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Design seeks to discover and assess structural, organizational, functional, expressive and economic relationships Lynx-eyed We have to observe things with our keen-eyes. We try to notice small to smallest things in any kind of things that we are interested in, so that we make the work more effective and informative. Our sights are our main force to win any battle. So we choose this as our group name. Punch line: “Clear sign of victory” we believe that, if we are fined and clear about something, then victory is compelled to come to us. Our aim is not to win only nether our aim is to make the impossible things possible and do our bests to find out the best. Background Information: All praise and almost prayers to be almighty who is the source of all power and knowledge, More thanks to is almighty Allah for giving us to start our research work continuously despite we have personal troubles and hazards each. It is a great pleasure of having the opportunity of expressing our deepest sense of gratitude, heart-felt thanks and sincere appreciation and greatest indebtedness to ours reverend teacher Mr. Al- Amin shohel, lecturer of AMM dept. for his constant guidance, excellent cooperation and continuous encouragement without which this work would not have been possible. grateful to all respectable teachers particularly Faruk Masud Sir, Nazrul sir of AMM Dept. of SMUCT for the encouragernent. We are most grateful to our group members who have shown their stunning performance individually to do this assignment. Group leader helps to divide the total assignment separately that’s why everyone can

participate in here. Each and everyone shown their best charisma to find out the best things that it matches our group name Lynx- eyed. All in all, we are tremendously happy on our group members that by keeping far seeing on every aspect prove that we are best one.

Definition of Design In general sense of view Design means, to think something creatively and solve any problem effectively. On the other hand, if we explain design elaborately than we find design are: The realization of an inventive or decorative plan; especially a work of decorative art considered as a new creation; conception or plan shown in completed work; as, this carved panel is a fine design, or of a fine design. A plan or scheme formed in the mind of something to be done; preliminary conception; idea intended to be expressed in a visible form or carried into action; intention; purpose; -- often used in a bad sense for evil intention or purpose; scheme; plot. Specifically, intention or purpose as revealed or inferred from the adaptation of means to an end; as, the argument from design. A preliminary sketch, an outline or pattern of the main features of something to be executed, as of a picture, a building, or a decoration, delineation a plan. If we elaborate the word “Design� in such way that, D- Determination E- Enthusiasm S- Sensitivity I- Imagination/Innovation G- Generosity

N- Negotiation

So, elaborately design refers, to make something difference based on imagination with strong determination by thinking how to order the parts, how to serve the clients interest by negotiation and how to convey the information. Design also responsible to arrest the attention and engage the emotion of a viewer About design famous designer Beatrice Warde said, “The goblet of design must become transparent allowing viewer to gather the intended information, rather than to be absorbed by the designer’s layout.” So over all we can say, design graces our likes with the aesthetic presentation of useful and beneficial thinkers. Design tasks: Design seeks to discover and assess structural, organizational, functional, expressive and economic relationships, with the task of: • Enhancing global sustainability and environmental protection (global ethics) • Giving benefits and freedom to the entire human community, individual and collective •

Final users, producers and market protagonists (social ethics)

Supporting cultural diversity despite the globalization of the world (cultural ethics)

Giving products, services and systems, those forms that are expressive of (sociology) and coherent with (aesthetics) their proper complexity. Typical stages of the design process include

Pre-production design o Design brief – an early often the beginning statement of design goals o

Analysis – analysis of current design goals


Research – investigating similar design solutions in the field or related topics


Specification – specifying requirements of a design solution for a product (product design specification) or service.


Problem solving – conceptualizing and documenting design solutions


Presentation – presenting design solutions

Design during production o

Development – continuation and improvement of a designed solution


Testing –testing a designed solution

Post-production design feedback for future designs o

Implementation – introducing the designed solution into the environment


Evaluation and conclusion – summary of process and results, including constructive criticism and suggestions for future improvements

Redesign – any or all stages in the design process repeated (with corrections made) at any time before, during, or after production.

These stages are not universally accepted but do relate typical design process activities. For each activity there are many best practices for completing them. Philosophies and studies of design: There are countless philosophies for guiding design as the design values and its accompanying aspects within modern design vary, both between different schools of thought and among practicing designers. [8] Design philosophies are usually for determining design goals. A design goal may range from solving the least significant individual problem of the smallest element, to the most holistic influential utopian goals. Design goals are usually for guiding design. However, conflicts over immediate and minor goals may lead to questioning the purpose of design, perhaps to set better long term or ultimate goals. Approaches to design

A design approach is a general philosophy that may or may not include a guide for specific methods. Some are to guide the overall goal of the design. Other approaches are to guide the tendencies of the designer. A combination of approaches may be used if they don't conflict. Some popular approaches include: • •

KISS principle, (Keep it Simple Stupid, etc.), which strives to eliminate unnecessary complications. There is more than one way to do it (TIMTOWTDI), a philosophy to allow multiple methods of doing the same thing.

Use-centered design, which focuses on the goals and tasks associated with the use of the artifact, rather than focusing on the end user.

User-centered design, which focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of the designed artifact. Method of designing: Design Methods is a broad area that focuses on:

Exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing critical thinking skills to research and define problem spaces for existing products or services—or the creation of new categories; (see also Brainstorming) Redefining the specifications of design solutions which can lead to better guidelines for traditional design activities (graphic, industrial, architectural, etc.);

Managing the process of exploring, defining, creating artifacts continually over time

Prototyping possible scenarios, or solutions that incrementally or significantly improve the inherited situation

Trendspotting; understanding the trend process. Industrial design:

Industrial design is a combination of applied art and applied science, whereby the aesthetics and usability of mass-produced products may be improved for marketability and production. The role of an Industrial Designer is to create and execute design solutions towards problems of

form, usability, user ergonomics, engineering, marketing, brand development and sales. The term "industrial design" is often attributed to the designer Joseph Claude Since in 1919 (although he himself denied it in later interviews) but the discipline predates that by at least a decade. Its origins lay in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Detacher Werkbund, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial massproduction techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with England and the United States. Definition of Industrial Design: General Industrial Designers are a cross between an engineer and an artist. They study both function and form, and the connection between product and the user. They do not design the gears or motors that make machines move, or the circuits that control the movement, but they can affect technical aspects through usability design and form relationships. And usually, they partner with engineers and marketers, to identify and fulfill needs, wants and expectations. Definition of sketch: For the production of the knit garments or woven garments a sketch of a particular garment including its design features is essential to produce on paper so that after manufacturing of that garment could be verified or checked whether it looks like the sketch or not design/sketch of the garments could be the manually or with the help of computer. The ability to quickly record impressions through sketching has found varied purposes in today's culture. Courtroom artists are usually sketchers. Sketches drawn to help authorities find or identify wanted people are called composite sketches. Street performers in popular tourist areas often include artists who sketch portraits within minutes. A sketch method of reproducing photographs is done with a photographic enlarger in a dark room. The negative image is projected on the paper where the sketch is to be done. All the light shades are penciled until the paper is all the same shade. Media of sketch:

Dry media such as pencil or pastel are often preferred due to time constraints, but a quickly done watercolor study or even quickly modeled clay or soft wax can also be considered a 'sketch' in the broader sense of the term. Graphite pencils being a relatively new invention, the artists of the Renaissance could make sketches using the expensive method of a silver stylus on specially prepared paper (known as silverpoint), with results similar to a modern pencil sketch, or, more cheaply, using charcoal, chalk, or pen-and-ink. Contrary to popular belief, artists often use erasers when drawing; the eraser may be used to remove rough construction lines, or to soften lines for visual effect. The most commonly used eraser for pencil drawing is the kneaded eraser, which has a soft, sticky surface that enables the artist to lift the graphite or charcoal from the drawing surface without smudging. White plastic erasers can cleanly erase line work, but tend to smudge heavy shading Fashion Sketch: Fashion Illustration or sketching is the communication of fashion that originates with illustration, drawing and painting. It is usually commissioned for reproduction in fashion magazines as one part of an editorial feature or for the purpose of advertising and promoting fashion makers, fashion boutiques and department stores. Fashion Illustration is the communication of fashion designs through drawing. The main focus is the fashion figure or croquets used for draping the clothing onto. The true female figure measures seven to eight head lengths in height; the fashion figure measures nine to ten head lengths. In fashion drawing the basic proportions of the human form from head to crotch are retained, while extra length is added to the legs to give dramatic stylized effect and give the illustrator's designs more dynamic appeal. The body should be drawn long and slim with squared off shoulders and very unrealistically elongated legs. The body looks extremely out of proportion, as the legs tend to be exaggeratedly long. The waist must draw very slender.

Fg: Garments illustration

Technical sketch: Technical Drawings and Sketches Introduction the entire world depends upon technical drawings to convey the ideas that feed today’s industrialized society. Architectural, structural, electric, electronic, machine, plumbing, and piping drawings are all forms of mechanical/technical drawings. When rendering technical drawings, accuracy, neatness, technique, and speed in execution are essential. Inaccurate drawings could be worthless or lead to costly errors. Technical drawing is a necessarily broad term that applies to any drawing used drawings and to express technical ideas. Technical drawings are usually mechanically sketches refined by using straightedges, triangles, and drafting instruments. Many of these drawings begin as a form of sketching. Technical sketching is a freehand sketch. The only equipment required to execute technical sketches are soft pencils in the F to HB range, paper, and an eraser. The novice sketcher may find paper that is cross sectioned with ruled lines beneficial in establishing and maintaining scale. There are gridded papers, isometric papers for isometric sketches, and perspective papers for sketches requiring perspective available. When selecting an eraser, chose a soft (pink) or art gum eraser. Types of sketches since technical sketches and drawings represent three-dimensional objects, your sketches should conform to one of the four standard types of projection.

