Foreign Exchange Operation of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited
Introduction As an Islamic Bank the statutes, rules and regulations of Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. expressly state its commitment to the principles ofâ€? Islamic Shariahâ€?. All its activities are conducted on interest free system according to Islamic Shariah. So it extends its socioeconomic and financial services to the poor helpless and low-income people for their economic upliftment in urban and rural areas. Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. is more concerned with the soundness of the project and the business acumen and managerial competence of the entrepreneur than credit worthiness of the borrower. An Islamic bank is a financial institution that operates with the objective to implement and materialize the economic and financial principles of Islam in the banking arena.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY For an expanding economy, a developed and efficient banking system is indispensable. Among others, it helps transfer of financial resources from surplus units to deficit units and, hence, helps accelerate the pace of development by securing uninterrupted supply of financial resources to people engaged in numerous economic activities. The tremendous development that the world economy has experienced in the last few decades was contributed by several factors among which, growing institutional supply of loan able funds must have played the pivotal role. The role of banking is comparable to what an artery system does in the human body. Both commercial banks and other development financial institutions provide shortterm, medium-term, and long-term credits to businessmen and entrepreneurs who usually take the lead in ventures of economic development. Institutional supply of credit has been made possible by a system of financial intermediation organized in a way where conventional banks collect small savings from the public by offering them a fixed rate of interest and
advancing the loan able funds out of the deposited money to enterprising clients charging relatively higher rates of interest. The margin between these two rates is the bank's income. In addition, banks also provide many other services to the public for which it receives service charges. For millions of Muslims, traditional banks are institutions to be avoided. Islam is a religion, which keeps believers from the teller's window. Their Islamic beliefs prevent them from dealings that involve usury or interest (Riba). Yet Muslims need banking services as much as anyone and for many purposes: to finance new business ventures, to buy a house, to buy a car, to facilitate capital investment, to undertake trading activities, and to offer a safe place for savings. For Muslims are not averse to legitimate profit as Islam encourages people to use money in Islamic legitimate ventures, not just to keep their funds idle. However, in this fast moving world, more than 1400 years after the Prophet (Sm), can Muslims find room for the principles of their religion? The answer comes with the fact that a global network of Islamic banks, investment houses and other financial institutions has started to take shape based on the principles of Islamic finance laid down in the Qur'an and the Prophet's traditions 14 centuries ago. Islamic Banking beyond the traditional banking system will serve the purpose of Islamic ideology of ‘complete code of life’. One could conclude that Islam has many universal values in common with the west. As Islam believes the earlier scriptures in its original form were from the same God (Allah), this is not surprising. However, the specific prohibition of interest and establishment of the zakat tax, and the status of law on gambling, uncertain contracts etc. which are prohibitions and not moral exhortations, implies that the objectives of banking in Islam is different from conventional and even to a certain extent social and environmental investment. Thus, there is a need for an Islamic investment system in the Banking arena.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY My study serves some specific objectives, among those the main objectives are mentioned below: • To understand the Islamic Banking system of Bangladesh and its policies & regulations;
To understand and analyze foreign exchange mechanism of Islami bank.
To understand and analyze foreign remittance role of IBBL .
To make possible suggestions and recommendations for increasing foreign Exchange
through Islami bank Bangladesh Ltd.
1.3 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY The study is performed based on the information extracted from different sources collected by using a specific methodology. This report is analytical in nature. Population: All the Branches of IBBL located in everywhere in Bangladesh has been taken into consideration as population. Sample: Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd, Dhanmondi Branch. Data collection: Sources of data of this report can be divided into two categories: Primary Sources: •
Face to Face conversation with the respective officers, staffs, clients.
Interviewing officers and staffs.
Sharing practical knowledge of officials.
Relevant file study provided by the officers concerned.
In-depth study of selected cases.
Practical desk work.
Secondary Sources: •
Annual Report of IBBL-2008
Website of IBBL
Internet and various study selected reports.
Relevant books, Research papers, Newspapers and Journals.
Library of IBTRA.
1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY High degree of involvement regarding collection of information, review of literature and analysis of information requires for any kind of research work. This study has suffered from certain constraints noted below: •
Unpublished data have not considered for the study.
The depth of the analysis has been limited to the extent of information collected from different sources.
Last of all, this study has been conducted within a limited time. So, time constraint has played a key role for the whole study.
Lack of cooperation of the respondents.
Lack of enough knowledge to study on.
