity probe can accurately determine the amount of sodium chloride that is diffusing out. Therefore, the rate of diffusion can be measured using a conductivity probe. The conductivity will be measured from 0-60 seconds, and the rate of diffusion can be calculated by finding the slope of the conductivity vs. time graph. The uncertainty can be considered negligible.

Concentration of sodium chloride

%

The concentration of sodium chloride will be kept constant at 10% concentration, and this will be insured by using the same solution for every trial.

Volume of water inside & outside the visking tubing

cm3

Volume of water inside the visking tubing is set at 10mL of sodium chloride solution and 5mL of glucose solution. Volume is measured accurately using a burette and a pipette.

Concentration of glucose

Rate of diffusion of sodium chloride (

Controlled

)

Volume of water inside the beaker (where the diffusion will take place) is set at 200cm3. Volume is measured accurately using the increment on the beaker. Range of conductivity Rate of stirring

Temperature

Surface area / volume ratio of visking tubing Table 1: List of Variables

μm

Increments on the magnetic stirrer

The range of conductivity is kept constant at the 2000μm range on the conductivity probe The rate of stirring is set at the first increment on the magnetic stirrer for every trial.

°C

Temperature is kept constant by conducting the experiment at room temperature (about 25 °C) for every triplicate trial.

cm2 / cm3

The same visking tubing is used for every triplicate trial to ensure that the width of the visking tubing is constant. In addition, the visking tubing is cut into same lengths – 15cm – to keep the surface area / volume ratio constant.

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Apparatus and Materials:       

      

Electronic balance (±0.001g) 50 cm3 burette (±0.05 cm3) 10 cm3 pipette (±0.02 cm3) Five 50 cm3 beakers for serial dilution 2 large beakers Visking tubing Sodium Chloride

Spatula Glucose Distilled water Scissors Magnetic & plastic stirrer Conductivity probe Logger Pro

Procedures: Preparation of 10% sodium chloride solution 1. 25g of sodium chloride and 250cm3 of distilled water are poured into a large beaker. 2. The beaker is stirred several times using a plastic stirrer until a homogenous solution is made.

Preparation of glucose solution of various concentrations (serial dilution)

15 cm3 distilled water

15 cm3

10%

15 cm3

5%

15 cm3

2.5%

15 cm3

1.25%

Figure 2: Serial Dilution of Glucose Solution

0.625%

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065 3. 3g of glucose and 30cm3 of distilled water is poured into a small beaker. 4. The beaker is stirred several times using a plastic stirrer until a homogenous solution is made, thus creating 10% glucose solution. 5. 15 cm3 of the obtained solution is transferred into another small beaker using the 50cm3 burette and another 15 cm3 of distilled water is added using the same sized burette. The beaker is then stirred using a stirrer until a homogenous solution is made, thus creating 5% glucose solution. 6. Step 5 is repeated 3 more times to obtain 2.5%, 1.25%, and 0.625% glucose solutions. The burette is washed every time a new serial dilution is performed.

Conducting the experiment Conductivity probe

Visking tubing

Magnet Magnetic Stirrer

Figure 3: Diagram of the Apparatus for Gathering Data 7. 16 visking tubing of about 15cm in length are prepared. A knot is tied on one end of each of the visking tubingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. 8. Logger Pro is turned on, and the conductivity probe is connected to Logger Pro. The range is set at 2000Îźm. 9. 15 cm3 of sodium chloride solution is poured into a visking tubing using the 50cm3 burette. A large beaker is filled up to the 200cm3, then placed on top of the magnetic stirrer. The magnetic stirrer is turned on to the first increment only. The visking tubing is put inside the beaker to start the diffusion process, and the rate is measured using the conductivity probe and Logger Pro for 60 seconds. (This step gathers data for the control) 10. 10 cm3 of sodium chloride solution is poured into a visking tubing using the 50cm3 burette. 5cm3 of 10% glucose solution is added into the same visking tubing using the 10cm3 pipette. 11. Visking tubing is placed inside a large beaker filled up to 200cm3 with distilled water, and the beaker is put on top of the magnetic stirrer running at first-increment speed. 12. The rate of diffusion is measured using conductivity probe and Logger Pro for 60 seconds. 13. Steps 10-12 are repeated triplicate trials for all five concentrations of glucose.

