Page 1

Total no. of wales Course / min . = Course / cm Wales / cm × 100 Total no. of Needles used in knitting RPM × No. of Feeder × 60 × 12 × Efficiency = = Wales / cm × 100 Course / cm × 100 =

RPM × No. of Feeder × No. of Needle × SL(mm) = 3527.80 ×Yarn count

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND

PRACTICES Montex fabrics Ltd. (Mondol Group)

CHAPTER- 1

INTRODUCTION By means of practical knowledge it’s not possible to apply the theoretical knowledge in the practical field. For any technical education, practical experience is almost equaled important in association with the theoretical knowledge. The industrial attachment is the process, which builds understanding, skills and attitude of the performer, which improves his knowledge in boosting productivity and services. University education provides us vast theoretical knowledge as well as more practical Attachment, in despite of all these industrial attachment helps us to be familiar with technical support of modern machinery, skillness about various processing stages. It also provides us sufficient practical knowledge about production management, work study, efficiency, industrial management, purchasing, utility and maintenance of machinery and their operation techniques etc. the above mentioned cannot be achieved successfully by means of theoretical knowledge only. This is why it should be accomplished with practical knowledge in which it is based on.


2

Industrial attachment makes us reliable to be accustomed with the industrial atmosphere and improve courage and inspiration to take self responsibility. Textile education can’t be completed without industrial training. Because this industrial training minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge and make us accustomed to industrial environment. I got an opportunity to complete two-months long industrial training at MONTEX TEXTILE LTD , which is a 100% export-oriented composite Knit Dyeing Industry. It has well planned & equipped fabric dyeing-finishing and garments units in addition to facilitate knitting and knitwear manufacturing.

Chapter- 2

Name

: Montex fabrics Ltd (Mondol Group).

Type

: 100% Export Oriented Composite Knit Industry.

Year of establishment

:

2000

Investor

:

Abdul Mojid Mondol

Location

:

Nayapara, Konabari, Gazipur.

Project cost

:

700 crore


Certification & awards

:

ISO 9001:2000.

Production capacity

:

Knitting: 7 tons/day Dyeing: 18 ton/day

Sewing: 70,000pcs/day Main Production

:

Basic T-Shirt, Long Sleeve, Sweater, T-Shirt, Polo Shirt, Pajama, Ladies, Kids Knitwear& all kinds of knit Garments & Knit fabrics.

E–mail Address

:

hr@mondol.net

URL

:

http://www.mondol.net

History of the project development After successful operation in Montex fabrics Ltd, the owner had decided to start a fully information & technology based along with the social accountability and quality controlled modern ready made composite knit garments industry in large scale. In this connection Abdul Mojid Mondol had decided in a resolution to start a company in Nayapara, Konabari and Gazipur. In the year 2000 to manufacture knitwear garments for the international market. Right from inception the policy of the company has been to provide total customer satisfaction by offering quality knitwear in time. To meet the commitments of quality and prompt delivery, Montex fabrics Ltd Decided to integrate the manufacturing process in a planned manner. Over the years the entire process has been integrated by importing sophisticated machinery from world-renowned manufacturers. Working on new concepts in styling & content of the knitwear is a continuous activity in Montex fabrics Ltd with an objective to up the quality and the value of merchandise .In 2000, the year in which International business was started;


4

Montex fabrics Ltd. concentrated all its strengths and resources in developing a wide range of knitwear for the international market.

Vision & mission of the project The mission and vision of Montex fabrics Ltd. is to manufacture and deliver high quality readymade garments (RMG) to its customers. The core objective is to attain and enhance customer satisfaction by providing on time delivery of desired quality readymade garments and also to increase efficiency of workforce. To attain these objectives, the management of Montex fabrics Ltd. has decided to adopt the following•

To increase awareness regarding customers requirements throughout the organization.

By providing training to develop efficiency of the employee.

To collect customer’s feedback regularly to know about their conception about their company and to take timely appropriate action.

To reduce the percentage of wastage / rejection minimum by 2% per annum’s implement and monitor ISO 9001:2000 quality management system within the organization.

CHAPTER- 3

Management System Montex Fabrics Ltd. the Managing Director/ Chairman who controls the entire factory. And the others respective department chief controls their department in this factory. In this below the organ grams of administration and the others department is showing:


Knitting section AGM PM Store Incharge Knitting Master Supervisor Fitter man Operator Fitter man Operator

. Kniting Helper

Kniting Helper

Dyeing & Finishing Section: GM AGM PM SPO Batch Incharge Finishing


6 Incharge Lab Incharge PO APO Supervisor Sr. Operator Operator Assis. Operator Sewing man Helper Turning m/c Operator Helper Sewing man Squeeze Operator Dryer Operator Compactor Operator Helper Lab Technician QC Technician


Section-wise manpower Department Knitting Dyeing & Finishing Lab & QC Garments Power, Boiler, Utility & Maintenance Inventory Administration Security Others Total

Manpower 177 446 15 6000 64 14 13 45 85 6859

Management system: • • • • •

Intercom telephone Fax E-mail Written letters Oral

Management System: • • • • •

Buyer sample is send to G.M. Matching is done by lab in charge. Sample is prepared by dyeing master. Sample is send to the buyer for approval. Approved sample is returned and taken as STD. Sample for bulk production. • Asst. dyeing master gives responsibilities to production officer.


8 • •

Then production officer, with the supervisors start bulk production. On line and off line quality check is done by lab in charge and asst. dyeing master. • After dyeing finishing in charge controls the finishing process with the supervision of production officer. • After finishing, the material is checked by dyeing master. • Finally G.M. checks the result with dyeing master and decision is taken for delivery.

Duties & Responsibilities of Production Officer: •

To collect the necessary information and instruction from the previous shift for the smooth running of the section.

To make the junior officer understand how to operate the whole production process.

To match production sample with target shade.

To collect the production sample lot sample matching next production.

To observe dyed fabric during finishing running and also after finishing process.

To identify disputed fabrics and report to PM/GM for necessary action.

To discuss with PM about overall production if necessary.

To sign the store requisition and delivery challenge in the absence of PM

To execute the overall floor work.

To maintain loading/ unloading paper.

Any other assignment given by the authority.

Duties & Responsibilities of Senior Production Officer: •

Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.

Batch preparation and pH check.


Dyes and chemicals requisition issue and check.

Write loading / unloading time from machine.

Program making, sample checking, color measurement.

Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing machine.

Any other work as and when required

Duties & Responsibilities of DGM (Production): •

Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.

Check the sensitive parameters of different machines for smooth dyeing.

Check the different log books and report to management.

Check the plan to control the best output.

To trained and motive the subordinates how to improve the quality.

Control the supervisor, operator, asst.operator and helper of dyeing m/c

Maintenance the machinery and equipments.

CHAPTER- 4 Raw Material Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in continuous production and for high quality fabric.

Types of Raw Materials: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Yarn Fabric Dye stuff Chemical and auxiliaries

Raw Materials Sources: Cotton Yarn:

1. Gulshan Spinning Mill. 2. Square Spinning Mill.


10

3. Sliver Spinning Mill. 4. Prime Spinning Mill. Polyester Yarn: India Lycra : Singapore, Indonesia, Korea, Japan Fabric

: 01. Mondol Fabrics Ltd. 02. Cotton Club (BD) Ltd.

Types of fabrics:              

Single jersey Single jersey with lycra pique Polo pique. Single lacoste Double Lacoste Fleece Rib Rib with lycra 1*1 Rib 2*1 Rib CVC. Polyester. PC.

Different Types of Dyes Used In Montex Textile Ltd With Their Brand Name Reactive Dye : BRAND NAME DY-STAR.

COUNTRY NAME GERMANY

NAME OF DYE STUFF Remazol Blue RR Remazol Yellow RR Remazol Deep Black GWF


IMPOCOLOR

GERMANY

BENZEMA

SWITZER LAND

CLARIANT

SWITZER LAND

HUNTSMAN

SWITZER LAND

JIHUA

CHINA

SUMIFIX

JAPAN

SUN COLOR

KOREA

Remazol Red RR Remazol Turquoise Blue G Remazol B/Yellow3GL Remazol Blue BB new Remazol Orange RR Remazol Blue RSPL Levafix Rubine CA Gran Levafix Red CA Gran Levafix Olive CA Gran Levafix Fast Red CA Gran Levafix Brillant Red E-4BA Gran Dianix Navy CC Dianix Turquoise S-BG Imcozin Blue E-NR Imcozin Blue V-CR 150% Imcozin Brilliant Red V-F3B Imcozin Brilliant Yellow V-4GL Imcozin Yellow E-3R 150% Bezaktive Blue S-GLD 150 Bezaktive Yellow S-3R 150 Bezaktive Red S-3B 150 Drimarine Yellow K-4G Cdg Terasil Red W-4BS Terasil Navy W-RS Novacron Red FN-R-01 Novacron Yellow F-4G Starfix Black B 150% Starfix Red EP 150% Sumifix Supra Blue E-XF Sumifix Supra Yellow E-XF Sunfix Navy Blue MF-D

Different Types of Chemicals Used In Mondol Textile Ltd With Their Brand Name:

CHEMICAL NAME Wetting agent

BRAND NAME FELSON NOF

COUNTRY NAME Germany


12

Levelling agent Anti-creasing agent

AD,DPE,TUBIFIX MFL Kapazon H-53 Per Oxide Stabilizer CBB Rucorit Wez Caustic Caustic Soda Ash Soda Ash H2O2 H2O2 Uvitex-BMA Optical Brightening Uvitex-BHV Agent Uvitex-BBT Syno White 4Bk H2O2 Killer OEM Acetic Acid Acetic Acid MS Sequestering Agent SIRIX 2UD ANTOX(Y.D) BIOPOLISH,AVOCEF Enzyme BIOPOLISH -B41 Sodium Sulphate Anhydrose Electrolyte / Salt Glubar Salt PCLF,RGO,RGN Detergent SCF Rukozen-NZA Soaping Agent Dekol ISN Cyclonon XEW Nerosoft-JS(an-ionic) Softener Nerosoft-NI(non-ionic) Purrustol-IMA Sandofix-EC Fixing Agent Protan FCE-375

Disperse Dye

Black EX SF Yellow K 4GB Blue KFBL Crimson-XFT D-Red-XFT Orange-HWT Blue BBL

China Germany Germany China Chaina Chaina+Korea Switzerland Korea Germany India China India China Srilanka India Germany India Germany China China Germany Germany


Orange F-3R Red KRB Yellow GG

CHAPTER-5 Layout plan

Location & Factory Layout: Chandra

Konabari 7

11 4 6

5

9 10

3 8

2

13


14

12

1

Nayapara

1.Entry & Exit. • 2. Dyeing + Kniting + Store Room. • 3. Yarn Dyeing section. • 4. Dyeing section. • 5. Finishing section. • 6. Batch section. • 7. Generator. • 8. Finishing + laboratory + Store Room. • 9. Boiler. • 10. Garments. • 11. Compressor. • 12. ETP & WTP • 13. Joydebpur Circle

Layout of Dyeing section:

5. Dilmenler Dyeing M/C

13.Winch Dyeing M/C

8. Dilmenler Dyeing M/C

4. Dilmenler Dyeing M/C

12.Winch Dyeing M/C

9. Dilmenler Dyeing M/C

3. Dilmenler Dyeing M/C

7. Dilmenler Dyeing M/C

6. Winch Dyeing M/C


2. Dilmenler Dyeing M/C

10. Dilmenler Dyeing M/C

1. Dilmenler Dyeing M/C

1. Dilmenler Dyeing M/C

Office Room

Layout of Finishing

Finish 3. Dryer Fabric Inspection

Entry

section:

2. Dewatering M/C 4. Soft Setting M/C

5. Tube Tex M/C

1st floor Entry

Stenter M/C Compactin g M/C

1.Hydro Extractor


16

Peaching M/C

Entry

Brushing M/C

Sliting M/C

2nd floor

CHAPTER-6 Laboratory Lab dip: Lab dip is a process by which buyers supplied swatch is matched with the varying dyes percentage in the laboratory with or without help of “DATA COLOR” Lab dip plays an important role in shade matching & and detaching the characteristics of the dyes and chemicals are to be used in the large scale of production so this is an important task before bulk production. Lab Working Procedure: Lab dip receive ↓ Input id number entry ↓ By reference ←Recipe making→ from data color ↓ Recipe calculation ↓ Pipeting ↓ Fabric weighting & fabric input ↓ Fabric input into dye bath for dyeing


↓ Unloading ↓ Cold wash ↓ Hot wash→ with chemical ↓ Hot wash→ normal water ↓ Acid wash→ normal water ↓ Dryer ↓ Ironing ↓ Shade matching ↓ Shade ok ↓ Lab dip cutting ↓ Submit to buyer ↓ Buyer approval OK

Not OK

Send to floor Available Stock Solutions: •

Red – 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common)

Yellow – 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common)

Blue - 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common).

Preparation: •

To prepare 0.1% Stock solution, it is necessary to mix 0.1 g dye and 100 cc water.


18 •

To prepare 0.5% Stock solution, 0.5 g dye stuff is mixed with 100 cc water.

To prepare 1.0% & 2.0% Stock solution similar procedure is followed.

To prepare 10% Stock solution of Soda ash, 10 g Soda is mixed with 100 cc water.

Depth of shade: •

Montex Fabrics Ltd. Produces 0.1% to 5% shade for the goods. 2.0%for deep shade.

1.0%for medium shade.

0.5%for deep shade.

0.1%for light shade.

Usually following calculations are followed:Recipe % * Sample Weight •

Dye Solution =

(cc). Stock solution %

Recipe % * Liquor) •

Salt

=

(gram per liter). 1000 Recipe % * 100 * Liquor)

Soda Solution =

(cc). (1000 * Stock solution %)

SAMPLE CALCULATION FOR 0.5% SHADE


Sample wt. = 5 mg o Material liquor ratio = 1: 10 o Total liquor (5

×

10) = 50 cc

• •

Dye solution required

Salt solution required

5

×

0.5%

= ------------------- = 2.5 cc •

1%

50

×

25

= ------------------- = 6.25 cc •

20

×

10

o 50 •

10

Soda ash solution required = ------------------- = 2.5 cc o 20

×

×

10

Water required {50 - (2.5 + 6.25 + 2.5)} = 38.75 cc

Procedure for100 % cotton fabric: 1. Calculate the recipe. 2. Weight the fabric. 3. Take the beaker keep the fabric into the beaker. 4. Then the dyes, chemicals & required amount of water take in to the beaker

by the digital pipeting. 5. Then weight the salt by the electric balance and add in to the beaker. 6. Then the beaker set in to the lab dyeing machine for dyeing.


20 7. Start the program for dyeing the whole dyeing time 60 min at 60 째C

temperature. (The dyeing time and temperature depends on which classes of dyes are used for dyeing.) 8. After 30 min add the then add the soda ash. By pipeting . 9. Again run the program next 30 min at the same temperature.

10. Finished the dyeing time then the sample taken from the beaker first Hot wash & then cold wash. 11. Then acid wash as for neutralization. 12. Then soaping required soap solution 10 min at 90째 C temperature. 13. after the fabric again cold. 14. Then dry the lab dip and compare with the standard.

LABORATORY MACHINERIES WITH ITS SPECIFICATION: 01. Machine Type: Pilling Tester. Brand : Paramount Manufacturer : U. K. . 02. Machine Type: Brand: Manufacturer:

Color Fastness to Rubbing Paramount U.K

03. Machine Type: Brand: Manufacturer:

Spectra Photo meter Data Color U. S. A

04. Test Name Brand Origin No.of m/c Test Method

: Color fastness to Wash. : Paramount : U.K : 01 : ISO 105-C06, ISO105-D02


05. Test Name Brand Origin No.of m/c Test Method

: Color Fastness to Perspiration : Paramount : U.K : 02 : ISO 105-C06

06. Lab Dip m/c: No.of m/c Brand name Origin

: 02 : Starlet : U.S.A

M/C NO- 02 Brad name : Starlet Origin : U.S.A Color Matching Cabinet (Light box): No. of Light Box: 02 Light Box no Brand Origin

: 01 : Spectralight-111 : U.S.A

Light Source:      

Day Light (D-65) Cool White Horizon UV TL-84 A (F11-10 degree)

Light Box no: 02 Brand : Verivide Origin : U.K Light Source:  Day Light (D-65)  UV  TL-84


22 

A (F11-10 degree)

07. Machine Type: Washing M/C. Brand : Paramount Manufacturer : U. K . . 08. Machine Type Brand Manufacturer

: Weight Balance M/C : Paramount : U.K.

Chapter – 7 Knitting

Knitting: Knitting is the method of making fabric by transforming continuous strands of yarn into a series of interloping loops, each row of such loops forms the one immediately preceding it. Flow chart of knitting Section: Yarn in cone form Feeding the yarn cone in the creel Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and Tension device. Knitting Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting Inspection Numbering


Machine Description of Knitting Section: No. of M/C M/C No. Of m/c Dia Gauge Feeder 1 15” 24 45 2

17”

24

51

No. Of Needle 1130 1272

3

19”

24

57

1440

4

19”

24

57

1440

5

20”

24

48

1520

6

20”

24

60

1500

8

22”

24

52

1680

24”

24

56

1860

26”

20

84

1620

26”

24/28

78

1932

12

26”

24

78

1920

13

26”

24

84

1944

14

30”

24

90

2232

15

30”

24

72

2232

16

30”

24/28

90

2268

30”

24/20

90

2256

90

2256

96

2268

9 10 11

17 18 19

30”

24/28

M/C Spec S/J

Brand

PAI LUNG S/J PAI LUNG S/J PAI LUNG S/J FUKUH ARA S/J PAI LUNG S/J FUKUH ARA S/J PAI LUNG S/J PAI LUNG Fleece PAI LUNG S/J FUKUH ARA S/J PAI LUNG S/J PAI LUNG S/J PAI LUNG S/J PAI LUNG S/J FUKUH ARA S/J PAI LUNG S/J H/L PAI LUNG S/J PAI LUNG

Origin Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Japan Taiwan Japan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Japan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Japan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan


24

20

30”

24

120

2268

34”

24

108

2544

22

30”

20

90

2288

23

30”

18

60

1680

30”

18

60

1680

25

30”

18/22

56

1680

26

30”

20

60

1872

27

30”

20

72

1872

28

30”

20

56

1872

29

30”

20/24

60

1884

30

34”

20

82

2100

31

34”

20

60

2136

32

34”

20/24

72

2136

34”

20

70

2136

34

32”

20

66

1872

35

36”

18

72

1920

36

36”

20

2256

34

24

108

2544

38

30”

24

44

2220

39

36”

18

52

2034

21

24

33

37

S/J

PAI LUNG S/J FUKUH ARA Fleece PAI LUNG Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG 8 Lock FUKUH ARA Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG 8 Lock FUKUH ARA Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG 8 Lock FUKUH ARA Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG Rib/ PAI Inter LUNG Interloc PAI k LUNG S/J PAI Engr. LUNG Striper D/J PAI Engr. LUNG. Striper

Taiwan Japan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Japan Taiwan Taiwan. Japan Taiwan Taiwan Japan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan


Total

Raw materials for knitting: Type of yarn

Count

Cotton

24S, 26S, 28S, 30S, 32S, 34S, 40S

Polyester

75D, 72D,100D

Spandex yarn

20D,40D, 70D

Grey MĂŠlange (C-90% V-10%)

24S, 26S

PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton)

24S, 26S, 28S, 30S

CVC

24S, 26S, 28S, 30S

Fig- Double jersey knitting m/c


26

Fig- Single jersey knitting m/c

V-Bed Knitting m/c


Cam Box M/C Setup

Auto stripe Knitting M/C

End products of Circular Knitting Machine: Single Jersey M/C: 1. S/J Plain 2. Single Lactose 3. Double Locoest 4. Single pique 5. Double pique 6. Terry fleece Interlock M/C: a) Interlock pique


28

b) Mash fabric c) Face/Back rib Rib M/C: A) 1*1 Rib fabric B) 2*2 Rib fabric Considerable points to produce knitted fabrics: When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows-

Type of Fabric or design of Fabric. Finished G.S.M. Yarn count Types of yarn (combed or carded) Diameter of the fabric. Stitch length Stitch length

Operation procedure: Sample analysis: After receiving an order first step is analysis the fabric. A sample is analysis as per following system. a) Design analysis:Example: Here, = Knit loop = Tuck loop 1 1 Cam set up:

2 2

3 1

4 2

= Miss loop


1 2 3 4 Needle arrangement: - 1 2 3 4/ 1 2 3 4//

This fabric can by produced by two tuck cam Optimum cam set up: 1 2 Optimum needle: - 1 2 1 2/ 1 2 1 2// In BKL most of the fabrics are produced by using three track cam.

The truck cam set up for different fabric that is usually produced in BKL single jersey knitting machine are given below: S.T.B – PK

B – PK

In BKL for double jersey machine two Truck cam are generally used to produce Rib, Interlock Thermal, Mini-Thermal, Waffle, Mini-Waffle etc fabric. Inter lock D

Rib D


30

C

C

Fabric: Single jersey NOTATION DIAGRAM ´ ´

´ ´

´ ´

´ ´

´

´

´

´

´

´

´

´

´

´

´

´

CAM SETTING ARRANGEMENT ∆

NEEDLE ARRANGMENT 1 2 N.B: ´ = Knit stitch ∆ = Knit cam

1 = One butt needle 2 = Two butt needle


Fabric: 1 ´ 1 Rib

CAM SETTING ARRANGEMENT ∆

NEEDLE ARRANGMENT HL

HL LS

11 22

N.B: ∆ = Knit cam H =High butt needle L = Low butt needle 1 = One butt needle 2 = Two butt needle Fabric: 2 ´ 2 Rib CAM SETTING ARRANGEMENT

22

D

C


32

D

C

NEEDLE ARRANGMENT LH LS

11

11 22

N.B: ∆ = Knit cam H = High butt needle L= Low butt needle C= Cylinder D= Dial 1 = One butt needle 2 = Two butt needle Fabric: Plain Interlock CAM SETTING ARRANGEMENT

22


― ―

NEEDLE ARRANGMENT 

H

1.