CHAPTER TWO Organizational Overview 2.1 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF IBBL Executive President (EP) Deputy Executive President (DEP) Executive Vice President ( EVP) Senior Vice President (SVP) Vice President (VP) Senior Principal Officer (SPO) Assistant Vice President (AVP) Principal Officer (PO) Senior Officer (SO) Officer Probationary Officer Assistant Officer Grade - I Assistant Officer Grade - II Assistant Officer Grade - III
EXCHANGE BRANCH OF IBBL General Banking Foreign Exchange Investment Cash Import Export Remittances Import Foreign Exchange Branch
2.3 OVERALL ACTIVITIES OF ISLAMI BANK BANGLADESH LTD. MEANING
Islamic banking has been defined in a number of ways. The definition of Islamic bank, as approved by the General Secretariat of the OIC, is stated in the following manner. “An Islamic bank is a financial institution whose status, rules and procedures expressly state its commitment to the principle of Islamic Shariah and to the banning of the receipt and payment of interest on any of its operations”(Ali & Sarkar 1995, pp.20-25). Shawki Ismail Shehta viewing the concept from the perspective of an Islamic economy and the prospective role to be played by an Islamic bank therein opines: “It is, therefore, natural and, indeed, imperative for an Islamic bank to incorporate in its functions and practices commercial investment and social activities, as an institution designed to promote the civilized mission of an Islamic economy” (Ibid). Ziauddin Ahmed says, “Islamic banking is essentially a normative concept and could be defined as conduct of banking in consonance with the ethos of the value system of Islam” (Ibid).
It appears from the above definitions that Islamic banking is a system of financial intermediation that avoids receipt and payment of interest in its transactions and conducts its operations in a way that it helps achieve the objectives of an Islamic economy. Alternatively, this is a banking system whose operation is based on Islamic principles of transactions of which profit and loss sharing (PLS) is a major feature, ensuring justice and equity in the economy. That is why Islamic banks are often known as PLS-banks.
2.4 OBJECTIVES OF ISLAMIC BANKING The primary objective of establishing Islamic banks all over the world is to promote, foster and develop the application of Islamic principles in the business sector.
The objectives of Islami Bank are: 6
To conduct interest-free banking.
To establish participatory banking instead of banking on debtor-creditor relationship.
To invest on profit and risk sharing basis.
To accept deposits on Mudaraba & Al-Wadeah basis.
To establish a welfare-oriented banking system.
To extend co-operation to the poor, the helpless and the low-income group for their economic upliftment.
To play a vital role in human development and employment generation.
To contribute towards balanced growth and development of the country through investment operations particularly in the less developed areas.
To contribute in achieving the ultimate goal of Islamic economic system. 2.5 DISTINGUISHING
FEATURES OF ISLAMIC
An Islamic bank has several distinctive features as compared to its conventional counterpart. Chapra (1985, PP.154-57) has outlined six essential differences as below:
ABOLITION OF INTEREST (RIBA) Since Riba is prohibited in the Quran and interest in all its forms is akin to Riba, as confirmed by Fuqaha and Muslim economists with rare exceptions, the first distinguishing feature of an Islamic bank must be that it is interest-free.
ADHERENCE TO PUBLIC INTEREST Activity of commercial banks being primarily based on the use of public funds, public interest rather than individual or group interest will be served by Islamic commercial banks. The Islamic banks should use all deposits, which come from the public for serving public interest and realizing the relevant socio-economic goals of Islam. They should play a goaloriented rather than merely a profit-maximizing role and should adjust themselves to the different needs of the Islamic economy.
MULTI-PURPOSE BANK Another substantial distinguishing feature is that Islamic banks will be universal or multipurpose banks and not purely commercial banks. These banks are conceived to be a
crossbreed of commercial and investment banks, investment trusts and investment -management institutions, and would offer a variety of services to their customers. A substantial part of their financing would be for specific projects or ventures. Their equityoriented investments would not permit them to borrow short-term funds and lend to longterm investments. This should make them less crisis-prone compared to their capitalist counterparts, since they would have to make a greater effort to match the maturity of their liabilities with the maturity of their assets.
MORE CAREFUL EVALUATION OF INVESTMENT DEMAND Another very important feature of an Islamic bank is its very careful attitude towards evaluation of applications for equity oriented financing. It is customary that conventional banks evaluate applications, consider collateral and avoid risk as much as possible. Their main concern does not go beyond ensuring the security of their principal and interest receipts. Since the Islamic bank has a built in mechanism of risk sharing, it would need to be more careful in how it evaluates financing requests. It adds a healthy dimension in the whole lending business and eliminates a whole range of undesirable lending practices.
WORK AS CATALYST OF DEVELOPMENT Profit-loss sharing being a distinctive characteristic of an Islamic bank fosters closer relations between banks and entrepreneurs. It helps develop financial expertise in non-financial firms and also enables the bank to assume the role of technical consultant and financial adviser, which acts as catalyst in the process of industrialization and development. 2.6 CONVENTIONAL
ISLAMIC BANKING :
Conventional banking is essentially based on the debtor-creditor relationship between the depositors and the bank on the one hand, and between the borrowers and the bank on the other. Interest is considered to be the price of credit, reflecting the opportunity cost of money. Islam, on the other hand, considers a loan to be given or taken, free of charge, to meet any contingency. Thus in Islamic Banking, the creditor should not take advantage of the borrower.
1. The functions and operating modes of 1. The functions and operating modes of 8
conventional banks are based on manmade Islamic banks are based on the principles of principles. 2. The investor
predetermined rate of interest.