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Data Collection:

Qualitative Data: ď Ź

To the naked eye, the change in concentration of glucose solutions did not seem to make a significant difference in the diffusion of sodium chloride.

ď Ź

The presence of visking tubing seemed to get in the way of the magnetic stirrer at times, causing a slight disruption in the stirring.

Quantitative Data:

*** Refer to the Appendix for a complete table of raw data from Logger Pro.

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Data Processing: Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride / ΔμScm-1s-1

Glucose Concentration /%

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

10.000

10.41

10.02

10.45

5.000

10.66

9.987

(16.90)2

2.500

10.47

9.237

(12.61)

1.250

10.14

9.92

(14.16)

0.625

(15.04)

10.09

10.50

Table 2: Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride for All Trials3 Glucose Concentration / %

Calculation

Average Rate of Diffusion (±Standard Deviation)4 / ΔμScm1 -1 s

10.000

10.29 ± 0.24

5.000

10.32 ± 0.48

2.500

9.85 ± 0.87

1.250

10.03 ± 0.16

0.625

10.30 ± 0.29

Control (no glucose added): 10.08 ΔμScm-1s-1 Table 3: Calculation of Average Rates of Diffusion 2

Values in parentheses were excluded as outliers due to their extreme deviation from the norm.

3

The rate of diffusion was determined by finding the slope of conductivity vs. time graph using linear

regression on Logger Pro software. 4

The processing of standard deviation is shown in table 4

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Data Presentation: LEGEND Red Lines: 10% glucose concentration (Run 1) Blue Lines: 5% glucose concentration (Latest 3) Green Lines: 2.5% glucose concentration (Run 3) Orange Lines:1.25% glucose concentration (Run 4) Purple Lines: 0.625% glucose concentration (Latest 6)

Figure 4: Graph of Raw Data from Logger Pro5

5

Slopes of lines that have values closest to the average slope value for each concentration of glucose are shown in boxes.

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Effect of Glucose Concentration / % on the Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride / ΔμScm-1s-1 Average Rate of Diffusion, ΔμScm-1s-1

12

11

10 y = 0.022x + 10.074 R² = 0.1931 9

8 0

2

4

6

8

Concentration of Glucose, % Figure 5: Graph of Average Rate of Diffusion against Concentration of Glucose6 7 6 7

Vertical error bars represent standard deviation for triplicate trials. Horizontal error bars represent absolute uncertainty for concentration of glucose. (Difficult to see on graph because error is minute)

10

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Uncertainties: Standard Deviation: Glucose Concentration / %

Rate of Diffusion of Sodium Chloride / ΔμScm-1 s-1

Average / ΔμScm-1s-1 (±Standard Deviation)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

10.000

10.41

10.02

10.45

10.29 ± 0.24

5.000

10.66

9.987

( – )8

10.32 ± 0.48

2.500

10.47

9.237

(–)

9.85 ± 0.87

1.250

10.14

9.92

(–)

10.03 ± 0.16

0.625

(–)

10.09

10.50

10.30 ± 0.29

Table 4: Standard Deviation at Different Concentrations of Glucose

Example of Standard Deviation Calculation: [Glucose Concentration] = 10%

≒ 0.237557 ≒ 0.24 Same calculations were done for 5%, 2.5%, 1.25%, and 0.625% glucose concentrations.

8

Data marked with (-) represent outliers.

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Uncertainty due to dilution of glucose solution: *Uncertainty due to 50cm3 burette = ±0.05 cm3 Concentration of Glucose / %

10.000

Volume of glucose solution added / cm3 – 3

Uncertainties Volume of distilled Total percentage water added / cm3 error for concentration of glucose / % – – 3

