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How to get started with legal research : Legal  Method Lecture 3 Emily Allbon – Law Librarian

Aims and objectives Aims & Objectives

  

To familiarise you with common legal materials To enable you to find legislation, cases and commentary To stop law seeming so scary!

Where do you live? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Halls Parents Other relatives Rented accommodation On a friend’s floor Somewhere else

Why City Law School? 1.

2. 3. 4.




Heard it had a great Law School… My relative/ friend went there… My parents told me to go there! I came on an Open Day and liked it… Heard the Librarian was a legend… It was the only one that would have me! Something else…

Do you use libraries a lot? 1. 2.

Yes No

At this point, can you imagine that you need 5+  hours training in how to find legal materials? 1.


Yes – ‘law is going to be tough so probably law libraries are too!’ No – ‘how hard can it be?’

Lesson outline  Legislation  Cases  Commentary  Finding cases online  Lawbore  Assignment



Primary legislation = statutes (acts)

Acts come in two types:  Public General Acts  Local Personal Acts

Secondary/ delegated legislation = Statutory Instruments (SI’s)

Which of these are types of secondary legislation?  1. 2. 3. 4.

By-laws Statutory instruments Codes of Practice All of the above


By-laws Codes of Practice

Statutory instrum... All of the above

How are Acts cited?  “ An Act to revise the law of England and Wales as to theft and similar or associated offences, and in connection therewith to make provision as to criminal proceedings by one party to a marriage against the other, and to make certain amendments extending beyond England and Wales in the Post Office Act 1953 and other enactments; and for other purposes connected therewith” (T heft Act 1968)

Not in full

Usually by short title: Theft Act 1968

Could be cited as 1968 c.60

c = chapter no: sequence of acts in year.

Citing older Acts Before 1963 statutes referred to by regnal year Motor Car Act of 1903 cited as: 3 Edw.7 c.36 (the 36th act passed in the 3rd year of Edward VII’s reign)

Where can I find legislation on the shelves?    Sta tutes a t La r ge  1215-1866 La w Repor t Sta tutes  1896 - (up to 1988 in Lib)

Or i gi nal nl y st at ut es o s! e t a d p u o N

Publ i c Gener a l Acts  1831 – (1866 – 2004 in Lib)

Current Law Statutes Cur r ent La w Sta tutes  Covers 1948  Original Acts  Very detailed annotations (bills, Hansard..)  Recent Acts in binders  Citator: notes

al Or i gi n l y s on e t u t a t s d n u o r g Back od ! o g o i nf

Halsbury’s Statutes

ed! d n e m A s! e t a d p Gr eat u

H a l sbur y’s Sta tutes  Only hardcopy set with amended legislation.  Subject order (not chronological)  Purpose: “ to provide correct and amended text of all legislation in force”  Extensive notes on SI’s, case law etc.

Halsbury’s Statutes

    

50 Main Volumes Current Statutes Service (loose-leaf) Cumulative Supplement (issued annually) Noter -Up (loose-leaf, most recent changes) Table of Statutes and Consolidated Index

Other parts of Halsbury’s   

Is it in Force? (contains commencement dates for last 25 years) Destination Tables (guide to consolidation of legislation since 1957) Statutes Citator (guide to current status of statutes - lists amendments)

Using Halsbury’s

STEP 1: Index STEP 2: Main volume STEP 3: Cumulative supplement STEP 4: Noter-up Example: Equality Act 2006

Finding legislation online?   

Lexis/ Westlaw For free sources, see Lawbore Topic Guides – Research – UK Legal Info Biggest free source (launched July 2010) containing all legislation (statutes & SI’s) from 1988. Statutes in amended form but not always revised.

Where is the only place to get up­to­date,  amended legislation? 1. 2. 3. 4.

Statutes at Large Current Law Statutes Halsbury’s Statutes Public General Acts

What is the final volume of Halsbury’s that you  use to confirm you’re totally up to date? 1. 2. 3. 4.

Cumulative Index Main volume Noter Up Is it in Force?

About case law…   

Common law = case law Law reports = primary sources of English law Precedent is binding on future similar cases in that court or below Precedent can only be overruled by higher court

What is the highest court? 


Co ur to fA pp ea l

0% Co ur t


Su pr em e


Co ur t


Cr ow n


Co ur t


High Court Crown Court Supreme Court Court of Appeal

Hi gh


Law reporting

   

Cases written up in law reports No official series of law reports as with statutes Many different series of law reports Only 1.25 %of cases heard are reported

English Reports  

 

Encompass the Nominate Reports. Written and published by individual court reporters. Cases 1571 to 1865. Available in the library and online via HeinOnline/ Westlaw.

The Law Reports 

Began in 1865  Most authoritative series of law reports –judgment checked by judge.  Single series containing mini-series:    

AC (Appeal Cases) QB (Queens Bench) Fam. (Family Division) Ch.D (Chancery Division)

WLR & All ER

Which report is best to use? 1. 2. 3.


The Law Reports always Either WLR or ALL ER Other law reports in specialist area e.g. Cr. App Reps, CMLR Newspaper, journal reports last.

Citation of L aw Repor ts Pepper v Hart [1992] 3 W.L.R. 1032 Parties Partiesinvolved involved inincase case

Year Yearcase case reported reported

Vol. Vol. No. No.

Page PageNo. No.

Report Reportabbreviation abbreviatione.g. e.g.Weekly WeeklyLaw LawReports Reports

Abbreviations: Raistrick Index to Legal Citations & Abbreviations or Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations.


N eutr al citation Smith v Jones [2001] EWCA Civ. 10 Parties Partiesinvolved involved inincase case

Year Yearcase case heard heard

Abbreviation Abbreviationof ofthe the court eg. England court eg. England and andWales WalesCourt Courtof of Appeal Civil Appeal Civil Division Division

Case Caseno. no.