Islamic Shariah. a 2. In contrast, it promotes risk sharing between provider of capital (investor) and
the user of funds (entrepreneur). 3. It aims at maximizing profit without any 3. It also aims at maximizing profit but restriction. 4. It does not deal with Zakat.
subject to Shariah restrictions. 4. In the modern Islamic banking system, it has become one of the service-oriented functions of the Islamic banks to collect
and distribute Zakat. 5. Lending money and getting it back with 5. Participation in partnership business is interest is the fundamental function of the the fundamental function of the Islamic conventional banks. banks. 6. Its scope of activities is narrower when 6. Its scope of activities is wider when compared with an Islamic bank. 7.
compared with a conventional bank. It is, in effect, a multi-purpose institution. money 7. The Islamic banks have no provision to
(compound rate of interest) in case of charge
defaulters. defaulters. 8. In it very often, bankâ€™s own interest 8. It gives due importance to the public becomes prominent. It makes no effort to interest. Its ultimate aim is to ensure ensure growth with equity. growth with equity. 9. For interest-based commercial banks, 9. For the Islamic
borrowing from the money market is comparatively difficult to borrow money relatively easier. from the money market. 10. Since income from the advances is 10. Since it shares profit and loss, the fixed,
to Islamic banks pay greater attention to
developing expertise in project appraisal developing
and evaluations. evaluations. 11. The conventional banks give greater 11. The Islamic banks, on the other hand, emphasis on credit-worthiness of the give greater emphasis on the viability of clients. the projects. 12. The status of a conventional bank, in 12. The status of Islamic bank in relation to relation to its clients, is that of creditor and its clients is that of partners, investors and
debtors. trader. 13. A conventional bank has to guarantee 13. Strictly speaking, and Islamic bank all its deposits.
cannot do that.
RIBA AND ITS BASIC FEATURES :
The word used by the Quran concerning ‘interest’ is Riba. The literal meanings of Riba are money increase, increase of anything or increment of anything from its original amount (Maududi 1979, p.84). However, all increases are not considered as Riba in Islam. Money may increase in business activities as well. This increase is not at all considered as Riba. The increase, instead of being prohibited (Haram), is approved (Halal) in Islam. Islam prohibits only those increases that are charged on the loan with a prefixed rate.
Muslim scholars equate interest with Riba. In the Shariah, Riba technically refers to the premium that must be paid by the borrower to the lender along with the principal amount as a condition for the loan or for an extension in its maturity (Chapra 1985, p.64). In other words, Riba is the predetermined return on the use of money. In the past there has been dispute about whether Riba refers to interest or usury, but there is now consensus among Muslim scholars that the term covers all forms of interest and not only “excessive” interest (Khan 1985, p.52). Its basic characteristics are: •
It must be related to loan;
A prefixed amount of money to be paid when due;
A time is fixed for the repayment; and
All these elements for repayment are taken as conditions for loan.
There are persons who try to equate Riba with profit. In effect, they are fundamentally differences are:
1. When money is “charged”, its imposed1. When money is used in trading (for e.g.) its positive and define result is Riba 10
uncertain result is profit.
2. By definition, Riba is the premium paid by 2. By definition, profit is the difference the borrower to the lender along with principalbetween the value of production and the cost of amount as a condition for the loan.
3. Riba is prefixed, and hence there is no 3. Profit is post-determined, and hence its uncertainty on the part of either the givers oramount is not known until the activity is done. the takers of loans. 4. Riba can not be negative, it can at best be 4. Profit can be positive, zero or even negative. very low or zero. 5. From Islamic Shariah point of view, it is5. From Islamic Shariah point of view, it is Haram.
CHAPTER - 3 Foreign Exchange Mechanism of IBBL 3.1 Foreign Exchange definition INTRODUCTION Foreign trade can be easily defended as a business activity, which transcends national boundaries. These may be between parties or governments. Trades among nations are a common occurrence and normally benefits both the exporter and importer in many countries international trade accounts for more than 20 % of their national incomes. Foreign trade can usually be justified on the principle of comparative advantage according to this economic principle. It is economically profitable for a country to specialize in the production of that commodity in which the producer country has the greater comparative advantage and to allow the other country to produce that commodity in which it has the lesser comparative advantage. It includes the spectrum of goods services, investment, technology transfer etc. this trade among various countries pauses for close linkage between the parties dealing with trade. The bank, which provides such transactional trade, demands a few of goods from seller to buyer and of payment form buyer to seller. And this flow of goods and payment are done through letter of credit (L/C).
FOREIGN EXCHANGE As more than one currency are involved in foreign trade, it gives rise to exchange of currencies which is known as foreign exchange. The term â€œForeign Exchange `has three principal meanings. Firstly, it is a term used referring to the currencies of the other countries in terms of any single one currency. To a Bangladeshi, Dhaka, pound sterling etc. are foreign currencies and as such foreign exchange. Secondly, the term also commonly refers to some instruments used in international trade, such as Bill of Exchange Drafts, Traveler cheek and other means of international remittance. Thirdly, the term foreign exchange is also quite often referred to the balance in foreign currencies held by a country. In terms of section 2(d) of the foreign exchange regulations 1947, is adopted in Bangladesh. Foreign exchange means foreign currency and includes any instrument drawn accepted made or issued under clause (13) of article 16 of the Bangladesh Bank order 1972, all the deposits, credits and balances payable in any foreign currency and draft check, letter of credit and bill of exchange expressed or drawn in Bangladesh currency but payable in any foreign countries. In exercise of the power conferred by section 3 of the foreign exchange regulation, 1947 Bangladesh Bank issues license to schedule Bank to deal with exchange. These banks are known as Authorized Dealers. Licenses are also issued by Bangladesh Bank to person or firms to exchange foreign currency instruments such as T.C. Currency notes and coins. They are known as Authorized Money changers.