The four major types of projection are (1) multiview, (2) axonometric, (3) oblique, and (4) perspective.

Definition of Pattern: In apparel manufacturing, the individual components of a garment are made by hard copy, drawing paper or board paper, which shape and size is same as individual parts of that garments is called pattern. A pattern, from the French patron, is a type of theme of recurring events of or objects, sometimes referred to as elements of a set. These elements repeat in a predictable manner. ... Pattern in architecture is the idea of capturing architectural design ideas as archetypal and reusable descriptions. The term "pattern" is usually attributed to Christopher Alexander, an Austrian born American architect. The patterns serve as an aid to design cities and buildings. The concept of having collections of "patterns", or typical samples as such is much older. One can think of these collections as forming a pattern language, whereas the elements of this language may be combined, governed by certain rules. Definition of pattern design: Hard paper copy of the each component of the garment of exact dimension of each component is called pattern. The pattern’s also includes seem allowance, trimmings allowance, dirts, pleats, ease allowance any especial design etc. Affairs patterns design could also be done manually or with the help of computer. Tools and Equipment for Making Patterns: Working Surface: A flat working surface is required. However, a tracing wheel will mark any polished or laminated top therefore some protection must be given to this type of surface.

Paper: Strong brown paper is used for patterns. Parchment or thin card should be used for blocks that are used frequently. Pencils: Use hard pencils for drafting patterns (2H). Colored pencils are useful for outlining complicated areas. Fiber pens: These are required for writing clear instructions on patterns. Set Square: A large setsquare with a 45° angle is very useful; metric-grading squares can be obtained. Shears: Use separate shears for cutting cloth and paper, as cutting paper will blunt the blades. One-quarter, one-fifth scale squares: These are essential for students to record pattern blocks and adaptation in their notebooks. Tailor chalk: This is used for marking out the final pattern onto the cloth and for marking alternations on the garment when it is being fitted. Toile fabrics: Calico is used for marking toile’s for designs in woven fabrics. Marks sure the weight of the calico is as close to the weight of the cloth as

possible. Knitted fabric must be used for making toile’s for designs in jersey fabrics; the toile fabric should have the same stretch quality. Metric Square: This does not have to be the more expensive graduated tailor’s square based on a chest scale. The system in this book is based on a range of standard body measurements so the graduated square is of limited use. Calculator: The calculator is now a common tool in all areas of skill; it eliminates the hard work of calculating proportions and is accurate. If a calculator is not available use the table of aliquot parts

French curves: Plastic shapes and curves are available in a range of sizes; they are useful for drawing good curves. A flexi curve, which allows a shape to be manipulated, is also available. Pattern weights: These keep pieces of pattern in position on paper or cloth Pattern notched: This is a tool, which marks balance points by snipping out a section of pattern paper. Pattern Punch, Pattern Hooks

,Model Stands ,Computer Equipment

,Stanley Knife, Metric Tape Measure ,Tracing Wheel ,Sell tape ,Pins ,Stanley Knife ,Rubber, Metric Ruler, Curved Rules, Meter Stick etc

Point to note when pattern cutting: 1.

When measuring curves use the tape measure on its edge.


Accurate, clear lines are essential, and these can only be

achieved With the use of hard sharp pencils; sharpened with a pencil Sharpener, not a knife. Sketchy lines have no place in pattern Cutting. 3.

Notches are almost always marked at 90 degree to the seam line on which they are placed.


The two sides of a dart must always be identical in length.


Grain lines are marked parallel to the CF or CB except in a few cases, for instance a flared panel in a skirt would have the grain line marked through its centre as in a sleeve.


Calico is available in varying weights and qualities, so whenever possible use the type most similar to the fabric chosen for your garment to test your pattern.


If the pattern is to be used on a fabric with a nap, i.e. corduroy, mark grain line in normal position but have the ‘arrows’ facing in one direction- usually upwards.

Pattern making faults: 1.

Garment measurement out of tolerance

2. Incorrect grading 3. Some parts not matching size of other parts 4. Sometimes notch marks are not mentioned due to carelessness. 5. Sometimes grain line is not provided.

6. Seam allowance and other information are missing from the pattern. Kinds of Pattern: Usually we know that there are two kinds of pattern. Those are: • Basic Block/ Block Pattern • Working/Production Pattern

Basic block/Block pattern: A block is a foundation pattern that reflects the size, shape and posture of the human figure without the inclusion of style teachers. It is constructed according to the measurements for the central base size of a size range or an individual person. A copy of the block in adapted to create a garment style. It in advisable to always retain a copy of the block pattern for future use. A newly constructed block has to be tested by making it into a garment. Thin garment in either titled on the individual customer, or for wholesale production, on a sample of women who represent the potential customer. If necessary the pattern has to be revisal as measurements alone do not reflect the total body shape.

Advantages: The advantages of designing patterns within a computer program are that the blocks can include all the grading for other sizes. This means that when a new style in created the other sizes is automatically graded. Consequently pattern construction and pattern grading are completed in one operation. In this section the principals and techniques of constructing block pattern are explained. There are several methods that can be applied to computer use. One method is drafting a block pattern using the measurements from a size chart. These drafts can be either constructed directly using a computer system, or manually and then the pattern shapes digitized for those skilled in modeling or draping on a

workroom stand a block can be created by this method and then digitized.

Fg: Pattern design

Working/production pattern:

Usually we know that working/production pattern is a pattern which required for a balk production. This pattern approved by the buyer and making couple of copy for production.

Pattern that’s why required: Pattern is required especially in the garments industries. Because in the garment industries need to produce a bulk amount of garments. To make each garments hundred percent perfection pattern is required. At the same time if a pattern is used of different grade it needs to be fitted for specific dummy. To do so pattern also required.

Available at pattern: In a pattern there are couple of instruments are needed. Those are Notch, Grain Line, Parts name; it means Back part or Front part, Size, Cut 2 or 1 etc

Pattern Sketch from buyer :

Grain line: Grain, or grain line, refers to the orientation of the yarns in woven fabric. The warp yarns run from back to front in the weaving loom and form the lengthwise grain—often called the straight grain. The weft yarns are woven from side to side into the warp yarns and form the crosswise grain, or cross grain. The lengthwise and crosswise grains are perpendicular to one another in the loom. The bias falls along any angle to the lengthwise or crosswise grain, (see the drawing below) and the true bias is at a 45-degree angle to the straight grain. Nonwoven fabrics, such as felts, have no grain.

On woven fabric the grain line is the warp the long wise thread which is stretched on the loom, the long wise direction a fabric. The wefts are the threads woven across the warp. If grain line not given when fabric stitching fabric will be shrinkage or few stitching problem the grain line or arrow must be parallel to the selvage (woven of the fabric).

Notch: Small triangles on the outer edge of the pattern cut line are notices for matching pattern pieces. Advantages of Grain line & notch: The advantages of Grain line & Notch are too much required. Grain line helps to set the pattern warp & weft way on the fabric. At the same time Notch helps to know from where stitch will start and pattern matching. Problems of without grain line & notch: Absence of Grain Line & Notch may cause lot’s of problem both fabric cutter and worker who stitches. Without Grain Line it becomes difficult for fabric cutter to cut the fabric in right way that is warp or weft direction. On the contrary absence of notch worker cannot understand from where stitch should be start and where it would be finished.

Sewing allowance: Seam allowance is the area between the edge and the stitching line on two (or more) pieces of material being stitched together. Seam allowances can range from 1/4 inch wide (6.35 mm) to as much as several inch. Commercial patterns for home sewers have seam allowances ranging from 1/4 inch to 5/8 inch. Sewing industry seam allowances range from 1/4 inch for curved areas (e.g. neck line, armscye) or hidden seams (e.g. facing seams), to one inch or more for areas that require extra fabric for final fitting to the wearer (e.g. center back). Manual & computer pattern making:

In the Age of Computers and Technology why would we went to learn manual Pattern Making? Well for one thing it's a good skill to be able to do it manually and not rely on computers and software for making a pattern. We get a better fit an you can actually be proud to have done it yourself. A Pattern Maker in the true sense of the term is not a pattern maker if we relies on software for making patterns and is unable to produce a pattern without this aid. It's also an important skill to have for altering patterns purchased from commercial pattern companies and important if we are a dressmaker and designer. Computer pattern making technology can be a bonus in the manufacturing industry particularly when it produces the same type of design over and over again. It speeds up the process of production saving the companies time and money. Personally we’ve not really done any computer pattern making nor does it really interest me. We think that as a Pattern Maker it is important to be able to draft a pattern from scratch using measurements. We have better control over fit and proportions and appreciate the art and skill of pattern making

Pattern and tool making: The Pattern and Tool Making department compliments the design capabilities of the Casting Design Centre and has the capability of fast and accurate pattern and tool manufacture using Traditional techniques or CNC manufacture. Skilled Patternmakers have been trained in the use of DELCAM’s Power Mill and adopt parallel tool path generation and machining techniques in order to speed up CNC pattern and tool production. Reengineer, Catia, Power Shape, Ideas solid modeling software can be used for one-off or small batch prototype casting production. Sample making: There are many reasons for making a sample garment, and although it can be a tiresome and often boring process, it gives one a finished pattern that is adapted to one and can be used for endless amounts of finished garments. The fabric that makes a sample garment out of will be dependent on what he wants to make his finished garment in. There is no point making a sample skirt out of stretch fabric if he intends to have the finished skirt in no stretch fabric. It is just a waste of time.