Absolute uncertainty for concentration of glucose / % –

5.000

15.00 ± 0.05cm = 15.00 ± 0.3%

15.00 ± 0.05cm = 15.00 ± 0.3%

±0.6

0.030

2.500

15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = 15.00 ± 0.3%

15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = 15.00 ± 0.3%

±0.6

0.015

1.250

15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = 15.00 ± 0.3%

15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = 15.00 ± 0.3%

±0.6

0.008

0.625

15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = 15.00 ± 0.3%

15.00 ± 0.05cm3 = 15.00 ± 0.3%

±0.6

0.004

Table 5: Uncertainty Table for Concentration of Glucose Solution

Glucose Concentration (±Uncertainty) / %

Average Rate of Diffusion (±Standard Deviation) / ΔμScm-1s-1

10.000

10.29 ± 0.24

5.000 ± 0.003

10.32 ± 0.48

2.500 ± 0.015

9.85 ± 0.87

1.250 ± 0.008

10.03 ± 0.16

0.625 ± 0.004

10.30 ± 0.29

Table 6: Combined Uncertainties of Independent & Dependent Variables

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Conclusion / Evaluation: The relationship between the concentration of glucose solution and the rate of diffusion can be seen in Figure 5. As the linear regression shows, there is hardly any relationship between the concentration and rate of diffusion. The slight rise in the slope and the slight variation among the data points can be concluded as outcome of experimental error. Therefore, the data supports the hypothesis; the concentration of glucose solution inside the visking tubing indeed had no effect on the rate of diffusion of sodium chloride. The general trend of all 15 trials in the experiment seems to be similar. As can be seen in figure 4, most trials display more or less the same rate of change in conductivity over time, with the exception of a few that deviate. These deviations (the top four lines on the graph in figure 4) were considered outliers and rejected during data processing. These outliers were due to experimental error during the experiment, which will be discussed later. The results are reliable because the uncertainties are fairly low. The uncertainties in the independent variable – percentage of glucose concentration – are minimal and almost negligible. This can be seen through the miniscule horizontal error bars in the graph in figure 5. The uncertainties in the dependent variable – the average rate of diffusion – determined by the standard deviation of the rates of diffusion, are small in relation to the actual average rates. These uncertainties are displayed on the graph in figure 5 through vertical error bars. The one vertical error bar that is abnormally large – the standard deviation for 2.5% glucose concentration – is due to the fact that only two trials were taken into account for the average. Such magnitude in uncertainty can be improved by increasing the number of trials. Furthermore, because the results correspond with the accepted scientific theory – that the concentration of glucose does not affect the rate of diffusion of sodium chloride across a visking tubing – the results can be concluded as reliable. The only glaring problem in the procedures was that, in the process of diffusion of sodium chloride across the visking tubing, the conductivity probe and the visking tubing itself got in the way of the magnetic stirrer, causing the stirrer to stop spinning at times. This problem could have caused a deficiency during the process of sodium chloride spreading throughout the distilled water. As a result, it could have caused a discrepancy in the conductivity reading measured by Logger Pro. Nonetheless, the stoppage of the stirrer was only for a couple of seconds, and it could not have impacted the experiment significantly enough to cause a glaring error in the results. Still, the problem could be the cause of the high number of outliers and the sizeable standard deviation. The investigation would be much improved if the apparatus could be improved to eliminate this issue.

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Improving the Investigation: Error

Impact

Improvement

The serial dilution was conducted over a period of two days, due to time constraints

Some of the water molecules evaporated. As a result, there was not enough glucose solution left at the far ends of the serial dilution. Although the evaporation caused minimal difference of less than 1 cm3, it still increased error.

The entire experiment could be conducted in one day; in one time period, without any rest within the experiment. This way, the effects of the evaporation of water would be minimized.

Occasionally, the conductivity probe and the visking tubing got in the way of the magnetic stirrer.

The conductivity probe and the visking tubing disrupted the rotational motion of the magnetic stirrer. As a result, the sodium chloride diffusing out of the visking tubing may not have been completely dissolved and distributed evenly throughout the beaker with distilled water. Therefore, error in the measurement of conductivity, and thus the rate of diffusion, could have been increased.

The conductivity probe and the visking tubing could each be held in place, so that it does not drift into the rotational motion of the magnetic stirrer. In this case, another human helper would be required. Another way of improving this error would be to use a larger beaker; placing the conductivity probe and the visking tubing at the far ends of a larger beaker would lessen the chances of them bumping into the magnetic stirrer.

50 cm3 burettes were used to transfer 15 cm3 solutions

The large burette â&#x20AC;&#x201C; relatively large in comparison to amount necessary â&#x20AC;&#x201C; increased the percentage uncertainty.

A smaller burette could be used; perhaps a 20 cm3 burette, to decrease the percentage uncertainty.