1

N.B: ∆ = Knit cam H = High butt needle L = Low butt needle

― = Miss cam C = Cylinder D = Dial 1= One

butt

needle

2 = Two butt needle Methods of increasing production: By the following methods the production of knitted fabric can be increased – Single Lacoste: Cam Setup:

Double Lacoste: Cam Setup:

T K K K T K TK K


34

T T K K K K K K T T Pique: Cam Setup:

T T K K K K T T

By increasing m/c speed: Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased but it has to make sure that excess tension is not imposed on yarn because of this high speed. B. By increasing the number of feeder: If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time. C. By using machine of higher gauge: The more the machine gauge, the more the production is. So by using machine of higher gauge production can be increased. E.

By imposing other developments: a) Using creel-feeding system. b) Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage. c) Using yarn feed control device. d) Using auto lint removal.

Production calculation: ďƒ˜ Production/shift in kg at 100% efficiency:

ďƒ˜

Production/shift in meter:


Fabric width in meter:

Some points are needed to maintain for high quality fabric: a) b) c) d) e)

Brought good quality yarn. Machines are oiled and greased accordingly. G.S.M, Stitch length, Tensions are controlled accurately. Machines are cleaned every shift and servicing is done after a month. Grey Fabrics are checked by 4 point grading system

Changing of GSM: Major control by QAP pulley. Minor control by stitch length adjustment. • Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley moves towards the positive direction then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase. • Other m/c in Knitting Section: 1. Gray Inspection M/c, Brand : UZU fabric inspection machine 2. Electric Balance for Fabric Weight. 3. Electric Balance for GSM check. 4. Compressor 2 pieces

Production Parameter:


36

Machine Diameter;

Machine rpm (revolution per minute);

No. of feeds or feeders in use;

Machine Gauge;

Count of yarn;

Required time (M/C running time);

Machine running efficiency.

Relationship between knitting parameter: • Stitch length increase with decrease of GSM. •

If stitch length increase then fabric width increase and Wales per inch decrease. • If machine gauge increase then fabric width decrease. •

If yarn count increase (courser) then fabric width increase.

• If shrinkage increases then fabric width decrease but GSM and Wales

per inch increase. • for finer gauge, finer count yarn should use.

Considerable points to produce knitted fabrics: When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows-

Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.

-

Finished G.S.M.


-

Yarn count

-

Types of yarn (combed or carded)

-

Diameter of the fabric.

-

Stitch length

-

Color depth.

Effect of stitch length on color depth: If the depth of color of the fabric is high loop length should be higher because in case of fabric with higher loop length is less compact. In dark shade dye take up% is high so GSM is adjusted then. Similarly in case of light shade loop length should be relatively smaller Factors that should be change in case of fabric design on quality change: a) Cam setting b) Set of needle c) Size of loop shape

Methods of increasing production: By the following methods the production of knitted fabric can be increased – A.

By increasing m/c speed: Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased but it has to make sure that excess tension is not imposed on yarn because of this high speed.

B.

By increasing the number of feeder: If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time.

C.

By using machine of higher gauge: The more the machine gauge, the more the production is. So by using machine of higher gauge production can be increased.


38

E. By imposing other developments: a) Using creel-feeding system. b) Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage. c) Using yarn feed control device. d) Using auto lint removal. Faults &Remedies of knitting fabrics 1. Hole Mark: Causes: Holes are the results of yarn breakage or yarn cracks. During loop formation the yarn breaks in the rejoin of the needle hook. If the yarn count is not correct on regarding structure, gauge, course and density. Badly knot or splicing. Yarn feeder badly set. Remedies: Yarn strength must be sufficient to withstand the stretch as well as uniform. Use proper count of yarn. Correctly set of yarn feeder. Knot should be given properly. 2. Needle Mark Causes: When a needle breaks down then needle mark comes along the fabrics. If a needle or needle hook is slightly bends then needle mark comes on the fabrics. Remedies: Needle should be straight as well as from broken latch. 3. Sinker Mark Causes: When sinker corrode due to abrasion then some times can not hold a new loop as a result sinker mark comes. If sinker head bend then sinker mark comes. Remedies: Sinker should be changed. 4. Star Mark Causes: Yarn tension variation during production.


Buckling of the needle latch. Low G.S.M fabric production. Remedies: Maintain same Yarn tension during production. Use good conditioned needles. 5. Drop Stitches Causes: Defective needle. If yarn is not properly fed during loop formation i.e. not properly laid on to the needle hook. Take-down mechanism too loose. Insufficient yarn tension. Badly set yarn feeder. Remedies: Needle should be straight & well. Proper feeding of yarn during loop formation. Correct take up of the fabric & correct fabric tension. Yarn tension should be properly. 6. Oil stain Causes: When oil lick through the needle trick then it pass on the fabrics and make a line. Remedies: Ensure that oil does not pass on the fabrics. Well maintenance as well as proper oiling. 7. Pin hole Causes: Due to break down or bend of the latch, pin hole may come in the fabric. Remedies: Change the needle. 8. Bairre: A fault in weft knitted fabric appearing as light or dark course wise (width wise) stripe(s). Causes:


40

This fault comes from yarn fault. If different micro near value of fiber content in yarn. Different lusture, dye affinity of fiber content in yarn. During spinning different similar classes of fiber is mixed specially in carded yarn & these fibers have similar characteristics. In draw fame different similar classes sliver is mixed and make one sliver. Remedies: We can use this fabric in white color. 9. Fly: Causes: In knitting section too much lint is flying to and fro that are created from yarn due to low twist as well as yarn friction. This lint may adhere or attaches to the fabric surface tightly during knit fabric production. Remedies: Blowing air for cleaning and different parts after a certain period of time. By cleaning the floor continuously. By using ducting system for cleaning too much lint in the floor. Over all ensure that lint does not attach to the fabric. 10. Yarn contamination Causes: If yarn contains foreign fiber then it remains in the fabric even after finishing, If lot, count mixing occurs. Remedies: By avoiding lot, count mixing. Fault less spinning.

Yarn Faults: • • • • •

Neps. Slubs. Yarn count. Thick/Thin place in yarn. Hairiness.

Chapter- 8 Batching


Batching: Batching is the process to get ready the fabrics that should be dyed and processed for a Particular lot of a Particular order. Batch Management: Primarily Batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing Manager. Some time Planning is adjusted according to m/c condition.

Batch process follow-up: Grey fabric inspection Batching Fabric Turning Storing for dyeing

Purpose of Batch Section: • •

To receive the grey fabrics roll from knitting section or other source. To turn out the tubular fabric in its grey stage and to safe the face side of the fabric from any type of friction during the time of dyeing.


42 • • • • • • • •

To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the following criteriaOrder sheet (Receive from buyer) Dyeing shade (Color or white, light or Dark) M/c available Type of fabrics (100% cotton, PC, CVC) Emergency To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card. To keep records for every previous dyeing.

Criteria of proper batching: -

To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c. To minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c stoppage time. To keep the no. of batch as less as possible for same shade. To use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade.

Fabrics Faults Identification: •

Hole Mark: Five are acceptable.

Needle Mark: five are acceptable. Visualize on the face side of the fabric.

Sinker Mark: These problems are not acceptable. It is Visualize on the back side of the fabric.

Patta: acceptable for only white color producing.


Star Mark: Five are acceptable.

Thick and thin place.

Lycra out.

Loop hole.

Oil spot.

Drop Stitches

Chapter- 9 Dyeing Section Dyeing: Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material in loose fiber, yarn, cloth or garment form by treatment with a dye. General Classification of dye stuff (Dyers Point of view): Coloring matters Dyes

Water soluble

Pigment

Water insoluble

Vat

Azoic

Mineral Vat Direct

Acid

Basic

Sulpher

Disperse

Reactive

Optical whiteners

Dyeing Machine: Sample dyeing machine: No. of sample dyeing machine

= 03

Mineral


44

Total machine capacity of sample m/c Total production capacity of sample m/c

= 150 kgs = 125kgs

Production dyeing Machine: No. of production dyeing machine Total Machine capacity on dyeing floor Total Production capacity on dyeing floor

= 13 = 20,000kgs = 18 tons/day

Dyeing Machine Specification: Machine no-01 Machine name : Dilmenler (High temperature machine). Origin : Turkey Capacity : 800kg Production Date: : 2001 Number of nozzle :8 Max. working Temperature : 135째C Max. working pressure: : 3-5 bar M/L ratio :1/6

Machine no-02 Machine name Origin Capacity Production Date: Number of nozzle Max. working Temperature Max. working pressure: M/L ratio

: Dilmenler (High temperature machine). : Turkey : 450 kg : 2003 :3 : 135째C : 3 bar :1/6

Machine no-03 Machine name Origin Capacity

: Dilmenler (High temperature machine). : Turkey : 900kg


Production Date: Number of nozzle Max. working Temperature Max. working pressure: M/L ratio

: 2003 :6 : 135째C : 3 bar :1/6

Machine no-04 Machine name Origin Capacity Production Date: Number of nozzle Max. working Temperature Max. working pressure: M/L ratio

: Dilmenler (High temperature machine). : Turkey : 600kg : 2000 :6 : 135째C : 3.5 bar :1/6

Machine no-05 Machine name Origin Capacity Production Date: Number of nozzle Max. working Temperature Max. working pressure: M/L ratio

: Dilmenler (Low temperature machine). : Turkey : 360kg :2001 :4 : 98째C : 3.5 bar :1/10

Machine no-06 Machine name Origin Capacity Production Date: Number of nozzle Max. working Temperature Max. working pressure:

: Dilmenler (High temperature machine). : Turkey : 900kg :2009 :8 : 135째C : 2.5 bar


46

M/L ratio

:1/6

Machine no-07 Machine name Origin Capacity Production Date: Number of nozzle Max. working Temperature Max. working pressure: M/L ratio

: Dilmenler (High temperature machine). : Turkey : 1200kg :2006 :8 : 135째C : 2.5 bar :1/6

Machine no-08 Machine name Origin Capacity Production Date: Number of nozzle Max. working Temperature Max. working pressure: M/L ratio

: Dilmenler (Maximum temperature machine). : Turkey : 900kg :2009 :8 : 135째C : 2.5 bar :1/6

Machine no-09 Machine name Origin Production Date Capacity Number of nozzle Max. working Temperature M/L ratio .

: Dilmenler (Low temperature machine) : Turkey : 2001 : 600kg :4 : 98째C :1/6

Machine no-10 Machine name

: Dilmenler (Low temperature machine)


Origin : Turkey Production Date : 2000 Capacity : 375 kg Number of nozzle :3 Max. working Temperature : 98째C M/L ratio . :1/10

Machine no-11 Machine name Origin Capacity Number of nozzle Max. working Temperature M/L ratio .

: Dilmenler (High temperature machine) : Turkey : 850 kg :6 : 140째C :1/6

Sample Section: Specification of Sample Dyeing Machine: No. of Machine: 03

Machine no-01 Machine name Origin Production Date Capacity Number of nozzle Max. working Temperature M/L ratio .

: Dilmenler (High temperature machine) : Turkey : 2003 : 30 kg : Four (01) : 135째C :1/6

Machine no-02 Machine name Origin Capacity Max. working Temperature M/L ratio .