3.2 FUNCTIONS OF
FOREIGN EXCHANGE DEPARTMENT
Exports: 1. Pre shipment advanced. 2. Purchase of foreign bills. 3. Negotiating of foreign bills. 4. Export guarantees. 5. Advising / confirming letters â€“ letters of credit. 6. Advance for deferred payments exports. 7. Advance against bills for collection. Imports: 1. Opening of letter of credit. 12
2. Advance bills. 3. Bills for collection. 4. Import loans and guarantees. Remittances: 1. Issue of DD, MT, TT etc. 2. Payment of DD, MT, TT etc. 3. Issue and enhancement of travelers check. 4. Sale and enhancement of foreign currency notes
3.3 THE MOST COMMONLY USED DOCUMENTS IN FOREIGN EXCHANGE •
Documentary Letter of Credit.
Bill of exchange.
Bill of Lading.
Certificate of Origin of Goods.
Pro- forma Invoice / Indent.
DOCUMENTARY CREDIT In simple terms a documentary credit is a conditional bank undertaking of payment. Expressed more fully, it is a written undertaking by a bank (issuing bank) given to seller (beneficiary). At the request, and in accordance with the instructions of the buyer (applicant) to effect payment (that is, by making a payment, or accepting or negotiating bill of exchange) up to a stated sum of money, with in a prescribe time limit and against stipulated documents. The Customary Clauses Contain in a L/c is as followings: •
A clause authorizing the beneficiary to draw bills of exchange up to a certain limit.
List of shipping documents, which are to accompany the bills.
Description of the goods to be shipped. An undertaking by the opening bank that bills drawn in accordance with the conditions will be dully honored.
Instructions to the negotiating bank for obtaining reimbursement of payments under the credit.
Parties to letter of Credit The parties to L/C are: 1. Importer/ buyer 2. Opening Bank / Issuing Bank 3. Exporter /seller / Beneficiary 4. Advising Bank /Notifying Bank 5. Negotiating bank 6. Confirming Bank 7. Paying /reimbursing bank
BILL OF LADING A bill of lading is a document that is usually stipulated in a credit when the goods are dispatched by sea. It is evidence of a contract of carriage, is a receipt for the goods, and is a document of tile to the goods. It also constituted a document that is, or may be, needed to support insurance.
COMMERCIAL INVOICE A Commercial invoice is the accounting document by which the seller charges the goods to the buyer a commercial invoice normally includes, the following information: 1. Date 2. Name and address of the buyer and seller 3. Order of contract number, quantity and description of the goods. Unit price and the total price 4. Weight of the goods, number of the package, shipping marks and numbers. 5. Terms of delivery and payment 6. Shipment details
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN 14
A certificate of origin is a signed statement providing evidence of the origin of the goods.
INSPECTION CERTIFICATE This is usually issued by an independent inspection company located in the exporting country certifying or describing the quality, specification or other aspects of the goods, as called for in the contract and the L/C. The inspection company is usually nominated by the buyer who indicates the types of inspection what he/she wishes to undertake by the inspection company.
INSURANCE CERTIFICATE The insurance certificate document must 1. Be that specified in the credit; 2. Cover the risk specified in the credit; 3. Be consistent with the other documents in its identification of the voyage and description of the goods. 3.4
IMPORT Import is foreign goods and services purchased by consumers, Firms and government in Bangladesh. An importer must have Import Registration Certificate (IRC) given by Chief controller of Import and Exports (CCI & L) to import any thing from other country. To obtain IRC the following certificates are required:1. Trade license 2. Income tax certificate 3. Nationally certificate 4. Banks solvency certificate 5. Asset certificate 6. Registration partnership deed (if any) 7. Memorandum and article of association 8. Certificate of incorporation (if any) 9. Rent receipt of the business premises
To import through Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. Ltd. (RBL) a customer requires: 1. Bank Account 2. Import registration certificate 3. Tax paying identification number 4. Pro forma invoice/indent 5. Membership certificate 6. L/C application form duly attested 7. Insurance cover note with money receipt 8. Others
Importer’s application for L/C limit/margin To have an import L/C limit, an application to the department of RBL furnishing the following information. 1. Full particulars of bank account. 2. Natural of business 3. Required amount of limit 4. Payment terms and condition 5. Goods to be imported 6. Offered security 7. Repayment schedule A credit officer scrutinizes this application and accordingly prepares a proposal CLP and forwards it to the Head Office Credit Committee (HOCC). The committee, if satisfied, sanctions the limit and returns band to the branch. Thus, the importer is entitled or the limit.