Fg: Sample making Sample garments give one a chance to see how the finished garment will fit you. Is it the right size? Is it the right length? Is there any changes one need to make? Consider the fabric that will make the finished garment in. Will it be a thick double layer jacket? Then he’ll need to make the sample a little larger to accommodate this. It is wise to make the sample out of the cheapest fabric he can find. Go to you local fabric store and look at their end of roll stuff, their cheap and discount stuff, their sale stuff. It doesn’t need to be fancy, look for unbleached cotton or calico, and stretch T-shirt fabric. (For users in Sweden, IKEA sells unbleached cotton on the roll for 20 kronor per meter, almost unbeatable, and perfect for this) You can also use old cotton sheets. Look for something white or pale. Then he can use a marker or text pen and mark his changes directly on the fabric, so he know where it need to fix things when one take the sample off.

Fg: Sample making When cutting and sewing his sample, it doesn’t need to be perfectly finished. Don’t worry about fixing hems or pockets. But it will need to use

zips when making a sample for pants and skirts with zips in. Mark out the places where he wants to have pockets and buttons while they are wearing the sample. If he need to change the position of a zip or something mark theses changes too. Make sure he checks you in a mirror, not just by looking down at his self. Sit in his normal position. Make sure, if he intends to wear a special bra or underwear under a particular garment, that he also wear these while testing the sample. When they have finished testing, he can un-pick the sample and make the changes he needs to make. Then either make the changes on their paper pattern, or if the changes are extensive, cut a new paper pattern. They can also use the un-picked fabric sample as a pattern for their finished garment. Sometimes they will need to make several samples before finding the solution that suits them and fits they best. Hang in there; it will all be worth it in the end when they have their perfect pattern! To develop the sample there are six steps which are given below:

Sample Development Steps Proto Sample

Size Set Sample Pre- Production Sample Production Sample Conformity Sample Shipping Sample

Proto Sample: PDS Pattern Design System and 3D Draping for getting the right fit the first time –faster. Asset management - no more storing of paper patterns - instant retrieval

for modification, amendments etc. To see your product quality buyer wants it and if buyer satisfy with its quality then buyer want salesman samples.

Fg: Proto sample Proto sample is the initial sample made by the manufacturer as per as the details of the export order, and send to the buyer, to check weather the styling of the garment is ok as per the requirement of the buyer. Proto Sample can be made in alternative fabric & accessories, which is not with the original fabric and accessories. That is as per the sketch & space in the production order (P.O) sheet). Approved Sample: The manufacturing must produce sample prior to communication of the mass scale production of a particular style. The number of samples required, vary from buyer to buyer. Most of the time buyers ask for 3-5 samples from the manufacturer. When constructing these samples the manufacture’s instruction should be followed. The original patterns, original sample & the specification are required to produce these samples. After constructing these samples manufacturer should send them to the buyer or to the agents to get the approval for the mass production. There are two main types of approval samples and they are known as: - Fit approval samples - Size series samples.

When an order is placed and confirmed, the manufacturer has to produce samples for the buyer. The required size of the samples is generally given by the buyer. If the size of samples is not given the middle size of the order range is taken as the appropriate size. That is if an order is given for a range of sizes, then the sample garment is made from the middle size. The samples produce for the given size or the middle sizes of the order are known as fit approval samples. Once fit approval samples are approved by the buyers, request for samples in all the sizes of the order before the mass production starts. Then they are in a position to see the quality of the samples of all size of the order. These samples are known as size series samples. Even if there is no such request from the buyer, it is batter to produce to size series samples for use within the factory. Then they can identify the problem that might occur, when they produce different size in the mass production. Size Set Sample: The Samples before a mass production is carried on to ensure whether the fit and size is been obtained. Manufacturer produces different size from an order, style and color and gets them approved from revenant customer. Size set sample contains all the size of the export order contains sizes small, medium, large size. Then the size set is sample will contain all the size, the sample S are made by grading the M size sample. Alternative fabric & accessories can make this Sample.

Fg: size set sample Pre-production Samples All Size & All color & all actual fabric Materials. If Buyer approved than go for production Sample. Before Production Sample to call The PP Meeting. • Production Gm • Production Manager • Consult Merchnadiser Manufacturer produces samples before the production of the order when carried out. A Pilot run is been made to ensure that the quality, Fit, Size of the garment is be obtained in mass production. original fabric & Accessories make PP Sample, and this sample is made just before the Bulk production. This sample represents the original garment to be made in Bulk production. The buyer checks the PP samples & after the Buyer gives approval on PP sample, and then only the manufacture goes for bulk production of the export order. PP sample should include all the colors of the style. MUST meet the following requirements: • Correct styling • Correct bulk fabric • Correct all accessories • Correct required measurements • Correct beading / embroidery • Correct wash / hand-feel Relevant sections on GAF sheet must be filled out and signed off as correct by supplier’s QA technician Pre-Production sample: In this meeting everybody concerned with the style sits together to make sure that everybody is on the same page and understands the product. Hence, this meeting has the merchandiser, production in-charge, cutting, finishing, fabric in-charge, line supervisor, pattern master, sample master etc. All tentative problems are discussed and solutions sought to execute the order smoothly.

Fg: pre-production sample For example - in case a fabric is only approved for the design and not for the colors, the merchandiser should mention “approved for design only, not approved for color” - Further, reasons for color not being approved should be clearly mentioned. - Also the next steps to be taken should be mentioned there and then or the corrective steps required should be mentioned. Following example - the next statement should be – “please re-submit for color approval” - Next the merchandiser should also lay down the timeline for the next submission; meaning to say the next date of submission should be advised there and then to avoid any confusion. - Once the approval is granted, the same should be conveyed to all concerned parties or departments. For example: a fabric approval should be conveyed to fabric stores, Inspection team and production team. Not only the communication should be my means of e-mail etc, but a fabric swatch signed by the merchandiser should be sent to these departments so that they are aware of the approval and can always refer to the same in case of a doubt. Similarly for a sample, a counter sample should always be available with the production (sewing, finishing & packing) departments and the Quality Control department.

- The merchandiser for future reviews and discussions should retain all communication with regards to approvals. Production sample: Production Sample is taken from production unit, by the bulk production is continuing, production sample represents the original production pieces to be exported to Buyer. Usually the exporter send production sample to Buyer once only, during the Bulk production, But in some cases where the export order quantity is large enough for single style for example incase of Buyer – Wal-Mart, The production samples were sent three times during the Bulk production. First Sample sent during 20% to 30% of Bulk production. Second fit sample sent during 50% to 60% of Bulk production and third production sample sent during 70% to 80% of Bulk Production. If the factory wants to attract new buyers, they have to be won by showing samples of garments that the manufacturer can offer. For this purpose they produce on their own, samples of new designs. These samples are known as offer samples. The ultimate objective of producing these offer samples is to attract new buyers to find new markets.

Fg: Production sample

Shipment sample: This Sample the manufacture keeps with them, covering all sizes & colors of the style of garments they exported. It is for the reference pieces, just to keep record for future reference. Garment produces this samples to the customer after all the requirements like accessories, poly bag, tag etc is been made and kept ready to ship the good before dispatched.

Fg: Shipment sample Sample Approved: Sample approval is a process whereby the supplier will make a sample of the agreed design for the purchaser to approval before mass production. In China, realized factory still do not understand what the main reason of Sample approval.

Fg: sample The reason is the sample needs to be made as per agreement for whatever material, size, color. If factory is not able to make sample as per agreed in the agreement, they should inform the purchaser as soon as possible (A.S.A.P.) of the reason for not beening about to make an actual agreed sample. It could be due to lack of the agreed material in the market to make sample. Factory needs ask the material factory to make the customize material in order to make samples Or Due to certain process it is not possible to make sample for 1 or 2 pieces. Communication is the most importance part in a project management, if supplier





the purchaser's control to this order?






If both buyers and sellers spent more time getting the sample process done










misunderstanding later on, and those problems that do occur would be far easier to deal with. Buyers one of your best tools for protecting your investment is to have signed confirmation samples both in your hands and in the hands of the factory making your product. Sample Approved Procedure: The manufacturer must submit two initial samples in the core / base size as specified below: Women’s wear


Children’s wear

woven fabric

Size 10

Knit fabric

Size S


Size M


Size 34

Girls Boys Junior Toddlers Babies

Size 10 Size 10 Size 4 Size 1 Size 0

Sample Submission Proced When submitting a sample, supplier must ensure a Sample Detail Card to be attached onto the left underarm for tops and left side seam under waist band for bottoms. The card MUST have the following information: • Supplier / factory name • Harris Scarfe style number • Size • Description

• Sample approval status (eg: 1st fit, PP, Advertising, etc.) • Garment size • Fabric details o Yarn count o Construction o Fibre content o Fabric weight o and any finishes • Production country • Colour • Comments • Name / signature of supplier’s QA technician / Merchandiser All relevant sections on Sample Detail Card MUST be filled in and signed off by supplier’s QA technician and / or supplier’s Merchandiser.