: Dilmenler (High temperature machine) : Turkey : 50 kg : 135째C :1/6


48

Machine no-03 Machine name Origin Capacity Max. working Temperature M/L ratio .

: Dilmenler (High temperature machine) :Turkey : 70 kg : 145째C :1/6

Flow Chart for Dyeing:

Flow Chart For Dyeing:

Grey fabric receive from knitting section Batching Select m/c no Fabric loading Select production program Pre treatment Select recipe for dyeing Recipe confirm by D.M / S.P.O Dyeing Post treatment Unload


Dyeing work flow chart: Fabric load ↓. Scouring & bleaching (Wetting agent, sequestering agent, anti creasing agent, Stabilizer, alkali, stabilizing agent, hydrogen per oxide) ↓. A /acid ↓ Enzymes wash with a/acid ↓ Leveling with sequestering ↓ Salt dosing ↓ Dye dosing ↓ Soda dosing ↓ Sample ↓ Drain ↓ Washing off ↓ A/acid ↓ Softener ↓ Unload Flow chart of Turquise Color dyeing: Fabric load ↓ Wet Fabric


50

↓ Drain ↓ Fill water ↓ Detergent, Sequestering, Anticreasing, Stabilizer at 65˚c for 8 min ↓ Caustic soda at 75˚c for 8 min (dosing) ↓ H2O2 at 80˚c (Inject) ↓ Run time at 98˚c for 90 min ↓ Hot wash at 98˚c for 10 min ↓ Acid at 60˚c for 20 min ↓. PH Check (4-4.5) ↓ Enzyme at 60˚c for 60 min ↓ Hot wash at 98˚c for 10 min. ↓ Dye at 60˚c for 30 min (dosing) ↓ Levelling at 60˚c (Inject) ↓ Salt at 60˚c (Inject) ↓ Soda at 60˚c for 30 min (dosing) ↓ Hot wash at98˚c for 10 min (Color) ↓ Acid at 60˚c for 20 min ↓ Fixing at 45˚c for 20 min ↓ Hot wash at 60˚c for 10 min (Color) ↓ Softener at 45˚c for 20 min. ↓ LPD wash


↓ Unload

Flow chart of White fabric dyeing: Fabric load ↓ Wet Fabric ↓ Drain ↓. Fill water ↓ Acid ↓ Ph check-(4-4.5) ↓ Enzyme at 60˚c for 60 min ↓ Enzyme hot at 90˚c for 10 min ↓ Scouring & bleaching at 98˚c for 90 min ↓ Syno color at 60˚c for 30 min (dosing) ↓. Runtime time at 98˚c for 20 min ↓ Sample check↓ Color out ↓ Color hot wash at 80˚c for 10 min ↓ Acid at 60˚c for 20 min ↓ Softener at 45˚c for 20 min ↓ Rinsing ↓ Unload


52

Pretreatment Process of SCOURING/ BLEACHING: Machine filling with water ↓ Chemical Dozing at 98 0C ↓ Run time 30 min. ↓ H2O2 Inject ↓ Run time at 98 0C (90min) ↓ Cooling at 80 0C ↓ Hot wash at 98 0C (10min) ↓ Rinse at 80 0C ↓ Sample Check ↓. H2O2 - Killer Dozing ↓ Run time 10 min ↓ Acid wash 20 min ↓ Drain Demineralization process: It is a modern Industrial water softening process. By this process it can be possible remove of water hardness as well as remove all dissolve salts i.e. FeCO3, CaCl2. Dyeing Sequence for Light Shade: M/C wash (Hydrose, caustic soda at 98˚c for 20 min)


Detergent, Sequestering, Anticreasing, Stabilizer at 65˚c for 8 min Caustic soda at 75˚c for 8 min (dosing) H2O2 at 80˚c (Inject) Run time at 98˚c for 90 min . Hot wash at 98˚c for 10 min A.Acid at 60˚c for 20 min PH Check (4-4.5) ↓ Enzyme at 60˚c for 60 min ↓ Hot wash at 98˚c for 10 min. ↓ Dye at 60˚c for 30 min (dosing) ↓ Levelling at 60˚c (Inject) ↓ Salt at 60˚c (Inject) ↓ Soda at 60˚c for 20 min (dosing) ↓ Hot wash at 80˚c for 10 min (Color) ↓ A.Acid at 65˚c for 20 min ↓ Soaping at 85˚c for 20 min ↓ Fixing at 45˚c for 20 min ↓ Bath drop Dyeing Machine:


54

Unload Fabric

Heat Exchanger

Un Dyed Grey Mellange Fabric Loading

Monitor


Dye Tank

Chemical Tank

Common dyeing faults with their remedies •

Uneven dyeing:

Causes: - Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring & bleaching). - Improper color dosing. - Using dyes of high fixation property. - Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibers. - Lack of control on dyeing m/c •

Remedies:

- By ensuring even pretreatment. - By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibers. - Proper dosing of dyes and chemicals. - Proper controlling of dyeing m/c •

Batch to Batch Shade variation: •

Causes: - Fluctuation of Temperature. - Improper dosing time of dyes & chemicals. - Batch to batch weight variation of dyes and chemicals.


56

- Dyes lot variation. - Improper reel speed, pump speed, liquor ratio. - Improper pretreatment. • Remedies: - Use standard dyes and chemicals. - Maintain the same liquor ratio. - Follow the standard pretreatment procedure. - Maintain the same dyeing cycle. - Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the same depth of the shade. - Make sure that the operators add the right bulk chemicals at the same time and temperature in the process. -The pH, hardness and sodium carbonate content of supply water should check daily. •

Roll to roll variation or Meter to Meter variation: •

Causes: - Poor migration property of dyes. - Improper dyes solubility. - Hardness of water. - Faulty m/c speed, etc •

Remedies: - Use standard dyes and chemicals. - Proper m/c speed. - Use of soft water •

Crease mark: •

Causes: - Poor opening of the fabric rope - Shock cooling of synthetic material - If pump pressure & reel speed is not equal - Due to high speed m/c running •

Remedies: - maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed. - Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature - Reducing the m/c load - Higher liquor ratio


Dye spot: •

Causes: - Improper Dissolving of dye particle in bath. - Improper Dissolving of caustic soda particle in bath. •

Remedies: - By proper dissolving of dyes & chemicals - By passing the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless steel mesh Strainer, so that the large un-dissolved particles are removed •

Wrinkle mark: •

Causes: - Poor opening of the fabric rope - Shock cooling of synthetic material - High temperature entanglement of the fabric • Remedies: - Maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed. - Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature - Higher liquor ratio •

Softener Mark: •

Causes: - Improper mixing of the Softener. - Improper running time of the fabric during application of softener. - Entanglement of the fabric during application of softener •

Remedies: - Maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed. - Proper Mixing of the softener before addition. - Prevent the entanglement of the fabric during application of softener

Yarn Dyeing Montex Fabrics Limited (Yarn dyeing Unit) Name

:

Montex fabrics Ltd (Mondol Group).


58

Type

:

100% Export Oriented Yarn

Year of establishment

:

2002

Investor

:

Abdul Mojid Mondol

Location

:

Nayapara, Konabari, Gazipur.

Project cost

:

60 Core

Certification & awards

:

ISO 9001:2002

Production capacity

:

Dyeing: 8 ton/day (Average)

E–mail Address

:

hr@mondol.net

URL

:

http://www.mondol.net

Yarn Dyeing Machine: 1. M/c Name Capacity Built Year Origin

: : : :

TONG GENG 840 Kg 2003 CHAINA

2.

M/c Name Capacity Built Year Origin

: : : :

TONG GENG 800Kg 2005 CHAINA

3.

M/c Name Capacity Built Year Origin

: : : :

TONG GENG 750Kg 2004 CHAINA

4.

M/c Name Capacity Built Year Origin

: : : :

TONG GENG 500Kg 2006 CHAINA

5.

M/c Name Capacity Built Year

: : :

TONG GENG 850 Kg 2002


Origin

:

CHAINA

6.

M/c Name Capacity Built Year Origin

: : : :

TONG GENG 600 Kg 2006 CHAINA

7.

M/c Name Capacity Built Year Origin

: : : :

TONG GENG 650 Kg 2002 CHAINA

8.

M/c Name Capacity Built Year Origin

: : : :

TONG GENG 400Kg 2004 CHAINA

9.

M/c Name Capacity Built Year Origin

: : : :

TONG GENG 350Kg 2008 CHAINA

10.

M/c Name Capacity Built Year Origin

: : : :

TONG GENG 435 Kg 2002 CHAINA

Precision Winding m/c: (Soft Winding) Brand: SSM (SCHARER SCHWITER METTLER AG) Manufacturer: EU (Switzerland) No. of machine: 5 Type-PA 6-W/F .of head per machine-60 Parts of soft winding machine: 1. Package holder 2. Anti balloon 3. Yarn guide bar 4. Feeder


60

5. Tensioner disc 6. Yarn cleaner 7. Protective bar 8. Tube holder-spring tube Check Points: • Clean over head blower • Water level in splicer • Clean the yarn cleaner Package Density calculation: Package Weigh = 1000gm Package dia =16 cm Spring dia =6cm Height of Package =15cm Mass

We Know that, Density = −−−−−− Here, Mass =Package weight – Bobbin weight Volume =1140-140 =1000gm = 1000 /2590 Volume =0.38gm/cm³ Length Calculation: Yarn count * Yarn weight Yarn length= -------------------------------0.59059 30*1000 =-------------------0.59059 3000 =--------------------0.59059 =5079.66 m

Random Winding m/c: (Soft Winding) Brand : SSM (SCHARER SCHWITER METTLER AG) Manufacturer: EU (Switzerland)


No.of machine: 6 Type: CWI-W No. of head per machine-54*2=108

Parts of random winding machine: 1. Package holder 2. Anti ballon 3. Yarn guide bar 4. Feeder 5. Tensioner disc 6. Yarn cleaner 7. Protective bar 8. Tube holder-spring tube

Check Points: • • •

Clean over head blower Water level in splicer Clean the yarn cleaner

Yarn dyeing is more profitable than Fabric dyeing. For yarn dyeing to require less time so is become popular. For making multicolor fabric yarn dyeing is essential

Yarn dyeing process is given below: Flow chart of White color dyeing: M/C wash ↓ Yarn load ↓ Scouring at 60˚c for 20 min ↓ H2O2 at 70˚c for 5 min (dosing) ↓ Run time at 115˚c for 40 min ↓ Cooling at 80˚c ↓ Syno at 80˚c for 10 min (dosing) ↓. Steam up at 100˚c for 20 min ↓


62

Cooling at 80˚c for 10 min ↓ Sample check ↓ Rinse ↓ Softener ↓ Drain ↓ Unload

Flow Royal/Turquoise/Black/Red color: Rinse ↓ Acetic Acid at 55˚c for 10 min ↓ Soaping at 98˚c for 20 min ↓ Hot wash at 98˚c for 20 min ↓ Hot wash at 80˚c for 10 min ↓ Rinse 5 min ↓. PH Check-5.5 ↓ L.F-dosing for 15 min ↓ Run time at 55˚c for 15 min ↓ Fixing dosing

Light color: Rinse for 5 min ↓ Acetic Acid at 55˚c for 10 min ↓


Soaping at 95˚c for 15 min ↓ Hot wash at 95˚c for15min ↓ Rinse 5 min

Medium color: Rinse for 7 min ↓ Acetic Acid at 55˚c for 10 min ↓ Soaping at 98˚c for 15 min ↓ Hot wash at 98˚c for15min ↓ Rinse 5 min

Chapter-10 Finishing section Finishing: The making of a marketable and consumer usable textile is not completed after fabric production dyeing or printing operation. Fabrics usually still need to undergo an additional processing known as finishing, which is the final processing before the fabric is cut into apparel or made into any articles of textiles. Finishing is what improves attractiveness and makes fabrics suitable for their intended end use.