Table 7: Ways to Improve the Investigation

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Appendix:

10% Trial 1

5% Trial 1

2.5% Trial 1

1.25% Trial 1

0.625% Trial 1

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

0

26.82404

0

20.48969

0

63.53741

0

21.5885

0

23.59222

1

27.21185

1

14.67242

1

70.19495

1

22.2995

1

22.94586

2

26.50085

2

41.23792

2

76.98175

2

17.51642

2

84.86737

3

24.69104

3

63.66669

3

80.34283

3

84.0271

3

166.9554

4

27.21185

4

81.8941

4

83.05756

4

102.6423

4

150.861

5

27.59967

5

93.91644

5

88.42236

5

131.2115

5

156.2258

6

24.4325

6

106.4559

6

101.5435

6

119.6417

6

170.8982

7

70.06567

7

123.132

7

106.4559

7

119.9002

7

182.5974

8

81.05383

8

150.2792

8

129.7896

8

117.9611

8

194.8782

9

78.08057

9

156.4843

9

158.8759

9

135.4129

9

221.0559

10

76.78784

10

165.2748

10

182.5974

10

185.8292

10

236.1161

11

88.22845

11

193.6501

11

217.1131

11

197.8515

11

233.4661

12

127.398

12

202.8285

12

296.3571

12

210.0031

12

250.4008

13

157.1953

13

207.8701

13

289.1179

13

218.9229

13

255.6363

14

184.2779

14

208.064

14

303.2732

14

245.3591

14

310.9003

15

197.4637

15

215.4972

15

294.8058

15

262.6816

15

305.4062

16

233.9185

16

229.2647

16

276.126

16

254.5375

16

329.5155

17

227.0024

17

242.0627

17

267.6586

17

275.5443

17

332.2302

18

234.4356

18

249.4312

18

283.7531

18

248.4617

18

340.5683

19

244.7774

19

264.4268

19

302.8207

19

280.5212

19

364.6776

20

253.8265

20

258.2217

20

328.6752

20

311.0295

20

407.2083

21

263.7158

21

268.1111

21

344.0587

21

326.8654

21

425.7589

22

264.8793

22

277.3541

22

357.6323

22

319.7554

22

497.3758

23

287.308

23

281.3615

23

358.925

23

320.725

23

487.4218

24

290.152

24

293.9009

24

367.0692

24

339.728

24

491.8171

25

303.9842

25

318.0749

25

392.5358

25

345.2221

25

508.7518

26

312.5808

26

323.1812

26

394.2164

26

339.6634

26

567.5707

27

326.1544

27

323.6982

27

379.6732

27

356.2103

27

565.4377

28

343.2184

28

325.9605

28

386.7186

28

376.1182

28

589.2885

29

349.1649

29

332.0363

29

413.6719

29

414.2536

29

592.8435

30

362.8678

30

345.8038

30

416.2573

30

412.1206

30

599.0486

31

356.4042

31

369.7839

31

422.4624

31

411.0218

31

606.1586

32

373.4681

32

390.7906

32

462.86

32

404.8167

32

613.721

33

397.3189

33

410.5693

33

463.571

33

405.3338

33

696.9078

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065 34

394.3456

34

430.2188

34

494.9843

34

415.6756

34

665.0422

35

402.5544

35

424.5954

35

495.1782

35

409.0827

35

638.3474

36

415.8695

36

419.8123

36

491.3

36

424.9832

36

645.1342

37

409.0827

37

425.8881

37

505.9078

37

470.681

37

632.9826

38

437.2641

38

438.88

38

542.6858

38

473.5897

38

654.8297

39

442.4996

39

439.3971

39

516.8313

39

468.4834

39

666.7227

40

446.5071

40

444.1155

40

522.6486

40

485.0303

40

684.8209

41

447.7352

41

480.6996

41

530.0817

41

478.4374

41

709.3826

42

467.837

42

475.1409

42

531.3745

42

490.5244

42

731.2297

43

477.8557

43

472.2969

43

553.674

43

520.1924

43

782.6801

44

490.589

44

476.4337

44

553.8679

44

508.4932

44

751.0084

45

503.4516

45

483.6729

45

547.7921

45

508.6225

45

756.6964

46

513.0178

46

485.6766

46

575.4564

46

525.8804

46

770.076

47

510.1738

47

504.9382

47

571.1904

47

556.4533

47