OPENING OF LETTER OF CREDIT BY BANKS Opening of letter of credit means, at the request of the applicant (importer), issuance of a L/C in favor of the beneficiary (exporter) by a bank. The band, which open or issue L/C is called L/C opening bank or issuing bank. On receipt of the importer’s L/C application supported by the firm’s contract (indent/proforma invoice) and insurance cover note, the bank scrutinize the same thoroughly and fix up a margin on the basis of banker-customer relationship
Before opening L/C, the issuing bank must check the followings: 1. L/C application properly stamped, signature verified and margin approved and properly retained. 2. Indent/pro-forma invoice signed by the importer and indenter/supplier. 3. Ensure that the relevant particulars of L/C application correspond with those stipulated in indenter/pro-forma invoice. 4. Validity of LCA entitlement of goods, amount etc. conforms to the L/C application. 5. Conversion and rate of exchange correctly applied. 6. Charges like commission, Foreign Currency Charges (F.C.C), postage, telex charges if any recovered. 7. Insurance cover note in the name of issuing bank covering required risks and voyage route. 8. Incorporation of instruction for negotiating bank as per banks existing arrangement. 9. Reimbursement instructions for reimbursing bank. 10. If foreign banks confirmation is required, necessary permission should be obtained and accordingly advising bank is advised as per banks existing arrangement. 11. If add confirmation is required on behalf of the applicant charges will be recovered form the applicant.
LIABILITY OF ISSUING BANK As per article 9(a) of university customs and practice for documentary credit (UCPDC) 500, an irrevocable credit constitute a definite undertaking of the issuing bank, provided that the stipulated documents comply with the terms and conditions of the credit. ADVISING OF LETTER OF CREDIT: Advising means forwarding of a documentary letter of credit received from the issuing bank to the beneficiary. ADDING CONFIRMATION: The confirming bank does the confirmation. Confirming bank is a bank, which adds its confirmation to the credit and it is done at the request of the issuing bank. The confirming bank, May or May not advising usually, does not do it if there is not a prior arrangement with the issuing bank. By being involved as a confirming agent, the advising bank undertakes to negotiate beneficiaryâ€™s bill without recourse to him.
Before confirming, it has to observe followings:
a) L/C is issued and there is a request to add confirmation b) Review the L/C terms c) Provide reimbursement d) Drafts to be drawn on L/C opening bank e) Availability of credit facilities f) Line allocation from the business and ownership units in the importerâ€™s country
g) Confirm and advise L/C SETTLEMENT OF LETTER OF CREDIT Settlement means fulfillment of issuing bank in regard to affecting payment subject to satisfying the credit terms. Settlement may be done under three separate arrangements as stipulated I the credit.
SETTLEMENT BY PAYMENT Here the seller presents the documents to the nominated bank and the bank scrutinizes the documents. If satisfied, the nominated bank makes payment to the beneficiary and in case, this bank is other than the issuing bank, it sends the documents to the issuing bank and claim reimbursement as par arrangement.
SETTLEMENT BY ACCEPTANCE Settlement in this arrangement, the seller submits the documents evidencing the shipment to the accepting bank (nominated by the issuing bank for acceptance) accompanied by draft down on the bank at the specified tenor.
SETTLEMENT BY NEGOTIATION This settlement procedure stars with the submission of documents by the seller to the negotiation restricted by the issuing bank, only nominated bank can negotiate the documents. A factor scrutinizing that the documents meet the credit requirement, the bank may negotiate the documents and give value to the beneficiary. The negotiating bank then sends the
documents to the issuing bank. As usual, reimbursement will be obtained in the pre agreed manner.
PAYMENT PROCEDURE OF THE IMPORT DOCUMENTS This is the most sensitive task of the import department. The officials have to be very much careful while making payment. The task constitutes the following â€“
Date of payment: Usually payment is made within 7 days after the documents
have been received. If the payment is become deferred, the negotiating bank may claim interest for making delay.
Preparing sale memo: A sale memo is made at BC rate to the customer. As the
T.T and OD rate is paid to the ID, the difference between these two rates is exchange trading. Finally, an inter branch exchange trading advice is sent to ID.
Requisition for the foreign currency: For arranging necessary fund for
payment, a requisition is sent to the international department.
Transmission of telex: A telex is transmission to the correspondent to the
correspond bank ensuring that payment is being made. 3.5
EXPORT Practically by the term exports we mean carrying of anything form one country to another. Being banker, we defined export as sending of visible things outside the country for sale. Export trade plays a vital role in the development process of an economy. All though export trade is always encouraged any body cannot export anything to any place. Exporter trade is required to get him registered before entering export business. Export Registration Certificate (ERC) given by CCI & E is required for this purpose. The required documents to obtain ERC are almost same as IRC. When a bank (authorized dealer) receives a L/C (enable or original) it ascertains the correctness of the test number and the authorized signature. Then the bank sends the original copy of the L/C to the beneficiary.