Design Sample Approve styling and fit. MUST follow all directions given on Counter Spec or by Buyer for Development sample. Acceptance number of samples prior production approval will be 2 (max).

Counter sample Spec sheet showing both original sample measurements and required sample measurements will be supplied by Harris Scarfe QA department. MUST measure to required spec and to be marked as 1st fit sample.

Development sample Sample submitted from supplier without having a counter spec issued. Buyer will give instructions. Basic block spec measurements will be given by Harris Scarf Buyer or QA technician. Samples do not measure to required basic specs are not acceptable

First fit sample MUST meet the following requirements: • Correct styling • Correct fabric content, handle and weight • Measurements to be to required spec as supplied • Correct accessories (different colors are acceptable – BUT must be correct type, brand, length, size and quality) • Correct Garment Approval Form (GAF) to be filled in all relevant sections • Must be signed off as correct by supplier’s QA technician

Second fit sample MUST be as per spec requirements and be accompanied by the supplier’s comments. Incorrect second samples are unacceptable.

Pre-Production sample MUST meet the following requirements: • Correct styling • Correct bulk fabric • Correct all accessories  • Correct required measurements • Correct beading / embroidery • Correct wash / hand-feel Relevant sections on GAF sheet must be filled out and signed off as correct by supplier’s QA technician.

Advertising samples To be forwarded upon Buyer’s request for advertising • Correct styling • Correct bulk fabrics • All color-ways as per order • Correct accessories • Correct beading / embroidery • Correct wash / hand-feel • Correct required measurements

Fg: Advertising sample (Can be incorrect fit measurements of PP sample has yet been approved for production)

Fabric / Trim test reports Testing is to be completed according to Harris Scarf Standards and submitted at Pre Production sample stage with cover sheet advising test results to Harris Scarf QA department for approval. Supplier MUST take immediate and urgent action to improve fabric quality when a test fails. MUST advise Harris Scarf QA department and Buyer if this may result in delayed delivery.

Fully graded size spec To be issued when fit has been approved. Correct graded spec with appropriate Harris Scarf grade rule MUST be approved and signed off by supplier QA technician and submitted to Harris Scarf QA department for reference.

Production / Pre-shipping sample MUST arrive at Harris Scarf buying office no later than 48 hours prior leaving factory. MUST be accompanied by correct Inspection Report, supplier measurement sheet with ALL measurement points as per graded spec and signed off as correct by supplier QA technician and / or Production Manager.

Inspection report Correct relevant sections to be filled in and submitted with production / pre-shipping sample. Highlight area, which have not passed inspection and advise a plan of action to correct the problems. Advise any areas have failed inspection and can not be correct for Harris Scarf QA technician and Buyer to make a commercial decision (reject or accept).

Pricing: After approving the sample buyer and supplier negotiate each other about pricing. It is the place where both parties tried their best to find the best output. Supplier wants to raise maximum price on the contrary buyer tries to reduce the price to get maximum profit. At the eleventh hour both parties are become happy with the ultimate outcome about decision.

Price Negotiation: One of the most important skills a buyer and a seller must muster is the ability to negotiate. As most high street fashion selling prices are very competitive, the greatest scope for improving profit in a product is the reduction of cost price. There are many factors that influence the final cost of a product including fabric garments construction, order volume, lead – time, and delivery terms. These particular issues are discussed in more detail throughout the book. Negotiation is a process of communication and exchange through which the interested parties make a series of demands and compromises: it involves the trading of benefits between parties. The basic principle is to trade what is of low value to you but of the greater value of the other party. Thereby reducing the cost of success to you. However the aim of negotiation should be to ensure that both parties are happy with the final outcome or agreement, otherwise one or the other will not continue to participate. The old scenario of the retailer always winning and supplier always losing results in both parties effectively losing. Traditionally, the dominant fashion retail groups have seen the availability of large numbers of suppliers as a means of trading. One off against another to achieve a cheaper cost price consequently many of suppliers who lost out ceased to do business with those retailers again. Short-term cost-price gains resulted in short-term relationships with many suppliers. Whit the end result being a large, unwieldy and diverse supplier base operating as efficiently as it should. By the same token an inexperienced buyer can be vulnerable to a supplier wanting to secure an unreasonable cost price, resulting in the fashion retailer delisting them in the future for being nuncupative. As such it is no better for the supplier to be in a situation where they are winning and the retailer is losing. The common wisdom about negotiation is that both sides should aim to work together to achieve a mutually acceptable result, which is usually referred as a win-win situation

The process of Negotiation:

A successful negotiation outcome does not generally occur through luck, but by following a clear process. The process reflects the different levels of knowledge of the subject of negotiation, various parities and the negotiation. The following is an outline of steps essential to effective negotiation. Researching the needs of both parties: The greater the knowledge a buyer has of their own and the supplier’s requirements, the better able they are to construct an acceptable solution. The buyer must be clear about both the department mark-up to be placed on the product cost price and the intended retail selling price so that she or he can judge the viability of the supplier’s product. She or he should also have sufficient product construction knowledge to understand how changes can be made to achieve better value in the product. Frequently the supplier will make suggestions to try to bring the cost price closer to the buyer’s target. However an experienced buyer can speed up the process by making suggestions which will be acceptable to her. Lead- time is another lever for negotiation with differing operational issues for both parties, if the enough time in hand to use extended lead-time as a bargaining tool. The process of researching needs does not stop once the negotiation is underway as the body language and facial expression of both parties will signal their reactions of the ongoing discussion. Successful buyers will listen to and watch suppliers carefully, making judgment about how to trade benefits with them. In addition to listening and observation skills, buyer’s need to be able to use question effectively. Open questions require a respondent to elaborate, which may provide the buyer will valuable knowledge on how to proceed when meeting a supplier. Closed questions can be used to generate specific responses. Preparation: Effective preparation is also vital to successful communication. The particular preparation required will vary according to the nature of meeting, but some factors are always important. Meetings should begin on time and follow a clear agenda with a realistic amount of time to accommodate the work. Where there is an existing relationship with a supplier, a file containing the relevant notes and documentation relating

to the order’s should be read prior to the meeting and taken in for reference. Supplier meeting is usually held in uncluttered or empty rooms or offices to avoid any distraction from the business of the meeting. It is also usual for there to be two people from buying in the meeting. So that buyer can have an objective view point available while personality involve in the negotiation. It is essential that the buyer also has identified the maximum and minimum positions that she will accept for a range of factors including: • Product Price • Order Size • Lead-time

Offer: Having identified where the respective positions lie between them. The buyer and supplier can make specific proposals to set the boundaries of the negotiation. It is unlikely that many of the offers initially made will end up being accepted, so both parties allow for some maneuver. This is the opportunity for the buyer to being trading what is the relatively low value for her but of more value to the supporter.

Discussion: The likely framework of a final settlement will emerge in the discussion as each side proves the other and make suggestions. Answers to suggestions can be revealing with the chose of words and tone signaling interest of reluctance and should be noted as potential bargaining material. There will areas on which one side can move than more then the other and vice versa. It is important for the buyer to make a note of which ones provide the greatest and least opportunities fore flexibility, for the trade off later on in the negotiation.

Counter and revised offers:

This is the real; bargaining where elements of the order, such as numbers of units, product details, lead-time and so on, are being decided in the context of an overall cost price. The buyer should make firm proposals and be cautious of offering concessions unless she is getting one is return. The final element that will pull all of the other variables together will be the cost price, which is agreed at the end. Although the bargaining may be tough, the sprit of the communication should be remaining friendly and not adversarial. Parties are more likely to cooperate if they are being treated fairly and reasonably.

Summaries: It is vital to summarizes at key stages throughout the negotiation when significant points are agreed, to avoid losing early gains as potential variables included in the negotiation, small but significant points can be easily forgotten throughout. Records will also provide both sides with an explanation of how the ideal was constructed should a particular variable become contentious at a later date.

Agree and Commit: Once the parties have agreed an order, they have to communicate the details to the functions. This supplier may need to book production space, order fabric/ trimmings and source labels/tickets. The buyer will need to inform the merchandiser of the retail selling value of the order so that a track can be kept on spending. Production Pattern: Once the line is edited and the sales representative has the line, then the first pattern is made into a production pattern. The Production Pattern is a perfected first pattern. This means that the first pattern is corrected for fitting and sewing details and the lay of the fabric is tested for an economical marker. The production pattern is then given to the Grader and Marker Maker to be graded into sizes. These days the

computer is mainly used to perform these two steps, although there are still hand graders and markers who do an excellent job. Grading: Once the pattern is completed, we will grade using the specifications provided or we can assist in establishing specs for your product. AAA Patterns & Marking Services can help develop grade rules for the market that product is intended (men, women, youth, child, toddler). Our grading is performed on the Gerber Accomack system. All grading is then checked for accuracy. Once we are confident the pattern and grading are correct, we can send you a graded size set for approval. The patterns may be sent either electronically via email or on paper. Grading is taking the first production pattern, which is normally a middle size, like a size 8, and grading it up and down into other sizes. Grading is an important part of production, so the grader must be experienced. Production samples of the graded sizes are sometimes made to test the fit, and specifications are written for each garment and each size. This will ensure that in production the garments are sewn exactly as the approved production samples. Duplicate samples are usually made at this stage. Duplicates of the line are sent to the various sales representatives to show to buyers all over the country. (The larger the company, the more sales reps you have to represent you).