798.3867

48

513.858

48

504.4211

48

578.6882

48

556.2594

48

803.5576

49

528.7244

49

514.0519

49

590.5812

49

578.1064

49

821.2679

50

534.2184

50

521.9376

50

610.7477

50

576.5552

50

854.0385

51

539.3247

51

525.7511

51

637.0547

51

587.608

51

847.1224

52

551.1531

52

544.3663

52

642.2902

52

602.9914

52

860.1143

53

556.8411

53

566.989

53

637.7657

53

623.7396

53

886.4859

54

580.1748

54

559.0388

54

639.5755

54

615.4016

54

902.3218

55

581.5322

55

560.6547

55

650.0466

55

629.8801

55

905.0365

56

581.7907

56

566.6658

56

650.8868

56

638.3474

56

888.9421

57

591.8093

57

579.3992

57

661.9396

57

633.2411

57

914.9258

58

597.6266

58

591.874

58

694.8395

58

639.0584

58

925.0737

59

617.276

59

589.03

59

669.1143

59

633.629

59

936.8375

60

621.9298

60

614.6259

60

678.7451

60

652.4381

60

961.5286

10% Trial 2

5% Trial 2

2.5% Trial 2

1.25% Trial 2

0.625% Trial 2

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

0

2.90863

0

3.619629

0

196.882

0

3.102539

0

2.391541

1

23.85077

1

3.231812

1

200.6955

1

8.144165

1

26.11304

2

25.14349

2

20.8775

2

211.7483

2

3.102539

2

26.11304

3

59.72388

3

36.97192

3

221.0559

3

3.102539

3

26.50085

4

99.28125

4

157.7124

4

243.6786

4

7.756348

4

21.45923

5

93.20545

5

166.2444

5

246.0701

5

148.5987

5

24.94959

6

100.8325

6

169.9287

6

246.3287

6

184.2133

6

19.58478

7

163.2711

7

221.573

7

259.3206

7

241.6749

7

39.49274

8

171.8677

8

193.1977

8

269.2099

8

239.2833

8

89.52118

9

178.9777

9

238.2491

9

297.8438

9

217.0485

9

175.552

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065 10

191.7757

10

216.4021

10

289.5703

10

224.0292

10

219.1815

11

209.486

11

219.7632

11

319.1737

11

256.218

11

203.9273

12

201.665

12

262.4231

12

327.6411

12

255.9595

12

226.0975

13

220.4742

13

278.8407

13

318.0749

13

282.7835

13

233.9185

14

228.683

14

347.6137

14

333.0705

14

276.7077

14

235.2759

15

249.108

15

321.5006

15

350.5869

15

280.3273

15

231.9148

16

255.7656

16

298.0377

16

363.8373

16

292.0911

16

230.816

17

256.7351

17

312.1284

17

363.2556

17

321.436

17

224.0292

18

262.9402

18

321.0482

18

396.0262

18

303.2086

18

255.507

19

298.1669

19

328.8045

19

381.6123

19

312.8394

19

271.6014

20

288.1483

20

325.4434

20

396.4786

20

336.7548

20

281.7493

21

306.8928

21

353.1077

21

402.6837

21

347.2905

21

314.3906

22

339.1463

22

388.1406

22

401.391

22

350.4576

22

297.3267

23

330.8082

23

403.8472

23

411.6035

23

350.5223

23

300.2999

24

339.8573

24

385.6198

24

426.1467

24

361.3165

24

315.4248

25

350.2637

25

396.6079

25

453.8756

25

369.2668

25

314.2614

26

348.971

26

408.6303

26

437.3287

26

384.4563

26

343.8001

27

406.9497

27

428.926

27

452.8414

27

388.9808

27

356.2103

28

410.8925

28

425.0479

28

460.7271

28

403.9764

28

355.9517

29

430.0895

29

454.9744

29

475.2702

29

402.4252

29

369.7839

30

431.77

30

468.8066

30

475.1409

30

412.4438

30

383.9392

31

424.3369

31

464.2821

31

484.901

31

433.6445

31

413.7365

32

423.3027

32

460.21

32

504.098

32

442.3704

32

421.9453

33

435.5836

33

477.5325

33

501.3186

33

448.1876

33

414.2536

34

433.4506

34

505.6492

34

512.3068

34

454.8452

34

449.1572

35

425.6942

35

508.7518

35

526.1389

35

462.0844

35

460.8563

36

469.5176

36