Abbreviations: Raistrick Index to Legal Citations & Abbreviations or Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations.

Finding cases 1. Decipher the abbreviation of the law report 2. Find out where the law report is available: – In the library – OR electronically

3. Use the case citation to find the full text.

Finding cases in the English Reports • Trickier! • Use index to translate old citation into new • Daniel v North – 11 East 372 (original report citation) – 103 1047 (new English Report citation)

• Don’t know name? Use Raistrick’s to look up nominate citation.

Current Law Case Citator

Useful tool for finding citations to cases and judicial history.  To search by name use Current Law Case Citator.  Searching by subject is best done electronically e.g. Lexis or Westlaw

Current Law Case Citator 

Cur r ent L aw Case Citator s      

For case citations & history of case 1977 – 97 1998 – 2001 2002 – 2004 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 (paperback) Monthly Digest [Oct 2011]

Cur r ent L aw Year Book s 

For case summaries

In a legal citation does the page number  come first or last? 1. 2. 3.

First Last Don’t know…I was asleep!

Out of the English Reports (ER) and the All  England Law Reports (All ER), which are the very  old series (pre­1865)?

1. 2.


Commentary on the law  Can be found in:  Books  Journals  Encyclopaedia

Books • Textbooks • Highlight important legislation and cases • Use online catalogue

• Practitioner works • Written for practitioners • Available electronically


 Useful, up to date articles  Leading academic journals:  MLR, CLJ, LQR  Citations and abbreviations:  Fam. L.J. 2005, 48(Jul/ Aug), 2-4

Why use journals?      

Reflects academic commentary & debate Up-to-date – may not be in books yet Research usually goes in journals first Helps you get to grips with the issues Good way of finding your ‘voice’

Halsbury’s Laws of England

 Encyclopaedia of

law  arranged by subject area  refs to statutes and case law  brown 50 volume set  use Noter-up volumes

Other bits in the library

 Law Commission  

Proposes reform of the law Reports in library (and Law Commission’s site)

 Command papers 

Parliamentary discussion papers: Cmd. 6283

Available in the library (or on government websites.)

Summary so far… 

Law libraries aren’t scary!

L egislation  

Cases  

Importance of amended legislation Halsbury’s Statutes Law reports and citations Current Law Case Citator

Commentar y 

Journals, books, Halsbury’s Laws of England

Legal portal created just for YOU!  Created to help you find web resources to help you research  Award-winning!  4 key areas:    

Directory Learnmore City Hub Blog

Topic guides: key features 

Links to websites to help you study law  You can find journal articles, speeches, cases too  Resear ch tab useful to help you get to grips with things: dictionaries, directories, current awareness

Learnmore: key features   

‘How to’ guides Video tutorials Talking slide shows

t the u o k Chec sources! ! P I T re HOT ooting tm grea

Hub: key features

     

Events calendar Useful links News E-Library (online journals, reports) Database access Help

Blog    

Careers news Video interviews with alumni Read about events Find out about routes within legal sector


Databases at City

Relevant now?    

Westlaw Lexis HeinOnline Oxford Scholarship Online

Searching by case name 

Look for Pepper v Hart [1993] AC593

No need for the ‘v’

Find cases where a word has been defined (e.g. guardian)

‘Traffic light’ coding system: • Red no entry = •Yellow exclamation mark = mixed or mildly negative judicial treatment •Green C = Positive or neutral judicial treatment received

Case analysis – journal articles

Search by citation

What materials can you get on OSO?  1. 2. 3. 4.

Cases Journals Legislation Books






Assessment Blogpost

Pr esentation

Team contribution to Legal Method Blog Using: 

Prezi or  PowerPoint and posted to or  A written post of 900 words Also individual comment on tw o other posts

In pairs, do a 2 minute presentation to camera on Lawbore:  

One positive thing One idea for improvement

legalmethod.lawbore.n et

Assessment – Topics for blogpost 

 

Post on an aspect of Lawbore from the following:  Learnmore  City Hub  Topic Guides  Future Lawyer blog  Keeping up to date on Lawbore  Improving my prospects with Lawbore

D ue 21st October Comments by 31st October

How will we be assessed?  Cr iter ia/M ar k scheme    

Good knowledge of what Lawbore can do Clear and interesting presentation & post Engagement with audience Some skill in use of presentation tool Don’t forget eye contact!

Need help?  

I’ve booked out a room for you to ask me for help, or use the space to work on your own posts/ presentation.

Library, teaching room at back of level 3.

Mon 17th 9-12 and 3-4 Tues 18th 9-10 and 11-12.30

Remaining sessions Session 2 (w/ c 24th Oct & 7th Nov)  Beyond Google and Using Lexis

Session 3 (w/ c 14th & 25th Nov)  Using Westlaw &


Things you need to bring to Library  sessions 

Your computing login/passw or d


Find me in Library – room at back of level 3

Good academic practice 

Plagiarism 

Make sure you give credit/ reference anyone else’s work you use (whether direct quote or paraphrase)

Collusion 

Only work with others if you are explicitly told to. Obviously you can discuss your work with friends, but any submission must be entirely your own work.

Have you enjoyed this session?


‘E nj oy m en t


-i tw as ru ...

0% ’ is ...


it w as O. ..


Ye s–


hu m ...


bi gt


Yes – big thumbs up Yes – it was OK ‘Enjoyment’ is a bit strong No - it was rubbish

Ye s–


To what extent would you say this session has made you more  confident at using legal materials?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Would you agree the session aims/objectives  were met?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Everything clear?…Questions? 

How to get started with legal research  

Lecture 3 of Legal Method...