64

Machine Description for Finishing Section: Finishing section is consisting of two lines. They are – A. B.

Tube line Open line

• • •

A. The machine that are used for open line are given bellow – Slitting and Dewatering machine. Stenter machine Compactor machine

• • •

B. The machines that are used for tube line are given bellow –. Dewatering machine Dryer Compactor machine

Process flow Chart for Finishing Section: Finishing

Open Finish Slitting and Dewatering Stentering Compacting ↓ Inspection Delivery

Tube Finish Dewatering Drying Soft setting Compacting Inspection Delivery

N.B: There are some Open Compactor machines; But GKL has no Open Compactor Machine. Description of The Machine for Tube Finish:


Machine name Dewatering Brand name Heliot Country Padder pressure ng principle :

:

DEWATERING MACHINE: (M/C Specification)

: : France :

1-

Worki

After completing the dyeing process from the dyeing m/c then the fabrics are Ready for de-watering. In de-watering m/c tubular fabrics are mainly processed. There is a magnetic sensor which scene the twist of the fabric and its direction and turn the fabric in opposite direction to remove twist automatically. Here dewatering is performed De-watering is the process to remove the water from the fabric completely by squeezing and it is done by the padder. A suitable expander is used before the fabric is passed through the nip of the padders, which expands the fabric flat wise and adjust the width. The expander width is adjusted as S/J- 20%, PK-25%, Int.-35%, Lacoste-40% wider than the required width. There is a pair of rubber coated padder, where water is removed from fabric when passed through the nip of it. Normally squeezer contain single or double padders where, • One for removing water and • Other for applying finishing chemicals such as softener. But this finishing is done only for the tubular fabric. Open widths knitted fabrics are applied finishing treatment later in stenter. Here present the compressor which given compress air to form ballooning before passing through the padder. This balloon remove crease mark but not form the maximum balloon otherwise shrinkage increase. In feed & out feed traverses which present in albatross control the following functions by over feeding system.

Function: •

Reduce water content.


66 • • • • • • •

Apply chemicals. Apply over feed to give some compaction. Open the fabric from the rope form. Width wise stretch the fabric. Plait the fabric. To control the crease mark of the fabric. To control the length of the fabric

Operational parameter: •

Speed: As much as possible (40-60 m/min). Higher the GSM lower the speed. • Over feed: As required. Higher the GSM higher the over feed. • Padder pressure: 1-1.5 bar as required. Higher the GSM lower the padder pressure. • Width: Fabric width is adjusted as per required width.

Different parts of dewatering m/c:

N.B: Heliot contains two baths. One for padder bath and another for softener bath where softener given 1 g/l. The softener bath capacity is 80 liters.

Special features of Heliot m/c: • • • • •

Single squeeze roller and single padder present. One for squeezing and other for applying softener finished Above 80% water can be removed Maximum 60 inch diameter can be extended. Softener tank present.

Maintenance during operation:


Proper balloon form by compressor air otherwise crease mark appears. • Padder contract point adjusts perfectly according to the fabric construction otherwise accurate water will not remove. • Albatros must be clean every one or two hours later. N.B: This Data’s are varied depending upon the Gray G.S.M and Finished G.S.M and also on the dia of the fabric. All this parameters are suitable for G.G.S.M range 140~160 to get Finish G.S.M 170~185 without Lycra Fabric. All This data’s are practiced in mills which may varied factory to factory. DRYER MACHINE: (M/C Specification)

Fuel combustion chamber: Fuel- Natural gas Fuel pressure-7.2m bar Capacity-300kw Voltage-240/400v Frequency-50Hz Year-12/2007

Working principle of dryer: After de-watering then the fabric through the dryer. The main function of the dryer is given below, • • •

To dry the fabric. To control the overfeed system. To control the vibration which increase the G.S.M.

This machine contains two chambers. Two mesh endless conveyors are placed lengthwise to the chamber named conveyor net and filter net, each chamber contain a burner, which supply hot air .This hot air is guided through the ducting line by suction fan .There are nozzles placed in between filter net and conveyor net. When the fabric pass on the conveyor net, hot air is supplied to the wet fabric to dry it. There are exhaust fan which such the wet air and deliver to the atmosphere through the ducting line. The speed of the dryer depends on the temperature of the m/c & the G.S.M of the fabric. If the m/c temp.is high then m/c speed also high and the m/c temp. is low


68

then m/c speed also low . The vibration speed of the m/c for heavy fabric is 730 m/min and normal fabric is 480 m/min . The temp.is different chambers according to the shade of the fabric – Shade Light Medium Deep

Chamber-1 1200c 1350c 1500c

Chamber-2 1300c 1400c 1700c

Operating parameters:•

Temperature:-Set the temperature between 1200c -1300c for white and 1500c -1700c for color fabric. GSM temperature Or, moisture content temperature • Set the over feed up to 10~20% or as required to get finish G.S.M. • Set the speed as much as possible (6~20m/min). GSM speed

Special feature of Steam dryer: Steam dryer (two chambers). Vibration occurs in heating zone. Process air pressure switch present. Maximum temp. Increase up to 1700c . Steam control switch present. Two burners present. Two conveyor belts are present. Different Sections of Dryer Machine:       


Feed Zone of Dryer

Delivery Dryer

Zone

N.B: For Polyamide: Temp range is 110 0C~ 1150C.Speed range16~18: Overfeed range- 5%. This Data’s are varied depending upon the Gray G.S.M and Finished G.S.M and also on the dia of the fabric. All this parameters are suitable for G.G.S.M range 140~160 to get Finish G.S.M 170~185 without Lycra Fabric. Following tings are also considered incase of Dryer machine:  If fabric is more redder than the standard one, then reduce the temperature.  If fabric is more Yellowier than the standard one, then increase the temperature.  If fabric is more Bluer than the standard one, then increase the temperature. All this data’s are practiced in mills which may vary factory to factory. COMPACTOR MACHINE: (M/C Specification) Tube Compactor: Machine name – Tube compactor Brand name – Heliot Country - France Manufacturing Year – 2004 Working principle:The main object of compactor is to make the fabric surface smooth, to control the residual shrinkage, G.S.M and if required fabric width also. To control the residual shrinkage the fabric is previously shrinkage artificially by gathering of loops of knitted fabric and it is set by heat and pressure. In tube compactor, the dried tubular knitted fabric is face to steam when it passed through the Teflon coated conveyor belt. When a cotton fabric absorbs water, it swells and shrinks (particularly in length direction) because the absorbed water allows the cellulose chains to move relative stain free position. Then the fabric is passed through the expander. This m/c contains two compaction units to compact both side of the tubular fabric. Each unit contains a hot rotating cylinder, blanket which rotate in contact with the cylinder and Teflon cover .while passing the expander roller, the fabric is over feeded. The fabric is compacted with the pressure of blanket and Teflon cover while passing through the hot cylinder .Due to compaction stitch length is reduced. Then the fabric is passed through the counting device .Before packing, the fabric is inspected carefully.

of


70

Important parts:-Over feed roller. -Expander. -Blanket (2)

- Steam sprayers. - Cylinder (2) - Teflon covers.

Operational parameter:• -Set the temperature at 110-1390C (as required) • Set the overfeed % as required; to increase GSM, overfeed need to increase to a certain limit. Function: • Shrinkage control • GSM control • Width control Special feature of Santex –ag Compactor: • • •

Operating system is computerized. Steam bar present which soften the fabric for compacting. In compacting zone, edge & retard roller, compacting shoe and steel plates are present. • A pair of pulley present for fabric dia control. • Fabric G.S.M, shrinkage and dia control.


Compacting Fabric

M/C

for

Tube

N.B: All this data’s are suitable for this machine only. All this parameters are suitable for. Grey G.S.M range 140~160 to get Finished G.S.M 170~185 without Lycra Fabric Following things are also considered in case of compacting machine: •

If fabric is less Reddish than the standard one, then increase the temperature, reduce steam. • If fabric is less yellowish than the standard one, then increase the temperature, without steam. • If fabric is less Bluish than the standard one, then reduce the temperature, increase steam. N.B: Overfeed Steam G.S.M Overfeed Steam Stretch G.S.M Teflon speed (+) – More compaction Teflon speed (-) – Less compaction, G.S.M because overfeed is less. N.B:  To remove twisting the tube fabric may be heat set before compacting.  For Viscose with Lycra more overfeed required.

All this data’s are practiced in mills which may vary factory to factory.

Description of the Machine for Open Finish: SLITTING AND DE-WATER MACHINE: (M/C Specification) Brand name- Bianco (SH) Country- Italy Year of manufacturing2007 Velocity maximum-


72

PASSAGE DIAGRAM OF CORINO SLITTING MACHINE: Working principle:-The slitting m/c has 4 units - initial squeezer, de-twisting, slitter and padder. After dyeing completed and falling of water from fabric the fabric is fed in slitting m/c. So it is necessary to remove some water initially for the case of further processing in this m/c. The initial squeezer does this work. The de-twisting unit removes twists that may present in tubular rope form fabric. This unit has 3 de-twisting rollers, one rotation drum and 2 feeler rollers with sensors. By these rollers it detects twist in fabric and removes by rotating rope fabric in opposite direction. Before slitting there is a blower which blows air to open the tubular fabric & makes it easy to pass over cigger. The cigger can be extended in circumference and opens the tubular fabric in full circumference. Slitting is done by using open mark detecting golden eye by around knife. Then the fabric passes through the padder where washing or chemical treatment is done. Squeezer is used to remove 60-70% of water. After removing water width is controlled by stretcher and fabric is delivered by folding device.

Operational parameter:• •

Set the padder pressure as required (3-7bar) Set the speed as much as possible (30-80m/min).

Function of the Machine: • •

Used to remove excess water after pretreatment and dyeing To slit the tube fabric by the knife for opening of the fabric and ready for stentering • Delivered fabric in crease free state • Before squeezing balloon is formed with the help of compressed air passing by a nozzle or air sprayer • It can control the diameter of fabric and GSM and shrinkage by over feeding mechanism Picture of slitting machine:


Detwister

Rotary Knife Cutter.