512.8885

36

529.4354

36

466.8029

36

439.3971

37

491.1707

37

523.0364

37

532.4733

37

499.4442

37

428.8614

38

525.7511

38

537.9027

38

549.8604

38

512.7592

38

445.3436

39

521.9376

39

539.1954

39

562.2059

39

493.9501

39

464.8638

40

510.497

40

536.3514

40

566.5366

40

512.436

40

466.5443

41

513.858

41

550.1836

41

565.567

41

521.3558

41

475.0117

42

538.4198

42

548.3092

42

582.631

42

532.4733

42

491.9464

43

534.7355

43

561.301

43

591.5508

43

528.4012

43

492.3988

44

567.3768

44

578.5589

44

596.5278

44

538.4198

44

497.3758

45

577.8479

45

589.4824

45

603.8317

45

559.9437

45

516.1203

46

584.3762

46

579.1406

46

615.4662

46

559.6205

46

514.8922

47

565.1146

47

608.9379

47

631.3667

47

561.3657

47

551.8641

48

557.3582

48

617.4053

48

657.6737

48

574.81

48

539.2601

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065 49

553.1569

49

632.2716

49

654.9589

49

589.2885

49

537.0624

50

587.7373

50

622.8994

50

661.6165

50

596.4631

50

557.0997

51

589.9995

51

633.1119

51

672.4754

51

613.01

51

567.8293

52

570.4794

52

642.0963

52

719.4013

52

606.0939

52

570.0916

53

603.5731

53

661.6165

53

694.8395

53

617.0175

53

582.2432

54

583.5359

54

675.4486

54

712.2266

54

633.629

54

589.8702

55

615.2723

55

680.4256

55

709.7705

55

630.7203

55

599.4364

56

605.2537

56

695.809

56

717.0097

56

639.9633

56

635.1802

57

614.432

57

693.2236

57

736.9177

57

653.0198

57

621.542

58

654.3772

58

690.7028

58

734.3969

58

652.8259

58

636.7962

59

674.3498

59

704.2764

59

739.7617

59

653.5369

59

643.2598

60

691.1552

60

729.6784

60

756.1146

60

659.9359

60

651.921

10% Trial 3

5% Trial 3

2.5% Trial 3

1.25% Trial 3

0.625% Trial 3

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

0

2.779358

0

2.391541

0

3.490356

0

23.26904

0

4.4599

1

24.69104

1

23.26904

1

21.32996

1

22.94586

1

12.79797

2

69.48395

2

22.88123

2

24.36786

2

22.10559

2

20.29578

3

186.4109

3

38.07074

3

48.41254

3

149.9561

3

319.7554

4

225.128

4

171.4799

4

121.9686

4

215.9496

4

330.0972

5

215.3679

5

241.6749

5

112.4024

5

213.8813

5

325.3142

6

228.2305

6

225.9683

6

113.2427

6

216.3375

6

322.0177

7

215.4972

7

237.2796

7

271.9246

7

236.8918

7

294.2241

8

217.1131

8

274.8333

8

266.2366

8

258.2217

8

319.9493

9

223.4475

9

327.124

9

268.6282

9

286.0153

9

384.4563

10

250.1422

10

337.0133

10

260.1608

10

301.9805

10

353.5602

11

261.0011

11

360.7348

11

300.8817

11

314.7138

11

365.3886

12

271.7307

12

391.5017

12

285.4336

12

336.3023

12

353.4955

13

275.8674

13

459.6282

13

322.3409

13

356.081

13

383.8746

14

284.2055

14

525.7511

14

307.0867

14

370.8827

14

375.0194

15

320.6603

15

590.2581

15

317.8163

15

380.3842

15

413.2841

16

331.5192

16

560.4608

16

355.9517

16

397.9006

16

404.5582

17

316.2651

17

573.6466

17

378.9622

17

410.634

17

412.056

18

324.0214

18

608.8087

18

361.3165

18

424.4661

18

436.8763

19

351.9443

19

615.854

19

402.6837

19

445.2144

19

432.2225

20

342.9598

20

592.1325

20

367.7802

20

451.4194

20

447.9291

21

355.8871

21

608.6794

21

398.3531

21

464.7345

21

422.721

22

355.1115

22

616.1772

22

394.0871

22

477.9849

22

473.2019

23

388.4638

23

657.0919

23

403.7179

23

501.1247

23

457.1074

24

384.7148

24

703.1776

24

404.1057