The exporter presents the relative documents to the negotiation bank after the shipment of the goods. The L/C issuing bank undertakes to honor obligation only if the beneficiary fulfills the conditions stipulated in the L/C, may namely, the submission of stipulated documents within the stipulated time. The following types of discrepancies may be noted while the negotiating bank examines the documents:1.
Date of shipment
Amount drown in excess of the L/C
Bill of exchange not properly drawn
Descriptions of goods deviate
Bill of lading or airway billâ€™s anomaly
Bill of lading classed
Insurance cover notes as per terms of L/C
Insurance obtained after the bill of lading or airway bill date
Enough number of copies not submitted as required by L/C.
Negotiation under L/C restrained
Packing list and certificate of analysis not as per terms of L/C.
Documents not properly endorsed in favor of the bank
Full shipment not effective and part shipment prohibited
Gross weight and net weight shown in deferent documents differ
Documents required by L/C are not submitted
Documents inadequately stamped.
Documents with major discrepancies, which could not be negotiated, should be sent on collection basis with the permission of the exporter.
EXPORT PROCEDURE The import and export trade in our country are regulated by imports and exports (Control) Act, 1950. Under the export policy of Bangladesh the exporter has to get the valid export registration certificate (ERC) from chief controller of import and export (CCI and E). The ERC is required to renew every year. The ERC number is to be incorporated on EXP forms and other papers commented with export. 20
REGISTRATION OF EXPORTERS: For obtaining ERC Bangladesh exporters are required to apply to the controller, joint controller/ deputy controller / Assistant controller of imports and export at Dhaka/ Chittagong / Khulna / Mymensing / Barisal / Rangpur / Dinajpur in the prescribed form along with the following documents: 1. Nationality and asserts certificate 2. Memorandum and Articles of Association and certificate of incorporation in case of limited company 3. Bank certificate 4. Income tax certificate 5. Trade license etc. SECURING OF ORDER: After getting the ERC the exporter may proceed to secure the export order. He can do this by contacting the buyers directly or through agent. SIGNING THE CONTRACT: After communicating with buyer, has to get contracted (writing) for exporting exportable items form Bangladesh detailing commodity, quantity, price, shipment, insurance and marks, inspection arbitration etc. RECEIVING LETTER OF CREDIT: After contract for sale, exporter should ask his buyer for letter of credit clearly stating terms and conditions of export and payment.
PROCURING THE MATERIALS Then the exporter should take the preparation for making arrangement for delivery of goods as per L/C and INCO- terms, prepare and submit shipping documents for payment/ acceptance/negotiation in due time: •
Customers duty certificate
Bills of exchange (if required)
Certificate of origin
Inspection of certificate
Quality control certificate
Quality control certificate
Photo sanitary certificate
FINAL STEPS After those exporter submits all these documents along with a letter of indemnity to RBL for negotiation. An officer scrutinizes all the documents. If the documents is a clear one RBI will purchase the documents on the basis of banker customer relationship. This is knows as foreign document bill purchase (FDBP). EXPORT BILL SECURITY SHEET: Scrutinizes the export bill on the following points: A. General: •
Partial shipment or trans shipment
B. Bill of exchange:
Amount of bill differs with invoice
Not draw on L/C issuing bank
Tenor of B/E not submitted
Full set not submitted
Not issue by the beneficiary
Not made out the name of the applicant
Description, price, quality, sales terms of the goods not correspond to the
Not market one fold as original
Shipping marks differs with B/L and packing first
C. Packing list: Gross weight, net weight and measurement, number of cartoons/ packages
differs with B/L •
Not marked one fold as original
Not signed by the beneficiary
Shipping marks differs with B/L
D. Bill of lading / Airway bill:
Full set of bill not submitted
B/L is not drawn or endorsed
Shipment board, fright prepaid, freight collect, etc notations are not marked on the B/L B/L not indicated the name and capacity of the party, i.e. carrier or master,
on whose behalf the agent is signing the B/L •
Shipped on board notion not showing port of loading and vessel name
Shipping on board notation not showing port of loading and vessel name
Short form B/L
Chapter party B/L
Description of goods in B/L not agree with that of invoice, B/L and P/L
Alternative in B/L not authenticated
Loaded on deck
B/L bearing clauses or notations expressly declaring defective condition of the goods and packages.
E. Others •
Non negotiable documents not forwarded to buying or forwarded beyond L/C terms
Inadequate number of invoice, packing list and others submitted
Short shipment certificate not submitted.
SETTLEMENT OF LOCAL BILL The settlement of local bills is done in the following ways: •
The customer submits the L/C to Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. Along with the documents to negotiate.
Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. Official scrutinizes the documents to ensure the conformity with the terms and conditions.
The documents are then forwarded to the L/C opening bank.
The L/C issuing bank gives the acceptance and forward an acceptance letter
Payment is given to the customer on either by collection basis on by purchasing the document.