Fg: Grading The grader usually makes the marker as part of the service. The marker is made for the complete pattern, using as little fabric as possible and interlocking the pattern pieces together to ensure there is no wasted fabric. It is printed out onto paper that is the same width as the fabric. The marker is made to be used by the cutter who will follow it while cutting out the pattern pieces. It is laid over layers of fabric that has been rolled out onto large cutting tables. The fabric is some times rolled out and layered to thirty layers of fabric or more.

Automatically grade to any selected standard size or to made-to-measure size parameters from a table of measurements, which you enter to define critical pattern dimensions. This can be for a range of sizes or to match a single set of personal body dimensions. The "mystiques" (and mistakes) of manual pattern grading are "blown away" with Fashion CAD. Create your design using the Fashion CAD design module and insert the Fashion CAD "control points" or nodes at the main points which determine the basic sizes or dimensions of a garment pattern. Then you can grade this pattern piece with Fashion CAD. You only need to specify the distances between a few major points and Fashion CAD will work out the changes for every point along all lines and curves, between these "control points". You can take one single pattern design and grade to say 5 or 10 other sizes in just a few seconds. Or you can set up a personalized

measurements file for yourself, or each of your clients, and then grade the pattern piece to fit exactly those measurements you have defined. From a standard Women's Pants block as on the right by adjusting the measurement distances you can create a high waist pants pattern in a different size but in the same style or by adjusting the hip to waist and other basic measurements you can create hipster pants with flared bottoms. - see below...... The numbered points are the Control Points used in this pattern to provide ultimate control of its size and grading. For example increasing the measurement distances between points 1 to 4, 1 to 10, and points 21 to 24, 21 to 30, would increase the hip size. You could simplify the pattern (and have less Control Points) but you will have less ability to control its fit and sizing.

You can make Fashion CAD grade the way you want to create a specific size or range of sizes BUT far more accurately, quickly and with a lot less effort.

Marker: In order to effect a large production run, huge quantity of fabrics must be cut from a lay allowing part to be cut as per assortment. In order to make sure a lay, a paper marker is first created. A paper marker is a piece of paper upon which patterns of each part of a garment in the ratio of assortment is 1:2:2:1. So patterns for each part of S, M, L and XL sizes must be reproduced on a paper in the ratio of 1:2:2:1. This paper is referred to as a paper market. The paper marker is generally placed on ht top of the fabric lay. Then fabric is cut with a straight-knife cutting machine along the outline of the pattern on the marker. A marker may be creating manually with a pen or pencil on to a paper or it may be generated with a computer-controlled plotter. In the case of automatic computer controlled cutting a paper marker is not essential. The marker is creating in the computer of the CAD system. The marker is sent to the computer of the automatic cutter, which cuts the fabric with the instruction of the computer of the machine.

Fg: Marker making Definition of Marker: Marker is a thin paper which contains all necessary pattern pieces for all sizes for a particular style of garments in such a way that fabric wastage would be least. The representation or drawing of the arrangement of identified garment pattern pieces relevant to the cutting of a batch of material. The marker placed is placed on the material and provides guidance for cutting. Marker may be on fabric, paper card or held in computer data files. Marker width is equal to the minimum fabric width and its length depends on the no of sizes that will be drawn. A marker is a schematic of the graded pattern pieces that is used as a cutting guide. When produced by experienced marker makers, a marker will optimize the usage of your fabric and improve overall cutting quality.

Fg: Marker making

Marker Planning & cut order planning : The marker planning composes the following: I. Designing marker as per assortment; 2. Recording paper piece information on the paper so as to calculate marker utilization; 3. Scope of utilization of the marker many times. Marker Planning that’s why Required: A well planned marker is very important. The marker is the ultimate tool with which required number of garments in right assortment is cut from fabric'. It is to be noted that. Fabric comprises more than 60 % of garment value. A well-planned marker leads to minimizing wastage of f2bric and thus maximizes profit. . An inefficient marker planning entails more fabric, 1110re wastage and less profit. A wrong marker may cause colossal lose to the company.

The factors that influenced Marker planning: The following factors affect marker planning: I. Fabric type; 2. Marker length 3. Cutting quality 4. The requirements of production planning In most of the cases, patterns are outline on the marker along the grain line of the fabric. In woven fabric this is the direction of warp yarn. In case of knitted fabric this is the direction of Wales. But in case of collar the patterns should be in a bias direction of 45 degree to the warp direction. There are some fabric, which shows differently on face and back sides. There are other fabrics which have nap or only one side. So all there aspects must be taken into account during marker planning. Other point that must be considered in that marker planning must match the production plan or order plan. If the order plan is like the same as given in table below, markers plan must match this order plan. Besides, marker plan must include 2-3% (sometimes up to 5%) allowance to cover for wastage during cutting or for possible rejects/ defectives during sewing and other processes.

Open plan (Full sleeve shirt in pieces):































Marker plan including 3% wastage































Efficiency of marker planning: It is a common requirement to use minimum quantity of fabric per unit garment, because it leads to higher profitability and minimizing production cost. Reduction of fabric consumption may be effected by good marker planning. After planning the marker, it must checked whether the marker given fabric consumption. The marker must be revised to bring it within given fabric consumption if necessary. Control of fabric efficiency of marker may be calculated by the following formula: Marker efficiency: = {(Area of patterns on the marker) ÷ total area of the marker} × 100 After creating the marker it is necessary to analyze & investigate the marker if there is any opportunity to decrease fabric consumption by increasing marker efficiency. One way of increasing efficiency is using better pattern engineering. In this method, seam locations are examined for better placement· of the pattern so that smaller parts may be fitted in areas, which are otherwise wasted. Another way is to critically examine all the seam, hem and alteration allowances to see whether they are too generous and whether it is

possible to reduce them. In such cases, allowance should be made as minimum as possible. This will lead to increasing marker efficiency. Another way is to divide a large marker into two pieces so that they can be easily accommodated in the marker. Fabric width and length of marker also influences marker efficiency. Example 1: The length of a 12-piece marker is 25.5 yards with the width of 4’-0”. The area, of patterns is 2/6 51'1. Calculate marker efficiency. Answer: the area of marker = = (2:.5 yards x 3) x 4 = 306 sft The are of the patterns=276 sft So marker efficiency = {(area of patterns) ÷ area of marker} r 100 = (276÷ 306) x 100 = 90.19 %. Marker plan must also take into consideration 'if cutting blade "can reach the remotest comer or the sharp edges. After completing the marker a pattern count should also be made to check if all patterns have been included or not. Constraints of Marker making: For an efficient marker making requires such a condition so that marker can see easily full length and width of marker. The marker maker proceeds by first positioning the larger pattern pieces and then fitting the smaller pieces into the gaps so that minimize the fabric wastage i.e. increased marker efficient. Then patterns turned in different direction for reducing marker length i.e. increasing marker efficiencies. Methods of Marker making: Usually methods of marker making are – • Manual Method • Computerized method 1. Manual Technique: It may be two types— a) Marker planning with full size patterns in a full size:

• In this method, all patterns are in full dimension according to standard measurement. • Hard patterns are placed on paper or fabric and then all patters are rounded to reduce the marker length. • The top of the table, on which marker make are fixed or tilting table top are placed in various angle. • Arrangement of vacuum system under table top. • Suitable for minimized marker length. b) Marker with minimized pattern: • Full size pattern are minimized 1/5 part by a pantograph and minimized patterns made by pantograph are plastic sheet or hard and coarser. • Marker is planed by minimized pattern. • After marker making, marker is taken snap by camera. • The covered area of pattern in marker is measured by plan meter. Then efficiency is measured by marker area and pattern area. • Marker photograph and minimized pattern are stored. Advantages: • Suitable for small production • Investment is low Disadvantages: • More time required • High labor cost

Computerized marker making method: This is the best method as it gives higher marker efficiency. In this method, the pattern size, pattern pieces, grade roles screening, are feed

to the computer and set in the memory which produces marker automatically.

Fg: Computerized marker making method

This method part of an integrated system which includes• Digitizing system • Scanning system

Digitizing system Placing working pattern on digitizing table than clicking according to the pattern Automatic Marker Making:

Scanning system Scanning is one kind of machine like photocopier.  Placing working pattern on scanning glass and making marker for a selected size(medium)  Then using grade role for marker making of another sizes.

Computerized method: In this method, computer makes marker itself. According to given commands computer can make marker. In this method, the most efficient marker can be got but it takes more time as the computer marker with the help of permutation and combination. Interactive Marker Making: Common process, the operators plans marker by uninteresting directly with the system through a computer screen. All the pattern pieces are displayed in miniature at the top of the screen. In this method data pen and tablet used for transferring of patterns. Computerized techniques: a) b) c) d)

M→Size+Sketch→Computer monitor enter C.M→Small size→ show Grade role to C.M(Computer Monitor) By applying grade role we will find all size pattern pieces(S,M,L,and XL) e) Marker Width f) Number of pieces per marker. g) Sizes ratio per marker Information System: C.A.D→ Computer Aided Design C.A.M→ Computer Aided Manufacturing

CAD Design and Development

Pattern Making




Marker Production

CAM Manufacturing



Lay Planning


Finishing and dispatch

Lay plan: The cutting templates representing all of the individual components of a garment have to be laid out together in such a way that they fit within the confines of the fabric within as closely and efficiently as possible in order to minimize waste. This is the lay plan.