STENTER MACHINE: (M/C Specification) .Stenter m/c no - 01 Brand name - Sun-Super Country of origin -South Korea Manufacturing date-: 2006 Width Range -2700 Maximum Speed - 100m/min Chamber – 8

Working Principle: Stenter Machine is generally used to finish the open fabric. This stenter machine consists of six chambers; each contains two burners, two blowers, two ducting line, nozzles and suction fan attach with the suction line. The burner produces hot flue gases which guided though the ducting line by the help of blower. There are nozzles placed above and bellow the rail. When the fabric passed through the rail, then hot air is sprayed to the above and bellows the fabric with the help of nozzle. The hot air is circulating in the chamber and the moisture in the fabric is evaporated, which leave the chamber with the help of suction fan through the ducting line. Temperature of each chamber can control automatically by controlling the intensity of burner. Generally lower temperature is maintained the first and last chamber then other chambers.


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The speed of the fabric is maintained according to the moisture content of the fabric. After passing the fabrics to all the chambers, the fabric is collected for compaction. The performance of the stentering range depends on proper introduction of the cloth into the machine. The finer the fabric is being processed, the greater the significance of the correct, crease free and fault free fabric introduction. In stenter m/c the fabric first passed through different rollers including weft straightening device, uncurling device for proper feeding of the fabric into the machine. Then it passed through the selvedge detector which detect the selvedge and adjust the rail for proper gripping the fabric in the pin arrangement. This stenter m/c consists of both pin and clip arrangement. The fabric first grip by pin and gust before entering the chamber, pin are locked by clip arrangement. To maintain proper dimension of the fabric, length wise overfeed and width wise tension is given to the fabric. Important parts: - Burner (12) - Exhaust air fan (6) - Over feed roller. Function: -

Drying Shrinkage control Heat setting Width control Finishing chemical application. Loop control Moisture control, etc.

Different parts of Stenter m/c :

- Suction Fan (12) - Nozzle - Chain arrangement


Fig: Delivery Zone

Fig: Feed zone

Weft Straighter

Softener Application tank

Fig: Sun-Super Stenter Machine Different sections of Stenter Machine: . A. Padder Section: In the padder section the fabric is treated with chemicals specially with softener and acid in two tanks. Each chemical tanks containsFOR POLYESTER:

Arristan PSR (Softener) - 10kg + Acetic Acid (acid) – 200gm or Aqua IC (Softener) – 10 kg + Acetic Acid (acid) – 200gm

100 liter water 100 liter water

FOR COTTON: (COLOR):- Gemsol ASEM 20P - 10 kg Reaknitt –FF - 7 kg 100 liter water MgCl2 - 3 kg Acetic Acid - 200gm FOR COTTON: (WHITE):- Tubengal SMF Arristan 64 MgCl2

- 10 kg - 3 kg - 3 kg 100 liter water


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Acetic Acid

- 200g

B. Weft Straightner: The main function of Weft Straightner is to control the bowing & Skewnesss of the fabric. C. Width Setting Chamber: This Chamber controls the width of the fabric by clip of 10 pin. D. Heating Chamber: This chamber controls the shrinkage and the G.S.M of fabric. Temperature Range:

Cotton-- 1500C~1700C. Polyester- 1650C ~ 1850C. With Lycra - 1750C ~ 1900C.

E. Cooling Chamber: This chamber cooled the hot fabric before reach to delivery zone. F. Exhaust Motor: This specific part used to exit the steam produced in the chambers and also the extra temperature from the machine.

exit

G. Delivery Zone: This zone delivered the fabric in a folded form. In this zone the fabric has to Pass through several rollers in order to prevent the formation of crease mark in the finished fabric. Parameters Used For Different Constructed Fabric : For Polyester Fabric:

Fabric Type

Overfeed %

Temperature0C Light Color

Single Jersey

5 % to 10%

1750C

Speed (m/min)

Stretch (%) Inch

14~15

Depend on fabric G.S.M

Deep Color

1550C


Single Lacoste

Polo Pique

Interlock

45 % to 50% 1750C

45 % to 50% 1700C

0 % to 15%

1800C

1600C

1600C

1650C

14~15

Depend on fabric G.S.M

18~20

Depend on fabric G.S.M

16~18

Depend on fabric G.S.M

For Cotton Fabric:

Fabric Type

Overfeed %

Temperature0C

Speed (m/min)

Stretch (%) Inch

Light Color

Deep Color

Single Jersey 60 % to 75%

1650C

1600C

15~17

3~4

Single Lacoste

60 % to 70%

1650C

1600C

14~15

2.5~3.5

Polo Pique

60% to 65%

1650C

1600C

14~15

2~3

Interlock

60 % to 70%

1700C

1550C

12~14

2

Rib

60 % to 70%

1650C

1500C

12~14

2


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N.B: All this data’s are suitable for this machine only. All this parameters are suitable for. Grey G.S.M range 140~160 to get Finished G.S.M 170~185 without Lycra Fabric N.B:  If fabric is less Red than the standard one, then increase the temperature, reduce steam.  If fabric is less Yellower than the standard one, then increase the temperature, without steam.  If fabric is less Bluer than the standard one, then reduce the temperature, increase steam. N.B: Polyester rib fabric is finished in tube form. All this data’s are practiced in mills which may vary with the change of fabric type. The quality assurance department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material; in process and various stages of its manufacturing. COMPACTOR Open Compactor: Machine name – Open compactor Brand name – Dilmenler Country – Italy Manufacturing Year – 2008

Function: • • • • •

To control shrinkage. To control width. To control GSM. To smooth fabric. Heat seating of fabric for lycra.

Important parts -

Over feed roller.

-

Expander.

-

Blanket(2)

Operational parameter:


-Set the temperature at 120 °C (as required) -Set the speed as much as possible (15-25 m/min).GSM m/c speed. -Set the overfeed % as required; to increase GSM, overfeed need to increase to a certain limit.

Compacting m/c for open Fabric (Dilmenler)

Printing Printing System: Hand screen printing Screen Printing Automatic Flat (Revolving) screen printing

Type of printing    

Pigment Printing Rubber Printing Discharge Printing High density Printing

Curing Temp: Pigment

-160-1700c


80

Rubber -150-1700c Discharge -2000c High density -1800c

Sequence of printing: Count garment parts Screen preparation Printing paste preparation Applied garment part on the printing bed by (adhesive) gum in the marked portion Printing the garment part by using screen Drying the printed portion by hard dryer applying hot air flow Curing the printed portion by passing through the conveyor dryer at 1600 - 1800 c Inspection is done in qualify control department Picture of Printing Machine of MONDOL TEXTILE LTD:


Automatic Revolving Flat Screen Printing m/c

Chapter- 11

Quality Control System Quality Control: Mainly this factory follows ISO Standard. But testing Standard depends on buyer requirements.

List of Equipments: • • • • • • • • •

Computer Light box Electric Heater Sample Dyeing M/C Electrical Balance pH meter G S M Cutter Washing M/ C Shrinkage & Spirality measurement instrument

Quality Assurance Procedure: Quality assurance Procedure may be divided two major Parts: 1. Online quality Control 2. Offline System Control

Objects of quality control: •

Research.

Selection of raw materials.

Process control.

Process development.

Product testing.

Specification test


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Scope of Quality Control, Quality Assurance and Testing: • • • •

Testing Lab Machine-Auditing System A good Training System Technical Expertise

On Line test: • • • • • •

G S M of the fabric Exact Diameter and Width Grey Fabric Inspection Shade Check Bias and Bowing Visual Appearance (Enzyme Performance)

Off Line Test: All the off line tests for finished fabrics can be grouped as follows – • Physical Test and • Chemical Test Physical Test: • Finished Fabric Dia • G S M of Fabric • Rubbing Fastness • Pilling Test • Diameter and Width • Light Fastness test • Course Per inch • Wales per inch Finished Fabric dia: In Knit, dyeing finishing, finished diameter is Very important factor. It should be kept as the buyer requirements. Simply a measuring tape measures it. Finished diameter is controlled at compacting m/c. G S M Test: G S M is the most important factor. There is a G S M Cutter. The Sample cut by this weighted in the electronic balance. The reading (gm) from the balance multiplied by 100 to get Value of G S M. Rubbing Fastness test:


Purpose: The fastness test to rubbing is used on a Variety of fabrics to evaluate the transfer of surface from the test fabric when it applied surface friction or rubbed against a rough surface. Rubbing fastness test is determined by Crock meter. The test fabric is clamped in the plate of the crock meter. A standard fabric is used for rubbing the test sample. `0 cycles are given manually by a handle. Then the standard fabric is assessed with the help of the grey scale. The scale is graded from 1 to 5, being the Poorest and 5 being and 5 being the best. Pilling Test: Generally, pilling test is applicable for fabric with synthetic fabric. This test is carried out in pilling box. A Sample of 10 cm x 10 cm is sewn round a rubber tube. Then the tube in the Pilling box and the door of it is closed. Then the meter is set for 14400 cycles. After the cycle is completed, the fabric is assessed by a special grey scale. The grey scale is provided Pilling box. Light fastness test: Purpose: Light fastness is the test design to evaluate the laundering fastness test of dyeing, Pigment which re to be made in comparison of result obtained on many test pieces treated under light. Method: ISO Apparatus: 1. Light fastness tester & blue scale 2. scale 3. scissor 4. hard paper 5. 11cm X 4.5 cm

Procedure: At first, we took the blue woolen cloth & test sample. The blue woolen clothes were dyed with acid blue, 104,109 etc. Then we cut the woolen cloth & sample according to template. The blue woolen cloth is cut to make standard & sample is cut to test light fastness. Then we put the holder of woolen cloth and sample in the set of machine and set the time, which was 24 hrs. After completing the process we get the slandered test result. Then we compared with the standard rating. Standard

Rating

8 7

Fast Fast


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6 5 4 3

Average Average Average Average

2 1

Not fast Not fast

Result: The test result of light fastness test is equivalent to the class of standard 6.So we can say that the color fastness of dyed fabric is average. Chemical Test: • • • •

Shrinkage and Spirality or Twisting Fastness to wash Fastness to Perspiration PH test

Wash fastness Test: Purpose: The resistant of color of my dyed or printed material to washing is known as Wash fastness. The test fabric is sewn with multifibre such that two multifibre strip remain at the both side of the test fabric. Then they are washed with the following recipe: Liquor Ratio: 1:50 5 gm fabric + 250 cc water + 4 g/l detergent + 1 g/l sodium perborate +10Steel balls. Washes with: 40º c x 30 min Then the multifibre is detached from the test fabric. It is dried and wash fastness is assessed by grey scale. Color Fastness to Perspiration: Purpose: To assess the degree of change of shade or cross staining due to Perspiration. Method: ISO Reagent: Acidic Solution: • •

L Histadine monohydrochloride monohydrate NaCl

0.5 g/l 5g/l


• Sodium Di– Hydrogen Orthophosphate dehydrate Reagent: Alkaline Solution:

2.2 g/l

• • •

L Histadine monohydrochloride monohydrate 0.5 g/l NaCl 5g/l Di – Sodium Orthophosphate dehydrate 2.5 g/l Temp 37º C Time 4hr Multifibre 4cm Water 1000ml

• •

Test Specimen: Fabric (4x 10) cm Procedure: (Alkaline Perspiration)

• • •

Keep the specimen in contact with S.D.C multifibre stripe of (4x10) cm Allow the Specimen to soak for 4hr min Place the specimen glass slide and lightly scrap of with a glass rod. Place the specimen indicator for hrs at 37º C. Then remove from incubator open out keep sometime in open air. • Repeat the same process with another specimen using the acid solution.