Mode of payment of exports bills under L/C: The most common methods of payment under a L/C are as follows: 1. Sight payment credit: In a sight payment credit, the pays the stipulated sum immediately against the exporter’s presentation of the documents. 2. Negotiation credit : In negotiation credit, the exporter has to present a bill of exchange payable to him in addition to other documents, i.e. the bank negotiation 3. Deferred payment credit: In deferred payment, the agrees to pay on a specified future date or event, after presentation of the export documents. No bill of exchange is involved. In MBI, payment is given to party at the rate of D.A .But the head office is paid at T.T clear rate. The difference between the two rates is the exchange trading for the branch. 4. Acceptance credit: In acceptance credit, the exporter presents hall of exchange payable to him and drawn at the agreed tenor (that is on a specified future date event) on the bank that is to accept it. Bank signs its accept on the bill returns to the exporter.
3.6 Remittance Meaning of Remittance
The word “Remittance” originates from the word “remit” which means to transmit money/ fund. In banking terminology, the work “remittance means transfer of fund one place to another. When money transferred from one country to another is called “Foreign Remittance”
Types of Remittance Foreign remittance may be classified into.
Inward Foreign Remittance.
Outward Foreign Remittance.
Expatriates working in other countries
Foreign national residing in Bangladesh
Export proceeds coming to us/exporter
Aid or donation
International organization or donarcountries
Direct foreign investment
Officials/personnel working in foreign consulate
Interest/ dividend receipt from investment
Sales proceed/ turn down business
Procedures Remittance can be received through the following process•
Web based payment system (Xpress money, Money gram, Placid Express, EZ remit, IME, Merchantrade , remit master, turbo cash,Al-Ansari express)
TT received from IBW
Foreign demand draft
3.7 BACK TO BACK LETTER OF CREDIT A back-to-back letter of credit is a new credit. It is different form the original credit based on which the bank undertakes the risk under back to back credit, in this case, the bank’s main security is original credit.
The original credit and the back-to-back credit are separate instruments independent of each of the same business operation. The supplier ships goods to the importer or supplies goods to the exporter and presents documents to the banks as is specified in the credit. In RBI papers / documents required for submission for opening of back to back L/C: •
Valid import registration and export registration
L/C application and LCA firm duly signed it
Pro forma invoice or indent
Insurance cover note with money receipt
IMP duly signed
In addition to the above the following papers documents are also required for export oriented garment industries while requesting for opening of back-to-back letter of credit-
Valid bonded warehouse license
Quota allocation letter issued by export promotion bureau (EPB) in favor of the applicant in case of quota items.
In case the factory premises is a rented one, letter of disclaimer duly executed by owner of the house / premises to be submitted.
Chapter- 4 4.1. Performance of Foreign Exchange Business of IBBL Foreign Exchange Business Islami bank Bangladesh limited has obtained a solid foundation in respect of foreign trade with in a long period of time. It’s total import, export and remittances for the year 2008 was Tk.65131000000.00. Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited has 208 branches all over the country, some of them to deal with foreign transaction including many representing branch in the world. 26
Islami bank Bangladesh limited has obtained a solid foundation in respect of foreign trade with in a long period of time. Its contributed 21.26% of total import, 23.45% of export business and 25.20% remittance of the country in 2008.
4.2The progress of IBBL at a glance Table no1.1 The progress of IBBL at a glance (Amount in Million Taka) Particulars
Paid-up Capital 317.98
Deposits( Inclu 16,873.5
Total bills 8
payable) Total Investments
(Excluding Inv 0
in Share) Gross Import
(Excluding Contra) Fixed Assets No. of deposit account holder
58,644.4 6 49,551.8 7 1,276.89 1,355,05 3
Foreign Correspondents Number
Branches Book value per Earning Share (Taka) Market
(Highest) Capital Adequacy Ratio
4.3 IMPORT BUSINESS From the very beginning the bank has embanked on foreign exchange business with a view to facilitating international trade of the country and cope with the race of Globalization. The bank has established in 1983 and performed well year to year. Letter of credit amount in Tk. 33788.00 million from import business by the IBBL. Items of Import financed by the IBBL according to the import policy except haram goods.
1.2 The year wise import as follows: Year Import
Fig: 1. 1 Performance of Import Business. Form the above figure we can see that, In 2003 The Import was 17370 million and It has been gradually increased in 33788 million in 2008.
4.4 EXPORT BUSINESS The total export business handled by the business amounted taka 18522.00 million. Export goods handled by the bank as per rules of export policy without haram goods.
1.3 The year wise export as follows : Year Export
2006 2007 16,889.00 17,525.0
2008 18522 .00
Fig: 1.2 Performance of Export Business. Form the above figure we can see that, In 2003 The export was 14469.40 million but it has been deceased to12654.00 million in 2004 and then It has been gradually increased . Now the export is 18522.00 million in 2008.
4.5 Remittance IBBL invest the remittance in the profitable sector that produce more profit for the owner of the account .It has been gradually increased .Now the Remittance is 14670.00 million in 2008.
1.5 The year wise remittance as follows: Year
Fig: 1.3 Performances of Remittance. Form the above figure we can see that In 2003 the Remittance was 4806.00 million but it has been deceased to7644 .00 million in 2006 and then It has been gradually increased .Now the Remittance is 14670.00 million in 2008.