Fg: Lay planning

Types of lay plan: Half garment lay: This includes only half of the garment pieces. They are used for folded or tubular fabrics and for fabrics which are spread face to face. Whole Garments lay:

All of the garment pieces, left and right sides are included in the lay. Used for open width fabrics. Single Size Lay: The lay includes all of the pieces for a single size. Restricting the lay to a single size makes order planning and laying up the fabric easier, but the disadvantages is a somewhat higher material consumption, compared to multi-size lays. Multi-size lay: Sectional lay: The lay is made in at least two distinct rectangular sections. Each section contains all of the parts of a single. Adjacent sections may be the same or different size. Interlocking lay: Two or more sections, one after the other, usually different sizes, but the section is not confined two strict rectangular areas. Mixed-multi size lay: In these cases, there are no distinct sections; the pieces for the two or more different garment sizes are intermingled. This is an arrangement which normally gives the best material utilization. Procedure for making lay plan: Manual methods:  The simplest method of making a lay plan to arrange the cutting templates manually.  The outlines of the templates are than traced either directly onto the fabric or onto the special marker paper.  The detailed arrangement of the templates is decided either by experience and know-how or by following is a small scale printed diagram.

Computerized System:

 After grading, the computer can be used to produce the lay plan and cutting the marker.  User friendly systems allow the recall and arrangement of the patterns on the monitor screen, according to given technological requirements. Inspection of fabric: Fabric is the main raw material of garments. So it is essential to ensure fabric quality before it reaches store of garments factory, otherwise defective fabric may result in disruption of production and delivery of garments on time. Garments produced with defective fabric may lead to colossal cost to the company and may cause production of stock-lots. It is a good practice to inspect fabric in the premise of the fabric producer. This enables quick replacement of defective fabric. Still re-inspection of at the delivery point to the store of a garment factory is urgent. Fabric inspection is conducted with the aid of a fabric inspection machine. A roll of fabric may be attached at the back top of the machine, which may roll the fabric slowly over the inspection table of the machine. The table is properly lit with special tube lights have an illumination of around 1000 lux. Some machines are specially equipped with mirror system that enables to detect defects easily. The upper roll unwinds and pushes fabric smoothly over the inspection table. Another roll of the bottom of the machine rewinds the fabric. The machine can automatically count the length and width of fabric.

Fig: Fabric Inspection Machine Fabric Inspection Procedure:

• Producer likes to know the quality of his products (say quality for 500000 yds fabric)

• • • • • •

Buyers want to assure the product quality he ordered. 10% check will give buyer some ideas of his product quality. 25% check may be necessary for new supplier 3%check maybe enough for a proven record supplier. Fabric inspection must be selected randomly The fabric sample must be selected from different place, different lot and different time.

• Inspector must use a packing list and select different bales on different place.

• The sample should be selected from early, middle and late production Inspection Standards: • Ten Point System—Oldest and most used in woven finished fabric • Four Point System – Widely adopted and used in knitted fabric. • The Graniteville ’78 System—major and minor types, used in garment pieces.

Ten point System: • The earliest inspection system and is designed to identify defects and to assign each defect a value based on severity of defect • Published in 1955 by textile distributors institute and national federation of textiles. Ten point System (woven)

• Warp defects -- 10-36 inches

10 Points

-- 5-10 inches

5 Points

-- 1-5 inches

3 Points

-- up to 1 inch

1 Point

• Weft Defects -- Full width

10 Points

-- 5 inches to half width

5 points

-- 1-5 inches

3 Points

-- up to 1 inch

1 Point

• Standards for examination of finished goods(woven mainly) • Penalties to be assigned for imperfection of warp and weft defects. • Grading is designed to apply to every imperfection according to size regardless of type

• For print cloth, any piece of grey which contains less than 50% more penalty points than yardage may be passed for printed fabric.

• No one yard should be penalized more than 10 points • Any warp or weft defect occurring repeatedly throughout the entire piece makes it “second”

• A combination of both warp or weft defects when occurring in one yarn should be not penalized more than 10 points. Ten point System Grading: First quality --- A piece is graded as first if the total quality points do not exceed the total yardage of the piece. E.g: 100 yard piece got the penalized of 70 Second quality

-- A piece is graded a second if the total penalty points exceed the total yardage of the piece. Four point System: • It was published in 1959 by the national association of shirt pajama sportwear manufacturers. • It got the biggest support for American society for Quality Control. • It was endorsed by federal government for military inspection and American Apparel Manufacturer Association. Four point System knitted fabric: • Grading of fabric quality according to penalty points • Penalty points are based on the length of defects measured in inch. • Fabric inspection is only on one side of fabric and is based on fabric width of 64-66 inches (knitted fabric) • Four penalty points per linear yarn up to 64/66inches in width. • The quality shall be expressed in the number of penalty points per 100 yarn length.

Commercial knitted fabric grading

system, Four point system

Four point system is adopted by American apparel manufacturing Association (AAMA) for piece goods knitted fabric. Fabric defects is penalized by maximum of 4 points

Length of the defect in the fabric in either Points allowed length or width Up to 3 inches


Over 3 inches to 6 inches


Over 6 inches to 9 inches


Over 9 inches


Fabric Spreading: In large-scale production, fabric has to be cut in a large quantity so as to give continuous input to the sewing section. This is why multi-piece markers are planned. As per marker length fabric bas to be laid layer after layer on a strong solid table. This laying of fabric on a table as per marker is called fabric spreading. Some times more than 200 lays of fabric are placed on a table. Each lay is called a ply of fabric. Fabric spreading is process by which plies of fabric is speeded in order to get required length and widen a per marker dimension. This is a preparatory operation for cutting and consists of lying. Spreading means the smooth laying out of the fabric in superimposed layer (plies) of specified length. The cutting marker is layer on the top most layers. The maximum width of he cutting marker is constrained by the usable width of the fabric. During spreading no of lay should be not more than three hundreds. But it depends on thickness of the fabric and the height of the knife. The spread can be of two basic types:

1. Flat spread, 2. Stepped spread. Objects of spreading: 1. To place the number of plies of fabric to the length of the marker plan correctly aligned as to length and width and without fens ion. 2. To cut garments in bulk and saving in fabric through the of multi garment marker plants and the saving in cutting time garment that result from cutting many plies at a time. 3. To make every ply plain and Art. Methods of fabric spreading: Mainly two type: 1. Manu method: (a)

Not fulfill the basic requirements.

(b) Fabrics laid completely by hand. (c)

With then of mechanical Sistine roll cutter.

(d) With the help of manually operated spreading truck. 2. Mechanical Method: (a)

Possible to fulfill the basic requirement.

(b) Semi-automatic. (c)


Fg: Fabric spreading

3. Manual Method: 4. Fabric is laid completely by hand. 5. The method is monthly used (90%) in our country because of:• Cheap tabor cost. • Available worker. • Less time is required. In this method a roll of fabric is taken and its edge is fixed on one end of the table and then spread on the table without using any device. A large no of workers is required to carry out this process to fulfill the requirements of fabric spreading.

b) With the help of mechanical assistance as roll cutter: • The fabric is in roll form may be supported on a frame and carried along the table where the end is secured by weight or a clamp. • The operators work back from the end aligning the edges and ensuring that there is no tension and no wrinkles. • The ply is normal cut with hand shears or with a powered circular knife mounted on a frame. • It is appropriate for checker, cross wise stripes and other regularly repeating patterns. • There are available with an adjusting mechanism which controls the amount of spike showing above the table and which also enables the complete spikes to be lowered after spreading to allow for cutting. c) With the help of manually operated spreading truck: • Spreading machines carry the pieces of fabric from end to end of the spread, dispensing one ply at a time on to the spread. • Then basic elements consists of a frame or carriage, where traveling in guide rails at the edge of table, a fabric support and guide collars to aid the correct unrolling of the fabric. • In the simpler visions the operator clamps the free end of fabric in the line with the end of the spread pushes the spreader to the other end cuts off the ply in the line with that end, clamps the beginning of the nest ply, pushes the speeder to the other end and son on.

Requirements for making fabric spreading: The main function of spreading is laying fabric as per marker so that right quantity of fabric may be cut in conformance with the customer's order. Besides, spreading must be accomplished with some other secondary objectives in mind: 1. Controlling shading of fabric. 2. Ensuring correct ply direction & lay stability. 3. Controlling alignment of plies. 4. Controlling tension of fabric. 5. Elimination defects in fabric. 6. Controlling static electricity 7. Controlling distortion in the spread of fabric 8. Controlling fusion of ply during cutting.