Assessment: Assess the change in color of each specimen and the staining of the multifibre strip using the grey scale. Report: Record the change in color of each specimen and & the staining of the individual components of the multifibre adjacent fabric separately for both the acid alkaline test. PH Check: Purpose: To fulfill the buyer requirements to keep the pH of the fabric as Per standard. Method: ISO Procedure: • • • •

Take many Pieces of 10 gm sample Take 250ml of distilled water (pH – 5.5 to 7.5) in Conical Flask. Shake them for 10 min in normal temperature. Temp:95 º C Standard pH range for colored fabric 6 to 8 Standard pH range for colored fabric 5 to 8.

Shrinkage and Spirality Test: Shrinkage and Spirality both are very important for


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Control the quality of fabric. Buyer’s requirements: Template size: 50cm & 50cm Shrinkage: length wise--- 5% Width wise----5% Spirality:

Left -------- 5% Right -------- 5%

Procedure: At first take two ply of fabric & put the template (50cm) on to the fabric. The template has 8 holes. Both length & width wise the template holes can measure 50 cm at 3 places. Then we mark the 8 holes by permanent marker & also at the edges of the template. Then sewn the fabric & it is given to the washing m/c for run at 60°C for 60minutes with water. After that dry the sample & then measure the fabric Spin speed --- 500rpm Drum speed--500rpm Calculation: Shrinkage Test: Lengthwise: After wash – Before wash = ----------------------------------×100 Before wash Width wise: After wash – Before wash = ----------------------------------×100 Before wash 

Spirality test:


Left side + Right side 2 Length(wid th for H & M)

=

Ă— 100 %

Quality Control: Mainly this factory follows ISO Standard. But testing Standard depends on buyer requirements. Remarks: Quality Control is the most important department in every Textile industry. It is strongly recommended that the Quality should be maintained as exactly the buyer’s requirements. Chapter- 12 Garments

The garment production processing steps and techniques involved in the manufacturing garments for the large scale of production in industrial basis for business purposes is called garments manufacturing technology. Garments Manufacturing Process: Stepwise garments manufacturing sequence on Montex Fabrics Ltd is given below: Design / Sketch Pattern Design Sample Making Production Pattern Grading Marker Making Spreading Cutting


88

Sorting/Bundling Sewing/Assembling Inspection Pressing/ Finishing Final Inspection Packing This is the Basic Production Flowchart of a Garment. In advance some of the process can be added or removed. Chapter- 13 Maintainers

The act which is done to Keep the factory plan equipments machine tools etc. in an optimum working condition, minimize the breakdown of m/c's to improve Productivity of existing m/c tools and avoid sinking of additional capacity and to Prolong the useful life of the factory plant & machinery is called Maintenance. Objectives of Maintenance: •

To Keep the factory Plants, equipments, Machine tools in an optimum working condition. • To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer. • To keep the downtime of Machines to the minimum thus to have control over the production Program. • To Keep the Production cycle within the stipulated range.

Preventive Maintenance: Maintenance

In Montex Fabrics Ltd the Preventive Maintenance is a predetermined routine activity to ensure on tome inspection or checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to Production break downs or harmful depreciation. Preventive

Break down Maintenance

Maintenance

Mechanical Maintenance

Electrical Maintenance

Mechanical Maintenance

Electrical Maintenance


.

Break down Maintenance: In this case, repairs made after the equipment is out of order and it cannot perform its normal functions. Montex Fabrics Ltd. follow the above two types Maintenance.

Manpower set up for Maintenance: For electrical Maintenance: Per shift: ♦ B Sc. Engineer - 3 ♦ Diploma Engineer – 4 ♦ Senior Technician – 5 ♦ Junior Technician – 6 For mechanical Maintenance: Per Shift: ♦ B Sc. Engineering - 2 ♦ Diploma Engineering - 3 ♦ Senior Technician – 2 ♦ Junior Technician – 4

Maintenance Tools & Equipments and their functions: •

Combination tools (Spanner) Function: Tightening & Loosening of Nuts & bolts.

Socket Ratchet set Function: Tightening of Nuts & bolts.

Slide Range Function: Tightening & Loosening of Nuts & bolts

Pliers Function: Tightening & Loosening of Nuts & bolts

Pipe threat Cutting Tools Function: To Cut the threat in Pipe.

Bearing Puller Function: To assist the Opening of bearing from shaft.


90

Pipe Range Function: Tightening & Loosening of Pipe Joint

Pipe Cutting Tools Function: For Pipe Cutting.

Hole Punch Function: Punching the hole.

Divider Function: For circle marking on metal & wood

Easy Opener Function: To open the broken head bolt • Heavy Scissor Function: Cutting of gasket & steel sheet . • Oil Can Function: Oiling of moving Parts. •

Drill M/C and Drill bit. Function: For Drilling.

Grease Gum. Function: For greasing of moving Parts of M/C

Girding M/C Function: For grinding & Cutting of mild steel.

Welding M/C Function: For welding & Cutting.

File Function: For Smoothing the Surface.

Hammer Function: For Scaling & right angling.

Hacksaw blade. Function: For metal Cutting.

Handsaw (wood)


Function: For wood Cutting. •

Grinding Stone. Function: For smooth finishing

Grinding Paste .Function: For easy Cutting of metal

Maintenance Procedure: Normally Preventive Maintenance is done here. During Maintenance Procedure following Point should be checked: • •

Maintenance: Mechanical Machine: Dyeing M/C Serial

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

• •

Item need to be checked & Serviced Creasing the winch bearing Complete cleaning of Machine Cleaning of drain Valves, replace scales if required Check air supply filters, regulators and auto drain seals Clean filters element and blow out Greasing of unloading roller bearings Checking of oil level and bolts of unloading roller gearbox Checking of unloading roller coupling and packing Checking and cleaning of main vessel level indicator Check the oil level of Pump bearing and refill if required Check the function of heat and cool modulating valves Check all belts and belt tension

Maintenance: Electrical Machine : Dyeing

Serial 1 2 3 4 5 6

Item needed to be checked and serviced Check & Clean fluff and dirt at all motor fan covers Check all motors Check Main Panels boards Check Panels Cooling fan & clean it filter Check all circuit breaker , magnetic contractors and relays Check Main Pump inverter and its Cooling fan


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7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 19 20

Check Current setting of all circuit breaker & motor over Loads Visual Checking of all Power & Control & Cables Check all Pressure switches Check Calibration of Main vessel Check DC drive of kneel motors Check Calibration of all additional tank Check all Pneumatic solenoids Check Calibration of Heating / Cooling Check setting & operation of lid safety switches Check all emergency switches Check all indicating Lamps Check all On / Off switches Check all Signal isolators Check Key Pad & display of Controller Check Proximity Switches

Remarks: When I was trainee of Montex Fabrics Ltd. then I saw that the Maintenance staffs and overhead of Maintenance department were skilled enough and efficient. Chapter- 14

Utility Services Utility Facilities Available: Electricity Gas Water Compressed air Steam etc. Electricity or Power: Factory's Own Generator 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

▪ Air Compressor ▪ Natural Gas ▪ Steam Supply ▪ Water Source of Utility: The main Utility, which is used by Montex Fabrics Ltd., is Natural gas. From Natural gas generator produce electricity. From natural gas and


electricity in associate with mechanical and electrical apparatus, Montex Fabrics Ltd Produce other Utilities like water, steam, Compressed air etc. Capacity and Other Technical Details: Power (Electricity): Generator house is the main Power Producing Plant of Montex Fabrics Ltd. there are two Generators in Generators house. Specifications of two Generators are given below: Equipment Name Nos. Manufacturer Model Volts RPM Generator Type Brand Name Origin Model No Rated Power Maximum Current Engine R P M Volt

: Gas generator : 02 : Waukesha Power Systems : UHP 7100GSID : 415/24 hr : 1000 : 02 : Diesel Generator : Perkins : India : 350 – E : 350 KV : 274 KV : 1500 : 400

Gas generator


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Diesel Generator

Boiler: Steam generator or boiler is usually a closed vessel made of steel. There is Three boiler in Montex Fabrics Ltd. Function: Boiler function is to the heat produced by the combustion of fuel (Gas) to water and ultimately to generator steam. The steam produced may be supplied in wet processing department for – • •

Heating cylinder dryer Steaming during dyeing

Objects: For supplying steam.

Types of steam: • • •

Wet steam Dry saturated steam, and Superheated steam.

In wet steam is used for the relevant processes. Boiler No Brand Name Origin Type Capacity Pressure Temperature Fuel

: 01 : COCHRAN : Scotland : Fire tube boiler : 8 ton per hour : 5 bar : 188º C : Natural Gas

Boiler No

: 02


Brand Name Origin Type Capacity Pressure Temperature Fuel

: COCHRAN : Scotland : Fire tube boiler : 7 ton per hour : 5 bar : 180ยบ C : Natural Gas

Boiler No Brand Name Origin Type Capacity Pressure Temperature Fuel

: 03 : COCHRAN : Scotland : Fire tube boiler : 8 ton per hour : 5 bar : 188ยบ C : Natural Gas

Water supply for the boiler: Water required for steam production is supplied by deep tube well.

Pretreatment of the boiler water: Boiler feed water needs special standard. Any deviation from the required standard may result in scale formation, which eventually reduces the efficiency of the boiler. This ultimately affects the cost of steam generation and makes the production cost high. To maintain the required standard of the water, there should be some means to pretreatment that the boiler feed water. To protect scale formation of boiler, NELCO is used as chemical in water feed tank. 200 gm NELCO is injected per 12 hrs. In Montex Fabrics Ltd. there are water softeners that act before the water enters the boiler.


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Boiler Compressed Air: The compressed air is supplied from air condition from air compressor. There are two air compressors in Montex Fabrics Ltd. Compressor No: 01 Brand Name: COCHRAN Origin: Scotland Model No: GA 34 FF Serial No: TT 254070 Maximum working pressure: 10 bar Average working pressure: 6-7.5 bar Free air delivery: 54 liter / second Normal shaft power: 34 Kw Rotational Shaft speed: 3000 r pm Gross weight: 480 kg Year of Construction: 2000 Compressor No: 02 Brand Name: COCHRAN Origin: Scotland Model No: S361694 Serial No: 546206 Maximum working pressure: 10 bar Average working pressure: 6-7.5 bar Year of Construction: 2000 Volt: 400 Frequency: 50 Hz Cost of different Utilities:

Electricity Cost: Gas generator = 2.70 TK/KW- HR Diesel generator = 6.50 TK/ KW-HR


Gas Cost: 4.94 TK/m3 for boiler 3.66 TK/m3 for generator 4.6 TK/m3 for domestic Purpose Steam Cost: 4.20 TK/ m3 Kg fabric Remarks: For smooth running of factory main utilities like gas, electricity or steam is very essential. Sometimes gas pressure is low than required pressure. When the gas pressure is low, then diesel generators run. Government should have to ensure proper gas supply for Industry. Chapter- 16

Description of WTP & ETP Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP): Introduction: ETP stands for “Effluent Treatment Plant”. Textile industries, particularly the dyeing component produce wastewater, otherwise known as effluent, as a by-product of their production. This effluent contains several pollutants, which can be removed with the help of an ETP. The outputs from an ETP are normally “clean” water. Effluents from dye houses need to be treated to produce an effluent that confirms to Bangladesh environmental standards. •

The outputs from an ETP are normally “clean” water. Effluents from dye houses need to be treated to produce an effluent that confirms to Bangladesh environmental standards.