Fig: 1.4 Performance of Import Business, export business and Remittance. Form the above figure we can see that From 2004 to 2007 the Performance of Import Business, export business and Remittance were gradually increased but in 2008 Import Business increase more faster comparison with export business and Remittance.
4.6 SWOT Analysis of IBBL Strength •
Wide Branch Network IN the Country
Islamic Shariah Based Network.
Good Financial Performance A group of honest, hard, industrious employee Well manner and antiquate. Own professional cadre at each management Strong market share Strong support of Muslim country Opening account is very easier than conventional bank. Less risky investment Allah’s help
• • • • • • • •
Weaknesses • • • •
Lack of using modern technology Limited customer service Weak management system Lack Of modern banking skill
• • •
Employee’s dissatisfaction regarding salary. Limited number of Islamic banking Traditional bureaucratic operational procedure
Opportunities • • • • •
People’s religious mentality to Islamic shariah Easy transaction system Large number of customer On-line banking. Awareness of Islamic banking.
Threat • • • • • •
Market competition is very hard. World wide economic recession. Increasing SLR by B.B . Export is less than support. Lack of branches in all over the world. Lack of coordination and cooperation among the Islamic banks.
EXCHANGE THROUGH IBBL: From
the study we have found the following findings regarding improvement of foreign
exchange business of IBBL Dhanmondi Branch: •
IBBL has contract with other bank transaction by without interest thus, it generate low profit for foreign remittance account
Most of the branches of the IBBL located in the urban area and few of them are involved with foreign exchange transaction, so most people do not know about the foreign exchange service of IBBL.
People think that Private bank is less confidential than nationalized bank in foreign exchange transaction.
Most of the people in our country have a bad impression of IBBL’s operations regarding indirect generation of interest which meaning no difference between investment of IBBL foreign remittance account, they are not too much interested to open foreign remittance account IBBL..
Because of complexities of opening foreign remittance account and procedural problem many people prefer handy to collect and send remittance.
Because of improper insufficient application of Islamic Banking rules in our country. The foreign exchange operations of IBBL can't run smoothly,
This Bank can't invest in all economic sectors, which are prohibited by the law of Islam.
The employ’s salary is less than other private bank so they are not satisfied with the bank.
Sometimes foreign exchange operations of IBBL are hampered due to increase, dishonest, indiscreet, hypocritical nature of people.
IBBL has no strong promotional activities to increase foreign exchange operations by motivate present and potential non-residents Bangladeshi.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE THROUGH
We have some recommendations for improvement of foreign exchange business of IBBL which are described below: •
IBBL should be located their branches in the important places of the rural area so that most people will know about the foreign Exchange service of IBBL
Remittance service of IBBL should be easy and flexible.
Increase of salary can motivate the employee of IBBL.
Bank should be creating such situation so that people put confidence on private bank for huge money transaction.
IBBL should sponsored
seminar and symposium to increase awareness about the
foreign Exchange service of IBBL and to remove the negative impression about it. •
IBBL should conduct strong promotional activities to increase foreign Exchange service by motivate present and potential non-residents Bangladeshi.
IBBL management body should be caution about foreign exchange operations of IBBL that are hampered due to increase, dishonest, hypocritical nature of people.
IBBL should conduct seminar about the bad effect of the Hundi that will hamper economic development of the country.
IBBL should invest the remittance in the profitable sector that will produce more profit for the owner of the account so that people will attract for foreign remittance account of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited.
Inclusion of more subjects based on the Quran and Sunnah in the training courses of the Islami bank training and research academy in Order to develop human sources having
5.3 Conclusion In conclusion we can say that IBBL was incorporated on 13 March, 1983 as a public company with a limited liability under the companies act, 1913.IBBL is the first interest free bank in South Asia. The establishment of this bank conducted new age in Bangladesh, the 3 rd largest Muslim country in the world. The bank is committed to run all its activities as per Islamic Shariah, earned the reputation of being one of the leading private sector bank of the country. Now near about 301 Islamic banking and financial institutions in about 49 countries of Asia, Africa, Europe, America and countries like Pakistan, UK, USA, Germany, Denmark, India have been established. In spite of having some limited constrains IBBL still now controlling more than 25% foreign exchange operation in our country due to their honesty and Islamic Shariah based banking transaction. Since the branches of Islami bank are increasing day by day not only in Bangladesh but also all over the world so it is undoubtly estimate that Islami bank will operate all banking sector in the world.
BIBLIOGRAPHY A text book of Banking
1. Website of Islami Bank ( WWW.islamibankbd.com ) 2. Islam and Economics Challenges 34
Dr. Umar Chapra
3. Foreign Exchange Mechanism
4. Brochure of Different Accounts of IBBL 5. Bangladesh Bank guidelines 6. Ali, M and Sarkar, A. A. (1995). “Islamic Banking: Principles and Operational Methodology”. 7. Abdallah, A. 1987. “Islamic Banking”, Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, January-March, 4(1): 31-56. 8. Abdeen, A.M. and Shook, D.N.. 1984. The Saudi Financial System, J. Wiley and Sons, Chichester. 9. Annual Report 2008; Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. 10. Jakat o Islami Bank Foundation, IBF