Methods of spreading:

There are three methods of spreading of fabric used in the industry. They are the following: 1. Manual spreading 2. Spreading using travelling head and 3. Semi-automatic & automatic spreading. Manual spreading: Manual spreading consists in drawing fabric from package. If the package is in roll from, it may be supported on a steel roller. Then the fabric is carried over the table and the end is trimmed with scissors or cutting and then secured with weights or clamps. The operators align the

edges and ensure that there is no tension or wrinkles in the fabric. The typical fabrics that need to be spread manually are those with checks, stripes and other regularly repeating patterns. Computerized fabric spreading:

Fig: Fabric Spreading Machine

Features: The Stretch Fabric Spreading has been designed for trouble free spreading of all stretchable fabrics like lyres, single jarsey, open width knitted, tulle, tricot, etc. Material feeding is done by having the fabric unrolled by means of conveyor belts that move in synchronization with machine’s spreading speed. Dancer-Bar system used in the machine enables you to have the fabric spread without any tension on. This system is used to adjust the fabric feeding speed automatically by sensing the possible tension or looseness on the fabric. Dancer-Bar system is controlled by computer connected encoder by means of producing reverse current.

Standard Encoder system; to provide accurate measurement of the marker length, programmable to the layer length to be spread 100% safety. Splice places can be set into the PLC memory and when required the machine can be returned to the nearest splice point automatically.

Technical information: •

Edge alignment by photocells, 10 cm reading distance (precision of + 1.5 mm)

Konsan´s special drive system that transfers the momentum to four wheels

Fully automatic, computerized system control (PLC computer system)

Touch-Screen operation console with super encoder system

Fully automatic cutting at layer ends

Noiseless working environment without any vibration

Zig-zag spreading ability by fitting a simple apparatus (Precision +6.5 mm) (While working with Zig-zag spreading apparatus maximum spreading height is 10 cm.)

Precision of + 5 mm at layer ends when cutting layers

Spreading mechanism lift that can be adjusted according to the fabric thickness

Pooling system that enables the conveyor synchronized manner with spreading speed

One-touch button operation that automatically up to the cutting group

Operator platform

Report about daily and general operations


belts the





Spreading and returning speeds can be adjusted while working with cutting apparatus

Fig: Technical Information of fabric spreading Cut order planning: The cut order planning is an essential element of cutting room management. Without this planning the cutting Department can not continuously feed the sewing department for uninterrupted production. Thus cut order plan is the plan of the cutting room to cut fabric required against an order as per sewing production plan economically and with the least wastage. The cut order plan shows:

1. Marker plan 2. Number of lays against the order 3. Number of plies in each by 4. The most economic cut quantity

Some observations regarding the best cut order plan:

1). Better marker plan: Markers become more efficient if they contain more number of garments. For example, 1-piece marker is less efficient than 2 or 3-pi~e marker. Similarly 6-piece marker is more efficient than 3-piece marker and 12-piece marker is more economic than 6-piece marker. Number of lay against an order: The lesser the number of lays with which you can fulfill the order the better is the option. Thus you can quickly feed the cut pieces to the sewing section. Number of plies in each day: The highest number of plies ensures larger quantity to be cut per lay. But there is a limit to the maximum number of plies in a lay. The most economic Cut quantity: The above factors determine the most economic cut quantity per lay against an order. Fabric cutting: Cuts fabric according to a pattern.

Fg: Fabric cutting

Fabric cutting by two ways• Manually • Machinery

Fg: Fabric cutting Fabric cutting tips: Sharp tools! Make sure that your cutting tool is sharp, no matter if it is a rotary cutter or scissors. Small nicks in a rotary cutter can cause problems in that if it does not cut all the way through, there is the chance that it will become misaligned as you try to make the cut go through the fabric, either by trying to pull it or re-cutting. Pre-wash the fabric. This can help in the cutting process by allowing you to align the fabric, selvage to selvage, then folding it in half. The fold in the fabric straight off the bolt does not mean that the fabric is aligned correctly. In fact, most times, it is misaligned. Once the fabric is washed and folded, press the fold.

Start with a clean, even edge. Once the fabric is aligned, it is time to cut the edge. This can be accomplished by first laying the fabric on a flat surface, with the fold closest to you and the aligned selvages away from you. Snip the fabric close either edge on the fold. If you are righthanded, snip the left edge, and vice-versa. Once you snip it, then tear the fabric from the fold to the selvages. Tearing it assures that it will clean up on the straight of grain. Once done, realign the selvages, place the folded side of the fabric closest to you, and smooth it out (press it before placing it on the flat surface, if it needs it). Using an acrylic ruler, align a straight, marked line with the fold, leaving approximately 1 inch of fabric past the side of the ruler, then cut. Use this edge to cut the rest of the fabric. Check the alignment of the ruler with the edge of the fabric every few cuts to make sure that it remains clean and even.

Layering fabric. The safest way to assure that your cuts are clean is to not cut more than the two (2) layers created by placing it on the flat surface with the fold closest to you. Notice that I said "safest". It is also the slowest. It is possible to fold the fabric once more, bringing the selvages up to the fold. Should you decide to do this, make absolutely sure that there are no creases or mini-folds within the fabric. If not careful, multiple layers can cause the little jags on the other folds.

Cutting multiple same-size strips. If cutting strips that are all the same size, you can speed the cutting up by placing a piece of tape on top of the ruler on the edge of the size you need. This way, instead of having to search for the measurement each time, you can simply align the tape with the edge of the fabric. This visually makes the cutting easier and faster. COMMENTS: Kathy recommends using painter's tape on the back side of the ruler; this allows the ruler to slide right next to your fabric, making alignment easier and faster.

Stabilizing the acrylic ruler. If the ruler is not firmly held in place and is allowed to slip and slide, this can cause cuts to be uneven. There are items that can be used to help stabilize the ruler, including pre-made sandpaper dots that stick to the underneath side of the ruler or you can

also simply fold tape back on itself (or use double-sided tape) and stick it to the back.

Acrylic ruler maintenance. Over time, acrylic rulers can sustain damage that may look minor, however it can add up to spell disaster if there is enough damage to cause the measurements to be off, even an eighth of an inch. Add to this the fact that your "straight edge" is no longer straight and it compounds the problem. COMMENTS: Valerie recommends keeping a careful eye on the acrylic ruler to make sure it is free of nicks and/or shaved off bits of the ruler. A clothing marker/cutter:

marks the size, sewing information and codes on the fabric or worksheet lays out fabric on the cutting table

arranges pattern pieces on the fabric

marks the pattern outline on the fabric

cuts the fabric by hand, with an electric hand-held cutting machine or by using computer-controlled equipment

may calculate the amount of fabric needed

Bundles the pieces of fabric together and stores them in order of size.

Depending on the size and type of clothing company, the work of a clothing marker/cutter may be two separate jobs. This is most likely to be the case in larger clothing factories where the marking is done on the computer. Skills: Clothing markers/cutters need to have measuring skills, problem-solving skills and an eye for detail. They must be skilled in making calculations, and they should be able to follow instructions. They may also need computer skills. Knowledge:

Clothing markers/cutters should know about fabrics, garment construction, cutting equipment and methods, sewing codes and symbols, and Computer Aided Design (CAD) equipment.

Personal qualities: Clothing markers/cutters need to be accurate, quick, neat and patient. They should also be practical and able to work well under pressure. Physical requirements: Clothing markers/cutters need to have normal colour vision and good hand-eye co-ordination. Height may be an advantage for reaching across the cutting table. Educational requirements: It is preferred that clothing markers/cutters have two years' secondary education in technical drawing, maths and basic computing. Some employers prefer their clothing marker/cutters to have a Diploma in Fashion Design and Technology, but this depends on the type of garments made. Clothing marker/cutters who work in the area of high fashion generally require a higher level of skill, and those who operate a computerized marking system usually learn to operate the CAD system as part of the diploma. Entry requirement: Clothing markers/cutters may enter the job as a trainee direct from school, or on completion of a relevant foundation or introductory course. Useful Experience: Community or night courses in clothing and/or work in a clothing factory or workroom may provide useful experience.

Fig: Fabric cutting machine Training on the job All skills such as arranging pattern pieces on fabric (lay planning), marking and cutting are gained on the job. Some companies may offer training on the computerized marking system. Trainees can work towards a National Certificate in Clothing Manufacture. Work Places: Clothing markers/cutters work in factories and workrooms. Fusing: Interlining is one kind of accessories which is used between two layers of fabric in garment to support reinforce and control areas of garments and to remain actual shape. It may be applied on base fabric by sewing or bounding the fronts of jackets and coats.

Interlining is a layer of fabric inserted between the face and the lining of a garment, drapery, or quilt. Interlining is similar to batting, a thick layer of fiber designed to provide insulation, loft, and body to quilts, pillow toppers, and heavy winter jackets.

Fg: General fusing

Generally, interlinings are soft, thick, and flexible. Some interlinings are designed to be fused, while others are intended to be sewn to one or both layers of the textile. As an inner lining within textiles, interlining is used in a number of applications. Though the consumer never sees it, interlining is the difference between a good winter coat and a great one, or lush full drapes and listless hanging fabrics. In many cases, interlining serves as an additional layer of insulation. For example, drapes are often interlined with flannel or a similarly thick material to keep rooms warmer in winter and cooler in summer, while many winter coats and pants use a thick layer of interlining to protect the wearer from the elements. Some of these garments also feature removable interlinings, so that they can be worn in warmer weather as well.

Sorting/Bundling: After Cutting the entire Fabric lay, all garment component in stack from is sorted out as per size and color. To avoid mistake in sorting .It is better to use code number on each pattern.