Now I will try to mention some information about of an ETP which is used in the Mondol knit composite ltd. In Esquire knit composite, conventional ETP is used.

The volume of ETP is 110 m3/day

Process Flow chart of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant: Waste Water Screening


98

Equalization Tank

Primary Clarifier

Biological Tank De-colorant Dosing

Oxidation

Sedimentation Tank

Secondary Clarifier

Polyelectrolyt e Dosing

Sludge Thickener

Dry Sludge

Dispose Filling

to

Land

Function of different Unit of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant (E T P): •

Screening unit: It works like a filter. By filtering waste water, it removes threads, pieces of fabrics, small metal pieces etc. In this unit a rotating brush is used for clean the pores if screen. The brush rotates periodically.

•

Storage and Equalization tank: o In this unit hot liquid waste to kept cool. Different waste water from varies process is stored and makes a homogeneous mixture by mixing different concentration of waste water.


o The purpose of equalization for industrial treatment facilities are: o To help adequate pH control. o To minimize the chemical requirements necessary for neutralization

03. To prevent high concentrations of toxic materials from entering the biological treatment plant o Neutralization of waste water is performed by dosing 98% H 2SO4 as

required to control the PH Of waste water PH range 6.5 to 7.5. o It distributes the water to the biological oxidation tank. Continuous

aeration is supplied here. Antifoam is dosed here to control the foaming in the oxidation tank. •

Biological oxidation tank: It distributes the water to the biological oxidation tank. Continuous aeration is supplied here. Antifoam is dosed here to control the foaming in the oxidation tank. It is the heat of E T P. The entire harmful chemicals are damaged here by breaking their bonds. This is done by bacteria. To ensure the proper function work and growth of bacteria, few conditions must be maintained.

Primary clarifier: A primary treatment is intended for removal of floating and settles able materials i.e. suspended solids and chemical organic matter. Primary treatment consists of the following treatments; A. Coagulation - to coagulate the suspended solid to coagulate • •

FeSO4 B. Flocculation - to flocculate by coagulants Polyelectrolyte C.Neutralization- to adjust the pH between 6.5 to 8.5 D.Sedimentation- to precipitate small suspended solids. All the above processes contribute to removal of substantial amount of all the polluting parameters. The following chemicals are used in the primary clarifier. Namely: 01. Lime 02. Ferrus sulphate 03. Ferric Sulphate 04. Alumn 05. Poly-electrolyte. Settling tank / Sedimentation Basin: A tank or basin in which waste water is held for a period of time, during which the heavier solids settle to the bottom and the lighter material will


100

floats to the water surface. In this tank sludge is immersed and the harmless water is discharge to ponds, Land, river etc. •

Secondary clarifier: Secondary treatment is carried out to removal biodegradable organic matters which include removal of BOD and COD & decomposition of organic matter. Biological treatment can be aerobic and anaerobic.

Sludge Thickener: Sludge taken here from clarifier. Polyelectrolyte is dosed coagulate the sludge. After one hour of Polyelectrolyte dosing aeration is stopped and fresh water discharge to drain when sludge is taken. The thickened sludge is transferred to the sludge thickener bed.

Sludge Thickener bed: Here sludge is dried which is used as good fertilizer as well as fuel of brick field. Sludge is dried under the sunlight. Required Chemical of Biological E T P: H2SO4: Function: Neutralize the waste water controlling the PH. It is auto dispensed in the neutralization tank. Polyelectrolyte: Function: Used for sedimentation / sludge coagulation and also killing bacteria. De-colorant: Function: Used for removing color. It is used auto / manually in the sedimentation feeding tank. Sodium Hypochlorite: Function: It is used to kill the harmful bacteria. It is used in the biological oxidation tank. Product Quality Checked: o Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) o Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) o Total suspended solids


o Total dissolved solids o Color o PH etc.

Remarks: Waste water from processing industries e g. Dyeing , Printing , Finishing and washing causes great harmful effect on our environmental, As a result agricultural land loses its fertility, natural water becomes polluted aquatic life is destructive and crops are damages. So, it is important to control ETP plan. Water Treatment Plant (WPT): Water for a textile plant may come from various sources. But this water can not be used directly in textile processing because it contains various salts. These salts are mainly the carbonates (CO32-), Hydrogen carbonates or bi-carbonates (HCO3-), Sulphates (SO42-) and Chlorides (Cl-) of Calcium (Ca2+), and Magnesium (Mg2+). These are called hardness in the water. These must be removed though water treatment plant. Chapter – 15 Store & Inventory Inventory is the stock of goods. It is a vital part of business. It protect against stock outs. The type of inventory carried in this factory as followsGray fabric : Own knitted or imported Dyes and chemicals:Local or Imported Spare parts : Local or Imported Packing materials : Local or Imported Finished fabrics : Good or Rejected Reactive Dye: o o o o o

BRAND NAME DY-STAR.

COUNTRY NAME GERMANY

NAME OF DYE STUFF Remazol Blue RR Remazol Yellow RR Remazol Deep Black GWF Remazol Red RR Remazol Turquoise Blue G Remazol B/Yellow3GL Remazol Blue BB new Remazol Orange RR


102

IMPOCOLOR

GERMANY

BENZEMA

SWITZER LAND

CLARIANT

SWITZER LAND

HUNTSMAN

SWITZER LAND

JIHUA

CHINA

SUMIFIX

JAPAN

SUN COLOR

KOREA

Remazol Blue RSPL Levafix Rubine CA Gran Levafix Red CA Gran Levafix Olive CA Gran Levafix Fast Red CA Gran Levafix Brillant Red E-4BA Gran Dianix Navy CC Dianix Turquoise S-BG Imcozin Blue E-NR Imcozin Blue V-CR 150% Imcozin Brilliant Red V-F3B Imcozin Brilliant Yellow V-4GL Imcozin Yellow E-3R 150% Bezaktive Blue S-GLD 150 Bezaktive Yellow S-3R 150 Bezaktive Red S-3B 150 Drimarine Yellow K-4G Cdg Terasil Red W-4BS Terasil Navy W-RS Novacron Red FN-R-01 Novacron Yellow F-4G Starfix Black B 150% Starfix Red EP 150% Sumifix Supra Blue E-XF Sumifix Supra Yellow E-XF Sunfix Navy Blue MF-D

Different Types of Chemicals Used In Mondol Textile Ltd With Their Brand Name:

CHEMICAL NAME Wetting agent Levelling agent Anti-creasing agent Per Oxide Stabilizer Caustic

BRAND NAME FELSON NOF AD,DPE,TUBIFIX MFL Kapazon H-53 CBB Rucorit Wez Caustic

COUNTRY NAME Germany China Germany Germany China


Soda Ash H2O2

Soda Ash H2O2 Uvitex-BMA Optical Brightening Uvitex-BHV Agent Uvitex-BBT Syno White 4Bk H2O2 Killer OEM Acetic Acid Acetic Acid MS Sequestering Agent SIRIX 2UD ANTOX(Y.D) BIOPOLISH,AVOCEF Enzyme BIOPOLISH -B41 Sodium Sulphate Anhydrose Electrolyte / Salt Glubar Salt Detergent PCLF,RGO,RGN SCF Rukozen-NZA Soaping Agent Dekol ISN Cyclonon XEW Nerosoft-JS(an-ionic) Softener Nerosoft-NI(non-ionic) Purrustol-IMA Fixing Agent Sandofix-EC Protan FCE-375

Disperse Dye

Chapter- 17

Black EX SF Yellow K 4GB Blue KFBL Crimson-XFT D-Red-XFT Orange-HWT Blue BBL Orange F-3R Red KRB Yellow GG

Chaina Chaina+Korea Switzerland Korea Germany India China India China Srilanka India Germany India Germany China China Germany Germany


104

Conclusion There is large difference between the theoretical knowledge and practical experiences. This is truer in case of the study of Textile Technology. Industrial attachment or, Industrial training is an essential part for textile education because it minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge. This Industrial training increases our thought a lot about textile technology. It also helps us to know a lot about industrial production process, machineries, and industrial management and made us suitable for industrial life. Besides it gives us the first opportunity to work in industry. So we can say industrial attachment prepare us for the expected destiny of practical life. I have completed my industrial attachment from Montex Fabrics Ltd. I got the impression that this factory is one of the modern export oriented composite knit garments industry of our country. This factory does not compromise in case of quality. So, they have established on-line and off-line quality control of each product. Besides, they also use the good quality yarn, dyes and chemicals in their production process. Due to this, it has earned a “very good reputation” in foreign market for its quality product over many other export oriented textile mills. It has very well educated and technically experienced manpower to get rid of any defect in production process. It has also a good organizational hierarchy. There are some suggestions from us within our limited knowledge SOME SUGGESTIONS: • • • •

Knitting production needs to increase as well as technical persons need to be employed there? More skilled labor should be used in a project and the overall efficiency will increase. Dyeing floor should keep always neat and clean. It kept wet after unloading the fabric from the dyeing machine specially, for Athena. Water must be swept time to time. During the transport of the fabric and during the loading of the m/c, fabrics get soiled due to their drawing over the floor. This makes the fabric/part of the fabric dirty. It may require more scouring/bleaching agent or may create stain. Due to the pressure of higher production sometimes machine operators do not maintain accurate time according to the actual process so that less quality product is produced and may reject. So our suggestion is to increase machine and reduce the pressure on the operator.


Should increase understanding between the top level personal and floor level personal. • Finishing section need to be enlarged well as more technical persons need to be employed there. • The m/c stoppage time should be analyzed and minimized. The maintenance should be carried out when the m/c is out of action (Wherever possible) and routine maintenance should be carried out regularly. • In knitting and finishing section every workers should use mask to make protect them from fly. Otherwise the exhaust air system should be more effective. • • • •

• •

Workers are not interested to wear their gown & hand gloves. In the Laboratory there is no technical person, a textile engineer may be employed here. There is shortage of proper light in the dyeing and finishing floor, specially, when smoke is produced from dryer and stenter. Proper lighting should be provided in the floor. In Laboratory, only one sample dyeing machine is used. The rest two are out of order. So, if this activate one is in problem then the lab dip process may be hampered. So, another lab dip dyeing machine may be purchase to reduce the load of current one. The spectrophotometer is virus affected. This must be quarantine immediately. The person at the top level of a department must take good care of the trainees & he should provide all kinds of support to them.

Limitations of the report: Because of secrecy act, the data on costing and marketing activities have not been supplied. •

We had a very limited time. In spite of our willing to study more it was

not possible to do s. •

Some points in different chapters are not included as these were not

available. •

It is not possible to hold the whole thing of a textile industry in such a

small frame as this report. So, try our hard to summarize all the information that we are provided.

industrial training and practices (repaired)  
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