24

516.1203

24

482.9619

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065 25

422.0746

25

702.7251

25

445.4729

25

522.5193

25

489.1024

26

412.4438

26

712.8084

26

467.2553

26

537.4503

26

487.5511

27

427.4394

27

707.2496

27

454.1342

27

551.9934

27

513.4056

28

433.6445

28

700.3336

28

495.3721

28

578.1711

28

526.3328

29

468.548

29

739.5678

29

492.722

29

592.7142

29

527.7548

30

458.3355

30

751.7194

30

539.5833

30

605.4476

30

518.5118

31

459.0465

31

780.2886

31

564.0158

31

623.0933

31

514.4398

32

477.7264

32

791.2767

32

523.6181

32

631.3667

32

520.8388

33

490.7183

33

833.2903

33

593.2313

33

636.6022

33

529.2415

34

503.9687

34

812.4774

34

590.9691

34

651.1454

34

536.8685

35

505.0029

35

801.4893

35

568.2171

35

656.3163

35

546.8872

36

518.5118

36

831.2866

36

629.4276

36

668.985

36

570.2208

37

531.1159

37

845.3773

37

588.0604

37

682.5586

37

578.9467

38

533.6367

38

862.0534

38

650.6283

38

699.4933

38

587.9958

39

568.411

39

875.4978

39

636.3437

39

714.2304

39

607.7745

40

558.3278

40

898.8314

40

607.1281

40

724.8953

40

610.877

41

574.9393

41

900.8998

41

670.5363

41

738.9214

41

615.4662

42

565.3085

42

891.5922

42

637.895

42

744.8033

42

623.3518

43

600.212

43

914.2149

43

640.1572

43

755.2744

43

626.1958

44

583.5359

44

917.4467

44

624.9031

44

768.137

44

627.0361

45

609.5197

45

941.4267

45

665.0422

45

776.3458

45

634.4692

46

607.3867

46

955.1942

46

718.6903

46

789.5962

46

647.3319

47

621.4127

47

983.4403

47

753.8524

47

809.6334

47

662.6506

48

629.5569

48

974.2619

48

729.2906

48

814.6104

48

665.3007

49

673.8973

49

970.4484

49

724.6368

49

828.7011

49

670.0838

50

655.4114

50

1011.816

50

747.7766

50

842.4686

50

676.6121

51

648.8831

51

1010.07

51

752.5596

51

851.9055

51

686.5014

52

675.6425

52

1013.173

52

743.1228

52

860.7607

52

693.2236

53

673.0571

53

1069.859

53

712.4852

53

870.5854

53

708.8009

54

679.3914

54

1055.768

54

754.8865

54

889.3299

54

716.5573

55

687.2124

55

1058.741

55

766.715

55

900.0595

55

727.4161

56

692.8358

56

1084.855

56

753.0121

56

912.5343

56

727.8686

57

694.8395

57

1115.492

57

786.8168

57

928.758

57

734.6554

58

723.2148

58

1101.918

58

859.0802

58

935.9326

58

743.963

59

739.5678

59

1120.017

59

830.317

59

944.4

59

764.4527

60

750.2327

60

1142.769

60

776.7336

60

959.3956

60

767.426

Seung Soo (Jason) Lee 002213-065

Control (No Glucose Added) Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

Time (s)

Con.(μS/cm)

0

15.8359

31

536.222

1

105.874

32

544.56

2

144.462

33

551.993

3

167.472

34

566.601

4

181.692

35

578.947

5

202.053

36

581.08

6

221.379

37

590.064

7

233.789

38

599.307

8

245.682

39

620.702

9

265.59

40

624.386

10

278.453

41

634.469

11

294.677

42

641.256

12

312.581

43

646.879

13

316.394

44

656.187

14

341.344

45

668.403

15

358.537

46

685.079

16

363.32

47

700.98

17

373.727

48

706.409

18

385.555

49

717.527

19

404.429

50

730.196

20

424.337

51

741.765

21

422.204

52

754.693

22

434.614

53

770.722

23

443.857

54

777.962

24

458.659

55

789.208

25

469.776

56

800.326

26

479.859

57

811.443

27

489.232

58

809.246

28

503.904

59

806.854

29

511.854

60

817.519

30

530.082

Glucose diffusion experiment

Glucose diffusion experiment