Fg: Bundling

Sewing / Assembling: It is the most important department / Section of a garment manufacturing industry sewing machine of different types are arranged as a vertical line to assemble the garments. Sequence of types of sewing machine arrangement depends on sequence of sewing machine arrangement depends on sequence of assembling operation. Number of sewing machine per line varies from 20 nos to 60 nos. Depending of the style of garment to be produced. Production per line per hour also various from 100 to 150 pieces depending on Specific circumstance. Number of Sewing machine arrangement per line may be up to 60 depending on design & out put quantity of garment. The sewing operation in most of the garment construction companies is closely supervised for quality control. A variety of apparel styles and fabrics are sewn these days. There are a large number of sewing machines available for almost any sewing operation. Some of the

examples of such machines are single needle, double needle, safety stitch, automatic meter, automatic multi stitch, loop ticker, pocket welt, keyhole buttonhole, automatic button sewer, round eyelet etc.

Fg: Garments sewing Sewing method can be divided into two parts: 1. Auto sewing 2. Industrial sewing. Automatic sewing: We have new developed filter bag tube automatic sewing machine in China, the price for this is USD52, 000/sets FOB Shanghai, if you are interested in our products, please feel free to contact me. Filter bag tubing automatic sewing production line includes five parts. Auto feeding and auto sewing, storing, auto cutoff at fixed length as well as control. 1. Auto feeding: Includes photoelectric monitoring device and braking function. The braking device prevents fabric’s roll from feeding freely; The photoelectric monitoring device supplies right quantity of cloth depending on the variation of the sewing speed. 2. Automatic sewing: Main sewing machine automatic adopts JUKI Union Special 35800 machine. Needle gauge: 3.2/3.2mm, stitch length:

3-4mm; Sewing speed: 7-10m/min; The sewing speed is adjustable according to different cloth and stitch thread; Needle cold blow device, pneumatic presser foot device, non woven fabric cloth guiding parts are also provided. (Silicon oil self-flashing device may be optioned as required). This product line has the woven material automatic sewing function yet special accessories used for woven material must be added. 3. Storing parts: Sewn bag is stored here to ensure the nonintervention of the former sewing with later cutoff and stoking, or else the overall system will be halted. 4. Auto fixed length cutoff: Length of bag will be set here. The cut will be done in case of set length achieved, and the bag will be pushed away from the product line waiting on the windrow table for inspection.

5. Master control: Programmable logic controller (PLC) is adopted to control the pneumatic element, transducer and photo sensor to ensure the harmony and automatic operation of the overall system and also display the yield of that day. 6. Key elements adopt products from U. S., Germany and Canada to ensure the reliable operation and prolong service life. Industrial sewing machine: Industrial Sewing Machines, especially those with power stands, are presumed to be used in commercial settings. They have manufacturer's courtesy 30-90 day warranties against defects in material and workmanship, but do not include any warranty card in the boxes. No industrial sewing machines with table, stand and motor have warranty cards inserted in the box. There is only a 30-90 day courtesy warranty against defects in material and workmanship. Manufacturers assume that their industrial machines with power stands may be going into 24/7 usess at factories where they are responsible for their own maintenance. Features: •

Sews Up To 5500 Stitches Per Minute

Fully Automatic Oil Bath Lubrication

Japanese Hirose Rotary Hook System

Feed Dog Bias Adjustment

Includes Power Stand And 1/2 Hp Motor

For Tailoring And Drapery Fabrics

Straight Stitch Industrial Sewing Machine

Japan Stand Pictured which is Not the U.S.A Stand

Uses needles DBx1; size 14 for light fabric; 16 for heavy fabric

Great for sewing clothes, knits, jeans, etc.


Up to 5,500 stitches per minute High speed, single need industrial head

Extremely quiet and smooth operation

Ideal lower tension can now be achieved as a result of improvements in the thread take-up, rotary hook, and feed mechanisms

Feed dog bias adjustment measurement reduces puckering and uneven material feeding

Perfect machine for a full-time high speed production factory

Optional ergonomic table, stand, motor, with lockable swiveling caster wheels

Inspection: Each and every garment after sewing passes through the inspection table/point. where the garment are thoroughly and carefully checked to detect/find any defect if present in the garment. The defects may be for example variation of measurement. Sewing defect, fabric defect, spots etc. If the defect is possible to over come .then the garment is sent back to the respective person for correction. If the defect is not correction able, then the garment is separated as wastage.

Fg: Garments Inspection Pressing/ finishing: After Passing through the inspection table, each garment is normally ironed /pressed to remove unwanted case and to improve the smoothness, So that the garment is also done here for poly packing of the garment as per required dimension. The finishing department plays vital role in every factory. The finishing department must: 1. Control quality to satisfy buyers' requirements 2. Make up and touch up – cut excess yarn and redo seams 3. Count garments 4. Wash 5. Iron 6. Fold 7. Apply finishing treatments 8. Bag 9. Store in finished goods inventory 10. Pick according to the packing requirement and pack into carton boxes 11. Apply labels and bar codes to boxes 12. Ship goods to the customer

That's not very much work... well; actually it's quite a lot of work that's not very important work. After all, the factory has already input over 90% of the value of the finished product – raw materials, most labor, most management, most equipment costs. But if you make a mistake with finished goods you lose that value. Final inspection: It's a common and mandatory phenomenon’s to arrange a final inspection of your goods prior to shipment. Here this inspection done by the way advises by you either by any third party or by Inspection team. Here Final Inspection follows the AQL system (Acceptable Quality Level), which is the most common international method for final inspections. The client decides the level of inspections. Packing: After final inspection, the garments are poly packed dozen wise, color wise, size ratio-wise bundle and packed in to the cartoon. The cartoon is marked with important information in printed from which is seen from outside the cartoon easily.

Fg: Packing

Final random inspection : Final Random Inspection can begin only after production is completed and all merchandise is ready and packed for shipment. We’ll verify product safety, quantity, workmanship, function, color, size, packing, and more. This ensures that your product is consistent and compliant with all country, industry, or otherwise-specified requirements. Final Random Inspection covers product appearance, workmanship quality, size measurements, functionality assortment, accessories, labeling and packing. We follow the inspection method by attributes ANSI/ASQC Z1.4 (ISO 2859-1) and issue detailed inspection reports based on defined AQL’s. Inspection certificates are issued if stipulated in the letter of credit.

Fg: (FRI) Final random inspection

Destination to buyer: The Cartoon of the garment are delivered or placed in the dispatch department or finished products go down, from where the garment lot is delivered for shipm Net reference tch+&btnG=Google+Search&meta=&aq=f&oq=Garments+design+sketch +&fp=c90f9391455b7896 .html hl=en&source=hp&q=Garments+design+sketch&um=1&ie=UTF8&ei=4l4fS5nqBor7_Aaer82RDA&sa=X&oi=video_result_group&ct=title &resnum=4&ved=0CCEQqwQwAw#hl=en&source=hp&q=Garments+de sign+sketch&um=1&ie=UTF8&ei=4l4fS5nqBor7_Aaer82RDA&sa=X&oi=video_result_group&ct=title &resnum=4&ved=0CCEQqwQwAw&qvid=Garments+design+sketch&vid =-2551165780492318982 individual_id=280577&portfolio_id=2627859 contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=1454302 %20Design %20Sketches/3/0/0/Relevance/zoom=off/qi=41/qk=20/bepersistence=tru e/_iceUrlFlag=7?_IceUrl=true %20Design %20Sketches/3/0/0/Relevance/zoom=off/qi=41/qk=20/bepersistence=tru e/_iceUrlFlag=7?_IceUrl=true %20Design %20Sketches/3/0/0/Relevance/zoom=off/qi=41/qk=20/bepersistence=tru e/_iceUrlFlag=7?_IceUrl=true contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=1454302 _cody.pdf;jsessionid=0BD60AC0C77E7FBC380F2649EBD4B7B6? sequence=1 shion_design.html prog=normal&id=IEECPS0020060CP524000726000001&idtype=cvips& gifs=yes 0&sa=N&fp=c90f9391455b7896 w=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5 =545d8e2caaa2dcf7fee74dc3089fd68d =&aq=f&oq=Garments+pattern+design+&fp=c90f9391455b7896 w=c&_searchStrId=1128535109&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050 221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=dd49dcaa43051388 4ec785ff2f1ca4ce contentType=Article&contentId=1532799 contentId=1585421&contentType=Article ng.html 10&sa=N&fp=c90f9391455b7896 ple+making 10&sa=N&fp=c90f9391455b7896 gclid=CJ_Z6sqJyZ4CFQdgZwodAFzhsQ Final Brief: Actually we already know about appeal manufacturing sequence but from this assignment we know about the sequence very well and perfectly. From this sequence we can easily know about the garments making step, which is much helpful for us in our near future.

As a merchandiser student we think Apparel Manufacturing sequence will very mush helpful for our job field. From this sequence we know about each and every sequence of apparel merchandising very well. Especially in Garment export oriented business this sequence is much important for insure high globally business. Conclusion: The process sequence of manufacturing of apparel is a vast and complicated thing. The process is starts from design making and end at shipment. From design making to dispatch to buyer every sequence is interrelated. Without finishing previous process next process is not possible. The sequence should be one after another. The workers of whole factory including merchandiser does the whole process with lots of effort to complete the process without any fault.

Design seeks to discover and assess structural, organizational, functional, expressive and economic  
Design seeks to discover and assess structural, organizational, functional, expressive and economic  

We have to observe things with our keen-eyes. We try to notice small to smallest things in any kind of things that we are interested in, so...